Windows 2000 Security --Kerberos COSC513 Project Sihua Xu December 19, 2010 Outline •The Three A’s of Security •Kerberos Basics •Windows 2000 implementation of Kerberos •Benefits of Kerberos in Windows 2000 The Three A’s of Security: •Authentication --the capability of one entity to prove its identity to another entity ID (driver’s license), user log on to OS •Authorization – the process of discovering whether you have the rights or permissions to do what you have asked to do Permission (R,W,D), Right (add user, install application) •Auditing –the process of checking to see whether sth. has been done the way it is supposed to have been done Audit trail Windows 2000 Security Default authentication algorithm: Kerberos Microsoft’s implementation of Kerberos: •the function of Kerberos is to provide authentication of users. •Microsoft uses an empty field in Kerberos to provide security ID information that supports the authorization process. Kerberos Basics -developed at MIT -three basic functions (message exchanges) a request and a reply • The Authentication Service Exchange (Logon) • The Ticket-Granting Service Exchange (Getting a Ticket to Ride) • The Client/Server Authentication Exchange (Accessing a Resource) Kerberos Algorithms Authentication Server (AS) Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) Kerberos Authentication Server Request (KRB_AS_REQ) Kerberos Authentication Server Reply (KRB_AS_REP ) Ticket-Granting Server (TGS) Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT) Kerberos Ticket-Granting Service Request (KRB_TGS_REQ) Kerberos Ticket-Granting Service Reply (KRB_TGS_REP) Kerberos Client/Server Request(KRB_AP_REQ) Kerberos Client/Server Reply(KRB_AP_REP) Kerberos Components: Realm: a logical collection of Kerberos clients and servers. Its name is used by the client and server to identify the locations of the resources. Session key:a randomly generated, unique key used to encrypt parts of the message and to carry on encrypted conversations. Is generated by the AS and is provided to the client in the encrypted part of the response. Is provided to the destination server in the encrypted part of the ticket Ticket-Granting Server (TGS): Kerberos server that can validate a TGT and can provide tickets allowing access to resource or application servers Kerberos Components Authentication Server(AS) Authenticator: contains information that can be used to verify that the response comes from a valid server in the realm and to prove to the server that the client knows the session key. Includes the client’s current time and is encrypted by the client using the session key Kerberos ticket:a data structure that includes client credentials and session keys. Used to authenticate the client to the resource servers or to the TGT. Key Distribution Center (KDC):manages key database. Contains the user and server identification information, passwords, and other items. Kerberos in Windows 2000 KDC implemented as a domain service includes AS and TGS Kerberos realm in Windows 2000 – Domain Each domain server has a KDC Active Directory backbone of Kerberos Windows 2000 implementation of AS Exchange protocol: Obtaining a Logon Session Key 1 3 Where is the nearest KDC? 1.ID & password Client DNS 220.127.116.11 Server 2.Kerberos client: password to 2 8 long-term key 4 KRB_AS_REQ 3.DNS: domain controller for Cd71872398 KDC 7 TGT 4.client to KDC: session key via KRB_AS_REP KRB_AS_REQ 5 6 5.KDC:verify long-term key (Identity) 6.KDC:create session key 7.KDC to client:TGT & session key via 18.104.22.168 KRB_AS_REP 8. Client: logon session key and TGT Windows 2000 implementation of TGS Exchange protocol: Getting a Ticket for a Particular Server 1,2. Read a file from Seascape Server, 2 need a session ticket Client Seascape 3. Client encrypts the authenticator Server 1 2 with logon session key 9 8,10 4. Client to KDC:KRB_TGS_REQ Cd71872398 KRB_TGS_REP (TGT) TGT 5. KDC decrypts TGT, validate 3 5 authenticator 6,7 6,7. KDC: invent a session key, encrypt Authenticator it with client’s logon session key, create a ticket encrypted with 22.214.171.124 Seascape server’s long-term key 8. KDC to client: KRB_TGS_REP 9. Client decrypt the session key with its logon session key Windows 2000 implementation of CS Exchange protocol: Using the Session Ticket for Admission 1 KRB_AP_REQ Client 2 1.client to server: KRB_AP_REQ Seascape authenticator encrypted Server 3 KRB_AP_REP with session ticket 2.Server decrypts the ticket, 4 evaluates the authenticator Cd71872398 TGT 3. Server to client: KRB_AP_REP encrypts the time from the Authenticator authenticator 4. Client compare the timestamp Take a common file|open operation. In Windows Explorer, a user finds a file share. Active Directory directs the user to the location of the share. Next, the user finds an individual file and opens it. A request is made to the server from the client that contains a Kerberos ticket with the user's credential information included. The server receives the ticket and looks at the credentials. The operating system compares the credential information with the ACL on the file to determine if the user has access. Kerberos enables cross-platform single-sign on across the enterprise Benefits of Kerberos More efficient authentication to servers. the server does not need to go to a domain controller. It can authenticate the client by examining credentials presented by the client. Clients can obtain credentials for a particular server once and reuse them throughout a network logon session. Mutual authentication. Parties at both ends of a network connection can know that the party on the other end is who it claims to be. Delegated authentication. Kerberos protocol has a proxy mechanism that allows a service to impersonate its client when connecting to other services. Benefits of Kerberos Simplified trust management. trust between the security authorities for Windows 2000 domains is by default two-way and transitive. many domains of a large network can be organized in a tree of transitive, mutual trust. Credentials issued by the security authority for any domain are accepted everywhere in the tree. Interoperability Microsoft’s implementation of the Kerberos protocol is based on standards-track specifications recommended to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which lays a foundation for interoperability with other networks where Kerberos version 5 is used for authentication.