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# Demand

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```									Demand
An Introduction to Demand
• Demand-the desire, willingness, and
ability to buy a good or service
• For demand to exist:
– A consumer must want a good or service
– The consumer has to be willing to buy that
good or service
– The consumer must have the resources
The Individual Demand
Schedule
• Demand schedule-a
table that lists the
various quantities of a
product or service
that someone is
range of possible
prices
The Individual Demand Curve
• Demand curve-a
graph that shows the
amount of a product
that would be bought
at all possible prices in
the market
• The curve is drawn
with prices on the
vertical axis and
quantities on the
horizontal axis
The Law of Demand
• According to the law of demand, quantity
demanded and price move in opposite
directions
– If the demand curve slopes down it is because
people are normally willing to buy less of a
product if the price is high and more if the
price is low
Individual vs. Market Demand

• Market demand-the total demand of all
consumers for their product or service
Diminishing Marginal Utility
• Almost everything we buy provides utility
– Utility-the pleasure, usefulness, or satisfaction we
get from using the product
• Diminishing marginal utility-the principle
that our additional satisfaction, or our marginal
utility, tends to go down as more and more
units are consumed
– Ex.)when eating pizza, you may be very hungry
before you eat the first slice, and so ti will give you
the most satisfaction. Because you are not quite
as hungry after consuming the 1st slice you receive
less satisfaction (marginal utility) from each
Factors Affecting Demand
Changes in Demand
• Market demand can change when:
– More people enter the market
– The incomes, tastes, and expectation of the
consumers in the market change
– Changes in the prices of related goods affect
demand
Changes in Demand
• When demand goes
down, people are
willing to buy less of a
product
– In this case, the
demand curve shifts
left
Change in Demand
• When demand goes
up, people are more
the same item at any
given price
– This makes the
demand curve shift to
the right
Changes in the Number of
Consumers
• Demand for a good in a particular market
area is related to the number of
consumers in the area
– The more consumers in an area, the higher
the demand
– The less consumers in a particular area, the
lower the demand
Changes in Consumers’ Income
• Demand changes when consumers’
incomes change
– With a healthy economy, consumers’
incomes increase and are more willing to
spend money
– When people are having economic
difficulties, the less people are willing to
spend
Changes in Consumers’ Tastes
• When a product
becomes popular,
the demand curve
shifts to the right
(demand goes up)
and vice versa
• When the popularity
curve shifts to the
left (demand goes
down)
Changes in Substitutes
• Substitutes-competing products
• When two goods are substitutes, a
change in the price of one good causes
the demand for the the other good to
move in the same direction
Changes in Complements
• Complements-products that are used together
– Ex.)computers and computer software
• With complementary goods, the demand for one
moves in the opposite direction as the price of
the other
– Ex.)If computer prices rise, fewer computers will be
demanded, and the demand for computer software
will go down because people are buying fewer
computers
Elasticity of Demand
• Demand elasticity-the extent to which a
change in price causes a change in the
quantity demanded
• When they are attractive substitutes for a
good or service, demand tends to be
elastic because consumers can choose to