; Demand
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  • pg 1
An Introduction to Demand
• Demand-the desire, willingness, and
  ability to buy a good or service
• For demand to exist:
  – A consumer must want a good or service
  – The consumer has to be willing to buy that
    good or service
  – The consumer must have the resources
    available to buy it
       The Individual Demand
• Demand schedule-a
  table that lists the
  various quantities of a
  product or service
  that someone is
  willing to buy over a
  range of possible
The Individual Demand Curve
• Demand curve-a
  graph that shows the
  amount of a product
  that would be bought
  at all possible prices in
  the market
• The curve is drawn
  with prices on the
  vertical axis and
  quantities on the
  horizontal axis
        The Law of Demand
• According to the law of demand, quantity
  demanded and price move in opposite
  – If the demand curve slopes down it is because
    people are normally willing to buy less of a
    product if the price is high and more if the
    price is low
   Individual vs. Market Demand

• Market demand-the total demand of all
  consumers for their product or service
   Diminishing Marginal Utility
• Almost everything we buy provides utility
   – Utility-the pleasure, usefulness, or satisfaction we
     get from using the product
• Diminishing marginal utility-the principle
  that our additional satisfaction, or our marginal
  utility, tends to go down as more and more
  units are consumed
   – Ex.)when eating pizza, you may be very hungry
     before you eat the first slice, and so ti will give you
     the most satisfaction. Because you are not quite
     as hungry after consuming the 1st slice you receive
     less satisfaction (marginal utility) from each
     additional slice you eat
Factors Affecting Demand
        Changes in Demand
• Market demand can change when:
  – More people enter the market
  – The incomes, tastes, and expectation of the
    consumers in the market change
  – Changes in the prices of related goods affect
          Changes in Demand
• When demand goes
  down, people are
  willing to buy less of a
   – In this case, the
     demand curve shifts
          Change in Demand
• When demand goes
  up, people are more
  willing to buy more of
  the same item at any
  given price
  – This makes the
    demand curve shift to
    the right
    Changes in the Number of
• Demand for a good in a particular market
  area is related to the number of
  consumers in the area
  – The more consumers in an area, the higher
    the demand
  – The less consumers in a particular area, the
    lower the demand
Changes in Consumers’ Income
 • Demand changes when consumers’
   incomes change
   – With a healthy economy, consumers’
     incomes increase and are more willing to
     spend money
   – When people are having economic
     difficulties, the less people are willing to
Changes in Consumers’ Tastes
 • When a product
   becomes popular,
   the demand curve
   shifts to the right
   (demand goes up)
   and vice versa
 • When the popularity
   fades, the demand
   curve shifts to the
   left (demand goes
  Changes in Substitutes
• Substitutes-competing products
• When two goods are substitutes, a
  change in the price of one good causes
  the demand for the the other good to
  move in the same direction
    Changes in Complements
• Complements-products that are used together
  – Ex.)computers and computer software
• With complementary goods, the demand for one
  moves in the opposite direction as the price of
  the other
  – Ex.)If computer prices rise, fewer computers will be
    demanded, and the demand for computer software
    will go down because people are buying fewer
        Elasticity of Demand
• Demand elasticity-the extent to which a
  change in price causes a change in the
  quantity demanded
• When they are attractive substitutes for a
  good or service, demand tends to be
  elastic because consumers can choose to
  buy the substitute
       Inelastic Demand
• Inelastic demand is when the price
  changes have little effect on the quantity
  – Ex.)the demand for turkey at Thanksgiving
    tends to be inelastic
• The demand for goods with very few or
  no substitutes like gasoline is likely to
  be inelastic

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