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					1. abstract: short summary
2. abstract word: word that refers to an idea, a quality or a condition that cannot be
    perceived by the senses (e.g. beauty, truth, justice, etc.)
3. accuracy: refers to the reliability of the material itself and to its proper documentation
4. accurate evidence: evidence that comes from a reliable source
5. almanac: provides lists, charts and statistics about a wide variety of subjects
6. analogy: explains an unfamiliar item or concept by comparing it to a more familiar one
7. annotated bibliography: list of all sources accompanied by a brief summary and
    evaluation of each source
8. antithesis: statement that takes an arguable position that is opposite of your thesis
9. antonyms: words that have opposite meanings
10. argument to ignorance: saying that something is true because it cannot be prove false,
    or vice versa
11. argument to the people (ad populum): suggesting that because most people believe
    something, it must be true
12. argument to the person (ad hominem): attacking the person, not the issue
13. argumentative essay: essay that takes a stand on an issue and uses logic and evidence to
    convince readers
14. argumentative thesis: thesis that takes a strong stand; must be debatable
15. assertion: statement that you make about your topic

16. atlas: contains maps and charts as well as historical, cultural, political and economic
17. audience: a particular reader or group of readers
18. bandwagon: trying to establish that something is true because everyone believes it is
19. begging the question (circular reasoning): stating a debatable premise as if it were true
20. bias: the tendency to base conclusions on preconceived ideas rather than on evidence
21. block format: letter written with all parts of the letter aligned with the left-hand margin
22. body paragraph: paragraph that carries the weight of your essay's discussion
23. Boolean operators: AND, OR, NOT
24. Boolean search: combining keywords with AND, OR, NOT or a plus or minus sign to
    eliminate irrelevant hits form your search
25. brainstorm: to list all the points you can think of that seem pertinent to your topic,
    record ideas--comments, questions, single words, symbols or diagrams--as quickly as you
    can, without pausing to consider their relevance or trying to understand their
26. call number: information used for locating specific titles ("book's address")
27. cause-and-effect paragraph: explores causes or predicts or describes results;
    sometimes a single paragraph does both
28. chronological order: presents events in sequence, using transitional words and phrases
    to establish the time order of events
29. circumlocution: taking a roundabout way to say something
30. classification paragraph: paragraph that takes many separate items and groups them
    into categories according to qualities or characteristics that they share
31. cliché: figure of speech that has been used so often tha ttheir power to affect readers has
    been drained away (e.g. "better late than never," "the bottom line," "break the ice," "give
    110 percent," "a level playing field," etc.)
32. clipped form: shortened form such as phone for telephone, TV for television and dorm
    for dormitory
33. close-ended question: question intended to elicit specific information and zeroes in on a
    particular detail about a subject
34. clustering: writing your topic in the center of a sheet of paper and then surrounding your
    topic with related ideas as they occur to you; also called webbing or mapping
35. coherent paragraph: paragraph in which all sentences clearly relate to one another,
    created by arranging details or ideas according to an organizing principle, by using
    transitional words and phrases, by using parallel structure and by repeating key words
    and phrases
36. colloquial diction: language of everyday speech (e.g contractions, clipped forms, placed
    holders, utility words and other certain expressions)
37. common knowledge: information most readers probably know
38. comparison: focuses on similarities
39. comparison-and-contrast paragraph: paragraph that examines the similarities and
    difference between two subjects
40. concluding paragraph: paragraph that typically begins with specifics--reviewing the
    essay's main points, for example--and the moves to more general statements
41. conclusion: usually contains a restatement of the thesis; may also include a summary of
    key points, a call for action, or an apt quotation

42. conclusion: follows the two premises (introduces no terms that have not already
    appeared in the major and minor premises)
43. concrete word: word that names things that readers can see, hear, taste, smell or touch
44. connotation: emotional, social or political association of a word in addition to its
    denotative meaning
45. contrast: emphasizes differences
46. correlative conjunction: links paired elements (e.g not/only but also, both/and,
    either/or, neither/nor and whether/or)
47. credibility: refers to the credentials of the person or organization responsible for the site
48. critical thinking: evaluating and interpreting the ideas explored in your sources and
    developing ideas of your own
49. currency: refers to how up-to-date the Web site is
50. deadwood: refers to unnecessary phrases that take up space and add nothing to meaning
51. debatable: having two sides
52. deductive reasoning: moves from a generalization believed to be true or self-evident to a
    more specific conclusion
53. definition paragraph: paragraph that develops a definition by means of other patterns--
    for instance, defining happiness by telling a story (narration) or defining a diesel engine
    by telling how it works (process)
54. denotation: basic dictionary meaning of a word
55. descriptive paragraph: paragraph that communicates how something looks, sounds,
    smells, tastes or feels; identifies precise spatial relationships
56. diction: refers to the choice and use of words familiar to an educated audience
57. division paragraph: paragraph that takes a single item and breaks it down into its
    components and parts

58. dominant impression: the effect created by all the details in a description
59. either/or fallacy: treating a complex issue as if it has only two sides
60. ellipsis: three spaced periods that indicate deletion of unnecessary or irrelevant words
61. emphatic order: ordering beginning with material that will be of most interest to an
62. enthymeme: syllogism in which one of the premises--often the major premise--is
63. equivocation: shifting the meaning of a key word or phrase during an argument
64. euphemism: mild or polite term used in place of a blunt or harsh term that describes
    something unpleasant or embarrassing
65. evaluate: to assess usefulness and reliability
66. evaluate: to make a judgment about something (writing examples: book or film review,
    recommendation report and comparative analysis)
67. evidence: examples, statistics or expert opinion that a writer uses to support a statement
68. exemplification paragraph: paragraph that supports a topic sentence with a series of
    examples (or, sometimes, with a single extended example)
69. explanatory research: research which aims to formulate a research question
70. explanatory research: helps to develop an overview of your topic
71. fact: a verifiable statement that something is true or that something occurred
72. factual statement: verifiable assertion about which reasonable people do not disagree
73. fallacy: flawed argument
74. false analogy: assuming that because things are similar in some ways, they are similar in
    other ways

75. faulty parallelism: occurs when elements that have the same function in a sentence are
    not presented in parallel terms
76. figure of speech: phrase such as a simile or metaphor that goes beyond the literal
    meaning of the word
77. focused freewriting: freewriting with a focus on your topic
78. focused research: research in which you examine the specialized reference works, books
    and articles devoted specifically to your topic
79. focused research: consulting books, periodical articles and other sources (print and
    online) to find specific information--facts, examples, statistics, definitions, quotations--
    you need to support your points
80. formal outline: includes all the points you will develop; may be either a topic outline or
    a sentence outline
81. freewrite: writing nonstop about anything that comes to mind, moving as quickly as you
82. general reference works: encyclopedias, bibliographies, etc. that provide broad
    overviews of particular subjects
83. general word: word the denotes an entire class or group
84. general-purpose search engine: search engine that focuses on a wide variety of topics
85. hasty generalization: drawing a conclusion based on too little evidence
86. hit: a site identified by a search engine to contain the keyword you have searched for
87. home page: page you see when you open your browser
88. hyperbole: intentional exaggeration for emphasis; also called an overstatement
89. identifying tag: phrase that identifies the source

90. inductive leap: made in order to bridge the gap that exists between the specific
    observations and the general conclusion
91. inductive reasoning: moves from specific facts, observations or experiences to a general
    conclusion; never certain, only probable
92. ineffective explanatory synthesis: synthesis in which source material dominates the
    discussion, all but eliminating the writer's own voice
93. inference: a conclusion about that unknown based on the known
94. inflammatory language: language calculated to arouse strong emotions
95. inform: to convey factual information as accurately and logically as possible (writing
    examples: reports, news articles and textbooks)
96. informal diction: language that people use in conversation and in personal emails
97. internet: vast system of networks that gives users access to millions of documents
98. introduction: identifies your topic and establishes how you will approach it
99. introductory paragraph: paragraph that prepares readers for the essay to follow
100.        jargon: specialized or technical vocabulary of a trade, a profession or an
    academic discipline
101.        journalistic questions: Who? What? Where? When? and How?
102.        keyword search: performed by entering a keyword (or words) into your search
    engine's search field
103.        letter of application: summarizes your qualifications for a specific position
104.        logical order: presents details or ideas in terms of their logical relationships to
    one another
105.        logical reasoning: enables you to construct arguments that reach conclusions in
    a persuasive and systematic way

106.       major premise: makes a general statement that the writer believes to be true
107.       metaphor: compares tow dissimilar, but instead of saying that on thing is like
   another, it equates them
108.       metasearch engine: search engine that searches several engines at once; also
   called metacrawler engine
109.       minor premise: presents a specific example of the belief that is stated in the
   major premise
110.       narrative paragraph: paragraph that tells a story by presenting events in
   chronological order
111.       neologism: newly coined word that is not part of standard English (e.g.
   weatherwise, sportswise, timewise and productwise)
112.       non sequitur (does not follow): arriving at a conclusion that does not logically
   follow from what comes before it
113.        nonstandard diction: refers to words and expression not generally considered a
   part of standard English (e.g. ain't, nohow, anywheres, nowheres, hisself and theirselves)
114.        objectivity: refers to the degree of bias that a Web site exhibits
115.        online catalog: computer database that lists all the material held by the library in
   its collections
116.        online database: collection of digital information arranged for easy access and
   retrieval by computer
117.        open-ended question: question designed to elicit general information and allows
   a respondent great flexibility in answering
118.        opinion: a personal judgment or belief that can never be substantiated beyond
   any doubt and is, therefore, debatable; can be supported by examples, statistics or expert
119.        paragraph: group of related sentences, which may be complete in itself or a part
   of a longer piece of writing

120.       parallelism: the use of matching words, phrases, clauses or sentence structures
   to emphasize similar ideas (can increase coherence in a paragraph)
121.       paraphrase: gives a detailed restatement of a sources important ideas in their
   entirety; indicates the sources main points and reflects its order, tone and emphasis
122.       patterns of paragraph development: reflect the way a writer arranges material
   to express ideas most effectively; includes narration and exemplification
123.       peer reviewed: reviewed by other experts in the author's field before they are
124.       periodical: newspaper, magazine, scholarly journal, or other publication
   published at regular intervals (weekly, monthly or quarterly)
125.       periodical index: database that lists articles from a selected group of magazines,
   newspapers or scholarly journals (EBSCOhost, FirstSearch, Dow Jones Interactive, etc.)
126.       personification: gives an idea or inanimate object human attributes, feelings or
127.       persuade: to convince your readers (writing examples: advertising, proposals,
   editorials and some business communications)
128.       plagiarism: failure to document ideas that are not your own
129.       plagiarism: presenting another person's ideas or words as if they were your own
130.       planning: thinking about what you want to say and how you want to say it
131.       point-by-point comparison: discusses two subjects together, alternating points
   about one subject with comparable points about the other
132.       popular publication: book, magazine or newspaper aimed at an audience of
   general readers

133.       post hoc: establishing an unjustified link between cause and effect
134.       pretentious diction: inappropriately elevated and wordy language
135.       primary source: original document or observation (novel, poem, diary, letter,
   newspaper article, raw data, observation/experiment, etc.)
136.       process paragraph: paragraph that describes how something works, presenting
   a series of steps in strict chronological order
137.       purpose: what you want to accomplish
138.       quote: to copy a writer's statements exactly as they appear in a source, word for
   word and punctuation mark for punctuation mark, enclosing the borrowed material in
   quotation marks
139.       rambling sentence: sentence the combines nonessential words, unnecessary
   repetition and complicated syntax
140.       red herring: changing the subject to distract readers from the issue
141.       redundant: describes repeated words or phrases that say the same thing
142.       refereed site: site that an editorial board or a group of experts determines what
   materials appears on it
143.       reflect: to express private feelings (writing examples: personal journals, diaries
   and memoirs)
144.       refute: disprove or call into question
145.       regionalism: word, expression or idiomatic form that is used in a particular
   geographical area but may not be understood by a general audience (e.g. poke, dope
   bottle, on line)
146.       relevant evidence: evidence that specifically applies to the case being discussed
147.       representative evidence: evidence that reflects a fair range of sources and
148.       research: systematic investigation of a topic outside your own knowledge and

149.       research notebook: combination journal of your reactions and log of your
150.       research question: question that you want your research paper to answer;
   should be answered by the outline
151.       Rogerian argument: thinking of the members of your audience as colleagues
   with whom you must collaborate to find solutions to problems by emphasizing points of
   agreement instead of verbally assaulting them; technique for establishing common
152.       résumé: lists relevant information about your education, your job experience,
   your goals and your personal interests
153.       scholarly journal: provides current information and is written by experts on the
   topic as well as in-depth analysis
154.       scholarly publication: books and journals aimed at an audience of expert
155.       scope of coverage: refers to the comprehensiveness of the information on a Web
156.       search directory: list of general categories provided by search engines from
   which you can choose; also called subject guide
157.       search engine: program such as Google or Yahoo! that searched for a retrieves
   documents available on the Web
158.       search operator: word or symbol that tells a search engine how to interpret your
   keywords (quotation marks, asterisk, question mark, etc.)
159.       secondary source: interpretation of original document or observation (criticism,
   biography, historical analysis, editorial, scientific article, case study, etc.)
160.      sexist language: occurs when a writer fails to apply the same terminology to both
   men and women
161.      simile: comparison between two unlike things on the basis of a shared quality;
   introduced by like or as

162.       slang: language that calls attention to itself and is used to establish or reinforce
   identity within a group
163.       sound syllogism: syllogism that is both valid and true
164.       spatial order: establishes the way in which readers will "see" details (e.g. an
   object or scene can be viewed from top to bottom or from near to far)
165.       special dictionary: focuses on topics such as usage, synonyms, slang and idioms,
   etymologies and foreign terms (some focus on special disciplines)
166.       specialized reference works: unabridged dictionaries, special dictionaries,
   yearbooks, almanacs, atlases, etc. used for finding examples, statistics and expert
167.       specialized search engine: search engine devoted entirely to specific subject
   areas such as literature, business, sports, women's issues, etc.
168.       specific word: word that refers to a particular person, item or event
169.       straw man: distorting or oversimplifying an opposing view
170.       subject search: entering specific subject headings into the online catalog
171.       subject-by-subject comparison: treat one subject completely and then move on
   to the other subject
172.       sufficient evidence: evidence that presents an adequate amount of information
173.       summary: brief restatement, in your own words, of the main idea of a passage or
174.       support: examples, statistics and expert opinions that reinforce the main ideas
175.       sweeping generalization: making a generalization that cannot be supported no
   matter how much evidence is supplied
176.       syllogism: a three-part set of statements or propositions that includes a major
   premise, a minor premise and a conclusion
177.       synonyms: words that have similar meanings

178.       synthesis: any piece of writing that integrates material from several sources
179.       synthesize: to combine borrowed material with your own ideas in order to
   express an original viewpoint
180.       tentative thesis: preliminary statement of the main point you think your research
   will support
181.       thesaurus: list of synonyms and antonyms
182.       title: should be descriptive enough to tell your readers what your paper is about,
   and it should create interest in your subject
183.       topic sentence: states the main idea of the paragraph
184.       transitional paragraph: paragraph that connects one section of the essay to
185.       transitional words and phrases: link sentences by identifying the spatial,
   chronological and logical organizing principles
186.       true syllogism: syllogism that contains information that is consistent with the
187.       unabridged dictionary: comprehensive work that gives detailed information
   about words
188.       understatement: intentionally making something seem less important than it
   actually is
189.       unified paragraph: paragraph that develops a single idea
190.       URL: uniform resource locator; specific electronic address
191.       utility word: acts as a filler and contributes nothing to the meaning of a sentence
   (e.g. factor, situation, type, aspect, good, bad, important, basically, actually, quite, very,
192.       valid syllogism: syllogism that follows from its premises
193.       visual texts: fine art, charts and graphs, photographs, maps and advertisements