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WINNING THE GAME Pinning Down the Facts for Wrestlers

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					WINNING THE GAME
Pinning Down the Facts for Wrestlers

Program game plan developed from materials written by: Amy Peterson, MS, RD Polk County Extension Educator University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska and the United States Department of Agriculture

November, 2007

BEATING the COMPETITION

Eating to Compete
Young athletes need to fuel for growth AND competition.

Picture Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC

The sport of Wrestling is changing.
Picture Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC

“The new weigh-in policies have been a major move forward for the sport of wrestling. These changes have allowed the athletes to focus on the sport of wrestling rather than the sport of making weight.”

John Smith Oklahoma State Head Coach
Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC

The Wrestler’s Parent
• YOU also are a part of the wrestling program! • YOU provide food that supports your wrestler's plan – make sure you know MyPyramid! • YOU can encourage your child to eat well, stay hydrated and, if needed, take a multi-vitamin. • YOU maintain communication. Be proud of your wrestler!

Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC

The Road to Success
Focuses on FUEL!
Carbohydrates Fats Protein

Fluids and Supplements

Vitamins and Minerals

Why are high carbohydrate foods important to wrestlers?

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Fuel Up with Carb Foods
• Carbs are a main and immediate source of energy during exercise. • Glucose comes from breaking down carbohydrate-rich foods • Glycogen is a storage form of glucose (found in liver and muscles) that is used as an energy source for short-term exercise

Power Storage
Glycogen is the major source of fuel the first 90 minutes of activity.
That’s enough for most high school activities.

Having trouble maintaining during a workout or game?

intensity

The Purpose of Protein

Protein Power
Teen athletes need more than the average person.

Most teens get plenty of protein through normal diet choices.

About 15-20% of a wrestler’s calories should come from protein.

A wrestler should consume about .6 grams of protein daily for each pound of body weight. For example, a 152# wrestler should consume about 91 grams of protein per day.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Good sources of protein include:

• • • • • •

3 ounces of lean meat, poultry or fish = 21 grams ½ cup of beans or peas = 7 grams 1 egg = 7 grams 1/4 cup cottage cheese = 7 grams 1 ounce of cheese = 7 grams 8 ounces of low fat milk or yogurt = 8 grams.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

SHOPPING for SUPPLEMENTS?
Should wrestlers use any nutritional supplements?
If they are concerned about maintaining a healthy diet they may choose to take a multivitamin, but should not need any other supplements.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Is there some magic about

vitamins and minerals?

Vitamins and minerals do not provide energy. If you eat enough carbohydrates, fats, and protein, you will likely have the vitamins and minerals you need to help convert these nutrients to energy.

Calcium helps build the strong bones athletes depend on!

•Teens can get what they need from dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese.
•Two to three servings is a great way to start.

•Choose milk with your meals and you will help build a strong foundation!

Iron carries oxygen to the muscles!

Eat red meat without a lot of fat, grains that are fortified with iron, and green, leafy vegetables.
Think about the last time you were out of breath and gasping for air. When your body doesn’t have enough iron, you make less hemoglobin, and your body has less oxygen.

The A- Z’s of Zinc
• ZINC is important for healing injuries. • ZINC is important for growth. • ZINC is important in metabolism.

$upplement $afety

Or is it money down the drain? The TRUTH about performance-enhancing substances…

Supplements may give a false sense of security.

Kids may also assume that any progress they make is because of the supplement, and not because of hard work and training. Megadoses of supplements do NOT make up for a lack of talent or training and can be dangerous.

The Power of Protein Supplements
• 98% of surveyed college students think better performance means high protein diets. • 80% think that this will help increase muscle mass. • 59% of weight lifters take protein supplements although little information supports the effect that extra protein has on muscle mass and strength.

Most supplements are supposed to help build muscle but in reality they don’t work

Amino Acid Supplements
Amino 2000 Amino Acid Supplement Protein/Serving 30 g /18 tablets Chicken Breast 100% Whey Protein Supplement 23 g / 1 scoop $0.93

31 g / 3.5 ounces $0.62

Price/31g of Protein $4.03

Too much amino acid supplement may result in stomach cramps and diarrhea and may interfere with the absorption of other amino acids.

More for your mealtime money to EAT your protein – not just pop it in a pill form!

Source: Eat to Compete – Iowa State University Extension, Ruth Litchfield, PhD, RD, LD

Herbal Supplements
• Supplements will not improve athletic performance. • Usually used to reduce fatigue, lose weight or improve mental alertness.
Beware of health concerns, including strokes, seizures, heart attacks or even death.

Energizer Remedies?
Does caffeine improve performance?
It does not help with fat utilization.
It can help with ENDURANCE but does not spare GYLCOGEN (fuel).

It has been declared an illegal drug in sports competition.

It can cause dehydration, nausea, vomiting, muscle tremors, and headaches.

The Weighty Woes of Wrestling

Sports that emphasize appearance and a lean body increase the risk for developing an eating disorder than those who require more muscle mass, such as football or weight lifting.

Health Concerns for High Risks Sports
• • • • • Wrestlers Gymnasts Dancers Swimmers Divers

Lethal Weight Loss for Wrestlers
• 3 collegiate wrestlers died from rapid weight loss programs to qualify for competition. • Common weight loss tactics used:
– restricted food and fluid intakes, leading to dehydration. – vapor-impermeable suits, which can lead to hyperthermia – exercising in hot environments

Disordered Eating Disasters
– – – – – – – “Forgetting” to eat Weight loss Avoiding food activities Diuretics/laxative use Withdrawal and low self esteem Declining performance Unnecessary weigh-ins

It’s a losing game, that can’t be won….

Coaches and health care professionals who work with high risk athletes need to encourage weight loss before the season begins and promote a slow, steady, and safe weight loss during the season, if needed for participation for that sport.

The goal during the competitive season should be weight maintenance, not weight loss.

Weight certification is meant to discourage severe weight loss.
• As a wrestler you should know where you are most effective. • The lowest weight possible is not always the strongest. • Many wrestlers waste mental energy on weight loss.

Weight Loss Winners
• Choose the best foods within calorie limits. • Try to eat fewer processed foods. • Choose nutrient dense and readily available foods • Multi-vitamin/mineral supplement with 50100% of RDA is recommended for those trying to cut weight.

Down the Drain With Quick Weight Loss Tricks….
• Voluntary dehydration. This includes:
– – – – – excessive exercise Saunas rubber suits not drinking fluids using diuretics

• Methods of quick weight loss, which cause dehydration, are unsafe and against the rules.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Fill’er Up With Fluids!
Our muscles, brains, blood, and sweat are mostly water. If we do not have enough, we don’t work right, think right, lose strength, and our heart works harder.

Drinking fluids is the most important thing.
Water, or a sports drink containing no more than 8% carbohydrate, are both good choices.

How to Read a Sports Drink Label
A sodium level of 50 – 170 milligrams per 8 ounces enhances the taste, facilitates absorption, and maintains body fluids. Higher amounts can lead to stomach upset and dehydration because the body sends water to the stomach to dilute the mixture.

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml) Servings per Container 2
Amount Per Serving

Calories 50
% Daily Value

Total Fat 0g Sodium 110mg Potassium 30mg

0% 5% 1%

Research shows that a 0 – 8% concentration of CHO (0 – 19 grams per 8 ounces) promotes rapid fluid replacement.

Total Carbohydrate 14g
Sugars 14g Protein 0g

5%

Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006

Carbohydrate concentration is NOT the same as % Daily Value. To calculate the CHO concentration of any beverage as a percentage, divide the amount of CHO in one serving (in grams) by the amount of fluid in one serving (8 ounces equals 240 milliliters) and then multiply by 100.
14 grams carbohydrate ____________________ 240 milliliters

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml) Servings per Container 2
Amount Per Serving

Calories 50
% Daily Value

Total Fat 0g

0%

Sodium 110mg Potassium 30mg Total Carbohydrate 14g
Sugars 14g Protein 0g

5% 1% 5%

Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

x 100 = 5.83 or 6% CHO concentration

Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006

INGREDIENTS: WATER, SUCROSE SYRUP, GLUCOSE SYRUP, GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE SYRUP, CITRIC ACID, NATURAL LEMON AND LIME FLAVORS WITH OTHER NATURAL FLAVORS, SALT, SODIUM CITRATE, MONOPOTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, ESTER GUM, YELLOW 5.

The type of CHO (as well as the percent) affects the sweetness and can reduce fluid intake if too sweet. High fructose levels can cause gastrointestinal distress by slowing absorption. (Ingredients are listed from greatest amount to least amount.)

Potassium also replaces body losses in proportion to what is lost in sweat. A potassium level of 30 – 50 milligrams is recommended.

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml) Servings per Container 2
Amount Per Serving

Calories 50
% Daily Value

Total Fat 0g
Sodium 110mg Potassium 30mg Total Carbohydrate 14g

0%
5% 1% 5%

Sugars 14g Protein 0g
Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

What should wrestlers drink between weigh-in and competition?

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

About 2 hours before competition they should drink 2 cups of fluid. This fluid may contain about 180 calories per 8-ounce serving.

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

About 1 hour before competition they should drink 2 cups of fluids that contain some carbohydrate and electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium.

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

About 15 - 20 minutes before competition they should drink another 1 ½ - 2 cups of similar fluid or water.

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Remember to drink after your workout, too.

A mouthful of water is about an ounce. Four big gulps from the fountain may be as much as ½ cup of water!!

The Dangers of Dehydration
• Did you Know?
– An athlete can lose about 1% of their body weight through fluid loss with no apparent signs of dehydration. – Thirst is NOT a good indicator of hydration. If you use thirst as your guide, only 50% of your fluid needs are replaced. – Monitor the color of your urine. Light yellow means good hydration, dark yellow means dehydration.
Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006

What should wrestlers eat during an all-day tournament?

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Fluids, Carbohydrates, and Protein!
Between matches, drink CHO-fluid replacement drinks to keep your energy levels up.

Try to have snacks or small meals to keep you fueled for the entire day.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

Baby carrots, celery, fruit, low fat granola bars, cereal bars, and low fat yogurt are good carbohydrate choices.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

When eating prepackaged snack foods, choose those that have 4 grams of carbohydrate for every 1 gram of fat.
READ the LABEL!!! before you EAT!

Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

After the Finals…

Replace fluids first, then food.

Fresh fruits and veggies are a great electrolyte replacer!

Eat a light meal with protein to recharge muscles!

Eating fruit, turkey on bread, or a cereal bar are good choices.

Eating “On the Road”
• Plan ahead! There are lots of good choices to drive thru! • Try turkey, lean roast beef, or ham sandwiches, bean burritos, rice, pasta, salads with turkey or ham & low fat dressings and baked chips. • “Heart Healthy Choices” are good choices for you, too! • Skip the butter, gravies, special sauces, etc.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

For breakfast on-the-go, cold & hot cereals, pancakes, waffles, French toast (without extra butter) are good choices.

Skip the bacon and sausage.

Say NO to Super Size!

Super sizing an order can easily double the fat content compared to a regular serving size.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association

What’s On Your Training Table?

What’s right is what works for YOU!

“If you have trained for a year, you have wasted your time if you enter a match without proper nutrition and hydration.”
Lincoln Mcllravy Asst. Coach Iowa Univ. 3xNCAA, World Silver 2xWorld Bronze

Coming Clean for Competition…

Prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases with good hygiene and proper handwashing.

Preventing Unwanted Competition
• Impetigo • Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus (MRSA) • Herpes gladiatorum (a form of herpes that causes skin lesions on the head, neck and shoulders.)

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Staphylococus aureus (Staph)
• Common bacteria found on the skin • Acquired through direct contact (individuals and objects) • Some carriers have no symptoms • Found in nose, armpit, groin and similar areas • Causes skin infections and soft tissue infections such as boils and impetigo • Can cause pneumonia and bloodstream infections • Treatment with antibiotics
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA)
• Cannot be treated with common penicillin-like antibiotics • In the past, generally confined to hospitals, nursing homes, long-term care • Community acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (CA-MRSA) more common • Dramatic increase among athletes
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

History of Staph & MRSA in Athletics
• 1984 - seen in a rugby team in London • 1986 - outlook of boils in a football and basketball team in Kentucky • 1993-1st case of MRSA in a wrestling team in Vermont • 2002/03 - drastic increase in MRSA in fencers, football & wrestlers in CA, IN, CO • 2004/05 - spread to high school/college and professional athletes ( esp. football and basketball)
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

What do you look for?
• Often mistaken for spider bites • Often appears as boils or ingrown hairs (mainly in armpits, groin, neck and buttocks) • Cellulitis- redness of the soft tissue, may see red streaks • Unexplained fever, muscular pain, and/or fatigue-especially in the months following a skin infection
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

MRSA wound

Examples of MRSA wound infections

False Spider bite
Weeping MRSA wound

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

How do you avoid MRSA?
Personal Hygiene is Key!
• Wash hands often

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

How to wash hands
1. Wet hands with
WARM water.

2. Soap and scrub for
20 seconds.

3. Rinse under clean,
running water.

4. Dry completely
using a clean cloth or paper towel.

Immediately shower after each practice or competition.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Use alcohol-based sanitizers during workouts and games

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

Do not ask for antibiotics for viral illnesses such as colds, flu – they will not help

If you visit someone in the hospital, follow infection control precautions closely
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

Wash all athletic clothing worn during practice or competition daily.

Launder uniforms/athletic gear in hot water and dry in hot dryer.
Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Clean and disinfect gym bags and/or travel bags.
• Especially important for the athlete carrying dirty workout gear home to be washed and then bringing clean gear back to school in the same bag.

• This problem can be prevented by using disposable bags for practice laundry.
Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Wash athletic gear and pads periodically and hang to dry.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Clean and disinfect equipment such as helmets, shoulder pads, catcher’s and hockey goalie equipment on a regular basis with bleach.
MRSA can live on surfaces for up to 300 days

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

Do NOT share towels, razors, soap or other personal hygiene products or items with others.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

All skin lesions should be covered before practice or competition to prevent the risk of infection to the wound and transmission of illness to other participants.
Only skin infections that have been properly diagnosed and treated may be covered to allow participation of any kind.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg

When to contact physician for skin infections ?
• Keep an eye on minor skin problems, especially in small children • If wounds become infected –see a doctor and ask to have MRSA testing done before starting antibiotic – Drugs used in ordinary staph do not work – Their use could lead to serious illness and more resistant bacteria

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners

TIME for QUESTIONS

WINNING THE GAME
Pinning Down the Facts for Wrestlers
University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension cooperating with the Counties and the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2007

Additional References Not Cited:
1. Sports Nutrition, A Guide for the Professional Working With Active People, 2nd Edition, Dan Benardot, PhD, RD, Sports and Cardiovasculat Nutritionists, American Dietetic Association. Fueling the Teen Machine, Ellen Shanley and Colleen Thompson, 2001. Nutrition and the Teen Athlete, Linda Boeckner, RD PhD, Extension Nutrition Specialist, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Winning the Game – Food and Fluids for Teen Athletes, Amy Peterson, MS RD, Extension Educator, University of Nebraska – Lincoln Extension

2. 3. 4.


				
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