ESSENTIALS OF COOKING

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					COMPLETE COOKING LIBRARY




                           Edit – Mr. Chi
VOLUME ONE




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ESSENTIALS OF COOKING CEREALS
BREAD HOT BREADS




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PREFACE
The Complete Library of COOKING consists of five volumes that cover the various
phases of the subject of cooking as it is carried on in the home. These books are arranged
so that related subjects are grouped together. Examination questions pertaining to the
subject matter appear at the end of each section. These questions will prove helpful in a
mastery of the subjects to which they relate. At the back of each volume is a complete
index, which will assist materially in making quick reference to the subjects contained in
it.
This volume, which is the first of the set, deals with the essentials of cooking, cereals,
bread, and hot breads. In Essentials of Cooking, Parts 1 and 2, are thoroughly treated the
selection, buying, and care of food, as well as other matters that will lead to familiarity
with terms used in COOKING and to efficiency in the preparation of food. In Cereals
are discussed the production, composition, selection, and care and the cooking and serving
of cereals of all kinds. In Bread and Hot Breads are described all the ingredients required
for bread, rolls, and hot breads of every kind, the processes and recipes to be followed in
making and baking them, the procedure in serving them, and the way in which to care
for such foods.
Whenever advisable, utensils for the preparation of food, as well as labor-saving
devices, are described, so as to enable beginners in the art of COOKING to become
acquainted with them quickly. In addition, this volume contains breakfast, luncheon, and
dinner menus that will enable the housewife to put into practical, every-day use many of
the recipes given.
It is our hope that these volumes will help the you to acquire the knowledge needed
to prepare daily meals that will contain the proper sustenance for each member of your
family, teach you how to buy your food judiciously and prepare and serve it
economically and appetizingly, and also instill in you such a love for COOKING
that you will become enthusiastic about mastering and dignifying this art.




CONTENTS
ESSENTIALS OF COOKING The Problem of Food Selection of Food Food
Substances Food Value Digestion and Absorption of Food Preparation of Food Methods
of Cooking Heat for Cooking Utensils for Cooking Preparing Foods for Cooking Order
of Work Table for Cooking Foods Care of Food Menus and Recipes Terms Used in
COOKING
CEREALS Production, Composition, and Selection Cereals as a
Food Preparation of Cereals for the Table Indian Corn, or Maize Wheat
Rice Oats Barley Rye, Buckwheat, and Millet Prepared, or Ready-to-
Eat, Cereals Serving Cereals Italian Pastes Breakfast Menu


BREAD Importance of Bread as Food Ingredients for Bread Making
Utensils for Bread Making Bread-Making Processes Making the Dough
Care of the Rising Dough Kneading the Dough Shaping the Dough Into

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Loaves Baking the Bread Scoring Bread Use of the Bread Mixer
Serving Bread Bread Recipes Recipes for Rolls, Buns, and Biscuits Toast
Left-Over Bread


HOT BREADS Hot Breads in the Diet Principal Requirements for Hot
Breads Leavening Agents Hot-Bread Utensils and Their Use Preparing
the Hot-Bread Mixture Baking the Hot-Bread Mixture Serving Hot
Breads Popover Recipes Griddle-Cake Recipes Waffle Recipes Muffin
Recipes Corn-Cake Recipes Biscuit Recipes Miscellaneous Hot-Bread
Recipes Utilizing Left-Over Hot Breads Luncheon Menu



INDEX


ESSENTIALS OF COOKING (PART 1)

THE PROBLEM OF FOOD
1. 1. Without doubt, the greatest problem confronting the human race
   is that of food. In order to exist, every person must eat; but eating
   simply to keep life in the body is not enough. Aside from this, the
   body must be supplied with an ample amount of energy to carry on
   each day’s work, as well as with the material needed for its growth,
   repair, and working power. To meet these requirements of the
   human body, there is nothing to take the place of food, not merely
   any kind, however, but the right kind. Indeed, so important is the
   right kind of food in the scheme of life that the child deprived of it
   neither grows nor increases in weight, and the adult who is unable
   to secure enough of it for adequate nourishment is deficient in
   nerve force and working power. If a person is to get the best out of
   life, the food taken into the body must possess real sustaining
   power and supply the tissues with the necessary building material;
   and this truth points out that there are facts and principles that
   must be known in order that the proper selection of food may be
   made, that it may be so prepared as to increase its value, and
   that economy in its selection, preparation, use, and care may be
   exercised.
2. 2. Probably the most important of these principles is the cooking of
   food. While this refers especially to the preparation of food by

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    subjecting edible materials to the action of heat, it involves much
    more. The cooking of food is a science as well as an art, and it
    depends for its success on known and established principles. In its
    full sense, COOKING means not only the ability to follow a
    recipe, thereby producing a successfully cooked dish, but also the
    ability to select materials, a knowledge of the ways in which to
    prepare them, an understanding of their value for the persons for
    whom they are prepared, and ingenuity in serving foods
    attractively and in making the best use of food that may be left over
    from the previous meals, so that there will be practically no waste.
    Thus, while COOKING in all its phases is a broad subject, it is one
    that truly belongs to woman, not only because of the pleasure
    she derives in preparing food for the members of her family,
    but because she is particularly qualified to carry on the work.
3. 3. The providing of food in the home is a matter that usually falls to
   the lot of the housewife; in fact, on her depends the wise use of the
   family income. This means, then, that whether a woman is
   earning her own livelihood and has only herself to provide for, or
   whether she is spending a part of some other person’s income, as,
   for instance, her father’s or her husband’s, she should understand
   how to proportion her money so as to provide the essential needs,
   namely, food, clothing, and shelter. In considering the question of
   providing food, the housewife should set about to determine what
   three meals a day will cost, and in this matter she should be guided
   by the thought that the meals must be the best that can possibly be
   purchased for the amount of money allowed for food from the
   family income and that their cost must not exceed the allotment.
   To a great extent she can control the cost of her foods by selecting
   them with care and then making good use of what her money has
   bought. It is only by constant thought and careful planning,
   however, that she will be able to keep within her means, and she will
   find that her greatest assistance lies in studying foods and the ways in
   which to prepare them.
4. 4. A factor that should not be disregarded in the problem of
   food is waste, and so that the housewife can cope with it properly
   she should understand the distinction between waste and refuse.
   These terms are thought by some to mean the same thing and are
   often confused; but there is a decided difference between them.
   Waste, as applied to food, is something that could be used but is
   not, whereas refuse is something that is rejected because it is unfit
   for use. For example, the fat of meat, which is often eaten, is waste



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    if it is thrown away, but potato parings, which are not suitable as
    food, are refuse.


    In connection with the problem of waste, it may be well to know
    that leakage in the household is due to three causes. The first one is
    lack of knowledge on the part of the housekeeper as to the
    difference between waste and refuse and a consequent failure to
    market well. As an illustration, many housewives will reject turkey
    at a certain price a pound as being too expensive and, instead, will
    buy chicken at, say, 5 cents a pound less. In reality, chicken at 5
    cents a pound less than the price of turkey is more expensive,
    because turkey, whose proportion of meat to bone is greater than
    that of chicken, furnishes more edible material; therefore, in
    buying chicken, they pay more for refuse in proportion to good
    material. The second cause for this leakage in the household is
    excessive waste in the preparation of food for the table, arising
    from the selection of the wrong cooking method or the lack of
    skill in cooking; and the third cause is the serving of too large
    quantities and a consequent waste of food left on individual plates
    and unfit for any other use in the home.
5. 5. Another matter that constantly confronts the housewife is what
   foods she shall select for each day’s meals. To be successful, all meals
   should be planned with the idea of making them wholesome and
   appetizing, giving them variety, and using the left-overs. Every
   woman should understand that food is cooked for both hygienic and
   esthetic reasons; that is, it must be made safe and wholesome for
   health’s sake and must satisfy the appetite, which to a considerable
   degree is mental and, of course, is influenced by the appearance of
   the food. When the housewife knows how to cook ordinary foods
   well, she has an excellent foundation from which to obtain variety in
   the diet—by which in these lessons is meant the daily food and
   drink of any individual, and not something prescribed by a
   physician for a person who is ill—for then it is simply a matter of
   putting a little careful thought into the work she is doing in order to
   get ideas of new ways in which to prepare these same foods and of
   utilizing foodstuffs she has on hand. However, ample time must
   always be allowed for the preparation of meals, for no one can
   expect to produce tasty meals by rushing into the kitchen just before
   meal time and getting up the easiest thing in the quickest manner.
   Well-planned meals carefully prepared will stimulate interest in the
   next day’s bill of fare and will prove extremely beneficial to all
   concerned.

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6. 6. In the practice of COOKING it is also important that the
   meals be planned and the cooking done for the sake of building the
   human body and caring for it. As soon as any woman realizes that
   both the present and the future welfare of the persons for whom she
   is providing foods depend on so many things that are included in
   COOKING, her interest in this branch of domestic science will
   increase; and in making a study of it she may rest assured that there
   is possibly no other calling that affords a more constant source of
   enjoyment and a better opportunity for acquiring knowledge,
   displaying skill, and helping others to be well and happy.


    The fact that people constantly desire something new and different in
    the way of food offers the housewife a chance to develop her
    ingenuity along this line. Then, too, each season brings with it
    special foods for enjoyment and nourishment, and there is constant
    satisfaction in providing the family with some surprise in the form
    of a dish to which they are unaccustomed, or an old one prepared
    in a new or a better way. But the pleasure need not be one-sided, for
    the adding of some new touch to each meal will give as much
    delight to the one who prepares the food as to those who partake
    of it. When COOKING is thought of in this way, it is really a
    creative art and has for its object something more than the making
    of a single dish or the planning of a single meal.
7. 7. From what has been pointed out, it will readily be seen that a
   correct knowledge of COOKING and all that it implies is of extreme
   importance to those who must prepare food for others; indeed, it
   is for just such persons—the housewife who must solve COOKING
   problems from day to day, as well as girls and women who must
   prepare themselves to perform the duties with which they will be
   confronted when they take up the management of a household and
   its affairs—that these lessons in COOKING are intended.


    In the beginning of this course of study in COOKING it is deemed
    advisable to call attention to the order in which the subject matter is
    presented. As will be seen before much progress is made, the
    lessons are arranged progressively; that is, the instruction begins
    with the essentials, or important fundamentals, of food—its
    selection, preparation, and care- and, from these as a foundation,
    advances step by step into the more complicated matters and minor
    details. The beginner eager to take up the actual work of
    COOKING may feel that too much attention is given to

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    preliminaries. However, these are extremely essential, for they are
    the groundwork on which the actual cooking of food depends;
    indeed, without a knowledge of them, very little concerning
    COOKING in its various phases could be readily comprehended.
8. 8. Each beginner in COOKING is therefore urged to master every
   lesson in the order in which she receives it and to carry out
   diligently every detail. No lesson should be disregarded as soon as it
   is understood, for the instruction given in it bears a close relation to
   the entire subject and should be continually put into practice as
   progress is made. This thought applies with particular emphasis to
   the Sections relating to the essentials of COOKING. These should
   be used in connection with all other Sections as books of reference
   and an aid in calling to mind points that must eventually become a
   part of a woman’s COOKING knowledge. By carrying on her
   studies systematically and following directions carefully, the
   beginner will find the cooking of foods a simple matter and will
   take delight in putting into practice the many things that she learns.


    *     *    *     *     *



SELECTION OF FOOD

MATTERS INVOLVED IN RIGHT SELECTION
9. 9. Each one of the phases of COOKING has its importance, but if
   success is to be achieved in this art, careful attention must be
   given to the selection of what is to be cooked, so as to determine
   its value and suitability. To insure the best selection, therefore, the
   housewife should decide whether the food material she purchases
   will fit the needs of the persons who are to eat it; whether the
   amount of labor involved in the preparation will be too great in
   proportion to the results obtained; whether the loss in preparation,
   that is, the proportion of refuse to edible matter, will be sufficient
   to affect the cost materially; what the approximate loss in cooking
   will be; whether the food will serve to the best advantage after it is
   cooked; and, finally, whether or not all who are to eat it will like it.
   The market price also is a factor that cannot be disregarded, for, as
   has been explained, it is important to keep within the limits of the
   amount that may be spent and at the same time provide the right
   kind of nourishment for each member of the family.

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10. 10. In order to select food material that will meet the requirements
    just set forth, three important matters must be considered;
    namely, the substances of which it is composed; its measure of
    energy-producing material, or what is called its food, or fuel, value;
    and its digestion and absorption. Until these are understood, the
    actual cost of any article of food cannot be properly determined,
    although its price at all times may be known.


     However, before a study of any of these matters is entered into, it
     is necessary to know just what is meant by food and what food does
     for the body. As is well understood, the body requires material by
     which it may be built and its tissues repaired when they are torn
     down by work and exercise. In addition it requires a supply of
     heat to maintain it at normal temperature and provide it with
     sufficient energy to do the work required of it. The material that will
     accomplish these important things is food, which may therefore be
     regarded as anything that, when taken into the body, will build and
     repair its tissues or will furnish it with the energy required to do its
     work.

FOOD SUBSTANCES
11. 11. Although, as has just been stated, food may be considered as
    anything that the human engine can make over into tissue or use
    in living and working, not all foods are equally desirable any more
    than all materials are equally good in the construction of a steam
    engine and in the production of its working power. Those food
    substances which are the most wholesome and healthful are the
    ones to be chosen, but proper choice cannot be made unless the
    buyer knows of what the particular food consists and what it is
    expected to do. To aid in the selection of food, therefore, it is
    extremely necessary to become familiar with the five substances,
    constituents, or principles of which foods are made up; namely,
    water, mineral matter, or ash, protein, fat, and carbohydrate. A
    knowledge of these will help also in determining the cooking methods
    to adopt, for this depends on the effect that heat has on the various
    substances present in a food. Of course, so far as flavor is
    concerned, it is possible for the experienced cook to prepare many
    dishes successfully without knowing the effect of heat on the
    different food constituents; but to cook intelligently, with that
    success which makes for actual economy and digestibility, certain



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    facts must be known concerning the food principles and the effect of
    dry and moist heat on foods.
12. 12. Water.—Of the various constituents that are found in the human
    body, water occurs in the largest quantity. As a food substance, it
    is an extremely important feature of a person’s diet. Its chief
    purpose is to replenish the liquids of the body and to assist in the
    digestion of food. Although nature provides considerable amounts
    of water in most foods, large quantities must be taken in the diet as
    a beverage. In fact, it is the need of the body for water that has led to
    the development of numerous beverages. Besides being necessary in
    building up the body and keeping it in a healthy condition, water
    has a special function to perform in cooking, as is explained later.
    Although this food substance is extremely essential to life, it is
    seldom considered in the selection of food, because, as has just
    been mentioned, nearly all foods contain water.
13. 13. Mineral Matter.—Ranking next to water in the quantity
    contained in the human body is mineral matter. This constituent,
    which is also called ash or mineral salts, forms the main part of the
    body’s framework, or skeleton. In the building and maintaining of the
    body, mineral salts serve three purposes—to give rigidity and
    permanence to the skeleton, to form an essential element of active
    tissue, and to provide the required alkalinity or acidity for the
    digestive juices and other secretions.


    The origin and distribution of these mineral substances are of
    interest. Plants in their growth seize from the earth the salts of
    minerals and combine them with other substances that make up their
    living tissue. Then human beings, as well as other living creatures, get
    their supply of these needed salts from the plants that they take as
    food, this being the only form in which the salts can be thoroughly
    assimilated. These salts are not affected by cooking unless some
    process is used that removes such of them as are readily soluble in
    water. When this occurs, the result is usually waste, as, for instance,
    where no use is made of the water in which some vegetables are
    boiled. As is true of water, mineral matter, even though it is found in
    large quantities in the body, is usually disregarded when food is
    purchased. This is due to the fact that this important nutritive
    material appears in some form in nearly all foods and therefore does
    not necessitate the housewife’s stopping to question its presence.
14. 14. Protein.—The food substance known as protein is a very
    important factor in the growth and repair of the body; in fact,

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     these processes cannot be carried on unless protein is present in the
     diet. However, while a certain quantity of protein is essential, the
     amount is not very large and more than is required is likely to be
     harmful, or, since the body can make no use of it, to be at least waste
     material. The principal sources of protein are lean meat, eggs, milk,
     certain grains, nuts, and the legumes, which include such foods as
     beans and peas. Because of the ease with which they are digested,
     meat, fish, eggs, and milk are more valuable sources of protein than
     bread, beans, and nuts. However, as the foods that are most valuable
     for proteins cost more than others, a mixed diet is necessary if only a
     limited amount of money with which to purchase foods is available.
15. 15. So much is involved in the cooking of foods containing protein
    that the effect of heat on such foods should be thoroughly
    understood. The cooking of any food, as is generally understood,
    tends to break up the food and prepare it for digestion.
    However, foods have certain characteristics, such as their structure
    and texture, that influence their digestibility, and the method of
    cooking used or the degree to which the cooking is carried so
    affects these characteristics as to increase or decrease the
    digestibility of the food. In the case of foods containing protein,
    unless the cooking is properly done, the application of heat is liable
    to make the protein indigestible, for the heat first coagulates this
    substance—that is, causes it to become thick—and then, as the heat
    increases, shrinks and hardens it. This fact is clearly demonstrated in
    the cooking of an egg, the white of which is the type of protein
    called albumin. In a raw egg, the albumin is nearly liquid, but as
    heat is applied, it gradually coagulates until it becomes solid. If the
    egg is cooked too fast or too long, it toughens and shrinks and
    becomes less palatable, less attractive, and less digestible. However,
    if the egg is properly cooked after the heat has coagulated the
    albumin, the white will remain tender and the yolk will be fine
    and mealy in texture, thus rendering it digestible.


     Similar results, although not so evident to the sight, are brought
     about through the right or wrong way of cooking practically all other
     foods that contain much protein. Milk, whose principal ingredient is a
     protein known as casein, familiar as the curd of cheese, illustrates
     this fact very plainly. When it is used to make cottage cheese, heating
     it too long or to too high a degree will toughen the curd and actually
     spoil the texture of the product, which will be grainy and hard,
     instead of smooth and tender.


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16. 16. FATS.—The food substances just discussed—water, mineral
    matter, and protein—yield the materials required for building and
    repairing the tissues of the body, but, as has been explained, the
    body also requires foods that produce energy, or working power. By
    far the greater part of the total solids of food taken into the body
    serve this purpose, and of these fats form a large percentage.
    Although fats make up such a large proportion of the daily food
    supply, they enter into the body composition to a less extent than do
    the food substances that have been explained. The fats commonly
    used for food are of both animal and vegetable origin, such as lard,
    suet, butter, cream, olive oil, nut oil, and cottonseed oil. The ordinary
    cooking temperatures have comparatively little effect on fat, except
    to melt it if it is solid. The higher temperatures decompose at least
    some of it, and thus liberate substances that may be irritating to the
    digestive tract.
17. 17. CARBOHYDRATES.—Like fats, the food substances included
    in the term carbohydrates supply the body with energy. However,
    fats and carbohydrates differ in the forms in which they supply
    energy, the former producing it in the most concentrated form and
    the latter in the most economical form.


    So that the term carbohydrate may be clearly understood and firmly
    fixed in the mind, it is deemed advisable to discuss briefly the
    composition of the body and the food that enters it. Of course, in a
    lesson on COOKING, not so much attention need be given to
    this matter as in a lesson on dietetics, which is a branch of hygiene
    that treats of diet; nevertheless, it is important that every person
    who prepares food for the table be familiar with the fact that the
    body, as well as food, is made up of a certain number of chemical
    elements, of which nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen form a
    large part. Protein owes its importance to the fact that of the various
    food substances it alone contains the element nitrogen, which is
    absolutely essential to the formation of any plant or animal tissue.
    The other three elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, go to make
    up the carbohydrates; in fact, it is from the names of these three
    elements that the term carbohydrate is derived. The carbohydrates
    include the starches and sugars that are used and eaten in so many
    forms, and these contain the three elements mentioned, the
    hydrogen and oxygen contained in them being in the proportion
    that produces water. Thus, as will readily be seen, by separating
    the name into its parts—carbo (carbon) and hydrate (hydrogen and
    oxygen in the proportion of two parts of hydrogen and one of

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     oxygen, that is, in the form of water)- carbohydrate is simply
     carbon united with water. While the facts just brought out have
     much to do with food economy, they are of interest here chiefly
     because they help to make clear the term carbohydrate, which, as
     will be admitted, is the only correct name for the food substance
     it represents.
18. 18. STARCH, one of the chief forms of carbohydrates, is found in
    only the vegetable kingdom. It is present in large quantities in the
    grains and in potatoes; in fact, nearly all vegetables contain large or
    small amounts of it. It is stored in the plant in the form of granules
    that lie within the plant cells.


     Cooking applied to starch changes it into a form that is digestible.
     Moist heat cooks the granules until they expand and burst and thus
     thicken the mass. Dry heat changes starch first into a soluble form
     and finally into what is called dextrine, this being the intermediate
     step in the changing of starch into sugar.
19. 19. SUGAR, another important form of carbohydrate, is mainly of
    vegetable origin, except that which is found in milk and called
    lactose. This, together with the fat found in milk, supplies the child
    with energy before it is able to digest a variety of foods. The sap
    of various plants contains such large quantities of sugar that it can
    be crystallized out and secured in dry form. The liquid that remains is
    valuable as food, for, by boiling it down, it forms molasses. Sugar
    is also present in considerable amounts in all fruits, and much of it
    is in a form that can be assimilated, or taken up by the body, quickly.
    A sugar very similar to this natural fruit sugar is made from the
    starch of corn and is called glucose. Much of the carbohydrate
    found in vegetables, especially young, tender vegetables, is in the
    form of sugar, which, as the vegetables grow older, changes to starch.


     Sugar melts upon the application of heat or, if it is in a melted
     condition, as syrup or molasses, it boils down and gives off water.
     When all the water has boiled away, the sugar begins to caramelize
     or become brown, and develops a characteristic flavor. If the
     cooking is continued too long, a dark-brown color and a bitter taste
     are developed. Because the sugar in fruits and vegetables is in
     solution, some of it is lost when they are boiled, unless, of course,
     the water in which they are cooked is utilized.



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20. 20. CELLULOSE is a form of carbohydrate closely related to
    starch. It helps to form the structure of plants and vegetables.
    Very little cellulose is digested, but it should not be ignored, because
    it gives the necessary bulk to the food in which it occurs and because
    strict attention must be paid to the cooking of it. As cellulose
    usually surrounds nutritive material of vegetable origin, it must be
    softened and loosened sufficiently by cooking to permit the nutritive
    material to be dissolved by the digestive juices. Then, too, in old
    vegetables, there is more starch and the cellulose is harder and
    tougher, just as an old tree is much harder than a sapling. This,
    then, accounts for the fact that rapid cooking is needed for some
    vegetables and slow cooking for others, the method and the time
    of cooking depending on the presence and the consistency of the
    cellulose that occurs in the food.
21. 21. IMPORTANCE OF A VARIETY OF FOODS.—Every one
    of the five food substances just considered must be included in a
    person’s diet; yet, with the exception of milk, no single food yields
    the right amounts of material necessary for tissue building and repair
    and for heat and energy. Even milk is in the right proportion, as
    far as its food substances are concerned, only for babies and very
    young children. It will thus be seen that to provide the body with the
    right foods, the diet must be such as to include all the food
    substances. In food selection, therefore, the characteristics of the
    various food substances must be considered well. Fats yield the most
    heat, but are the most slowly digested. Proteins and carbohydrates
    are more quickly digested than fats, but, in equal amounts, have less
    than half as much food value. Water and mineral salts do not yield
    heat, but are required to build tissue and to keep the body in a
    healthy condition. In addition, it is well to note that a well-balanced
    diet is one that contains all of the five food substances in just the
    right proportion in which the individual needs them to build up the
    body, repair it, and supply it with energy. What this proportion
    should be, however, cannot be stated offhand, because the quantity
    and kind of food substances necessarily vary with the size, age, and
    activity of each person.



FOOD VALUE
22. 22. Nearly all foods are complex substances, and they differ from
    one another in what is known as their value, which is measured by the
    work the food does in the body either as a tissue builder or as a

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     producer of energy. However, in considering food value, the person
     who prepares food must not lose sight of the fact that the
     individual appetite must be appealed to by a sufficient variety of
     appetizing foods. There would be neither economy nor advantage in
     serving food that does not please those who are to eat it.


     While all foods supply the body with energy, they differ very much in
     the quantity they yield. If certain ones were chosen solely for that
     purpose, it would be necessary for any ordinary person to consume a
     larger quantity of them than could be eaten at any one time. For
     instance, green vegetables furnish the body with a certain amount
     of energy, but they cannot be eaten to the exclusion of other things,
     because no person could eat in a day a sufficient amount of them to
     give the body all the energy it would need for that day’s work. On
     the other hand, certain foods produce principally building material,
     and if they were taken for the purpose of yielding only energy, they
     would be much too expensive. Meats, for example, build up the
     body, but a person’s diet would cost too much if meat alone were
     depended on to provide the body with all the energy it requires.
     Many foods, too, contain mineral salts, which, as has been pointed
     out, are needed for building tissue and keeping the body in a
     healthy condition.
23. 23. To come to a correct appreciation of the value of different foods,
    it is necessary to understand the unit employed to measure the
    amount of work that foods do in the body. This unit is the
    CALORIE, and it is used to measure foods just as the inch, the
    yard, the pound, the pint, and the quart are the units used to
    measure materials and liquids; however, instead of measuring the
    food itself, it determines its food value, or fuel value. To illustrate
    what is meant, consider, for instance, ½ ounce of sugar and ½ ounce
    of butter. As far as the actual weight of these two foods is concerned,
    they are equal; but with regard to the work they do in the body they
    differ considerably. Their relative value in the body, however, can
    be determined if they are measured by some unit that can be applied
    to both. It is definitely known that both of them produce heat
    when they are oxidized, that is, when they are combined with oxygen;
    thus, the logical way of measuring them is to determine the quantity
    of heat that will be produced when they are eaten and united with
    oxygen, a process that causes the liberation of heat. The calorie is
    the unit by which this heat can be measured, it being the quantity of
    heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water 4 degrees
    Fahrenheit, which is the name of the thermometer commonly used

16
    in the home. When burned as fuel, a square of butter weighing ½
    ounce produces enough heat to raise 1 pint of water 400 degrees
    Fahrenheit, and it will yield the same amount of heat when it is eaten
    and goes through the slow process of oxidation in the body. On the
    other hand, ½ ounce of sugar upon being oxidized will produce only
    enough heat to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water about 230
    degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, as will be seen, ½ ounce of butter has a
    value of approximately 100 calories, whereas ½ ounce of sugar
    contains only about 57-1/2 calories.


    Other foods yield heat in varying degrees, and their food value is
    determined in exactly the same way as that of butter and sugar. To
    give an idea of the composition of various food materials, as well as
    the number of calories that 1 pound of these food materials will
    yield, food charts published by the United States Department of
    Agriculture are here presented. As an understanding of these
    charts will prove extremely profitable in the selection of food, a
    careful study of them at this time is urged. In addition, reference to
    them should be made from time to time as the various kinds of
    foods are taken up, as the charts will then be more easily
    comprehended and their contents of more value.

DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF FOOD
24. 24. The third requirement in the selection of food, namely, its
    digestion and absorption, depends considerably on the persons who
    are to be fed. Food that is chosen for adults entirely would not be
    the same as that intended for both young persons and adults; neither
    would food that is to be fed to children or persons who are ill be the
    same as that which is to be served to robust adults who do a normal
    amount of work. No hard-and fast rules can be laid down here for
    this phase of food selection, but as these lessons in COOKING are
    taken up in turn, the necessary knowledge regarding digestibility will
    be acquired.




                                                                       17
PREPARATION OF FOOD

REASONS FOR COOKING FOOD
25. 25. The term COOKING, as has been explained, means the
    preparation of both hot and cold dishes for use as food, as well as
    the selection of the materials or substances that are to be cooked.
    The importance of cooking foods by subjecting them to the action
    of heat has been recognized for ages; and while it is true that there
    are many foods that appeal to the appetite in their raw state and still
    others that can be eaten either raw or cooked, there are several
    reasons why it is desirable to cook food, as will be seen from the
    following:
     1. Cooking makes foods more palatable. This is true of such foods
        as meat, cereals, and many vegetables, which would be very
        unappetizing if they were eaten raw.
     2. Cooking renders foods more digestible. For instance, the hard
        grains, such as wheat, and the dried vegetables, such as beans,
        cannot be readily digested unless they are softened by cooking.
        But while cooking makes such foods more digestible, it renders
        others more difficult of digestion, as in the case of eggs, the
        degree of digestibility depending somewhat on the cooking
        method used and the skill of the cook. An egg in an almost liquid
        form, or when only slightly cooked, as a soft-boiled egg, is more
        easily digested than when it becomes hardened by cooking.
        Then, too, a properly prepared hard-cooked egg is more
        digestible than an improperly cooked one, although the degree of
        hardness may be the same.
     3. Cooking gives foods greater variety. The same food may be
        cooked by various methods and be given very different tastes
        and appearances; on the other hand, it may be combined with a
        large number of other foods, so as to increase the variety of the
        dishes in which it is used. The large number of recipes found
        in cook books show the attempts that have been made to
        obtain variety in cooked dishes by the combining of different
        foods.
     4. Cooking sterilizes foods either partly or completely. Many foods
        need partial or complete sterilization for safety. They must be
        completely sterilized if the germs that produce fermentation or
        putrefaction and thereby spoil food would be destroyed. This
        is done when fruits and vegetables are canned for keeping.

18
        Foods that are exposed to dust, flies, and improper handling
        should be thoroughly cooked in order to destroy any pathogenic
        germs that might be present. By such germs are meant disease
        bearing germs. They differ from germs that produce
        fermentation and putrefaction, or spoiling, and that must in
        general be considered as a help, for these play an important part
        in the raising of bread and the preparation of various foods, as is
        pointed out later.
    5. Cooking develops flavor in many foods. In the case of some
       vegetables, the flavoring substance is given off in the air by
       certain methods of cooking and a better flavor is thereby
       developed.



METHODS OF COOKING

COOKING PROCESSES
26. 26. Food is cooked by the application of heat, which may be either
    moist or dry. While it is true that the art of cooking includes the
    preparation of material that is served or eaten raw, cooking itself is
    impossible without heat; indeed, the part of cooking that requires the
    most skill and experience is that in which heat is involved. Explicit
    directions for carrying on the various cooking processes depend on
    the kind of stove, the cooking utensils, and even the atmospheric
    conditions. In truth, the results of some processes depend so much
    on the state of the atmosphere that they are not successful on a day
    on which it is damp and heavy; also, as is well known, the stove acts
    perfectly on some days, whereas on other days it seems to have a
    stubborn will of its own. Besides the difficulties mentioned, the heat
    itself sometimes presents obstacles in the cooking of foods, to
    regulate it in such a way as to keep it uniform being often a hard
    matter. Thus, a dish may be spoiled by subjecting it to heat that is too
    intense, by cooking it too long, or by not cooking it rapidly enough.
    All these points must be learned, and the best way to master them is
    to put into constant practice the principles that are involved in
    COOKING.
27. 27. Without doubt, the first step in gaining a mastery of
    COOKING is to become familiar with the different methods and
    processes, the ways in which they are applied, and the reasons for
    applying them. There are numerous ways of cooking food, but the

                                                                         19
     principal processes are boiling, stewing, steaming, dry steaming,
     braizing, fricasseeing, roasting, baking, broiling, pan broiling, frying,
     and sauteing. Which one of these to use will depend on the food
     that is to be cooked and the result desired. If the wrong method is
     employed, there will be a waste of food material or the food will be
     rendered less desirable in flavor or tenderness. For example, it
     would be both wasteful and undesirable to roast a tough old fowl or
     to boil a tender young broiler.


     The various methods of COOKING just mentioned naturally divide
     themselves into three groups; namely, those involving dry heat, those
     requiring moist heat, and those in which hot fat is the cooking
     medium.

COOKING WITH DRY HEAT
28. 28. Cooking with dry heat includes broiling, pan broiling, roasting,
    and baking; but, whichever of these processes is used, the
    principle is practically the same. In these processes the food is
    cooked by being exposed to the source of heat or by being placed
    in a closed oven and subjected to heated air. When dry heat is
    applied, the food to be cooked is heated to a much greater
    temperature than when moist heat is used.
29. 29. BROILING.—The cooking process known as broiling consists
    in exposing directly to the source of heat the food that is to be
    cooked; that is, in cooking it over or before a clear bed of coals or a
    gas flame. The aim in broiling is to retain the juices of food and
    develop flavor. As it is a quick method, foods that are not tender,
    as, for example, tough meats, should not be broiled, because
    broiling does not help to render their fibers more tender. In
    applying this cooking process, which is particularly suitable for
    tender portions of meat and for young fowl, the food should be
    exposed to intense heat at first in order to sear all surfaces quickly
    and thus retain the juices. At the beginning of the cooking, the
    article that is being broiled should be turned often; then, as soon as
    the outside is browned, the heat should be reduced if possible, as with
    a gas stove, and the article allowed to cook until done. If the
    broiling is done over coals, it is necessary to continue the turning
    during the entire process. While broiling produces an especially
    good flavor in the foods to which it is applied, provided they are not
    tough, it is not the most economical way of cooking.


20
30. 30. PAN BROILING.—Pan broiling is an adaptation of the broiling
    method. It consists in cooking food in a sissing-hot pan on top of
    the stove without the use of fat. In this process the surfaces of the
    steak, chop, or whatever the food may be, are quickly seared, after
    which the article is turned frequently and cooked more slowly until
    done. The object of pan broiling is the same as that of broiling,
    and it is resorted to, as a rule, when the fire is not in the right
    condition for broiling.
31. 31. ROASTING.—Originally, the term to roast meant to cook
    before a fire, because, before the time of stoves, practically all food
    was cooked in the fireplace. Food that was to be roasted was placed
    before the fire in a device that reflected heat, this device being open
    on the side toward the fire and closed on that toward the room. The
    roast was suspended in this device, slowly turned, and thus cooked
    by radiant heat—that is, heat given off in the form of direct rays—
    the principle being the same as that of broiling, but the application
    different. Nowadays, the term roasting is almost universally applied to
    the action of both hot air and radiant heat. However, much of what
    is called roasting is in reality baking. Foods cooked in the oven of
    an ordinary coal or gas range are really baked, although they are
    said to be roasted, and a covered roasting pan is a misnomer. Food
    must be exposed to the air in the process of cooking if it is to be
    roasted in the true sense.


    It may be well to note that successful roasting or broiling depends
    more on the shape of the article to be roasted or broiled than on its
    weight. For this reason, thick, compact cuts of meat are usually
    selected for roasting and thin cuts for broiling. Good results also
    depend very much on the pan selected for the roasting process.
    One of the great aims in cooking should be to save or conserve all
    the food possible; that is, if by one process less waste in cooking
    results, it should be chosen rather than one that will result in loss at
    the end of the cooking process.
32. 32. BAKING.—By baking is meant cooking in a heated oven at
    temperatures ranging from 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. As the
    term baking is frequently used in a wrong sense, the actual
    conditions of the process should be thoroughly understood. In both
    broiling and the original method of roasting, the heat is applied
    directly; that is, the food is exposed directly to the source of heat.
    Actual baking differs from these processes in that it is done in a
    closed oven or by means of heated air. Starchy foods, such as bread,


                                                                         21
     cakes, and pastry, are nearly always baked, and gradually other
     foods, such as meats, fish, and vegetables are being subjected to
     this method of cooking. In fact, persons who are skilled in cooking
     use the oven more and more for things that they formerly thought
     had to be cooked in other ways. But the name that is applied to
     the process depends somewhat on custom, for while meat that is
     cooked in the oven is really baked, it is usually termed roasted meat.
     It seems strange, but it is nevertheless true, that ham cooked in the
     oven has always been termed baked, while turkey cooked in exactly
     the same way is said to be roasted.



COOKING WITH MOIST HEAT
33. 33. The methods of cooking with moist heat, that is, through the
    medium of water, are boiling, simmering, steaming, dry steaming,
    and braizing. In every one of these processes, the effect of moist heat
    on food is entirely different from that of dry heat. However, the
    method to be selected depends to a great extent on the amount of
    water that the food contains. To some foods much water must be
    added in the cooking process; to others, only a little or none at all. If
    food is not placed directly in large or small quantities of water, it is
    cooked by contact with steam or in a utensil that is heated by
    being placed in another containing boiling water, as, for example, a
    double boiler.


     As water is such an important factor in cooking with moist heat,
     something concerning its nature and use should be understood.
     Therefore, before considering the moist-heat cooking processes in
     detail, the function of water in the body and in cooking and also
     the kinds of water are discussed.
34. 34. FUNCTION OF WATER IN THE BODY.—Water supplies no
    energy to the body, but it plays a very important part in nutrition. In
    fact, its particular function in the body is to act as a solvent and a
    carrier of nutritive material and waste. In doing this work, it keeps
    the liquids of the body properly diluted, increases the flow of the
    digestive juices, and helps to carry off waste material. However, its
    ability to perform these necessary functions in the right way depends
    on its quality and its safety.
35. 35. KINDS OF WATER.—Water is either hard or soft. As it falls
    from the clouds, it is pure and soft until it comes in contact with

22
    gases and solids, which are dissolved by it and change its
    character. It is definitely known that the last of the water that falls in
    a shower is much better than the first, as the first cleanses not only
    the air, but the roofs and other things with which it comes in contact.
    In passing through certain kinds of soil or over rocks, water dissolves
    some of the minerals that are contained there and is thus changed
    from soft to hard water. If sewage drains into a well or water supply,
    the water is liable to contain bacteria, which will render it unfit and
    unsafe for drinking until it is sterilized by boiling. Besides rain water
    and distilled water, there is none that is entirely soft; all other
    waters hold certain salts in solution to a greater or less degree.


    The quality of hardness, which is present in nearly all water, is either
    temporary or permanent. Water is temporarily hard when it contains
    soluble lime, which is precipitated, that is, separated from it, upon
    boiling. Every housewife who uses a teakettle is familiar with this
    condition. The lime precipitated day after day clings to the sides of
    the vessel in which the water is boiled, and in time they become
    very thickly coated. Permanent hardness is caused by other
    compounds of lime that are not precipitated by boiling the water.
    The only way in which to soften such water is to add to it an
    alkali, such as borax, washing soda, or bicarbonate of soda.
36. 36. USES OF WATER IN COOKING.—It is the solvent, or
    dissolving, power of water that makes this liquid valuable in cooking,
    but of the two kinds, soft water is preferable to hard, because it
    possesses greater solvent power. This is due to the fact that hard
    water has already dissolved a certain amount of material and will
    therefore dissolve less of the food substances and flavors when it is
    used for cooking purposes than soft water, which has dissolved
    nothing. It is known, too, that the flavor of such beverages as tea
    and coffee is often greatly impaired by the use of hard water. Dried
    beans and peas, cereals, and tough cuts of meat will not cook tender
    so readily in hard water as in soft, but the addition of a small
    amount of soda during the cooking of these foods will assist in
    softening them.


    Water is used in cooking chiefly for extracting flavors, as in the
    making of coffee, tea, and soups; as a medium for carrying flavors
    and foods in such beverages as lemonade and cocoa; for softening
    both vegetable and animal fiber; and for cooking starch and


                                                                           23
     dissolving sugar, salt, gelatine, etc. In accomplishing much of this
     work, water acts as a medium for conveying heat.
37. 37. BOILING.—As applied to cooking, boiling means cooking
    foods in boiling water. Water boils when its temperature is raised by
    heat to what is commonly termed its boiling point. This varies
    with the atmospheric pressure, but at sea level, under ordinary
    conditions, it is always 212 degrees Fahrenheit. When the
    atmospheric pressure on the surface of the water is lessened, boiling
    takes place at a lower temperature than that mentioned, and in
    extremely high altitudes the boiling point is so lowered that to cook
    certain foods by means of boiling water is difficult. As the water
    heats in the process of boiling, tiny bubbles appear on the bottom of
    the vessel in which it is contained and rise to the surface. Then,
    gradually, the bubbles increase in size until large ones form, rise
    rapidly, and break, thus producing constant agitation of the water.
38. 38. Boiling has various effects on foods. It toughens the albumin in
    eggs, toughens the fiber and dissolves the connective tissues in meat,
    softens the cellulose in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, and dissolves
    other substances in many foods. A good point to bear in mind in
    preparing foods by boiling is that slowly boiling water has the
    same temperature as rapidly boiling water and is therefore able to do
    exactly the same work. Keeping the gas burning full heat or running
    the fire hard to keep the water boiling rapidly is therefore
    unnecessary; besides, it wastes fuel without doing the work any
    faster and sometimes not so well. However, there are several factors
    that influence the rapidity with which water may be brought to the
    boiling point; namely, the kind of utensil used, the amount of
    surface exposed, and the quantity of heat applied. A cover placed
    on a saucepan or a kettle in which food is to be boiled retains the
    heat, and thus causes the temperature to rise more quickly; besides,
    a cover so used prevents a loss of water by condensing the steam as it
    rises against the cover. As water boils, some of it constantly passes off
    in the form of steam, and for this reason syrups or sauces become
    thicker the longer they are cooked. The evaporation takes place all
    over the surface of the water; consequently, the greater the surface
    exposed, the more quickly is the quantity of water decreased during
    boiling. Another point to observe in the boiling process is that
    foods boiled rapidly in water have a tendency to lose their shape
    and are reduced to small pieces if allowed to boil long enough.




24
    Besides serving to cook foods, boiling also renders water safe, as it
    destroys any germs that may be present. This explains why water
    must sometimes be boiled to make it safe for drinking. Boiled
    water, as is known, loses its good taste. However, as this change is
    brought about by the loss of air during boiling, the flavor can be
    restored and air again introduced if the water is shaken in a partly
    filled jar or bottle, or beaten vigorously for a short time with an egg
    beater.
39. 39. SIMMERING, OR STEWING.—The cooking process known
    as simmering, or stewing, is a modification of boiling. By this
    method, food is cooked in water at a temperature below the boiling
    point, or anywhere from 185 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. Water at the
    simmering point always moves gently- never rapidly as it does in
    boiling. Less heat and consequently less fuel are required to cook
    foods in this way, unless, of course, the time consumed in cooking
    the food at a low temperature is much greater than that consumed
    in cooking it more rapidly.


    Aside from permitting economy in the use of fuel, simmering, or
    stewing, cooks deliciously certain foods that could not be selected
    for the more rapid methods. For example, tough cuts of meat and
    old fowl can be made tender and tasty by long cooking at a low
    temperature, for this method tends to soften the fiber and to
    develop an excellent flavor. Tough vegetables, too, can be cooked
    tender by the simmering process without using so much fuel as
    would be used if they were boiled, for whatever method is used they
    require long cooking. Beets, turnips, and other winter vegetables
    should be stewed rather than boiled, as it is somewhat difficult
    to cook them tender, especially in the late winter and early spring.
    If dry beans and peas are brought to the simmering point and then
    allowed to cook, they can be prepared for the table in practically
    the same length of time and without so much fuel as if they
    boiled continuously.
40. 40. STEAMING.—As its name implies, steaming is the cooking of
    food by the application of steam. In this cooking process, the food
    is put into a steamer, which is a cooking utensil that consists of a
    vessel with a perforated bottom placed over one containing water.
    As the water boils, steam rises and cooks the food in the upper,
    or perforated, vessel. Steamers are sometimes arranged with a
    number of perforated vessels, one on top of the other. Such a
    steamer permits of the cooking of several foods at the same time


                                                                        25
     without the need of additional fuel, because a different food may be
     placed in each vessel.


     Steaming is preferable to boiling in some cases, because by it there is
     no loss of mineral salts nor food substances; besides, the flavor is not
     so likely to be lost as when food is boiled. Vegetables prepared in this
     way prove very palatable, and very often variety is added to the
     diet by steaming bread, cake, and pudding mixtures and then,
     provided a crisp outside is desired, placing them in a hot oven to
     dry out the moist surface.
41. 41. DRY STEAMING.—Cooking foods in a vessel that is suspended
    in another one containing boiling water constitutes the cooking
    method known as dry steaming. The double boiler is a cooking
    utensil devised especially for carrying on this process. The food
    placed in the suspended, or inner, vessel does not reach the boiling
    point, but is cooked by the transfer of heat from the water in the
    outside, or lower, vessel. A decided advantage of this method is that
    no watching is required except to see that the water in the lower
    vessel does not boil away completely, for as long as there is water
    between the food and the fire, the food will neither boil nor burn.


     Because of the nature of certain foods, cooking them by this process
     is especially desirable. The flavor and consistency of cereals and
     foods containing starch are greatly improved by long cooking in
     this way. Likewise, custards and mixtures containing eggs can be
     conveniently cooked in a double boiler, because they do not require
     a high temperature; in fact, their texture is spoiled if they are cooked
     at the boiling point. To heat milk directly over the flame without
     scorching it is a difficult matter, and, on the other hand, boiled milk
     is hard to digest. Because of these facts, food containing milk
     should not be boiled, but should be cooked at a lower temperature
     in a double boiler.
42. 42. BRAIZING.—Cooking meat in an oven in a closed pan with
    a small quantity of water constitutes braizing. This cooking process
    might be called a combination of stewing and baking, but when it
    is properly carried out, the meat is placed on a rack so as to be
    raised above the water, in which may be placed sliced vegetables. In
    this process the meat actually cooks in the flavored steam that
    surrounds it in the hot pan. The so-called double roasting pans are
    in fact braizing pans when they are properly used. A pot roast is the
    result of a modification of the braizing method.

26
COOKING WITH HOT FAT
43. 43. Of the three mediums of conveying heat to food, namely, hot
    air, hot water, and hot fat, that of hot fat renders food the least
    digestible. Much of this difficulty, however, can be overcome if an
    effort is made to secure as little absorption of the fat as possible. If
    the ingredients of the food are properly mixed before applying the
    fat and if the fat is at the right temperature, good results can be
    obtained by the various methods of cooking with hot fat, which are
    frying, sauteing, and fricasseeing.
44. 44. FRYING.—By frying is meant the cooking of food in deep
    fat at a temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Any kind of
    fat that will not impart flavor to the food may be used for frying,
    but the vegetable oils, such as cottonseed oils, combinations of
    coconut and cottonseed oils, and nut oils, are preferable to lards and
    other animal fats, because they do not burn so easily. Foods cooked
    in deep fat will not absorb the fat nor become greasy if they are
    properly prepared, quickly fried, and well drained on paper that will
    absorb any extra fat.
45. 45. SAUTEING.—Browning food first on one side and then on the
    other in a small quantity of fat is termed sauteing. In this cooking
    process, the fat is placed in a shallow pan, and when it is sufficiently
    hot, the food is put into it. Foods that are to be sauted are usually
    sliced thin or cut into small pieces, and they are turned frequently
    during the process of cooking. All foods prepared in this way are
    difficult to digest, because they become more or less hard and soaked
    with fat. Chops and thin cuts of meat, which are intended to be pan-
    broiled, are really sauted if they are allowed to cook in the fat that
    fries out of them.
46. 46. FRICASSEEING.—A combination of sauteing and stewing
    results in the cooking process known as fricasseeing. This process is
    used in preparing such foods as chicken, veal, or game, but it is
    more frequently employed for cooking fowl, which, in COOKING,
    is the term used to distinguish the old of domestic fowls from
    chickens or pullets. In fricasseeing, the meat to be cooked is cut into
    pieces and sauted either before or after stewing; then it is served
    with a white or a brown sauce. Ordinarily, the meat should be
    browned first, unless it is very tough, in order to retain the juices and
    improve the flavor. However, very old fowl or tough meat should be
    stewed first and then browned.

                                                                          27
HEAT FOR COOKING

GENERAL DISCUSSION
47. 47. Inasmuch as heat is so important a factor in the cooking of
    foods, it is absolutely necessary that the person who is to
    prepare them be thoroughly familiar with the ways in which this
    heat is produced. The production of heat for cooking involves the
    use of fuels and stoves in which to burn them, as well as electricity,
    which serves the purpose of a fuel, and apparatus for using
    electricity. In order, therefore, that the best results may be obtained
    in COOKING, these subjects are here taken up in detail.
48. 48. Probably the first fuel to be used in the production of heat
    for cooking was wood, but later such fuels as peat, coal, charcoal,
    coke, and kerosene came into use. Of these fuels, coal, gas, and
    kerosene are used to the greatest extent in the United States.
    Wood, of course, is used considerably for kindling fires, and it serves
    as fuel in localities where it is abundant or less difficult to procure
    than other fuels. However, it is fast becoming too scarce and too
    expensive to burn. If it must be burned for cooking purposes,
    those who use it should remember that dry, hard wood gives off
    heat at a more even rate than soft wood, which is usually selected
    for kindling. Electricity is coming into favor for supplying heat for
    cooking, but only when it can be sold as cheaply as gas will its use in
    the home become general.
49. 49. The selection of a stove to be used for cooking depends on the
    fuel that is to be used, and the fuel, in turn, depends on the locality
    in which a person lives. However, as the fuel that is the most
    convenient and easily obtained is usually the cheapest, it is the one to
    be selected, for the cost of the cooked dish may be greatly increased
    by the use of fuel that is too expensive. In cooking, every fuel
    should be made to do its maximum amount of work, because waste
    of fuel also adds materially to the cost of cooking and, besides, it
    often causes great inconvenience. For example, cooking on a red-hot
    stove with a fire that, instead of being held in the oven and the
    lids, overheats the kitchen and burns out the stove not only wastes
    fuel and material, but also taxes the temper of the person who is
    doing the work. From what has just been said, it will readily be
    seen that a knowledge of fuels and apparatus for producing heat will


28
    assist materially in the economical production of food, provided, of
    course, it is applied to the best advantage.



COAL AND COKE
50. 50. VARIETIES OF COAL.—Possibly the most common fuel used
    for cooking is coal. This fuel comes in two varieties, namely,
    anthracite, or hard coal, and bituminous, or soft coal. Their relative
    cost depends on the locality, the kind of stove, and an intelligent use
    of both stove and fuel. Hard coal costs much more in some places
    than soft coal, but it burns more slowly and evenly and gives off
    very little smoke. Soft coal heats more rapidly than hard coal, but it
    produces considerable smoke and makes a fire that does not last so
    long. Unless a stove is especially constructed for soft coal, it should
    not be used for this purpose, because the burning of soft coal will
    wear it out in a short time. The best plan is to use each variety of
    coal in a stove especially constructed for it, but if a housewife finds
    that she must at times do otherwise, she should realize that a
    different method of management and care of the stove is demanded.
51. 51. SIZES OF COAL.—As the effect of coal on the stove must be
    taken into consideration in the buying of fuel, so the different sizes
    of hard coal must be known before the right kind can be selected.
    The sizes known as stove and egg coal, which range from about 1-
    3/8 to 2-3/4 inches in diameter, are intended for a furnace and
    should not be used in the kitchen stove for cooking purposes. Some
    persons who know how to use the size of coal known as pea, which
    is about ½ to ¾ inch in diameter, like that kind, whereas others
    prefer the size called chestnut, which is about ¾ inch to 1-3/8
    inches in diameter. In reality, a mixture of these two, if properly
    used, makes the best and most easily regulated kitchen coal fire.
52. 52. QUALITY OF COAL.—In addition to knowing the names,
    prices, and uses of the different kinds of coal, the housewife
    should be able to distinguish poor coal from good coal. In fact,
    proper care should be exercised in all purchasing, for the person
    who understands the quality of the thing to be purchased will be
    more likely to get full value for the money paid than the one who
    does not. About coal, it should be understood that good hard coal
    has a glossy black color and a bright surface, whereas poor coal
    contains slaty pieces. The quality of coal can also be determined
    from the ash that remains after it is burned. Large chunks or great
    quantities of ash indicate a poor quality of coal, and fine, powdery ash

                                                                         29
     a good quality. Of course, even if the coal is of the right kind, poor
     results are often brought about by the bad management of a fire,
     whether in a furnace or a stove. Large manufacturing companies,
     whose business depends considerably on the proper kind of fuel,
     buy coal by the heat units—that is, according to the quantity of heat
     it will give off—and at some future time this plan may have to be
     followed in the private home, unless some other fuel is provided in
     the meantime.


     Mixed with poor coal are certain unburnable materials that melt and
     stick together as it burns and form what are known as clinkers.
     Clinkers are very troublesome because they often adhere to the
     stove grate or the lining of the firebox. They generally form
     during the burning of an extremely hot fire, but the usual
     temperature of a kitchen fire does not produce clinkers unless the
     coal is of a very poor quality. Mixing oyster shells with coal of this
     kind often helps to prevent their formation.
53. 53. COKE.—Another fuel that is sometimes used for cooking is
    coke. Formerly, coke was a by-product in the manufacture of
    illuminating gas, but now it is manufactured from coal for use as a
    fuel. Because of the nature of its composition, coke produces a very
    hot fire and is therefore favorable for rapid cooking, such as
    broiling. However, it is used more extensively in hotels and
    institutions than in kitchens where cooking is done on a small scale.



GAS
54. 54. VALUE OF GAS AS FUEL.—As a fuel for cooking
    purposes, gas, both artificial and natural, is very effective, and in
    localities where the piping of gas into homes is possible it is used
    extensively. Of the two kinds, artificial gas produces the least heat;
    also, it is the most expensive, usually costing two or three times as
    much as natural gas. Both are very cheap, however, considering their
    convenience as a kitchen fuel. Heat from gas is obtained by merely
    turning it on and igniting it, as with a lighted match. Its consumption
    can be stopped at once by closing off the supply, or it can be
    regulated as desired and in this way made to give the exact amount of
    heat required for the method of COOKING adopted. Neither
    smoke nor soot is produced in burning gas if the burners of the gas
    stove are adjusted to admit the right amount of air, and no ashes


30
    nor refuse remain to be disposed of after gas has been burned.
    Because gas is so easily handled, good results can be obtained by
    those who have had very little experience in using it, and with study
    and practice results become uniform and gas proves to be an
    economical fuel.
55. 55. MEASUREMENT OF GAS.—Gas is measured by the cubic
    foot, and a definite price is charged for each 1,000 cubic feet. To
    determine the quantity used, it is passed through what is called a
    meter, which measures as the gas burns. It is important that each
    housewife be able to read the amount registered by the meter, so
    that she can compare her gas bill with the meter reading and thus
    determine whether the charges are correct. If only the usual amount
    of gas has been consumed and the bill does not seem to be correct or
    is much larger than it has been previously, the matter should be
    reported to the proper authorities, for the meter may be out of order
    and in need of repair.



56. 56. READING A GAS METER.—To register the quantity of
    gas that is consumed, a gas meter, as is shown in Fig. 1, is provided
    with three large dials, each of which has ten spaces over which the
    hand, or indicator, passes to indicate the amount of gas consumed,
    and with one small dial, around which the hand makes one
    revolution every time 2 cubic feet of gas is consumed. This small dial
    serves to tell whether gas is leaking when the stoves and lights are
    not turned on. Above each large dial is an arrow that points out the
    direction in which to read, the two outside ones reading toward the
    right and the center one toward the left; also, above each dial is
    lettered the quantity of gas that each dial registers, that at the right
    registering 1,000 cubic feet, that in the center 10,000 cubic feet, and
    that at the left 100,000 cubic feet. To read the dials, begin at the left,
    or the 100,000 dial, and read toward the right. In each instance,
    read the number over which the hand has passed last. For
    instance, when, as in Fig. 1, the hand lies between 5 and 6 on the
    left dial, 5 is read; on the center dial, when the hand lies between 5
    and 6, 5 is read also; and on the right dial, when the hand lies
    between 2 and 3, the 2, which is really 200, is read.
57. 57. To compute the quantity of gas used, the dials are read from left
    to right and the three readings are added. Then, in order to
    determine the quantity burned since the previous reading, the



                                                                           31
     amount registered at that time, which is always stated on the gas bill,
     must be subtracted from the new reading.


     To illustrate the manner in which the cost of gas consumed may
     be determined, assume that gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic feet,
     that the previous reading of the gas meter, say on May 15, was
     52,600 cubic feet, and that on June 15 the meter registered 55,200.
     As was just explained, the left dial of the meter reads 5, the center
     dial 5, and the right dial 200. Therefore, put these figures down so
     that they follow one another, as 5-5-200. This means then that the
     reading on June 15 is 55,200 cubic feet. With this amount
     ascertained, subtract from it the previous reading, or 52,600 cubic
     feet, which will give 2,600 cubic feet, or the quantity of gas burned
     from May 15 to June 15. Since gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic
     feet, the cost of the amount burned, or 2,600 cubic feet, may be
     estimated by dividing 2,600 cubic feet by 1,000 and multiplying the
     result by 90; thus 2,600 / 1,000 = 2.6, and 2.6 x .90 = 2.34
58. 58. PREPAYMENT METERS.—In many places, gas concerns
    install what are called prepayment meters; that is, meters in which the
    money is deposited before the gas is burned. Such meters register the
    consumption of the gas in the same way as the meters just
    mentioned, but they contain a receptacle for money. A coin,
    generally a quarter, is dropped into a slot leading to this receptacle,
    and the amount of gas sold for this sum is then permitted to pass
    through as it is needed. When this amount of gas has been burned,
    another coin must be inserted in the meter before more gas will be
    liberated.



KEROSENE
59. 59. In communities where gas is not available, kerosene, which is
    produced by the refinement of petroleum, is used extensively as a fuel
    for cooking, especially in hot weather when the use of a coal or a
    wood stove adds materially to the discomfort of the person who does
    the cooking. Kerosene is burned in stoves especially designed for its
    use, and while it is a cheap fuel it is not always the same in quality. It
    contains water at all times, but sometimes the proportion of water is
    greater than at others. The greater the amount of water, the less fuel
    will be contained in each gallon of kerosene. The quality of kerosene



32
    can be determined by checking up the length of time the stove will
    burn on a specified quantity of each new purchase of it.


    Another product of the refinement of petroleum is gasoline.
    However, it is not used so extensively for fuel as kerosene, because it
    is more dangerous and more expensive.

ELECTRICITY
60. 60. The use of electricity for supplying heat for cooking is very
    popular in some homes, especially those which are properly wired,
    because of its convenience and cleanliness and the fact that the heat
    it produces can be applied direct. The first electrical cooking
    apparatus was introduced at the time of the World’s Fair in
    Chicago, in 1892, and since that time rapid advancement has been
    made in the production of suitable apparatus for cooking electrically.
    Electricity would undoubtedly be in more general use today if it were
    possible to store it in the same way as artificial gas, but as yet no
    such method has been devised and its cost is therefore greater.
    Electricity is generated in large power plants, and as it is consumed
    in the home for lighting and cooking it passes through a meter,
    which indicates the quantity used in much the same manner as a gas
    meter. It will be well, therefore, to understand the way in which an
    electric meter is read, so that the bills for electricity can be checked.
61. 61. READING AN ELECTRIC METER.—An electric meter,
    which is similar in appearance to a gas meter, consists of three or
    four dials, which are placed side by side or in the shape of an arc. In
    the usual type, which is shown in Fig. 2 and which consists of four
    dials placed side by side, each one of the dials contains ten spaces and
    a hand, or indicator, that passes over numbers ranging from to 9 to
    show the amount of electricity used.


    The numbers on the dials represent kilowatt-hours, a term meaning
    the energy resulting from the activity of 1 kilowatt for 1 hour, or 1
    watt, which is the practical unit of electrical power, for 1,000 hours.
    Since 1,000 hours equal 1 kilowatt, 1,000 watt-hours equal 1 kilowatt-
    hour. It will be observed from the accompanying illustration that the
    dial on the extreme right has the figures reading in a clockwise
    direction, that is, from right to left, the second one in a counter-
    clockwise direction, or from left to right, the third one in a clockwise
    direction, and the fourth one in a counter-clockwise direction; also

                                                                          33
     that above each dial is indicated in figures the number of
     kilowatt-hours that one complete revolution of the hand of that dial
     registers.
     To read the meter, begin at the right-hand dial and continue to the
     left until all the dials are read and set the numbers down just as
     they are read; that is, from right to left. In case the indicator does
     not point directly to a number, but is somewhere between two
     numbers, read the number that it is leaving. For example, in Fig. 2,
     the indicator in the right-hand dial points to figure 4; therefore, this
     number should be put down first. In the second dial, the hand lies
     between and 1, and as it is leaving 0, this number should be read and
     placed to the left of the first one read, which gives 04. The hand on
     the third dial points exactly to 6; so 6 should be read for this dial and
     placed directly before the numbers read for the first and second
     dials, thus, 604. On the fourth and last dial, the indicator is between
     4 and 5; therefore 4, which is the number it is leaving should be
     read and used as the first figure in the entire reading, which is 4,604.
     After the reading of the electric meter has been ascertained, it is a
     simple matter to determine the electricity consumed since the last
     reading and the amount of the bill. For instance, assume that a meter
     registers the number of kilowatt-hours shown in Fig. 2, or 4,604, and
     that at the previous reading it registered 4,559. Merely subtract the
     previous reading from the last one, which will give 45, or the
     number of kilowatt-hours from which the bill for electricity is
     computed. If electricity costs 3 cents a kilowatt-hour, which is the
     price charged in some localities, the bill should come to 45 X .03 or
     $1.35.

PRINCIPLE OF STOVES
62. 62. Before stoves for cooking came into use in the home, food was
    cooked in open fireplaces. Even when wood was the only fuel
    known, a stove for burning it, called the Franklin stove, was invented
    by Benjamin Franklin, but not until coal came into use as fuel were
    iron stoves made. For a long time stoves were used mainly for
    heating purposes, as many housewives preferred to cook at the
    open fireplace. However, this method of cooking has practically
    disappeared and a stove of some kind is in use for cooking in every
    home.
63. 63. For each fuel in common use there are many specially
    constructed stoves, each having some advantageous feature; yet all
    stoves constructed for the same fuel are practically the same in

34
    principle. In order that fuel will burn and produce heat, it must have
    air, because fuel, whether it is wood, coal, or gas, is composed largely
    of carbon and air largely of oxygen, and it is the rapid union of
    these two chemical elements that produces heat. Therefore, in order
    that each stove may work properly, some way in which to furnish air
    for the fire in the firebox must be provided. For this reason, every
    stove for cooking contains passageways for air and is connected with
    a chimney, which contains a flue, or passage, that leads to the outer
    air. When the air in a stove becomes heated, it rises, and as it ascends
    cold air rushes through the passageways of the stove to take its
    place. It is the flue, however, that permits of the necessary draft and
    carries off unburned gases. At times it is necessary to regulate the
    amount of air that enters, and in order that this may be done each
    stove is provided with dampers. These devices are located in the air
    passages and they are so designed as to close off the air or allow
    the desired amount to enter. By means of these dampers it is
    possible also to force the heat around the stove oven, against the
    top of the stove, or up the chimney flue. A knowledge of the ways in
    which to manipulate these dampers is absolutely necessary if correct
    results are to be obtained from a stove. The flue, however, should
    receive due consideration. If a stove is to give its best service, the
    flue, in addition to being well constructed, should be free from
    obstructions and kept in good condition. Indeed, the stove is often
    blamed for doing unsatisfactory work when the fault is really with
    the flue.
64. 64. Probably one of the most important things considered in
    the construction of stoves is the economizing of fuel, for ever since
    the days of the fireplace there has been more or less of a tendency
    to save fuel for cooking, and as the various kinds grow scarcer, and
    consequently more expensive, the economical use of fuel becomes
    a necessity. While most stoves for cooking purposes are so
    constructed as to save fuel, many of them do not, especially if the
    method of caring for them is not understood. Any housewife,
    however, can economize in the use of fuel if she will learn how the
    stove she has must be operated; and this can be done by following
    closely the directions that come with the stove when it is purchased.
    Such directions are the best to follow, because they have been
    worked out by the manufacturer, who understands the right way in
    which his product should be operated.




                                                                         35
GAS STOVES AND THEIR OPERATION
65. 69. GAS RANGES.—A gas stove for cooking, or gas range, as
    it is frequently called, consists of an oven, a broiler, and several
    burners over which are plates to hold pans, pots, and kettles in which
    food is to be cooked. As is true of a coal range, a gas range also
    requires a flue to carry off the products of unburned gas. Gas stoves,
    or ranges, are of many makes, but in principle all of them are
    practically the same; in fact, the chief difference lies in the location or
    arrangement of the oven, broiler, and burners. The oven of this
    stove is located above the top of the stove, instead of below it, as
    in some stoves. An oven so located is of advantage in that it saves
    stooping or bending over. The door of this oven contains a glass,
    which makes it possible to observe the food baking inside without
    opening the door and thereby losing heat. The broiler, which may
    also be used as a toaster, is located directly beneath the oven, and to
    the right are the burners for cooking. The gas for these parts is
    contained in the pipe which is connected to a pipe joined to the gas
    main in the street. To get heat for cooking it is simply necessary to
    turn on the stop-cocks and light the gas. The four burners are
    controlled by the stop-cocks and the oven and the broiler by another
    stop-cock The stove is also equipped with a simmering burner for
    the slow methods of cooking on top of the stove, gas to this burner
    being controlled by a stop-cock To catch anything that may be
    spilled in cooking, there is a removable metal or enamel sheet. Such
    a sheet is a great advantage, as it aids considerably in keeping the
    stove clean.
66. 70. Some gas stoves are provided with a pilot, which is a tiny flame
    of gas that is controlled by a button on the gas pipe to which the
    stop-cocks are attached. The pilot is kept lighted, and when it is
    desired to light a burner, pressing the button causes the flame to
    shoot near enough to each burner to ignite the gas. However,
    whether the burners are lighted in this way or by applying a lighted
    match, they should never be lighted until heat is required; likewise,
    in order to save gas, they should be turned off as soon as the
    cooking is completed.


     To produce the best results, the flame given off by gas should be
     blue. A flame that is yellow and a burner that makes a noise
     when lighted, indicate that the gas flame has caught in the pipe, and
     to remedy this the gas must be turned out and relighted. When the
     gas flame coming from a new burner is yellow, it may be taken for

36
    granted that not enough air is being admitted to make the proper
    mixture. To permit of the proper mixture, each gas pipe extending
    from the stop-cock and terminating in the burner is provided with
    what is called a mixer. This device, as shown in Fig. 6, consists of
    several slots that may be opened or closed by turning part a, thus
    making it a simple matter to admit the right amount of air to produce
    the desired blue flame. If burners that have been in use for some
    time give off a yellow flame, it is probable that the trouble is caused
    by a deposit of soot or burned material. Such burners should be
    removed, boiled in a solution of washing soda or lye until the
    holes in the top are thoroughly cleaned, and then replaced and
    adjusted. As long as the flame remains yellow, the gas is not giving
    off as much heat as it should produce and is liable to smoke
    cooking utensils black. Therefore, to get the best results the burners
    should be thoroughly cleaned every now and then in the manner
    mentioned. Likewise, the pan beneath the burners, which may be
    removed, should be cleaned very frequently, and the entire stove
    should be wiped each time it is used, for the better such a stove is
    taken care of, the better will it continue to do its work.


67. 71. FIRELESS-COOKING GAS STOVES.—A style of gas stove
    that meets with favor in many homes is the so-called fireless-
    cooking gas stove. Such a stove has the combined advantages of a
    fireless cooker, which is explained later, and a gas stove, for it permits
    of quick cooking with direct heat, as well as slow cooking with
    heat that is retained in an insulated chamber, that is, one that is
    sufficiently covered to prevent heat from escaping. In construction,
    this type of stove is similar to any other gas stove, except that its
    oven is insulated and it is provided with one or more compartments
    for fireless cooking. Each of these compartments is so arranged that
    it may be moved up and down on an upright rod, near the base of
    which, resting on a solid plate, is a gas burner , over which the
    insulated hood of the compartment fits. When it is desired to cook
    food in one of these compartments, the hood is raised, and the gas
    burner is lighted. The food in the cooker is allowed to cook over the
    lighted burner until sufficient heat has been retained or the process
    has been carried sufficiently far to permit the cooking to continue
    without fire. Then the insulated hood is lowered until the
    compartment is in the proper position It is not necessary to turn off
    the gas, as this is done automatically when the hood is lowered.




                                                                           37
ELECTRIC STOVES AND UTENSILS
68. 74. ELECTRIC STOVES. Electric stoves for cooking have been
    perfected to such an extent that they are a great convenience, and in
    places where the cost of electricity does not greatly exceed that of
    gas they are used considerably. In appearance, electric stoves are
    very similar to gas stoves. The oven a is located at one side and
    contains a broiler pan . On top of this stove are openings for
    cooking, into which fit lids that have the appearance of ordinary
    stove lids, but are in reality electrical heating units, called hotplates.
    Heat for cooking is supplied by a current of electricity that passes
    through the hotplates, as well as through similar devices in the
    oven, the stove being connected to the supply of electricity at the
    connection-box. The heat of the different hotplates and the oven is
    controlled by several switches e at the front of the stove. Each of
    these switches provides three degrees of heat—high, medium, and
    low—and just the amount of heat required for cooking can be
    supplied by turning the switch to the right point. Below the switches
    are several fuse plugs that contain the fuses, which are devices
    used in electrical apparatus to avoid injury to it in case the current of
    electricity becomes too great.


     It is not absolutely necessary to have flue connections for an electric
     stove, as such a stove does not require a draft and gives off no
     products of combustion to be carried away. In fact, one of the
     favorable points about an electric stove is that it produces no
     dirt and causes no inconvenience. When the cooking is done, the
     electricity can be turned off, after which the stove quickly cools.
     When electricity is used for cooking, cooking utensils, methods, and
     recipes can be applied in the same ways as when other means of
     producing heat are employed.


69. 75. SMALL ELECTRIC UTENSILS.—In addition to electric stoves,
    there are a number of smaller electrical cooking utensils that can be
    attached to an electric-light socket or a wall socket. Among these
    are percolators, toasters, hotplates, or grills, chafing dishes, egg
    poachers, and similar devices. The toaster is arranged so that bread to
    be toasted may be placed on each side, as well as on top, of an
    upright part that gives off heat when the current of electricity is
    turned on. The grill is so constructed that a pan for cooking may be
    placed under and on top of the part that gives off heat.


38
ESSENTIALS OF COOKING (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
70. (1) Give in its full sense the meaning of the term COOKING.
71. (2) How may the housewife control the cost of her foods?
72. (3) (a) Explain the difference between waste and refuse. (b) To
    what is leakage in the household due?
73. (4) What three important matters enter into the problem of
    purchasing food?
74. (5) (a) Name the five substances that are found in food, (b) Of what
    value is a knowledge of these food substances?
75. (6) (a) What is the function of protein in the body? (b) Mention
    the principal sources of protein, (c) Explain the effect of heat on
    foods that contain protein.
76. (7) (a) With what do carbohydrates supply the body? (b) Mention
    the two forms of carbohydrates and also some of the foods in
    which each may be found.
77. (8) What is a calorie?
78. (9) Give five reasons for cooking food.
79. (10) Mention the twelve     principal processes   employed in   the
    cooking of food.
80. (11) Describe one method of cooking with: (a) dry heat; (b) moist
    heat; (c) hot fat.
81. (12) (a) At what temperature does water boil? (b) How is hard
    water affected by boiling? (c) Explain the uses of water in cooking.
82. (13) (a) What generally controls the kind of stove to be used for
    cooking? (b) Explain how it is possible to keep down the cost of
    cooking in using fuel.
83. (14) Mention the best way in which to become familiar with the
    operation of a stove.



                                                                     39
84. (15) (a) Of what value is gas as a fuel? (b) What kind of gas flame is
    best for cooking?
85. (16) Suppose that a gas meter registers 72,500 cubic feet on March 1,
    and that on April 1 the hand of the left dial is between 7 and 8, that
    of the middle dial is between 5 and 6, and that of the right dial is at 5.
    At 90 cents a 1,000 cubic feet, what is the cost of the gas consumed?
86. (17) How may a gas stove be kept in good condition?




ESSENTIALS OF COOKING (PART 2)
PREPARATION OF FOOD--(Continued)


UTENSILS FOR COOKING

IMPORTANCE OF UTENSILS
87. 1. While success in cooking, as has been pointed out, depends
    to a considerable extent on the selection of materials and the proper
    cooking methods, as well as on an understanding of the stove and
    fuel employed, the importance of the utensils that are to be used
    must not be overlooked. As is well known, each cooking utensil is
    fitted to its particular use; in fact, the wrong kind of pan, dish, or
    other utensil will not bring about the same result as the right one.
    This does not mean, however, that the housewife must possess a
    large supply of every kind of utensil, for, really, the expert cook is
    known by the small number of utensils she uses. Of course, the
    proper handling of utensils, as well as the right selection of them, will
    come with experience, but before she starts to cook the beginner
    should endeavor to plan definitely what must be provided. She
    should likewise remember that the use of an unnecessary number of
    utensils not only will increase the labor involved in preparing a dish,
    but will affect considerably the amount of work required to clear
    them away and wash them after the cooking is done.
88. 2. The materials of which cooking utensils are made, as well as
    their shape and size, have also a great bearing on the success with
    which cooking may be done. As no one material is suitable for all

40
    utensils, they are made of various materials, such as wood, tin, glass,
    enamel, aluminum, sheet iron, and earthenware. In the purchase of a
    utensil, therefore, it is well to have in mind the use to which the
    utensil will be put, and then to select one that is made of durable
    material, that can be easily cleaned, and that will not affect the food
    that is cooked in it. Likewise, the shape of the utensil should receive
    consideration, for much depends on it. To be satisfactory, a utensil
    should be without seams or curved edges, because it is difficult to
    remove particles of food that collect in such places. A vessel that is
    hard to wash should be avoided, and one that will tip easily is not
    desirable, either.


    The size of utensils must be determined by the number of persons for
    whom food is to be cooked, for the amount of food to be
    prepared indicates whether a large or a small utensil should be
    selected. On the other hand, the length of time required for foods to
    cook depends to a large extent on the size and shape of the utensil.
    When food is to be cooked a long time, a deep vessel with a
    comparatively small surface exposed for evaporation should be
    chosen; but for quick cooking, use should be made of a shallow
    utensil that will allow a great deal of surface to be exposed, as the
    evaporation will be accomplished more rapidly.
    In furnishing a kitchen, it is well to begin with a few essential utensils
    of the best quality that can be obtained, and then, as needed, to
    add other well-selected utensils to the equipment.



MATERIALS USED FOR UTENSILS
89. 3. ALUMINUM.—Because of the properties of aluminum, this
    metal is used extensively for cooking utensils. It is more costly
    than most of the materials employed for this purpose, but while the
    first cost of aluminum pans and kettles may seem large, the extra
    expense is justified by the durability of the utensils. They last much
    longer than utensils made of many other materials, for when
    aluminum is hammered and rolled it becomes extremely hard. Some
    aluminum utensils are very thin, and since they melt and dent very
    easily they are suitable for only light, careful handling. Although
    heavier aluminum utensils are more expensive than the lighter ones
    on account of the metal required and the manufacturing process
    involved, they are harder and more durable. Cast aluminum is used


                                                                           41
     for large vessels, such as those required in institutions where
     large quantities of food are cooked and where pots and kettles are
     subjected to extremely hard wear, but this is the most expensive kind,
     for in order to make the aluminum hard enough for casting some
     harder metal must be mixed with it. One of the disadvantages of
     aluminum is that it is not always easy to clean, but this is
     overbalanced by the fact that foods do not burn so readily in
     aluminum utensils as in other kinds, since the heat is evenly
     distributed by this metal.
90. 4. ENAMEL.—Good enamel cooking utensils are desirable for
    some purposes and are only moderately expensive. Utensils made of
    enamel are not so durable as those made of metal, because
    excessive heat or a sharp blow will cause the enamel to chip. Enamel
    utensils come in various colors, and all can be kept clean easily, but
    the gray enamel is considered to be the best for wear.
91. 5. IRON AND STEEL.—Utensils made of iron and steel are
    usually inexpensive, but some, especially those of iron, are heavy.
    These metals are used principally for such utensils as frying pans,
    or skillets, griddles, waffle irons, and kettles for deep-fat frying. Sheet
    iron makes excellent shallow pans for baking cookies and other
    cakes, very satisfactory bread pans, and the best kind of pans for
    omelet and other frying.
92. 6. EARTHENWARE.—A certain number                   of fairly durable
    earthenware utensils are necessary in a kitchen equipment. Mixing
    bowls are usually made of earthenware, as are also casseroles, which
    are covered dishes used for the baking of foods that require long
    cooking, and other baking utensils. Meat, fowl, and some vegetables,
    such as dried beans, are delicious when prepared in a casserole, as
    very little flavor or food is lost in such a dish.
93. 7. TIN.—The cheapest metal from which cooking utensils are
    made is tin, but it is not generally used for utensils in which food is
    to be cooked, because it melts at too low a temperature. Tin is used,
    however, for such small articles as measures, cutters, apple corers,
    sieves, strainers, and other things of this kind, and it is especially
    desirable for them.
94. 8. COPPER.—Before iron was known copper was the principal
    material for cooking utensils. The chief point in favor of copper is
    its durability, but utensils made of it are not practical for use in the
    ordinary kitchen because they are expensive, heavy, and very difficult
    to keep clean.



42
95. 9. GLASS.—Utensils made of heavy glassware are much used for
    cooking. Glass utensils are especially desirable for custards and other
    dishes that the cook likes to watch while cooking or that are to be
    served in the baking dish. Glass cooking utensils possess the
    advantage of retaining the heat well.
96. 10. WOOD.—Certain utensils made of wood are required in a
    cooking outfit, a molding board of hardwood and a smaller
    wooden cutting board being particularly necessary in every kitchen.
    Bowls in which to chop foods, rolling pins, and mixing spoons are
    usually made of hardwood, and when such wood is used for them
    they are entirely satisfactory.




LABOR-SAVING DEVICES
97. 11. A LABOR-SAVING DEVICE is any apparatus that will
    permit a certain piece of work to be accomplished with less
    exertion than would be necessary to do the same thing without it. A
    sink and a dustpan are labor saving devices just as truly as are a
    bread mixer and a vacuum cleaner, but because a sink and a dustpan
    are necessities as well, they are not usually thought of as true labor-
    saving devices. The newer appliances for saving labor are often
    considered to be quite unnecessary, and indeed some of them are. It
    is only when such apparatus will, with less labor involved and less
    time consumed in the process, secure results as good as or better than
    will another device, and when the cleaning and care of it do not
    consume so much time and labor as is saved by using it, that it may
    be considered a true labor-saving device. Each housewife must
    decide for herself whether the expense of a so-called labor-saving
    device is greater than the value of the time and strength she would
    use without such a device.



98. 12. COMMON LABOR-SAVING DEVICES. Every housewife
    does not have occasion to use all the devices that have been invented
    to save labor, but a number of these are in such common use,
    produce such good results, and save so much time and effort that
    they should be found in every kitchen. Among them is the rotary egg
    beater. This is so made that one revolution of the wheel to which the
    crank is attached does about five times as much work as can be done

                                                                        43
     with a fork or with an egg whip, which is shown in (b). Another
     inexpensive device that is a real help is the potato ricer. This device,
     is really a press through which any fruit or vegetable can be put to
     make a puree. It is used considerably for mashing potatoes, as it
     makes them perfectly smooth and saves considerable time and
     labor. Still another useful device is the meat chopper, or grinder.
     Such a device clamped to the edge of a table takes the place of a
     chopping bowl and knife, and in addition to being more sanitary it
     permits the work to be done in a shorter time and with less effort.
     Besides the devices mentioned, there are many small labor-saving
     devices, such as the apple corer, the berry huller, the mayonnaise
     mixer, etc., the merits of which every busy housewife will do well
     to consider.



99. 13. BREAD AND CAKE MIXERS. Where baking is done for only
    a small number of persons, bread and cake mixers are not
    indispensable, but they save much labor where baking is done on a
    large scale. It is comparatively easy, for instance, to knead dough for
    three or four loaves of bread, but the process becomes rather
    difficult when enough dough for eight to sixteen loaves must be
    handled. For large quantities of bread and cake, mixers, when
    properly used, are labor-saving. In addition, such devices are
    sanitary, and for this reason they are used in many homes where
    the bakings are comparatively small.
100.14. One type of bread mixer consists of a covered tin pail a that
    may be fastened to the edge of a table by the clamp . Inside of the
    pail is a kneading prong , in he shape of a gooseneck, that is
    revolved by turning the handle. The flour and other materials for the
    dough are put into the pail, and they are mixed and kneaded
    mechanically by turning the handle.
101.15. A cake mixer, is similar in construction to a bread mixer. Instead
    of a pail, however, for the dough ingredients, it has a deep pan ,
    and instead of one kneading prong it has several prongs, which are
    attached to two arms. These arms are revolved by gear-wheels that
    fit in a large gearwheel attached to a shaft , which is turned by means
    of a handle The large number of mixing prongs in a cake mixer are
    necessary, because cake dough must be thoroughly stirred and
    beaten, whereas in bread making the dough must be made to form a
    compact mass.



44
102.16. DISH-WASHING MACHINES.—Although machines for
    washing dishes are to be had, they are most helpful where large
    numbers of people are served and, consequently, where great
    quantities of dishes are to be washed. Such machines are usually
    large and therefore take up more space than the ordinary kitchen
    can afford. Likewise the care and cleaning of them require more
    labor than the washing of dishes for a small family entails. Large
    quantities of hot water are needed to operate mechanical dish
    washers, and even where they are installed, the glassware, silver,
    and cooking utensils must, as a rule, be washed by hand.
103.17. FIRELESS COOKER.—A device that has proved to be really
    labor-saving is the fireless cooker. It consists of an insulated box a
    lined with metal and divided into compartments , with pans that fit
    into them. Hotplates, or stones, as they are sometimes called, are
    frequently used if the article to be cooked requires them. These
    stones, are supported in the compartments by metal racks and they
    are lifted in and out by means of wire handles.



    To use a fireless cooker properly, the food must be cooked for a
    short time on the stove; then it must be tightly covered and placed
    in one of the insulated compartments. If hotplates are to be used
    they must be heated in the same manner. The food loses its heat so
    gradually in the fireless cooker that the cooking proceeds slowly but
    effectually. When the previous heating has been sufficient, the food
    will be cooked and still warm when the cooker is opened hours
    later. Some articles of food occasionally need reheating during the
    process. By this method of cooking there is no loss of flavor or food
    value, and the food usually requires no further attention after being
    placed in the cooker. It also permits of economy in both fuel and
    time.



UTENSILS FOR FURNISHING A KITCHEN
104.18. As a guide in purchasing equipment for a kitchen, a list of
    utensils is here presented. This list is divided into utensils that are
    necessary and those that are convenient and only at times necessary.
    In any case, however, the number of utensils and the size must be
    determined by the quantity of food that is to be prepared.

                                                                        45
NECESSARY EQUIPMENT
Baking dish with cover Bread box Bread knife Bread pans Can opener Cake knife
Chopping bowl and knife or food chopper Coffee mill Coffee pot Colander Cookie
cutter Corer, Apple Cutting board Dishpan Double boiler Egg beater Flour sifter Forks
Frying pan, large Frying pan, small Garbage can Grater Kettle covers Kettles, two or
more Knife sharpener Knives Lemon squeezer Long-handled fork Measuring cup Meat
board Meat knife Mixing bowls Mixing spoons Molding board Muffin pan Paring knife
Pepper shaker Pie pans Potato masher Rinsing, or draining, pan Roasting pan Rolling pin
Salt box Saucepans Spatula Tablespoons Teakettle Teapot Teaspoons Toaster Wire
strainer Wooden spoon




CONVENIENT EQUIPMENT
Bread mixer Cake coolers Cake mixer Cake turner Casseroles Clock Coffee percolator
Containers for spices and dry groceries Cookie sheets Cream whip Egg whip Fireless
cooker Frying kettle and basket Funnel Glass jars for canning Griddle Ice-cream freezer
Ice pick Jelly molds Nest of bowls Pan for baking fish Potato knife Potato ricer
Ramekins Quart measure Scales Scissors Set of skewers Steamer Waffle iron Wheel cart
GETTING FOODS READY FOR COOKING


PRELIMINARY PREPARATION
105.19. Before foods that require cooking are cooked or before foods
    that are to be eaten raw are served, they must be properly
    prepared, for their palatability and their value as food depend
    considerably on the way in which they are made ready for cooking or
    for eating. Of course, the way in which food should be prepared will
    depend on how it is to be served, but in any event all foods, for the
    sake of cleanliness, must first be washed with water or wiped with a
    clean, damp cloth.
106.20. The ways in which vegetables and fruits are made ready for
    cooking vary. Sometimes such foods are cooked with the skins on,
    and sometimes certain vegetables, such as new potatoes, young
    carrots and parsnips, vegetable oysters, etc., are made ready in an
    economical way by scraping off their skins with a knife. Vegetables
    are also peeled, and when this is done a very sharp knife with a thin
    blade should be used and as little of the food removed as possible.
    Still another way of removing the skins of such foods as tomatoes,
    nuts, and some fruits is by blanching. In this process, the skins are


46
    loosened so that they may be removed easily, either by immersing the
    foods in boiling water or by pouring boiling water over them and
    allowing them to stand in the water for a few minutes, but not long
    enough to soften them. Blanching used in this sense should not be
    confused with the same word when it means “to take color out”
    and has reference to a process of bleaching. Only when the word
    means “to remove the covering of” can it be applied to the peeling of
    tomatoes, fruits, and nuts. Vegetables and fruits may be cooked
    whole or they may be cut into chunks, or pieces, or into slices.
107.21. In order to get meats ready for cooking, it is necessary to wipe
    them clean and usually to trim off all unnecessary bone, fat, and skin.
    Meats may be cooked in large pieces or small pieces or they may
    be ground, depending on the cooking process to be used. Before
    cooking poultry and fish, they should be thoroughly cleaned and then
    trimmed and cut to suit the cooking process chosen. If desired, the
    bones may be removed from poultry or fish before cooking, and
    sometimes it is advantageous to do so. Cream and raw eggs may be
    whipped or beaten light before they are served or cooked, and after
    such foods as fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish have been cooked,
    they may be sliced, chopped, ground, mashed, or cut into dice, or
    small pieces.




MIXING OF FOOD INGREDIENTS
108.22. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MIXING.—In COOKING, the
    mixing of ingredients is done for several purposes—to produce a
    certain texture, to give a smoothness or creaminess to a mixture,
    or to impart lightness. Various processes are involved in the mixing
    of ingredients, and the results that are accomplished depend entirely
    on the method that is selected. The most important of these
    processes with brief explanations of what they mean follow.


    BEATING is a rapid motion that picks up material from the bottom
    and mixes it with that nearer the surface. It is done with a spoon, a
    fork, an egg whip, or, if the mixture is thin, with a rotary egg
    beater. Sometimes beating is done for the purpose of incorporating
    air and thus making the mixture light.
    STIRRING is usually done with a spoon, and is accomplished by
    moving the spoon in circles, around and around, through

                                                                        47
     ingredients contained in a pan or a bowl. This is the method that is
     generally applied to the simple mixing of ingredients.
     FOLDING is a careful process whereby beaten egg or whipped
     cream is added to a mixture without destroying its lightness. It is
     accomplished by placing the egg or cream on top of a mixture in a
     bowl or a pan, and then passing a spoon down through both and
     bringing up a spoonful of the mixture and placing it on top. This
     motion is repeated until the two are well blended, but this result
     should be accomplished with as few strokes as possible.
     RUBBING is done by pressing materials against the side of a bowl
     with the back of a spoon. This is the process that is applied when
     butter and other fats are to be mixed with such dry ingredients as
     sugar and flour.
     CREAMING consists in continuing the rubbing process until the
     texture becomes soft and smooth and is of a creamy consistency.
     CUTTING-IN is a method used to combine butter with flour
     when it is desired to have the butter remain hard or in small pieces.
     It is done by chopping the butter into the flour with a knife.
     SIFTING is shaking or stirring material through a sifter having a
     fine wire mesh. It is done to remove foreign or coarse material, to
     impart lightness, or to mix dry ingredients together.
     RICING is a process whereby certain cooked foods, such as
     fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish, may be reduced to the form of a
     puree. This result is accomplished by forcing the cooked material
     through a ricer.
109.23. APPLICATION OF MIXING PROCESSES.—In applying
    the various mixing processes, it is well to bear in mind that
    good results depend considerably on the order of mixing, as well
    as on the deftness and thoroughness with which each process is
    performed. This fact is clearly demonstrated in a cake in which the
    butter and sugar have not been actually creamed, for such a cake
    will not have the same texture as one in which the creaming has been
    done properly. It is also shown in angel food or sunshine cake, for
    the success of such a cake depends largely on the skill employed in
    folding in the whites of eggs or in beating the yolks. On the other
    hand, the lightness of pastry and the tenderness of cookies depend
    on how each is rolled out, and the kneading of bread is a process
    that demonstrates that many things can be learned by actually doing
    them.


48
    As progress is made with these COOKING lessons, therefore, the
    application of the mixing processes should not be overlooked.
    Beginners in COOKING, owing possibly to the fact that at first they
    cannot handle soft material skilfully, are liable to make the mistake
    of getting the ingredients too stiff. Yet no beginner need feel the least
    bit discouraged, for ability in this direction comes with experience;
    indeed, just as skill in sewing, embroidering, and other processes
    comes about by practice and persistent effort, so will come skill in
    cooking.



MEASURING
110.24. Uniform results in COOKING depend on accurate
    measurement. Of course, there are some cooks—and good ones,
    too—who claim that they do not measure, but as a matter of fact
    they have, through long experience, developed a judgment, or
    “sense,” of measurement, which amounts to the same thing as if
    they actually did measure. Still, even these cooks cannot be absolutely
    sure of securing as satisfactory results time after time as are likely to
    follow the employment of a more accurate method. Therefore, to
    secure the best results, every kitchen should be supplied with the
    proper measuring utensils, which are scales, a measuring cup, and a
    set of measuring spoons, or a standard tablespoon and a standard
    teaspoon.



111.25. SCALES.—The material to be weighed is placed on the platform
    at the top, and the weight of it is indicated on the dial by a pointer, or
    hand. Sometimes these scales are provided with a scoop in which
    loose materials may be placed in weighing. Such scales furnish a
    correct means not only of measuring materials, but of verifying the
    weights of foods from the market, the butcher shop, or the
    grocery. To use them properly, the housewife should learn to
    balance them exactly, and when she is weighing articles she should
    always allow for the weight of the container or receptacle, even if it
    is only the paper that holds the food.




                                                                           49
112.26. MEASURING CUPS.—Weighing the articles called for in a
    recipe is often a less convenient method than measuring; therefore, in
    the preparation of foods, measuring is more often resorted to than
    weighing. As accuracy in measurement is productive of the best
    results, it is necessary that all measures be as accurate and definite
    as possible. For measuring the ingredients called for in recipes, use
    is generally made of a measuring cup. Such a cup is designed to hold
    2 gills, or ½ pint, and it is marked to indicate thirds and quarters, so
    that it may be used for recipes of all kinds. If a liquid is to be
    measured with such a cup, it should be filled to the brim, but if dry
    material is to be measured with it, the material should be heaped up
    in the cup with a spoon and then scraped level with a knife. In case
    fractions or parts of a cup are to be measured, the cup should be
    placed level and stationary and then filled evenly to the mark
    indicated on the cup itself.
113.27. Many times it will be found more convenient to measure dry
    materials with a spoon. This can be done with accuracy if it is
    remembered that 16 tablespoonfuls make 1 cup, or ½ pint; 12
    tablespoonfuls, ¾       cup; 8 tablespoonfuls, ½ cup;           and 4
    tablespoonfuls, ¼ cup. If no measuring cup like the one just
    described is at hand, one that will hold 16 level tablespoonfuls of dry
    material may be selected from the kitchen supply of dishes. Such a
    cup, however, cannot be used successfully in measuring a half,
    thirds, or fourths; for such measurements it will be better to use a
    spoon.



     As a rule, it will be found very convenient to have two measuring
     cups of standard size, one for measuring dry ingredients and the
     other for measuring moist or wet ones. If it is impossible to have
     more than one, the dry materials should be measured first in
     working out a recipe, and the fats and liquids afterwards. Whatever
     plan of measuring is followed, however, it should always be
     remembered that recipes are written for the definite quantities
     indicated and mean standard, not approximate, cupfuls,
     tablespoonfuls, and teaspoonfuls.
114.28. MEASURING SPOONS.—In addition to a measuring cup or
    two, a set of measuring spoons will be found extremely convenient in
    a kitchen. However, if it is impossible to obtain such a set, a
    teaspoon and a tablespoon of standard size will answer for measuring
    purposes. Three level teaspoonfuls are equal to 1 tablespoonful.

50
    When a spoon is used, it is heaped with the dry material and then
    leveled with a knife,. If ½ spoonful is desired, it is leveled first, and
    then marked through the center with a knife and half of its contents
    pushed off. Fourths and eighths are measured in the same way, , but
    thirds are measured across the bowl of the spoon.



115.29. Precautions to Observe in Measuring.—In measuring some
    of the materials used in the preparation of foods, certain points
    concerning them should receive attention.           For instance, all
    powdered materials, such as flour, must first be sifted, as the
    amount increases upon sifting, it being definitely known that a
    cupful of unsifted flour will measure about 1-1/4 cupfuls after it is
    sifted. Lumps, such as those which form in salt and sugar, should be
    thoroughly crushed before measuring; if this is not done, accurate
    measurements cannot be secured, because lumps of such
    ingredients are more compact than the loose material. Butter and
    other fats should be tightly packed into the measure, and if the fat is
    to be melted in order to carry out a recipe, it should be melted
    before it is measured. Anything measured in a cup should be poured
    into the cup; that is, the cup should not be filled by dipping it into
    the material nor by drawing it through the material.



116.30. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.—As foods are
    sold by weight and by measure, and as recipes always call for certain
    weights and measures, it is absolutely necessary that every person
    engaged in the purchase and preparation of foods should be
    familiar with the tables of weights and measures in common use
    for such purposes in the United States and practically all other
    English-speaking countries. In addition, it will be well to have a
    knowledge of relative weights and measures, so as to be in a position
    to use these tables to the best advantage.
117.31. The table used ordinarily for weighing foods is the table of
    AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Another table of weights, called the
    table of Troy weight, is used by goldsmiths and jewelers for weighing
    precious metals. It should not be confused with avoirdupois weight,
    however, because its pound contains only 12 ounces, whereas the
    avoirdupois pound contains 16 ounces. The table of avoirdupois



                                                                          51
     weight, together with the abbreviations of the terms used in it, is as
     follows:


     AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT 437-1/2 grains (gr.)..... = 1 ounce.............
     oz. 16 ounces................         =    1   pound............. lb. 100
     pounds............... = 1 hundredweight..... cwt. 20 hundredweight \
     }....... = 1 ton............... T. 2,000 pounds /
     Although 2,000 pounds make 1 ton, it is well to note that 2,240
     pounds make 1 long ton (L.T.). The long ton is used by coal
     dealers in some localities, but the ton, sometimes called the short
     ton, is in more general use and is the one meant unless long ton is
     specified.
118.32. The table of LIQUID MEASURE is used for measuring all
    liquids, and is extremely useful to the housewife. This table,
    together with the abbreviations of its terms, is as follows:


     LIQUID MEASURE 4 gills (gi.)........... = 1 pint................. pt. 2
     pints................. = 1 quart................ qt. 4 quarts................
     = 1 gallon............... gal. 31-1/2 gallons.......... = 1 barrel...............
     bbl. 2 barrels \ }............ = 1 hogshead............. hhd. 63 gallons/
119.33. The table of DRY MEASURE is used for measuring dry
    foods, such as potatoes, dried peas and beans, etc. The table of dry
    measure, with its abbreviations, follows:


     DRY MEASURE 2 pints (pt.)........... = 1 quart................ qt. 8
     quarts................ = 1 peck................. pk. 4 pecks.................
     = 1 bushel............... bu.
120.34. Tables of RELATIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are of
    value to the housewife in that they will assist her greatly in coming to
    an understanding of the relation that some of the different weights
    and measures bear to one another. For example, as dry foods are
    sold by the pound in some localities, it will be well for her to know
    the approximate equivalent in pounds of a definite quantity of
    another measure, say a quart or a bushel of a certain food. Likewise,
    she ought to know that when a recipe calls for a cupful it means ½
    pint, as has been explained. Every one is familiar with the old
    saying, “A pint’s a pound the world around,” which, like many old
    sayings, is not strictly true, for while 1 pint is equal to 1 pound of
    some things, it is not of others. The following tables give

52
      approximately the relative weights and measures of most of the
      common foods:



APPROXIMATE MEASURE OF 1 POUND OF
FOOD
Beans, dried.................. 2 CUPFULS Butter........................ 2 Coffee, whole................. 4
Corn         meal..................... 3 Flour.........................     4 Milk..........................          2
Molasses...................... 1-1/2 Meat, chopped, finely packed.. 2 Nuts, shelled................. 3
Oats, rolled.................. 4 Olive oil.....................       2-1/2   Peas,          split................... 2
Raisins....................... 3 Rice.......................... 2 Sugar, brown.................. 2-2/3 Sugar,
granulated............. 2 Sugar, powdered............... 2-3/4


APPROXIMATE     WEIGHT                                                                       OF                     1
TABLESPOONFUL OF FOOD
Butter........................ ½ OUNCE Corn starch................... 3/8 Flour......................... ¼
Milk.......................... ½ Sugar......................... ½


APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 1 CUPFUL OF
FOOD
Butter........................ 8 OUNCES Corn meal..................... 5 Corn
starch................... 6 Flour.........................        4 Milk.......................... 8
Molasses.....................     10 Nuts, shelled.................                                4
Raisins....................... 5 Sugar......................... 8


In measuring, you will find the following relative proportions of great
assistance:


3 tsp. = 1 Tb. 16 Tb. = 1 c.


121.35. ABBREVIATIONS OF MEASURES.—In order to simplify
    directions and recipes in books relating to COOKING, it is
    customary to use the abbreviations of some weights and
    measures. Those which occur most frequently in cook books are
    the following:




                                                                                                                   53
     tsp. for teaspoonful pt. for pint Tb. for tablespoonful qt. for quart c.
     for cupful oz. for ounce lb. for pound



ORDER OF WORK
122.36. For successful results in COOKING, the work to be done
    should be planned beforehand and then carried on with systematic
    care. By following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be
    prevented and good results will be secured, for there will be little
    chance for mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will
    serve to make clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried
    out satisfactorily.


     First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe, and
     study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and
     combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive
     and whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in
     size for the number of persons to be served. If they are too large,
     carefully divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too
     small, multiply them to make them enough.
     The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking,
     should receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is
     coal or wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough
     before it is needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily.
     Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be
     baked, regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used,
     light it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring
     and mixing of the ingredients.
     Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space
     for the utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the
     various operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared
     space, place the necessary measuring utensils, such as a
     measuring cup, a knife, a teaspoon, and a tablespoon. Select a bowl
     or a pan for mixing, a spoon for stirring, and, when needed, an egg
     whip or beater for eggs and separate bowls in which to beat them.
     Choose the utensil in which the mixture is to be cooked, and, if
     necessary, grease it. During the process of preparing the dish,
     measure accurately all the ingredients to be used, and check them



54
     up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none are missing and that
     each one is in its proper amount.
     If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next
     step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all
     the ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last
     step, the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the
     utmost care, or an otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.



TABLE FOR COOKING FOODS
123.37. So that the beginner in COOKING may form a definite idea of
    the length of time required to cook certain foods, there is presented
    here what is commonly known as a COOKING time table. It
    should be remembered that the time required to cook food is
    influenced by many factors. For instance, the age of vegetables and
    fruits very largely determines how long they should be cooked;
    tough meats and fowl require longer cooking than tender ones; and
    the heat of the oven has much to do with the length of time
    required for cooking, especially the process of baking or roasting
    Therefore, while this time table will prove of great help to beginners,
    it can serve only as a guide. To determine whether or not foods
    have been cooked long enough, it is advisable to apply the proper
    tests, which are given later in discussing the various foods rather
    than to depend solely on the time table. In this table, the length of
    time for cooking is given in minutes (abbreviated min.) and hours
    (abbreviated hr.)



COOKING TIME TABLE

MEATS AND FISH
Broiled               Bacon....................... 3              to        5       min.
Chicken.................... 20 to 25 min. Fish....................... 15 to 20 min. Fish,
slices............... 10 to 15 min. Fish, very small............ 5 to 10 min.
Lamb chops.................. 6 to 8 min. Quail or squabs............. 8 to 10 min.
Steak, thick............... 10 to 15 min. Steak, thin................. 5 to 7
min. Veal chops.................. 6 to 10 min.



                                                                                      55
Boiled Beef, corned................ 3 to 4 hr. Chicken, 3 lb............... 1
to 1-1/4 hr. Fish, bluefish, cod, or bass, 4 to 5 lb.......... 20 to 30 min.
Fish, slices, 2 to 3 lb.... 20 to 25 min. Fish, small................ 10 to 15 min.
Fowl, 4 to 5 lb............. 2 to 3 hr. Ham, 12 to 14 lb............ 4 to 5 hr.
Mutton, leg of.............. 2 to 3 hr. Tongue...................... 3 to 4 hr.


Roasted Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb., rare....................... 1 hr. 5 min. Beef, rib or
loin, 5 lb., well done.................. 1 hr. 20 min. Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 30 min. Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb., well
done.................. 2 hr. Beef, rump, 10 lb., rare... 1 hr. 30 min. Beef, rump,
10 lb., well done.. 2 hr. Chicken, 4 or 5 lb........ 1-1/2 to 2 hr. Duck, 5 to 6
lb........... 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr. Fish, 3 to 5 lb........... 45 to 60 min. Fish,
small............... 20 to 30 min. Goose, 10 lb.............. 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Lamb, leg of.............. 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hr. Mutton, saddle............ 1-1/4 to 1
½ hr. Pork, rib, 5 lb........... 2 to 2-1/2 hr. Turkey, 10 lb............. 2-
1/2 to 3 hr.



VEGETABLES
Boiled Asparagus.............. 20 to 30 min. Beans, lima or shell.... 40 to 60
min. Beans, string.......... 30 to 45 min. Beets, old............... 4 to 6 hr. Beets,
young........... 45 to 60 min. Brussels sprouts....... 15 to 25 min.
Cabbage................ 35 to 60 min. Carrots............... ¾         to    2    hr.
Cauliflower............. 20 to 30 min. Green corn............... 8 to 12 min.
Macaroni................ 30 to 40 min. Onions.................. 45 to 60 min.
Peas.................... 25 to 60 min. Potatoes................ 30 to 45 min.
Rice.................... 20 to 30 min. Spinach................. 20 to 30 min.
Turnips................ ½ to 1-1/2 hr. Vegetable oysters...... ¾ to 1-1/2 hr.


BAKED FOODS Beans..................... 6 to 8 hr. Biscuits, baking powder ...
15 to 25 min. Biscuits, yeast........... 10 to 25 min. Bread,
ginger............. 20 to 30 min. Bread, loaf............... 40 to 60 min. Cake,
corn................ 20 to 30 min. Cake, fruit............ 1-1/4 to 2 hr. Cake,
layer............... 15 to 20 min. Cake, loaf................ 40 to 60 min. Cake,
pound............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr. Cake, sponge.............. 45 to 60 min.
Cookies.................... 6 to 10 min. Custard................... 20 to 45 min.
Muffins, baking powder.... 15 to 25 min. Pastry.................... 30
to 45 min. Potatoes.................. 45 to 60 min. Pudding, Indian............ 2
to 3 hr. Pudding, rice (poor man’s). 2 to 3 hr.


56
    *     *    *     *     *



CARE OF FOOD

REASONS FOR CARE
124.38. Although, as has been explained, the selection and preparation
    of foods require much consideration from the housewife who
    desires to get good results in COOKING, there is still one thing to
    which she must give attention if she would keep down the cost of
    living, and that is the care of food. Unless food is properly taken
    care of before it is cooked, as well as after it is cooked—that is, the
    left-overs—considerable loss is liable to result through its spoiling
    or decaying. Both uncooked and cooked food may be kept
    wholesome in several ways, but before these are discussed it may be
    well to look into the causes of spoiling. With these causes
    understood, the methods of caring for foods will be better
    appreciated, and the results in buying, storing, and handling foods
    will be more satisfactory.
125.39. To come to a knowledge of why foods spoil, it will be well to
    note that nature abounds in micro-organisms, or living things so
    minute as to be invisible to the naked eye. These micro-organisms
    are known to science as microbes and germs, and they are
    comprised of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, a knowledge of which is of
    the utmost importance to the physician and the farmer, as well as
    the housewife. Just in what ways these are beneficial to the farmer
    and the physician is beyond the scope of the subject of
    COOKING, but in the household their influence is felt in three
    ways: They are the cause of the decay and spoiling of foods; they are
    of value in the preparation of certain foods; and they are the cause
    of contagious diseases. It will thus be seen that while some
    microbes are undesirable, others exert a beneficial action.
126.40. It is only within comparatively recent years that the action of
    micro organisms has been understood. It is now definitely known
    that these minute living things seize every possible chance to attack
    articles of food and produce the changes known as fermentation,
    putrefaction, souring, and decay. Micro-organisms that cause
    fermentation are necessary in bread making and vinegar making, but
    they are destructive to other foods, as, for example, those which
    are canned or preserved. Organisms that cause putrefaction are

                                                                        57
     needed in the making of sauer kraut, salt rising bread, and cheese.
     Molds also help to make cheese, but neither these nor
     putrefactive organisms are desirable for foods other than those
     mentioned. It should be remembered, however, that even those
     foods which require micro-organisms in their making are constantly
     in danger of the attacks of these small living things, for unless
     something is done to retard their growth they will cause food to
     sour or decay and thus become unfit for consumption.


     Some foods, of course, withstand the attacks of micro-organisms for
     longer periods of time than others. For example, most fruits that are
     protected by an unbroken skin will, under the right conditions,
     keep for long periods of time, but berries, on account of having
     less protective covering, spoil much more quickly. Likewise,
     vegetables without skins decay faster than those with skins,
     because they have no protective covering and contain more water,
     in which, as is definitely known, most micro-organisms thrive.
127.41. If food is to be kept from decaying, the housewife must
    endeavor to prevent the growth of micro-organisms, and she can best
    accomplish this if she is familiar with the ways in which they work.
    It is for this reason that, whether she possesses a scientific
    knowledge of bacteria or not, an understanding of some practical
    facts concerning why food spoils and how to keep it from decaying
    is imperative. In this part of COOKING, as in every other phase, it
    is the reason why things should be done that makes all that relates to
    the cooking of food so interesting. In all parts of the work there are
    scientific facts underlying the processes, and the more the housewife
    learns about these, the more she can exercise the art of
    COOKING, which, like all other arts, depends on scientific
    principles.


     *    *     *    *     *



METHODS OF CARE

CLASSIFICATION
128.42. As has been pointed out, it is not the mere presence of
    micro organisms that causes the spoiling of food, but their

58
    constant growth. Therefore, to keep milk from souring, meat from
    spoiling, bread from molding, canned fruit from fermenting, and so
    on, it is necessary to know what will prevent the growth of these
    minute organisms. Different foods require different treatment. Some
    foods must be kept very cold, some must be heated or cooked,
    others must be dried, and to others must be added preservatives.
    An unwarrantable prejudice has been raised in the minds of many
    persons against the use of preservatives, but this is due to the fact that
    the term is not properly understood. In this use, it means anything
    that helps to preserve or keep safe the food to which it is added.
    Sugar, salt, spices, and vinegar are all preservatives, and are added to
    food as much for the purpose of preserving it as for seasoning it.




CANNING AND DRYING OF FOODS
129.43. Among the common methods of caring for foods that are to be
    used at a future time are canning and drying. CANNING, which is
    discussed fully in another Section, consists in preserving sterile
    foods in sealed cans or jars. The aim in canning is to prevent the
    growth of micro-organisms, and to do this the process known as
    sterilizing—that is, the destroying of bacteria and other micro-
    organisms by means of heat—is resorted to. Canning theories are
    different now from what they were in former times. For example,
    housewives formerly made heavy, rich preserves of available fruits
    because it was thought that sugar must be used in large quantities in
    order to keep or prevent them from spoiling. While it is true that the
    sugar assisted, science has since proved that sterilizing is what must
    be done, so that now only the sugar desired for sweetening need be
    used.
130.44. The other method of keeping food, namely, DRYING,
    depends for its success on the fact that such micro-organisms as
    bacteria cannot grow unless they have a considerable quantity of
    moisture or water. Molds grow on cheese, bread, damp cloth or
    paper, or articles that contain only a small amount of moisture, but
    bacteria need from 20 to 30 per cent. of water in food in order to
    grow and multiply. This explains why in high altitudes and dry
    climates foods keep for a long time without artificial means of
    preservation. It also explains why the old-fashioned housekeeper
    dried fruits and why the preservation of certain meats is accomplished
    by the combined methods of smoking and drying, the creosote of

                                                                           59
     the smoke given off from the wood used in this process acting as a
     preservative. All the grains, which are very dry, keep for long
     periods of time, even centuries, if they are protected from the
     moisture of the air. Peas, beans, and lentils, as well as dried
     biscuits and crackers, are all examples of how well food will keep
     when little or no moisture is present.




KEEPING FOODS WITH ICE
131.45. Although, as has just been pointed out, moisture is required for
    the growth of some micro-organisms, both moisture and warmth are
    necessary for the growth of most of the organisms that cause
    molding, putrefaction, and fermentation. It is definitely known,
    also, that in winter or in cold climates food can be kept for long
    periods of time without any apparent change; in fact, the lower the
    temperature the less likely are foods to spoil, although freezing
    renders many of them unfit for use. These facts are what led up to
    the scientific truth that keeping foods dry and at a low temperature
    is an effective and convenient method of preventing them from
    spoiling and to the invention of the refrigerator and other devices
    and methods for the cold storage of foods.
132.46. THE REFRIGERATOR.—For home use, the refrigerator
    offers the most convenient means of keeping foods in good
    condition. As is well known, it is a device that, by means of air
    cooled by the melting of ice or in some other manner, keeps food at
    a temperature near the freezing point. All refrigerators are
    constructed in a similar manner, having two or more layers of
    wood between which is placed an insulating material, such as cork,
    asbestos, or mineral wool. The food compartments are lined with
    tile, zinc, or other rust-proof material, and the ice compartment is
    usually lined with rust-proof metal, so as to be water-tight and
    unbreakable. Any refrigerator may be made to serve the
    purpose of preserving food effectively if it is well constructed, the
    ice chamber kept as full of ice as possible, and the housewife knows
    how to arrange the foods in the food chambers to the best
    advantage.


     The construction and use of refrigerators are based on the well-
     known scientific fact that air expands and rises when it becomes

60
    warm. This can be proved by testing the air near the ceiling of a
    room, for no matter how warm it is near the floor it will always be
    warmer above. The same thing occurs in a refrigerator. As air
    comes in contact with the ice, it is cooled and falls, and the warm air
    is forced up. Thus the air is kept in constant motion, or circulation.


133.47. Many refrigerators are built with the ice compartment on one
    side. In such refrigerators, there is usually a small food
    compartment directly under the ice chamber, and this is the coldest
    place in the refrigerator. Here should be stored the foods that need
    special care or that absorb odors and flavors readily, such as milk,
    butter, cream, meat, etc., because at this place the air is the purest.
    The foods that give off odors strong enough to taint others should
    be kept on the upper shelves of the refrigerator, through which the
    current of air passes last before being freed from odors by passing
    over the ice.
134.48. Another type of refrigerator is one in which the ice chamber,
    or compartment, extends across the entire top. This type is so built
    as to produce on each side a current of air that passes down from the
    ice at the center and back up to the ice near the outside walls, as
    shown by the arrows. A different arrangement is required for the
    food in this kind of refrigerator, those which give off odors and
    flavors being placed in the bottom compartment, or farthest from
    the ice, and those which take up odors and flavors, on the top shelf,
    or nearest the ice.



135.49. CARE OF FOOD IN REFRIGERATOR.—The proper
    placing of foods in a refrigerator is extremely important, but certain
    precautions should be taken with regard to the food itself. Cooked
    foods should never be placed in the refrigerator without first
    allowing them to cool, for the steam given off when a dish of hot
    food comes in contact with the cold air makes the refrigerator damp
    and causes an undue waste of ice by warming the air. All dishes
    containing food should be wiped dry and carefully covered before
    they are placed in the refrigerator, so as to keep unnecessary
    moisture out of it. As butter and milk are likely to become
    contaminated with odors given off by other foods, they should be
    properly protected if there is not a separate compartment in which
    to keep them. The milk bottles should always be closed and the
    butter carefully wrapped or put in a covered receptacle. Onions,

                                                                        61
     cabbage, and other foods with strong odors, when placed in the
     refrigerator, should be kept in tightly closed jars or dishes, so that
     the odors will not escape. Before fresh fruits and perishable
     vegetables—that is, vegetables that decay easily—are put into the
     refrigerator, they should be carefully looked over and all decayed
     portions removed from them. No food should be placed in the ice
     chamber, because this will cause the ice to melt unnecessarily.
136.50. CARE OF THE REFRIGERATOR.—It is essential that all
    parts of the refrigerator be kept scrupulously clean and as dry as
    possible. To accomplish this, nothing should be allowed to spoil in
    it, and anything spilled in the refrigerator should be cleaned out
    immediately. The foods that are left over should be carefully
    inspected every day, and anything not likely to be used within a day
    or so should be disposed of. At least once a week the food should
    be removed from all compartments, the racks taken out, the drain
    pipe disconnected, and each part thoroughly washed, rinsed with
    boiling water, and dried. The inside of the refrigerator should
    likewise be washed, rinsed, and wiped dry, after which the drain
    pipe should be connected, the shelves put back in place, and the
    food replaced.


     The ice chamber of the refrigerator should also be cleaned frequently,
     the best time to do this being when the ice has melted enough to be
     lifted out conveniently. To prevent the ice from melting rapidly
     when it is out of the refrigerator, it may be wrapped in paper or a
     piece of old blanket, but this covering must be removed when the ice
     is replaced in the chamber, in order to allow the ice to melt in the
     refrigerator. Otherwise, it would be impossible to chill the
     refrigerator properly, the temperature remaining the same as that
     outside, for it is as the ice gradually melts that the air in the
     refrigerator becomes cool. Of course, every effort should be made
     to keep the ice from wasting. Therefore, while the refrigerator
     should be kept in a convenient place, it should not be exposed to
     too great heat; also, the doors should be kept tightly closed, and, as
     has already been explained, hot foods should not be put in until they
     are sufficiently cooled. Attention must be given to the care of the
     refrigerator, for only when it is clean and dry can the growth of
     bacteria that attack foods be prevented.




62
KEEPING FOODS WITHOUT ICE
137.51. While a refrigerator simplifies the preserving of cooked foods
    and those subject to quick decay, there are many communities in
    which it is not possible to procure ice conveniently, thus making it
    necessary to adopt some other means of keeping food. Then, too,
    there are generally quantities of foods, such as winter vegetables,
    apples, etc., that cannot be stored in a refrigerator, but must be
    taken care of properly. In such cases, the method of storing depends
    to a certain extent on conditions. On many farms there are spring
    houses in which foods may be stored in order to keep them cool
    during very warm weather; but in the majority of homes, the cellar,
    on account of its being cool, is utilized for the storage of large
    quantities of food and even for keeping the more perishable foods
    when ice cannot be obtained.



138.52. STORING FOODS IN CELLARS.—In order that a cellar may
    furnish a safe place for keeping food, it must be well built and
    properly cared for. If it is dug in wet ground and is not well drained,
    it will become musty and damp, and fruits and vegetables stored in it
    will be attacked by mold. A small part of the cellar should be
    without a floor, as many winter vegetables seem to keep better
    when placed on dry ground, but the remainder should have a
    flooring of either well-matched boards or cement that can be kept
    clean and dry. Ventilation must also be supplied; otherwise, odors
    will be retained that will taint the food kept in the cellar. To allow
    the passage of air and light from the outside and thus secure proper
    ventilation, the cellar should be provided with windows. These will
    also assist very much in the cleaning and airing of the cellar, processes
    that should never be overlooked if good results are desired. In
    addition to the cleaning of the cellar, constant attention should be
    given to the foods kept there. Foods that have spoiled or are
    beginning to spoil should be disposed of quickly, for decayed food
    that is not removed from the cellar will affect the conditions for
    keeping other foods and may be injurious to the health of the family.




139.53. All foods likely to be contaminated by dust and flies in the
    cellar must be carefully covered. A screened frame fastened to the

                                                                          63
     wall with brackets, is excellent for this purpose, because it prevents
     the attack of vermin and permits of ventilation. If canned goods are
     to be stored, a cellar cupboard is a very good place in which to keep
     them. Separate bins should, if possible, be provided for fruits,
     potatoes, and other winter vegetables, and, such bins should be so
     built as to allow air to pass through them.



140.54. WINDOW BOXES.—The woman who lives in an apartment
    where there is no cellar and who does not wish to keep ice in the
    refrigerator through the winter will find a window box a very good
    device in which to keep food. Such a box is also a convenience for
    the woman who has a cellar, but wishes to save steps. A box of this
    kind is built to fit a kitchen or a pantry window, and is placed
    outside of the window, so that the opening comes toward the room.
    Such an arrangement, will make the contents of the box easily
    accessible when the window is raised. A box for this purpose may
    be made of wood or galvanized iron, and it is usually supported by
    suitable brackets. Its capacity may be increased by building a shelf in it
    half way to the top, and provided it is made of wood, it can be
    more easily cleaned if it is lined with table oilcloth.



STORING OF NON-PERISHABLE FOODS
141.55. It may seem unnecessary to give much attention to the storing of
    foods that do not spoil easily, but there are good reasons why
    such foods require careful storage. They should be properly cared for
    to prevent the loss of flavor by exposure to the air, to prevent the
    absorption of moisture, which produces a favorable opportunity for
    the growth of molds, and to prevent the attacks of insects and
    vermin. The best way in which to care for such foods is to store
    them in tightly closed vessels. Earthenware and glass jars, lard
    pails, coffee and cocoa cans, all carefully cleaned and having lids to
    fit, prove to be very satisfactory receptacles for such purposes.
142.56. Unless coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and prepared cereals are bought
    in cans or moisture-proof containers, they should be emptied
    from the original packages and placed in jars that can be tightly
    closed, so that they will not deteriorate by being exposed to the air
    or moisture. For convenience and economy, these jars or cans
    should be labeled. Sugar and salt absorb moisture and form lumps

64
    when exposed to the air, and they, too, should be properly kept. A
    tin receptacle is the best kind for sugar, but for salt an earthenware
    or glass vessel should be used. It is not advisable to put these foods
    or any others into cupboards in paper bags, because foods kept in
    this way make disorderly looking shelves and are easily accessible to
    vermin, which are always attracted to food whenever it is not well
    protected.


    Canned goods bought in tin cans do not need very careful storage.
    It is sufficient to keep them in a place dry enough to prevent the
    cans from rusting. Foods canned in glass, however, should be kept
    where they are not exposed to the light, as they will become more or
    less discolored unless they are stored in dark places.
    Flour, meals, and cereals stored in quantities develop mold unless
    they are kept very dry. For the storing of these foods, therefore,
    wooden bins or metal-lined boxes kept in a dry place are the most
    satisfactory.



STORING OF SEMIPERISHABLE FOODS
143.57. Practically all vegetables and fruits with skins may be regarded
    as semiperishable foods, and while they do not spoil so easily as some
    foods, they require a certain amount of care. Potatoes are easily
    kept from spoiling if they are placed in a cool, dry, dark place, such
    as a cellar, a bin like that shown in Fig. 16 furnishing a very good
    means for such storage. It is, of course, economical to buy potatoes in
    large quantities, but if they must be kept under conditions that will
    permit them to sprout, shrivel, rot, or freeze, it is better to buy only
    a small quantity at a time. Sweet potatoes may be bought in
    considerable quantity and kept for some time if they are wrapped
    separately in pieces of paper and packed so that they do not touch
    one another.


    Carrots, turnips, beets, and parsnips can be kept through the winter
    in very much the same manner as potatoes. They deteriorate less,
    however, if they are covered with earth or sand. Sometimes,
    especially in country districts, such winter vegetables are buried in
    the ground out of doors, being placed at a depth that renders them
    safe from the attacks of frost. Cabbage will keep very well if placed


                                                                         65
     in barrels or boxes, but for long keeping, the roots should not be
     removed. Pumpkin and squash thoroughly matured do not spoil
     readily if they are stored in a dry place.
     Apples and pears may be stored in boxes or barrels, but very
     fine varieties of these fruits should be wrapped separately in paper.
     All fruit should be looked over occasionally, and those which show
     signs of spoiling should be removed.




MENUS AND RECIPES
144.58. As practically every woman knows, a MENU, or bill of fare,
    consists of a certain number of dishes given in the order in which
    they are to be served; likewise, she knows that the dishes called for in
    a menu must be prepared according to a RECIPE, or receipt,
    which is the list of ingredients of a mixture giving the exact
    proportions to be used, together with proper directions for
    compounding. In all good recipes the items are tabulated in the order
    in which they are needed, so as to save time and produce good
    results. Items tabulated in this manner also serve to minimize the
    danger of omitting some of the ingredients of a recipe, for they can
    be easily checked up when they are given in the proper order.
145.59. In preparing recipes, the beginner in COOKING usually has
    difficulty in judging the size of a recipe. The experienced housewife
    will not follow a recipe exactly when she thinks it will produce more
    food than she needs to meet the requirements of her family;
    instead, she will reduce the quantities to suit her wants. Likewise, if
    a recipe will not provide enough, she will increase the quantities
    accordingly. Just how to judge whether or not a recipe will make
    what is wanted comes only with experience, but the beginner may
    be guided by the fact that it is never wise to prepare more than
    enough of one kind of dish, unless, of course, it can be used to good
    advantage as a left-over. On the other hand, if a recipe is for food
    that can be kept and used for another meal later, it often pays to
    make up more, so as to save time, fuel, and labor. In any event, it is
    always advisable to follow explicitly the directions that are given, for if
    the recipe is of the right kind they will be given so that success will
    result from carrying them out in detail.


66
146.60. In order that the beginner in COOKING may form a definite
    idea of the manner in which the dishes of a menu, or bill of fare, may
    be prepared so that they will be ready to serve in their proper order
    at meal time, there is here given a simple dinner menu, together
    with the recipes for preparing the dishes called for and the order
    in which they should be prepared. While these recipes are not
    intended to teach methods of COOKING, which are taken up
    later, the student is advised to prepare the menu for her own
    satisfaction and so that she will be able to report on the success she
    has had with each dish.



MENU
Pan-Broiled Chops Mashed Potatoes Creamed Peas Cabbage Salad Orange Fluff with
Sauce


     *      *      *     *      *



RECIPES

PAN-BROILED CHOPS
Buy the necessary number of pork, veal, or lamb chops, and proceed to cook them
according to the directions previously given for pan broiling. Season with salt and pepper
just before removing the chops from the pan.


MASHED POTATOES
Peel the desired number of potatoes, put to cook in a sufficient amount of boiling salted
water to cover well, and cook until the potatoes are tender enough to be easily pierced
with a fork. Remove from the fire and drain off the water. Mash the potatoes with a
wooden or a wire potato masher, being careful to reduce all the particles to a pulpy
mass in order to prevent lumps, or put them through a ricer. When sufficiently mashed,
season with additional salt, a dash of pepper, and a small piece of butter, and add hot
milk until they are thinned to a mushy consistency, but not too soft to stand up well
when dropped from a spoon. Then beat the potatoes vigorously with a large spoon until
they are light and fluffy.




                                                                                       67
CREAMED PEAS
Boil until they are soft, two cupfuls of fresh peas in 1 quart of water to which have been
added 1 tablespoonful of salt and 2 of sugar, and then drain; or, use 1 can of peas, heat
them to the boiling point in their liquid, and then drain. A part of the water in which the
fresh peas were cooked or the liquid on the canned peas may be used with an equal
amount of milk to make a sauce for the peas, or all milk may be used.


SAUCE FOR PEAS
1 c. of milk, or ½ c. liquid from peas and ½ c. milk 1 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt 1 Tb. flour
Melt the butter in a saucepan or a double boiler, work in the flour and salt until a
smooth paste is formed, and add the liquid that has been heated. Stir until thick and
smooth. Add to the peas, reheat, and serve.


CABBAGE SALAD
½ medium-sized head of cabbage ½ tsp. salt 1 small red or green sweet pepper Dash of
pepper 1 small onion Salad dressing
Shred the cabbage finely by cutting across the leaves with a sharp knife or a cabbage
shredder. Chop the pepper and onion into very small pieces and add to the cabbage. Mix
well and add the salt and pepper.


CABBAGE-SALAD DRESSING
¾ c. vinegar ½ tsp. mustard, if desired ¼ c. water ½ tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 3 Tb. sugar 1
Tb. flour
Heat the water and the vinegar; melt the butter in a saucepan, add to it the flour,
mustard, salt, and sugar, stir until well blended, and then pour in the hot liquid. Cook
for a few minutes, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of lumps. Pour over the
cabbage while hot; allow it to cool and then serve on plates garnished with lettuce.


ORANGE FLUFF
½ c. sugar ¼ c. orange juice 5 Tb. corn starch 1 Tb. lemon juice Pinch of salt 2 egg whites
1 pt. boiling water
Mix the corn starch and sugar and salt, stir into the boiling water, and cook directly over
the fire until the mixture thickens. Continue to cook, stirring constantly for 10 minutes, or
place in a double boiler and cook ½ hour. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff.
When the corn starch is cooked, remove from the fire and mix thoroughly with the fruit
juices. Pour over the beaten egg whites and stir slightly until the eggs and corn starch
are mixed. Pour into sherbet glasses or molds wet with cold water and set aside until
ready to serve.




68
SAUCE FOR ORANGE FLUFF
1 Tb. corn starch ¾ c. boiling water 2 Tb. butter ¾ c. sugar 2 egg yolks ¼ c. orange
juice 1 Tb. lemon juice
Moisten the corn starch with a little cold water and stir in ½ cupful of the boiling water.
Cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Cream the butter, add the sugar and egg yolks, beat the
mixture with a fork, and add the remaining ¼ cupful of boiling water. Stir this into the
corn starch and cook until the eggs thicken slightly. Remove from the fire and add the
orange and lemon juices. Serve cold over the orange fluff.
147.61. In the preparation of a meal, it is impossible to follow the order
    of service given in a menu, because of the different lengths of time
    required to prepare the different dishes. The order in which the
    menu here given should be prepared will therefore serve to show
    the way in which other meals may be planned or other menus
    carried out. Each recipe for this menu is planned to serve six
    persons, but it can be easily changed in case a different number are
    to be served. For instance, if there are only four in the family, two-
    thirds of each ingredient should be used; and if only three, just one-
    half of each. If eight are to be served, one-third will have to be
    added to each of the amounts. As has been pointed out, just a little
    thought will show how other numbers may be provided for.
148.62. In preparing the foods called for in this menu, the dessert, which
    is the last thing given, should be prepared first, because time must
    be allowed for it to cool before serving. In fact, it may be prepared a
    half day before it is to be served. So as to allow sufficient time to
    mash the potatoes after they have boiled, they should be made ready
    to put on the stove about ¾ hour before the meal is to be served.
    After the potatoes have been put on to boil, the peas, provided
    fresh ones are to be used, should be put on to cook, and then the
    sauce for them should be made. If canned peas are to be used, the
    sauce should be made after the potatoes have been put on the stove
    and the peas should be heated and combined with the sauce just
    before broiling the chops. The cabbage salad may then be prepared,
    and put in a cool place until it is to be served. The chops should
    be broiled last, because it is necessary that they be served
    immediately upon being taken from the fire.




TERMS USED IN COOKING
149.63. It is important that every person who is engaged in the
    preparation of food be thoroughly familiar with the various terms

                                                                                        69
     that are used in COOKING. Many of these are not understood by
     the average person, because they are foreign terms or words that
     are seldom employed in other occupations. However, as they
     occur frequently in recipes, cook books, menus, etc., familiarity with
     them will enable one to follow recipes and to make up menus in a
     more intelligent manner.


     In view of these facts, a table of terms that are made use of in
     COOKING is here given, together with definitions of the words and,
     wherever it has been deemed necessary, with as accurate
     pronunciations as can be obtained. The terms are given in bold-
     faced type, and for easy reference are arranged alphabetically. It is
     recommended that constant use be made of this table, for much of
     the success achieved in COOKING depends on a clear
     understanding of the words and expressions that are peculiar to
     this science.
     A la; au; aux (ah lah; o; o).—With; dressed in a certain style; as,
     smelts a la tartare, which means smelts with tartare sauce.
     Au gratin (o gra-tang).—Literally, dressed with brown crumbs. In
     actual practice, also flavored with grated cheese.
     Au naturel (o nat-ue-rayl).—A term applied to uncooked
     vegetables, to indicate that they are served in their natural state
     without sauce or dressing applied. Potatoes au naturel are served
     cooked; but unpeeled.
     Bechamel (bay-sham-ayl).—A sauce made with white stock and cream
     or milk named from a celebrated cook.
     Biscuit Glace (bis-kue-ee glah-say).—Ice     cream served in glaced
     shells, sometimes in paper cases.
     Bisque.—A thick soup usually made from shellfish or game; also, an
     ice cream to which finely chopped macaroons have been added.
     Bouchees (boosh-ay).—Small patties; literally, a mouthful.
     Boudin (boo-dang).—A delicate side dish prepared with forcemeat.
     Bouquet of Herbs.—A bouquet consisting of a sprig of parsley,
     thyme, and sweet marjoram, a bay leaf, and perhaps a stalk of
     celery, tied firmly together and used as flavoring in a soup or stew.
     Arranged in this way, the herbs are more easily removed when
     cooked.


70
Cafe au Lait (ka-fay o lay).—Coffee with milk.
Cafe Noir (ka-fay nooar).—Black coffee.
Canapes (kan-ap-ay).—Small slices of bread toasted or sauted in
butter and spread with a savory paste of meats, fish, or vegetables.
They are served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course
for lunch or dinner.
Canard (kan-ar).—Duck.
Capers.—Small pickled buds of a European shrub, used in sauces
and in seasoning.
Capon.—A male fowl castrated for the purpose of improving the
quality of the flesh.
Caramel.—A syrup of browned sugar.
Casserole.—A covered earthenware dish in which foods are cooked.
Champignons (shang-pe-nyong).—The French name for mushrooms.
Chartreuse (shar-truhz).—A preparation of game, meat, fish, etc.,
molded in jelly and surrounded by vegetables. The name was given to
the dish by the monks of the monastery of Chartreuse.
Chiffonade (shif-fong-ad).—Salad herbs finely shredded and then
sauted or used in salads.
Chillies.—Small red peppers used in seasoning.
Chives.—An herb allied to the onion family.
Chutney.—An East Indian sweet pickle.
Citron.—The rind of a fruit of the lemon species preserved in sugar.
Collops.—Meat cut in small pieces.
Compote.—Fruit stewed in syrup.
Coquilles (ko-ke-yuh).—Scallop shells in which fish or oysters are
sometimes served.
Creole, a la (kray-ol, ah lah).—With tomatoes.
Croustade (kroos-tad).—A thick piece of bread that has been
hollowed out and then toasted or fried crisp. The depression is filled
with food.
Croutons (kroo-tong).—Bread diced and fried or toasted to serve
with or in soup.


                                                                    71
     Curry.—An East Indian preparation made of hot seeds, spices, and
     dried herbs.
     Demi-Tasse (duh-mee tass).—Literally, a half cup. As commonly
     used, it refers to a small cup in which after-dinner coffee is served.
     Deviled.—Highly seasoned.
     Dill.—A plant used for flavoring pickles.
     En coquille (ang ko-ke-yuh).—Served in shells.
     Entrees (ang-tray).—Small made dishes served with lunch or dinner.
     They are sometimes served as a course between the main courses of a
     meal.
     Escarole (ays-kar-ol).—A broad-leaved kind of endive.
     Farce or Forcemeat.—A mixture of meat, bread, etc., used as stuffing.
     Fillets (fe-lay).—Long, thin pieces of meat or fish generally rolled and
     tied.
     Fillet Mignons (fe-lay me-nyong).—Small slices from fillet of
     beef, served with steak.
     Fondant.—Sugar boiled with water and stirred to a heavy paste. It is
     used for the icing of cake or the making of French candies.
     Fondue.—A dish made usually with melted or grated cheese.
     There are several varieties of this preparation.
     Frappe (frap-pay).—Semifrozen.
     Fromage (fro-magh).—Cheese.
     Glace (glah-say).-Covered with icing; literally, a shining surface.
     Glaze.—The juices of meat cooked down to a concentration and
     used as a foundation for soups and gravies.
     Goulash (gool-ash).—A Hungarian beef stew, highly seasoned.
     Gumbo.—A dish of food made of young capsules of okra, seasoned
     with salt and pepper, stewed and then served with melted butter.
     Haricot (har-e-ko).—A small bean; a bit; also, a stew in which the
     meat and vegetables are finely divided.
     Homard (ho-mar).—Lobster.
     Hors d’oeuvres (or-d’uhvr’).—Relishes.
     Italiene, a la (e-tal-yang, ah lah).—In Italian style.

72
Jardiniere (zhar-de-nyayr).—A mixed preparation of vegetables
stewed in their own sauce; also, a garnish of various vegetables.
Julienne (zhue-lyayn).—A clear soup with shredded vegetables.
Junket.—Milk jellied by means of rennet.
Kippered.—Dried or smoked.
Larding.—The insertion of strips of fat pork into lean meat. The fat
is inserted before cooking.
Lardon.—A piece of salt pork or bacon used in larding.
Legumes.—The vegetables belonging to the bean family; namely,
beans, peas, and lentils.
Lentils.—A variety of the class of vegetables called legumes.
Macedoine (mah-say-dooan).—A mixture of green vegetables.
Marinade (mar-e-nad).—A pickle used for seasoning meat or fish
before cooking.
Marinate.—To pickle in vinegar or French dressing, as meat or fish
is seasoned.
Marrons (ma-rong).—Chestnuts.
Menu.—A bill of fare.
Meringue (muh-rang).—A kind of icing made of white of egg and
sugar well beaten.
Mousse (moos).—Ice cream made with whipped cream and beaten
egg and frozen without turning.
Nougat (noo-gah).—A mixture of almonds and sugar.
Paprika.—Hungarian sweet pepper ground fine and used as a
seasoning. It is less stinging than red or Cayenne pepper.
Pate (pa-tay).—A little pie; a pastry or patty.
Pimiento.—Sweet red peppers used as a vegetable, a salad, or a relish.
Pistachio (pis-ta-shioh).—A pale greenish nut resembling an almond.
Potage (pot-azh).—Soup.
Puree (pue-ray).-A thick soup containing cooked vegetables that have
been rubbed through a sieve.



                                                                    73
     Ragout (ra-goo).—A stew made of meat or meat and vegetables and
     served with a sauce.
     Ramekin.—A preparation of cheese and puff paste or toast, which is
     baked or browned. This word is sometimes used to designate the
     dish in which such a mixture is cooked.
     Rechauffe (ray-sho-fay).—A warmed-over dish.
     Rissoles.—Small shapes of puff paste filled with some mixture and
     fried or baked. It also refers to balls of minced meat, egged,
     crumbed, and fried until crisp.
     Roux (roo).—Thickening made with butter and flour.
     Salmi (sal-mee).—A stew or hash of game.
     Salpicon (sal-pee-kong).—Minced poultry, ham, or other meats mixed
     with a thick sauce.
     Sauce Piquante (sos-pe-kangt).—An acid sauce.
     Shallot.—A variety of onion.
     Sorbet (sor-bay).—A sherbet, frozen punch, or water ice; the same
     as sherbet.
     Souffle (soo-flay).—Literally, puffed up. As generally understood, it
     is a spongy mixture made light with eggs and baked, the foundation
     of which may be meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, or fruit.
     Soy.—A Japanese sauce prepared from the seed of the soy bean. It
     has an agreeable flavor and a clear brown color and is used to color
     soups and sauces.
     Stock.—The foundation for soup made by cooking meat, bones,
     and vegetables.
     Sultanas.—White or yellow seedless grapes, grown in Corinth.
     Tarragon (tar-ra-gonk).—An herb used in seasoning certain
     dressing and sauces; it is also employed in flavoring tarragon vinegar.
     Tartare Sauce (tar-tar sos).—A mayonnaise dressing to which have
     been added chopped pickle, capers, and parsley in order to make a
     tart sauce for fish.
     Timbale.—A pie raised in a mold; also, a shell filled with forcemeat
     or ragout.
     Truffles.—A species of fungi growing in clusters some inches
     below the soil, and having an agreeable perfume, which is easily

74
    scented by pigs, who are fond of them, and by dogs trained to find
    them. They are found abundantly in France, but are not subject to
    cultivation. They are used chiefly for seasoning and garnishing.
    Vanilla.—The bean of the tropical orchid or the extract obtained
    from this fruit. Used in flavoring desserts, etc.
    Vinaigrette Sauce (ve-nay-grayt sos).—A sauce made with oil and
    vinegar, to which are added finely minced chives, peppers, or other
    highly flavored green vegetables and spices.
    Vol au Vent (vol o vang).—A crust of light puff paste. Also, a large
    pate or form of pastry filled with a savory preparation of oysters,
    fish, or meat and a cream sauce.
    Zwieback (tsouee-bak).—Bread toasted twice.


    *     *    *     *     *



ESSENTIALS OF COOKING (PART 2)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
150.(1) What points must be kept in mind in the selection of cooking
    utensils?
151.(2) Mention three materials used for cooking utensils and explain
    their advantages.
152.(3) (a) What is a labor-saving device? (b) Describe one of the
    labor saving devices mentioned in the text and tell why it saves labor.
153.(4) What kind of utensil should be used for: (a) the rapid boiling
    of spaghetti; (b) the slow cooking of cereals?
154.(5) Tell how the following are prepared for cooking: (a) vegetables;
    (b) meats; (c) fish.
155.(6) Describe: (a) sifting; (b) stirring; (c) beating; (d) creaming; (e)
    folding.
156.(7) Why is it necessary to measure foods accurately in cooking?
157.(8) Describe the measuring of: (a) cupful of flour; (b) one-half
    teaspoonful of butter; (c) 1 teaspoonful of baking powder.



                                                                        75
158.(9) (a) Why should a systematic plan be outlined before beginning to
    carry out a recipe? (b) Give briefly the order of work that should be
    followed.
159.(10) What factors influence the length of time required to cook foods?
160.(11) Tell why foods spoil.
161.(12) (a) Mention the usual methods by which food is kept from
    spoiling. (b) What is meant by the term preservative?
162.(13) (a) What is the aim in canning foods? (b) On what principle
    does success in drying foods depend?
163.(14) Explain the construction of a refrigerator and the principle on
    which it is based.
164.(15) Describe the placing of the following articles in the refrigerator
    and tell which should be covered and why: (a) milk; (b) butter; (c)
    cooked fish; (d) cooked tomatoes; (e) melons; (f) cheese.
165.(16) Explain how a refrigerator should be cared for.
166.(17) Name the ways in which foods may be kept from spoiling
    without ice.
167.(18) How should a cellar in which foods is to be stored be built and
    cared for?
168.(19) (a) Why is it necessary to store non-perishable foods? (b) Tell
    the best ways in which to preserve such foods.
169.(20) (a) What is a menu? (b) Explain the meaning of the term recipe.
    (c) In what order should the recipes of a menu be prepared?


     *      *     *      *      *



REPORT ON MENU
After trying out the menu in the manner explained in the text, send with your answers to
the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making out your report, simply
write the name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified in
the following list. Thus, if the chops were tender and well done, write, “Pan-broiled
chops, tender, well done”; if the potatoes were sufficiently cooked and creamy, write
“Mashed potatoes, sufficiently cooked, creamy”; and so on.
Pan-Broiled Chops: tough? tender? underdone? overdone?
Mashed Potatoes: sufficiently cooked? creamy? lumpy? too soft?
Creamed Peas: tender? tough? properly seasoned? improperly seasoned?


76
Sauce for Peas: smooth? lumpy? thin? of correct thickness? too thick?
Cabbage Salad: properly seasoned? improperly seasoned? crisp?
Orange Fluff: stiff enough? too soft? flavor agreeable? flavor disagreeable?




                                                                               77
Sauce for Orange Fluff: smooth? lumpy?

     *    *     *     *     *




CEREALS

     *    *     *     *     *



PRODUCTION,                       COMPOSITION,                        AND
SELECTION

PRODUCTION OF CEREALS
170.1. ORIGIN OF CEREALS.—Cereals, which is the term applied
    to the edible seeds of certain grains, originated with the civilization of
    man. When man lived in a savage state, he wandered about from
    place to place and depended for his food on hunting and fishing; but
    as he ceased his roaming and began to settle in regions that he found
    attractive, it was not long before he became aware of the possibilities
    of the ground about him and realized the advantage of tilling the
    soil as a means of procuring food. Indeed, the cultivation of the soil
    for the production of food may be considered as one of the first
    steps in his civilization. Among the foods he cultivated were grains,
    and from the earliest times to the present day they have been the
    main crop and have formed the chief food of people wherever it is
    possible to produce them.


     The grains belong to the family of grasses, and through cultivation
     their seeds, which store the nourishment for the growth of new
     plants, have been made to store a sufficient amount of nourishment
     to permit man to collect and use it as food. The name cereals was


78
    derived from the goddess Ceres, whom the Romans believed to be
    the protector of their crops and harvests. Numerous grains are
    produced, but only eight of these cereals are used extensively as
    food, namely, wheat, corn, oats, rice, barley, rye, buckwheat, and
    millet.
171.2. ABUNDANCE OF PRODUCTION.—With the exception of
    the desert lands and the Arctic regions, cereals of some kind are
    grown over the entire world. Some varieties thrive in the hot
    countries, others flourish in the temperate regions, and still others
    mature and ripen in the short warm season of the colder northern
    climates. In fact, there is practically no kind of soil that will not
    produce a crop of some variety of grain. Since grains are so easily
    grown and are so plentiful, cereals and foods made from them
    furnish a large part of the world’s food supply. Indeed, about one-
    fourth of all the food eaten by the inhabitants of the world, when it is
    considered as a whole, is made up of cereals.
172.3. ECONOMIC VALUE OF CEREALS.—The abundance of the
    world’s grain supply makes the cost so moderate that many of the
    poorer classes of people in various countries, especially those in the
    Far East, live almost entirely on cereals. Still there is another factor
    that controls the low cost of cereals and grains and keeps them
    within the means of all classes of people, and that is their excellent
    keeping quality. They require very little care and will keep for an
    indefinite period of time. Because of their unperishable nature, they
    may be stored in large quantities and distributed to consumers as
    they are needed and at a price that is fairly uniform.


    Since the cost of cereals is moderate, they should form a large
    proportion of the diet of the entire family, especially if the family’s
    income will allow only a limited sum to be spent for food. Some
    cereals, of course, are much cheaper than others, and in purchasing
    this kind of food the housewife should be governed accordingly.
    Those which require an elaborate manufacturing process in their
    preparation for the market are the most expensive, but they have an
    advantage in that they require practically no preparation before
    serving. For the varieties that must be cooked, the cost of preparing
    the dish, especially if the price of fuel is high, must be taken into
    consideration, for unless some thought is given to the economical
    use of the fuel, as well as to the method of cooking employed, the
    cost of the prepared dish may be greatly increased. However, in the
    preparation of cereals, very little skill or energy is required and a


                                                                         79
     general knowledge of the best methods for one of them can, as a
     rule, be applied to all.
173.4. CEREAL PRODUCTS.—Besides                     the cereals already
    mentioned, a number of products of cereals are extensively used in
    COOKING, chief among them being flour, corn starch, and other
    starches. Although every housewife should possess knowledge of the
    uses of each of these, instruction in them is not given until later. This
    Section includes particularly the study of grains—whole, cracked,
    flaked, and those made into grits or meal—and the use and the
    serving of them, as well as ready-to-eat cereals, which are
    commonly referred to as breakfast foods. The only additional
    foods to which attention is given at this time are macaroni, spaghetti,
    and foods of a similar nature, for as these are made from wheat
    they are truly cereal products. In their preparation for the table, the
    rules that govern the other cereal foods apply also in a large measure
    to them.




COMPOSITION OF CEREALS
174.5. The composition of all cereals is similar, yet each one has its
    distinguishing feature. While all the five food substances—water,
    mineral matter, protein, fat, and carbohydrate—are to be found in
    cereals, they occur in different quantities in the various kinds.
    Some contain large quantities of protein and others practically none,
    and while certain ones have considerable fat others possess
    comparatively small quantities. A characteristic of all cereals,
    however, is that they contain a large amount of carbohydrate and
    a small amount of water. It is well to remember, though, that
    while the food substances of cereals are found in sufficient
    quantities to sustain life, they will not permit a person to live for
    long periods of time exclusively on this form of food. Likewise, it
    will be well to observe that the foods made from a certain grain will
    be quite similar in composition to the grain itself; that is, any change
    in the composition of the foods must be brought about by the
    addition of other substances.
175.6. All grains are similar in general structure, too. The largest
    proportion of carbohydrate lies in the center, this substance growing
    less toward the outside of the grain. The protein lies near the
    outside, and grows less toward the center. Fat is found in small


80
    amounts scattered through the entire grain, but most of it is found in
    the germ, which is a tiny portion of the grain from which the new
    plant sprouts. The mineral matter of cereals is found chiefly just
    inside the bran, or outer covering, so that when this covering is
    removed, as in the process of preparation for food, a certain
    amount of mineral matter is generally lost.
176.7. PROTEIN IN CEREALS.—The cereals are essentially a
    carbohydrate food, but some also yield a large proportion of protein.
    In this respect they differ from the animal foods that produce the
    principal supply of protein for the diet, for these, with the
    exception of milk, do not yield carbohydrates. The grain that
    contains the most protein is wheat, and in the form in which
    protein occurs in this cereal it is called gluten, a substance that is
    responsible for the hardness of wheat. The gluten, when the wheat is
    mixed with water or some other liquid, becomes gummy and
    elastic, a fact that accounts for the rubbery consistency of bread
    dough. Cereals that contain no gluten do not make bread
    successfully. Next to wheat, rye contains protein in the greatest
    amount, and rice contains the least. Although protein is the most
    expensive of the food substances, the kind of protein found in
    cereals is one of the cheaper varieties.
177.8. FAT IN CEREALS.—The fat of cereals helps to contribute to
    their heat and energy-producing qualities, and, besides, it is one of
    the cheaper sources of this food substance. Of the eight grains, or
    cereals, used as food, oats and corn contain the most fat, or heat-
    producing material. The oil of corn, because of its lack of flavor, is
    frequently used in the manufacture of salad oil, cooking oil, and
    pastry fat. The fat that occurs in cereals becomes rancid if they are
    not carefully stored. In the making of white flour, the germ of the
    wheat is removed, and since most of the fat is taken out with the
    germ, white flour keeps much better than graham flour, from which
    the germ is not abstracted in the milling process.
178.9. CARBOHYDRATE IN CEREALS.—The food substance
    found in the greatest proportion in cereals is carbohydrate in the
    form of starch. Cereals contain many times more starch than any of
    the other food substances, rice, which is fully three-fourths starch,
    containing the most, and oats, which are less than one-half starch,
    the least. Starch is distributed throughout the grain in tiny granules
    visible only under the microscope, each being surrounded by a
    covering of material that is almost indigestible. In the various
    grains, these tiny granules differ from one another in appearance,
    but not to any great extent in general structure, nutritive value, or

                                                                       81
     digestibility, provided they are cooked thoroughly. The large amount
     of carbohydrate, or starch, in cereals explains why they are not hard
     to digest, for, as is well known, starch is more easily digested than
     either protein or fat. This and the fact that some grains contain also
     a large amount of fat account for the high energy-producing quality
     of cereals. While it is safe to say that cereals are chiefly valuable
     for their starch, the tissue-building material in some grains, although
     in small proportion, is in sufficient quantity to place them with the
     protein foods.
179.10. MINERAL MATTER IN CEREALS.—Cereals contain seven
    or eight of the minerals required in the diet. Such a variety of
    minerals is sure to be valuable to the human body, as it is about
    one-half of the whole number required by the body for its
    maintenance. Since, as has already been explained, much of the
    mineral matter lies directly under the coarse outside covering, some
    of it is lost when this covering is removed. For this reason, the
    grains that remain whole and the cereal products that contain the
    entire grain are much more valuable from the standpoint of
    minerals than those in which the bran covering is not retained. If
    a sufficient percentage of minerals is secured in the diet from
    vegetables, fruits, and milk, it is perhaps unnecessary to include whole
    cereals; but if the diet is at all limited, it is advisable to select those
    cereals which retain the original composition of the grain.
180.11. WATER IN CEREALS.—Cereals contain very little water in
    their composition. This absence of water is a distinct advantage, for
    it makes their nutritive value proportionately high and improves
    their keeping quality. Just as the strength of a beverage is lowered by
    the addition of water, so the nutritive value of foods decreases when
    they contain a large amount of water. On the other hand, the keeping
    quality of cereals could scarcely be improved, since the germs that
    cause foods to spoil grow only in the presence of water. This low
    proportion of water also permits them to be stored compactly,
    whereas if water occurred in large amounts it would add materially
    to their bulk.
181.12. CELLULOSE IN CEREALS.—In addition to the five food
    substances that are found in all cereals, there is always present
    another material known as cellulose, which, as is pointed out
    elsewhere, is an indigestible material that occurs on the outside of all
    grains, as the bran covering, and covers the starch granules
    throughout the inside of the grain. In fact, it forms a sort of
    skeleton upon which the grains are built. As long as the cellulose
    remains unbroken, it prevents the grain from being digested to any

82
      extent. However, it forms a valuable protective covering for the
      grain and it has a certain value, as bulk, in the diet, a fact that is
      ignored by some persons and overrated by others. It is well to
      include at least some cellulose in cereal foods when they are taken in
      the diet, because its presence tends to make food less concentrated.
182.13. TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF CEREALS.—Not
    all grains, or cereals, contain the same amount of food substances
    and cellulose; that is, while one may be high in protein it may be
    lacking in some other food substance. The relation that the various
    grains bear to one another with regard to the food substances and
    cellulose is clearly set forth in Table I. In this table, under the various
    food substances and cellulose, the grains, with the exception of
    millet, are mentioned in the order of their value, ranging from the
    highest down to the lowest in each of the food substances and
    cellulose. Thus, as will be seen, wheat is highest in protein and rice is
    lowest, oats are highest in fat and rye is lowest, and so on. Also, as
    will be observed, while wheat is highest in protein, it is, as
    compared with the other             cereals, sixth in       fat, fourth in
    carbohydrate, fourth in cellulose, and fifth in mineral matter. In this
    way may be compared all the other cereals to see in just what way
    they are of value as a food.




TABLE I

COMPOSITION OF CEREALS
Protein Fat       Carbohydrate Cellulose Mineral Matter or Ash


Wheat      Oats     Rice       Oats      Oats


Rye       Corn     Rye        Buckwheat Barley


Oats      Barley Corn          Barley    Buckwheat


Barley Buckwheat Wheat             Wheat      Rye


                                                                            83
Corn       Rice       Barley       Rye     Wheat


Buckwheat Wheat           Buckwheat       Corn     Corn


Rice       Rye    Oats             Rice   Rice


       *    *     *       *    *



CEREALS AS A FOOD

USES OF CEREALS
183.14. Cereals and cereal products play a very important part in the
    food problem, for the prosperity of a country depends on its grain
    crops and the people of all classes are dependent on them for food.
    This is evident when it is known that they form a greater proportion
    of the food consumed than any other single food material. In their
    widespread consumption, they have many and varied uses. In truth, a
    meal is seldom served without some cereal food, for if no other is
    used, bread of some description is almost always included. Besides
    bread, a cooked or a dry cereal is usually served for breakfast, and for
    some persons this constitutes the main breakfast dish, providing a
    nourishing and easily digested food when served with milk or
    cream. This food is especially desirable for children, and for this
    reason is always among the first solid foods fed to them.
184.15. While to most persons the word cereal suggests the idea of a
    breakfast food, because cereals are used most often for that
    purpose, they find their place in other meals than breakfast.
    Although they are used less often on the dinner table than
    elsewhere, they frequently have an important place there, for a
    number of them are commonly used as dinner dishes and others
    might be used more frequently, and to advantage, too. In this
    connection, they are used in soups, and in certain forms, usually the
    whole or slightly crushed grain, they take the place of a vegetable.
    Some of them, particularly rice, are often used with meat or cheese in
    making an entree or in combination with eggs, milk, fruit, or various
    flavorings as a dessert to be served with a heavy or a light meal. Cold

84
    cooked cereal is often sliced and sauted and then served with meat or
    some other heavy protein dish. Cereals are also used for lunch or
    supper, perhaps more often than for dinner, and because of their
    easy digestion they are to be recommended for the evening meal
    for all members of the family, but especially for children. When
    used in this way, they may be served with cream, as for breakfast, or
    prepared in any other suitable way. Whenever cereals are served,
    whether alone or in combination with other foods, the result is an
    economical dish and usually an easily digested one, unless, of
    course, the food with which they are combined is expensive or
    indigestible. But, to whatever use cereals are put, unless they are
    thoroughly cooked they are not easily digested and they lose much of
    their value. In fact, the ready-to-eat cereals, which have been
    thoroughly cooked, are preferable to those which are poorly cooked
    in the home.




SELECTION AND CARE OF CEREALS
185.16. Preparation of Grains for the Market.—So that the housewife
    may go about the selection of cereals in an intelligent manner, it may
    be well for her to know how they are prepared for market. After
    the grains are harvested, the first step in their preparation consists
    in thrashing, which removes the husks from the outside. In some
    countries, thrashing is done entirely by hand, but usually it is
    accomplished by machinery of a simple or a more elaborate kind.
    Occasionally no further treatment is applied, the whole grains being
    used as food, but generally they receive further preparation.
    Sometimes they are crushed coarsely with or without the bran
    covering, and in this form they are known as grits. At other times
    they are ground finer and called meal, and still finer and called flour,
    being used mostly in these two forms for the making of various
    kinds of breads. Then, again, grains are rolled and crushed, as, for
    example, cracked wheat and rolled oats.


    Various elaborate means have been devised by which cereals are
    prepared in unusual ways for the purpose of varying the diet.
    Sometimes they are used alone, but often certain other materials are
    used in their preparation for the market. For example, the popular
    flake cereals, such as corn flakes, are cooked with salt and sometimes


                                                                         85
     with sugar and then rolled thin. Some of the cereals are thoroughly
     cooked, while others are malted and toasted, but the treatment to
     which they are subjected is generally given to them to improve their
     flavor and to aid in the work of digestion.
186.17. FACTORS THAT GOVERN CEREAL SELECTION.—
    Besides knowing about the ways in which cereals are prepared for
    market, the housewife should be familiar with the factors that govern
    their selection for use as food. In the first place, cereals should be
    chosen to suit the needs and tastes of the members of the family,
    and then attention should be given to the forms in which they can
    be purchased. Some cereals are sold in sealed packages, while others
    can be bought in bulk. Each, however, has its advantages. Those
    sold loose are often lower in price than those sold in package form,
    but there is a question as to whether, with the chances for
    incorrect weight, the bulk foods are really much cheaper. Cleanliness
    is, of course, of greater importance with cereals that do not require
    cooking than with those which are subjected to high temperatures
    in order to prepare them for the table. Therefore, from the
    standpoint of cleanliness, there is no advantage in purchasing rice
    and similar raw cereals in packages.
187.18. The next thing to consider in the purchase of cereals is their
    cost. They vary considerably in price, but it has been determined that
    in food value there is little difference, pound for pound, between the
    cheap and the expensive cereals, the variation in price being due to
    their abundance or scarcity and the method used in preparing them
    for market. The entirely uncooked ones are the cheapest, the partly
    cooked ones are medium in price, and the thoroughly cooked
    ones are the most expensive. This difference, however, is
    practically made up by the expense of the fuel required to prepare
    them for the table, the cheapest cereal requiring the most fuel and
    the most expensive, the least.


     Besides varying in price, the different kinds of cereals offer the
     housewife an opportunity to select the one that is most convenient
     for her. Those which are ready to serve are the best for the meal to
     which the least possible amount of time can be given for
     preparation. The other kinds require cooking, of course, but this
     need not be a hindrance, for they can be prepared on one day and
     reheated for breakfast the following day, or they can be cooked
     overnight by the fireless-cooker method. In the case of such cereals,
     long cooking is usually necessary for good flavor and easy digestion;


86
    consequently, the cooking method that will accomplish the desired
    result with the least expenditure of fuel is the most economical
    one and the one to select.
188.19. TABLE OF GRAIN PRODUCTS.—As a further aid in
    coming to an understanding of cereals, or grains, and their value,
    there are given in Table II the various uses to which grains are put
    and the forms in which they occur as food. In this table, as will be
    observed, the form of the grain product is mentioned first and then
    the grain from which it is made. A careful study of this table will be
    profitable to the housewife.
189.20. CARE OF CEREALS.—As carriers of disease, cereals are a less
    dangerous food than any other. This characteristic of cereals is due
    to the fact that the cooking all of them require in some part of their
    preparation destroys any disease germs that might be present. They
    are not likely to be adulterated with harmful material, either; and, in
    addition, the sealed packages in which many of the cereals are put up
    keep them clean and free from contamination. However, care must
    be given to both the uncooked and the factory-prepared varieties
    of this food. The packages containing ready-to-eat cereals should
    not be allowed to remain open for any length of time if it is desired
    to keep them fresh and crisp, for they absorb moisture from the air
    very quickly. If they do become moist, however, drying in the oven
    will in most cases restore their freshness. If it is necessary to open a
    single package of prepared cereal and all of the contents cannot be
    utilized at once, as, for instance, when only one or two persons are
    to be served with that particular cereal, the best plan is to empty the
    remainder into cans or jars that are provided with covers.
    Uncooked cereals, which are used less quickly than the prepared
    kinds, are often attacked by mice and other vermin, but such an
    occurrence can be prevented if the cereal is poured into jars or
    cans that can be kept tightly closed. Considerable care must be
    given to flour and cereal products purchased in large quantities, for
    if they are allowed to collect enough moisture, they will become
    moldy and lose their flavor, and thus be unfit for use. To preserve
    them well, they should be kept in metal-lined bins or in bins made
    of carefully matched boards and in a cool, but not damp, place.




                                                                         87
TABLE II

GRAIN PRODUCTS
   / Pearl barley | Hulled wheat / Whole Grains {Hominy: Corn |
| Corn |                                \ Rice | | / Farina: Wheat or
corn |             | Cream of Wheat: Wheat                   | Crushed
Grains {Cracked Wheat: Wheat |                        | Hominy Grits:
Corn |               | Wheat Grits: Wheat |              \ Samp: Corn
Cereals { | / Corn | Meal                     {Barley |              |
Rice | \ Oats | |                / Flaked: Rye,                 wheat,
rice, corn \ Prepared Cereals {Shredded                  Grain: Wheat
| Malted Grain: Rye, barley,                        wheat, and corn \
Puffed Grain: Corn, rice,                  wheat
     / Corn Starch {Rice \ Wheat
       / Macaroni Wheat {Vermicelli \ Spaghetti


Glucose} Usually corn Sirup /


     / Wheat Cereal Coffee {Rye \ Barley
       / Wheat | Rye Flour {Corn | Buckwheat \ Rice


Liquors         \ Malted Drinks} All grains Beer   | Whisky      /

Alcohol: All grains
Feed for animals: All grains


      *     *         *   *    *



PREPARATION OF CEREALS FOR THE TABLE

METHODS OF COOKING CEREALS
190.21. PURPOSE OF COOKING.—As the so-called ready-to-eat
    cereals require practically no further preparation, attention is here

88
    given to only those cereals which need additional treatment to
    prepare them properly for the table. Raw grains cannot be taken
    into the body, for they are neither appetizing nor digestible. The
    treatment to which they must be subjected is cooking, for the
    structure of grains is such that cooking is the only means by which
    the coverings of the starch granules can be softened and broken to
    make them digestible. But this is not the only effect produced by
    cooking; besides making raw cereals digestible, cooking renders
    them palatable, destroys any bacteria or parasites that might be
    present, and, by means of its various methods, provides a variety of
    dishes that would otherwise be very much limited.
191.22. CHANGES THAT CEREALS UNDERGO IN COOKING.—
    In the process of cooking, cereals undergo a marked change,
    which can readily be determined by performing a simple
    experiment. Place an equal amount of flour or corn starch—both
    cereal products—in two different glasses; mix that in one glass with
    cold water and that in the other with boiling water. The mixture in
    which cold water is used will settle in a short time, but if the
    substance that goes to the bottom is collected and dried it will be
    found to be exactly the same as it was originally. The mixture in
    which boiling water is used, however, will not only become a sticky
    mass, but will remain such; that is, it will never again resume its
    original form. This experiment proves, then, that grains that come in
    contact with water at a high temperature, as in cooking, absorb the
    water and burst their cellulose covering. This bursting frees the
    granulose, or the contents of the tiny granules, which are deposited
    in a network of cellulose, and as soon as this occurs it mixes with
    water and forms what is called soluble starch. Starch in this state is
    ready for digestion, but in the original, uncooked state only a very
    small part of it, if any, is digestible. 23. PREPARATION FOR
    COOKING CEREALS.—Before the cooking of cereals is
    attempted, it is advisable for the sake of convenience to get out all
    utensils as well as all ingredients that are to be used and arrange
    them so that they will be within easy reach. The utensils and
    ingredients shown, which are suitable for most methods of
    cooking cereals and particularly for cooking them by the steaming
    process, consist of a double boiler, a measuring cup, a knife, and
    spoons for measuring; a large spoon for stirring; a salt container;
    and a package of cereal. The housewife will be able to tell quickly
    from a recipe just what ingredients and utensils she will need, and
    by following the plan here suggested she will find that her work
    can be done systematically and with the least expenditure of time.


                                                                       89
192.24. FIRST STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING.—While
    cereals may be cooked in a variety of ways, the first steps in all the
    processes are practically the same. In the first place, the required
    amount of water should be brought to the boiling point, for if the
    water is boiling the cereal will thicken more rapidly and there will be
    less danger of lumps forming. Then salt should be added to the
    water in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each cupful of cereal.
    Next, the cereal should be stirred into the boiling salted water slowly
    enough to prevent it from forming lumps, and then, being
    constantly stirred, it should be allowed to cook until it thickens. The
    process up to this point is called setting a cereal, or grain. After the
    cereal is set, it may be boiled, steamed, or cooked in the fireless
    cooker, but the method of COOKING selected should be chosen
    with a view to economy, convenience, and thoroughness. The terms
    setting and set should be thoroughly fixed in the mind, so that
    directions and recipes in which they are used will be readily
    understood.
193.25. COOKING CEREALS BY BOILING.—Very often the cereal,
    after it is set, is allowed to cook slowly until it is ready to serve; that
    is, the method of boiling is practiced. This method, however, is not
    to be recommended, because it is not economical. Cereals cooked in
    this way require constant watching and stirring, and even then it is
    difficult to keep them from sticking to the cooking utensil and
    scorching or becoming pasty on account of the constant motion.
    Sometimes, to overcome this condition, a large quantity of water is
    added, as in the boiling of rice; still, as some of this water must be
    poured off after the cooking is completed, a certain amount of
    starch and soluble material is lost.
194.26. COOKING CEREALS IN THE DOUBLE BOILER.—
    Probably the most satisfactory way in which to cook cereals, so far as
    thoroughness is concerned, is in a double boiler, one style of which is
    shown at a, Fig. 1. This method of COOKING is known as
    steaming, or dry steaming, and by it the food itself, after it is set,
    never comes within 6 or 8 degrees of the boiling point. In this
    method, the cereal is first set in the small, or upper, pan of the double
    boiler. This pan, which is covered, is placed into the large, or lower,
    pan, which should contain boiling water, and the cereal is allowed to
    cook until it is ready to serve. The water in the large pan should be
    replenished from time to time, for if it is completely evaporated
    by boiling, the pan will be spoiled and the cereal in the upper pan
    will burn.



90
    This method of cooking has several advantages that should not
    be disregarded. Cereals to which it is applied may be partly cooked
    on one day and the cooking completed the next morning before
    breakfast, or they may be completely cooked on one day and
    merely heated before they are served. Then, when cooked at a
    temperature slightly below the boiling point, the grains remain
    whole, but become thoroughly softened, because they gradually
    absorb the water that surrounds them. In addition, the long cooking
    that is necessary to prepare them at a low temperature develops a
    delicious flavor, which cannot be obtained by rapid cooking at the
    boiling point.
195.27. COOKING CEREALS IN THE FIRELESS COOKER.—In a
    kitchen that is equipped with a fireless cooker, it is advisable to use
    this utensil for cereals, for cooking them by this method secures the
    greatest economy of fuel and effort. As in the preceding methods,
    the cereal is first set in the pan that fits into the cooker
    compartment. While the cereal is at the boiling point, this pan is
    covered tightly and placed in the fireless cooker, where it is allowed
    to remain until the cereal is ready to be served. The heat that the
    cereal holds when it is placed in the cooker is retained, and this is
    what cooks it. Therefore, while this method of cooking requires
    considerable time, it needs neither additional heat nor labor after
    the cereal is placed in the cooker. In reality, it is an
    advantageous way in which to cook cereals, since, if they can be set
    and placed in the cooker in the evening, they will be ready to
    serve at breakfast time on the following day.
196.28. COOKING CEREALS BY DRY HEAT.—An old method of
    cooking cereals or starchy foods is called browning, or toasting,
    and it involves cooking them by dry heat. A thin layer of grain is
    spread in a shallow pan and this is placed in a slow oven. After the
    grains have browned slightly, they are stirred, and then they are
    permitted to brown until an even color is obtained. By this method
    the flavor of the cereals is developed and their digestibility
    increased. Since grains keep much better after they have been
    subjected to the process of toasting, this means is used extensively
    for preserving grains and cereal foods.
197.29. POINTS TO OBSERVE IN COOKING CEREALS.—In
    cooking cereals by any method, except browning, or toasting, it is
    always necessary to use liquid of some kind. The quantity to use,
    however, varies with the kind of cereal that is to be cooked, whole
    cereals and those coarsely ground requiring more liquid than those
    which are crushed or finely ground. If the liquid is to be absorbed

                                                                        91
     completely when the grain is cooked, it should be in the correct
     proportion to the grain. To be right, cooked cereals should be of the
     consistency of mush, but not thin enough to pour. Much attention
     should be given to this matter, for mistakes are difficult to remedy.
     Cereals that are too thick after they are cooked cannot be readily
     thinned without becoming lumpy, and those which are too thin
     cannot be brought to the proper consistency unless the excess of
     liquid is evaporated by boiling.


     Gruels are, of course, much thinner than the usual form of cereal.
     They are made by cooking cereals rapidly in a large quantity of water,
     and this causes the starch grains to disintegrate, or break into pieces,
     and mix with the water. The whole mixture is then poured through a
     sieve, which removes the coarse particles and produces a smooth
     mass that is thin enough to pour.
The length of time to cook cereals also varies with their kind and form,
the coarse ones requiring more time than the fine ones. Because of this
fact, it is difficult to say just how much time is required to cook the
numerous varieties thoroughly. However, little difficulty will be
experienced if it is remembered that cereals should always be allowed to
cook until they can be readily crushed between the fingers, but not until
they are mushy in consistency.


     *     *    *     *     *



INDIAN CORN, OR MAIZE

ORIGIN, CLASSIFICATION, AND USE
198.30. The word corn has been applied to various grains and is now
    used in a variety of ways in different countries. In ancient times,
    barley was called corn, and at the present time, in some countries, the
    entire year’s food crop is referred to by this name. The English apply
    the name corn to wheat, and the Scotch, to oats. In the United
    States, corn is the name applied to the seed of the maize plant, which
    is a highly developed grass plant that forms the largest single crop of
    the country. The seeds of this plant grow on a woody cob, and are
    eaten as a vegetable when they are soft and milky, but as a grain, or
    cereal, when they are mature. Corn is native to America and was not

92
    known in Europe until Columbus took it back with him. However, it
    did not meet with much favor there, for it was not grown to any
    great extent until within the last 50 years. Those who took it to
    Europe gave it the name Indian corn, because they had found the
    Indians of America raising it.
199.31. Of the corn grown in the United States, there are three general
    kinds: field corn, sweet corn, and pop corn. Field corn, as a rule, is
    grown in large quantities and allowed to mature; then it is fed to
    animals or ground and cooked for the use of man. This corn
    consists of three varieties, which are distinguished by the color of
    the grain, one being white, one yellow, and one red. All of them are
    made into a variety of preparations, but the white and the yellow are
    used as food for both man and animals, whereas red field corn is
    used exclusively for animal food. White corn has a mild flavor, but
    yellow corn is sometimes preferred to it, because foods made from
    the yellow variety have a more decided flavor. The two principal
    varieties of field corn, when prepared as cereal food for man, are
    hominy and corn meal. Sweet corn is not grown in such large
    quantities as field corn. It is generally used for food before it is
    mature and is considered as a vegetable. Pop corn, when sufficiently
    dry, swells and bursts upon being heated. It is used more as a
    confection than as a staple article of food. Therefore, at this time,
    consideration need be given to only the principal varieties of field-
    corn products, which, as has just been stated, are hominy and corn
    meal.




RECIPES FOR HOMINY AND CORN MEAL
200.32. HOMINY is whole corn from which the outside covering has
    been removed, and for this reason it is high in food value. Corn in
    this form may be procured as a commercial product, but it may be
    prepared in the home at less expense. As a commercial product, it
    is sold dry by the pound or cooked as a canned food. Dry hominy
    requires long cooking to make it palatable, and this, of course,
    increases its cost; but even with this additional cost it is cheaper than
    canned hominy.


    Sometimes corn from which the covering has been removed is
    ground or crushed to form what is called samp, or grits, and when it

                                                                          93
     is ground still more finely CORN MEAL is produced. Corn meal is
     made from both white and yellow corn, and is ground more finely in
     some localities than in others. It is sold loose by the pound, but it
     can also be bought in bags or packages of various sizes from 1
     pound up. Corn meal should be included in the diet of every
     economical family, for it yields a large quantity of food at a
     moderately low cost. If it is prepared well, it is very palatable,
     and when eaten with milk or cream it is a food that is particularly
     desirable for children, especially for the evening meal, because of its
     food value and the fact that it is easily digested.
201.33. So that the importance of these corn products may be
    understood and the products then used to the best advantage in the
    diet, recipes are here given for preparing hominy in the home, for
    dishes in which hominy forms the principal part, and for dishes in
    which corn meal is used. To get the best results from these recipes
    and thereby become thoroughly familiar with the cooking processes
    involved, it is recommended that each one be worked out in detail.
    This thought applies as well to all recipes given throughout the
    various Sections. Of course, to prepare each recipe is not
    compulsory; nevertheless, to learn to cook right means actually to do
    the work called for by the recipes, not merely once, but from time to
    time as the food can be utilized to give variety to the daily menus in
    the home.
202.34. HOMINY.—Although, as has been mentioned, prepared
    hominy may be purchased, some housewives prefer to prepare it
    themselves. Hominy serves as a foundation from which many
    satisfactory dishes can be made, as it is high in food value and
    reasonable in cost. This cereal can be used in so many ways that it is
    advisable to prepare enough at one time to meet the demands of
    several meals. The following recipe for making hominy should
    provide 3 quarts of this cereal; however, as is true of other recipes—
    a point that should be remembered throughout the various
    lessons—the quantities given may be increased or decreased to
    meet with the requirements of the household.


     HOMINY (Sufficient for 3 Quarts)
     2 qt. water 1 Tb. lye 1 qt. shelled corn 3 tsp. salt
     Put the water into a large kettle or saucepan, and into the water put
     the lye. Allow the water to come to the boiling point, and then add
     the corn and let it boil until the skins will slip off the grains when


94
    they are pressed between the thumb and the finger. Take from the
    stove, stir sufficiently to loosen the skins, and then remove them
    by washing the grains of corn in a coarse colander. Cover the grains
    with cold water and return to the fire. When the water boils, pour it
    off. Repeat this process at least three times, so as to make sure that
    there is no trace of the lye, and then allow the grains to cook in
    more water until they burst. Season them with the salt, and while the
    hominy thus prepared is still hot put it into a jar or a crock and cover
    it tight until it is to be used. The water in which the hominy is
    cooked should remain on it.
203.35. BUTTERED HOMINY.—Perhaps the simplest method of
    preparing cooked hominy is to butter it. In this form it may be
    served with cream as a breakfast or a luncheon dish, or it may be
    used in the place of a vegetable.


    BUTTERED HOMINY (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 pt. cooked hominy 3 Tb. butter 1 tsp. salt
    Allow a few spoonfuls of water to remain on the cooked hominy.
    Add the butter and the salt, and then heat all thoroughly, stirring
    the hominy gently so as to incorporate, or mix in, the butter and the
    salt. Serve while hot.
204.36. CREAMED HOMINY.—The addition of a cream sauce to
    cooked hominy not only adds to the palatableness of this cereal,
    but increases its food value. When hominy is served with a sauce,
    it may be used as a dinner vegetable or as the main dish in a light
    meal.


    CREAMED HOMINY (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. milk 2 Tb. butter 1 tsp. salt 1 Tb. flour 1 pt. cooked hominy
    Heat the milk, and to it add the butter and the salt. Then thicken it
    with the flour. To this sauce add the hominy and allow all to cook
    slowly for 10 or 15 minutes. Serve the creamed hominy hot.
205.37. HOMINY GRITS.—The cereal sold under the name of
    hominy grits is prepared commercially by crushing dried hominy
    grains. It has practically the same food value as hominy, and in
    appearance resembles cream of wheat. The following recipe shows
    the simplest way in which to prepare this food, it being usually served
    as a breakfast cereal in this form:

                                                                         95
     HOMINY GRITS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
     1 tsp. salt 4 c. water 1 c. hominy grits
     Add the salt to the water and bring it to the boiling point. Stir the
     hominy grits into the water and continue to boil for 10 minutes.
     Then place in a double boiler and cook for 3 to 4 hours. Serve hot
     with cream or milk and sugar.


206.38. LEFT-OVER HOMINY.—No waste need result from hominy
    that is not used at the meal for which it is prepared, for it may be
    utilized in many ways. For example, it may be served cold with
    fruit and cream, made into croquettes with chopped meat or cheese
    and either sauted or baked, or used in soups to increase materially
    their food value. A dish prepared by combining cooked or left-over
    hominy with other ingredients to form hominy and cheese souffle,
    will prove to be very appetizing.


     HOMINY AND CHEESE SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
     1-1/2 c. cooked hominy ½ c. hot milk ½ tsp. salt ½ tsp. paprika 1 c.
     grated cheese 2 eggs
     Work the hominy smooth by mashing it with a fork, and then add
     the hot milk, salt, paprika, and grated cheese. Separate the eggs, beat
     the yolks thoroughly, and stir them well into the mixture. Next, fold
     in the whites, which should be stiffly beaten, pour the mass into a
     buttered baking dish, and bake until it is firm in the center. Serve hot.
207.39. CORN-MEAL MUSH.—Since corn meal is comparatively
    inexpensive and high in food value, the housewife can make frequent
    use of it to advantage. In the form of mush, corn meal is easily
    digested; besides, such mush is a very good breakfast cereal when
    served hot with milk or cream. Although the recipe here given
    makes a sufficient amount for six persons, a good plan is to increase
    the quantities mentioned so that there will be enough mush left to
    mold and use in other ways.


     CORN-MEAL MUSH (Sufficient to Serve Six)
     1 tsp. salt 3-1/2 c. water 1 c. corn meal



96
    Add the salt to the water and bring the salted water to the boiling
    point. When it is boiling rapidly, sift the corn meal slowly through the
    fingers into it, and at the same time stir it rapidly so as to prevent
    the formation of lumps. Any mush that contains lumps has not
    been properly made and should not be served in this condition, as it
    is unpalatable. Keep stirring constantly until the corn meal thickens;
    then place it in a double boiler and allow it to cook from 2 to 4
    hours, when it should be ready to serve. This method of cooking
    mush is the most convenient, because not much stirring is required
    after the corn meal is thickened.
    A heavy aluminum kettle or an iron pot is a good utensil in which to
    cook mush, as it does not burn easily in either, although almost
    constant stirring is required. When the mush becomes very thick, the
    heated air, in forcing its way through the mush in the process of
    boiling, makes the mush pop and very often splash on the hands and
    burn them. To avoid such an accident, therefore, it is advisable to
    wrap the hand used for stirring in a towel or a cloth.
208.40. SAUTED CORN-MEAL-MUSH.—Mush cooked in the manner
    just explained may be poured into pans, such as bread pans, where it
    will harden and form a mold that can be sliced as thick or as thin as
    desired and then sauted. Corn-meal mush prepared in this way
    pleases the taste of many persons, and while some persons find it
    harder to digest than just plain mush, it serves to give variety to
    meals. For sauteing mush, a heavy iron or steel frying pan or griddle
    should be used, because utensils made of thin material will allow
    the mush to burn before it browns properly. Put enough fat, such as
    lard, cooking oil, or drippings, into the cooking utensil so that when
    heated it will be about ¼ inch deep all over the surface. When the
    utensil is very hot, put in the slices of mush and allow them to brown
    on one side. Then turn the slices over carefully, so as not to break
    them, and brown them on the other side. As will be observed, corn-
    meal mush does not brown quickly in sauteing. This characteristic is
    due to the large amount of moisture it contains. Serve the mush
    hot, and to add to its flavor serve with it sirup or honey.
209.41. CORN-MEAL CROQUETTES.—Croquettes of any kind add
    variety to a meal, and because they are attractive they appeal to the
    appetite. To make croquettes of corn meal, mold mush as for
    sauteing. Then cut this into slices 1 inch thick, and cut each slice
    into strips 1 inch wide. Roll these in slightly beaten egg and then in
    crumbs, and saute them in hot fat until they are crisp and brown.
    Serve these croquettes hot with either butter or sirup or both.


                                                                         97
210.42. LEFT-OVER CORN-MEAL MUSH.—Sauted corn-meal
    mush and corn-meal croquettes can, of course, be made from
    mush that is left over after it has been cooked to serve as a cereal;
    however, if there is only a small quantity left, it may be utilized in
    still another way, namely, as a garnish for the platter on which meat
    is served. To prepare corn-meal mush in this way, spread it about 1/3
    inch thick in a pan and allow it to cool. Then turn it out of the pan in
    a sheet on a board that has been floured; that is, covered thinly with
    flour. Cut this sheet of corn meal into small circles with the aid of a
    round cutter or into diamond shapes with a knife, and then brown
    both sides of each of these in butter.


     *     *    *     *     *



WHEAT

ORIGIN AND USE
211.43. WHEAT, owing to the fact that it is grown in all parts of the
    world and forms the basis for a large amount of the food of most
    people, is a very important grain. It was probably a native grass of
    Asia Minor and Egypt, for in these countries it first received
    cultivation. From the land of its origin, the use of wheat spread over
    all the world, but it was not introduced into America until after the
    discovery of this country by Columbus. Now, however, the United
    States raises more wheat than any other one country, and nearly one-
    fourth of all that is raised in the world.


     Wheat is universally used for bread, because it contains a large
     amount of the kind of protein that lends a rubbery consistency to
     dough and thus makes possible the incorporation of the gas or air
     required to make bread light. The use of wheat, however, is by no
     means restricted to bread, for, as is well known, many cereal foods are
     prepared from this grain.
212.44. In its simplest food form, wheat is prepared by merely removing
    the coarse bran from the outside of the wheat grain and leaving
    the grain whole. This is called hulled, or whole, wheat, and requires
    soaking or long, slow cooking in order that all its starch granules
    may be reached and softened sufficiently to make it palatable. The

98
    other preparations are made by crushing or grinding the grains from
    which some of the bran and germ has been removed. Besides flour,
    which, as has been implied, is not considered as a cereal in the
    sense used in this Section, these preparations include wheat grits,
    such foods as cream of wheat and farina, and many ready-to-eat
    cereals. In the preparation of wheat grits, much of the bran is
    allowed to remain, but neither cream of wheat nor farina contains
    cellulose in any appreciable quantity. As the addition of bran,
    however, serves to give these foods bulk, a much more ideal
    breakfast cereal will result if, before cooking, equal portions of the
    cereal and the bran are mixed. In preparing ready-to-eat wheat
    cereals for the market, the manufacturers subject the grains to such
    elaborate methods of cooking, rolling, and toasting that these foods
    require but very little additional attention before serving. The only
    wheat products that demand further attention at this time, therefore,
    are those which must be cooked before they can be served and eaten.




RECIPES  FOR                     WHEAT           AND          WHEAT
PRODUCTS
213.45. HULLED WHEAT.—Inasmuch as hulled, or whole, wheat
    requires very little preparation for the market, it is a comparatively
    cheap food. It is used almost exclusively as a breakfast cereal, but
    serves as a good substitute for hominy or rice. Although, as has
    been mentioned, it requires long cooking, its preparation for the table
    is so simple that the cooking need not necessarily increase its cost
    materially. One of the advantages of this food is that it never
    becomes so soft that it does not require thorough mastication.


    HULLED WHEAT (Sufficient to Serve Four)
    1 c. hulled wheat 3 c. water 1 tsp. salt
    Look the wheat over carefully and remove any foreign matter. Then
    add the water and soak 8 to 10 hours, or overnight. Add the salt,
    cook directly over the flame for ½ hour, and then finish cooking in
    a double boiler for 3 to 4 hours. Serve with cream or milk and sugar.
214.46. WHEAT GRITS.—The cereal known as wheat grits is made
    commercially by crushing the wheat grains and allowing a
    considerable proportion of the wheat bran to remain. Grits may be

                                                                        99
      used as a breakfast cereal, when they should be served hot with
      cream or milk and sugar; they also make an excellent luncheon dish
      if they are served with either butter or gravy. The fact that this cereal
      contains bran makes it an excellent one to use in cases where a food
      with bulk is desired. The accompanying recipe is for a plain cereal;
      however, an excellent variation may be had by adding ½ cupful of
      well-cleaned raisins ½ hour before serving.


      WHEAT GRITS (Sufficient to Serve Four)
      ½ tsp. salt 3 c. boiling water ¾ c. wheat grits
      Add the salt to the boiling water, sift the wheat grits through the
      fingers into the rapidly boiling water, and stir rapidly to prevent the
      formation of lumps. Cook for a few minutes until the grits thicken,
      and then place in a double boiler and cook 2 to 4 hours.
215.47. CREAM OF WHEAT.—In the manufacture of cream of wheat,
    not only is all the bran removed, as has been stated, but the wheat
    is made fine and granular. This wheat preparation, therefore, does
    not require so much cooking to make it palatable as do some of
    the other cereals; still, cooking it a comparatively long time tends
    to improve its flavor. When made according to the following recipe it
    is a very good breakfast dish:


      CREAM OF WHEAT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 tsp. salt 4-1/2 c. boiling water ¾ c. cream of wheat
      Add the salt to the boiling water, and when it bubbles sift in the
      cream of wheat through the fingers, stirring rapidly to prevent the
      formation of lumps. Cook over the flame for a few minutes until it
      thickens; then place it in a double boiler and cook for 1 to 2 hours.
      Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.
216.48. CREAM OF WHEAT WITH DATES.—Dates added to cream
    of wheat supply to a great extent the cellulose and mineral salts that
    are taken out when the bran is removed in the manufacture of this
    cereal. They likewise give to it a flavor that is very satisfactory,
    especially when added in the manner here explained.


      CREAM OF WHEAT WITH DATES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      ¾ c. cream of wheat 1 tsp. salt 4-1/2 c. boiling water ¾ c. dates


100
    Cook the cream of wheat in the manner directed in Art. 47. Wash the
    dates in hot water, cut them lengthwise with a sharp knife, and
    remove the seeds. Cut each date into four pieces and add them to
    the cream of wheat 10 minutes before serving, stirring them into
    the cereal just enough to distribute them evenly. Serve hot with
    cream or milk and sugar.
217.49. FARINA.—The wheat preparation called farina is very much the
    same as cream of wheat, being manufactured in practically the same
    manner. It is a good breakfast cereal when properly cooked, but it
    does not contain sufficient cellulose to put it in the class of bulky
    foods. However, as has been pointed out, this bulk may be supplied
    by mixing with it, before cooking, an equal amount of bran. In such
    a case, of course, more water will be needed and the cooking process
    will have to be prolonged. Plain farina should be prepared according
    to the recipe here given, but, as in preparing cream of wheat, dates
    may be added to impart flavor if desired.


    FARINA (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 tsp. salt 4 c. boiling water ¾ c. farina
    Add the salt to the boiling water, and as the water bubbles rapidly
    sift the farina into it slowly through the fingers, stirring rapidly to
    prevent the formation of lumps. Then place it in a double boiler and
    allow it cook for 2 to 4 hours. Serve hot with cream or milk and
    sugar.
218.50. GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES.—Graham flour is a wheat
    product that is high in food value, because in its manufacture no
    part of the wheat grain is removed. While the use of this flour as
    a breakfast cereal is not generally known, it can be made into a
    very appetizing and nutritious dish, especially if such fruit as dates is
    mixed with it.


    GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1-1/4 c. graham flour 3 c. water 1 tsp. salt 1 c. dates
    Moisten the graham flour carefully with 1 cupful of the cold water.
    When perfectly smooth, add it to the remainder of the water, to
    which the salt has been added, and boil rapidly, allowing the
    mixture to cook until it thickens. Then place it in a double boiler and
    cook 1 to 2 hours. Wash the dates, remove the stones, and cut each


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      into four pieces. Add these to the mush 10 minutes before serving.
      Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.
219.51. LEFT-OVER WHEAT CEREALS.—Numerous ways have
    been devised for utilizing wheat cereals that are left over, so that no
    waste need result from what is not eaten at the meal for which a
    cereal is cooked. For instance, left-over hulled wheat can be used in
    soup in the same way as barley and rice, and plain cream of wheat
    and farina can be molded, sliced, and sauted like corn-meal mush
    and served with sirup. The molded cereal can also be cut into 2-inch
    cubes and served with any fruit juice that is thickened slightly with
    corn starch. Besides utilizing left-over wheat cereals in the ways
    mentioned, it is possible to make them into custards and souffles,
    as is shown in the two accompanying recipes, in which cream of
    wheat may be used in the same manner as farina.


      FARINA CUSTARD (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 c. cold farina 2 c. milk 2 eggs ½ c. sugar ¼ tsp. nutmeg
      Stir the farina and milk together until they are perfectly smooth;
      then add the eggs, beaten slightly, the sugar, and the nutmeg. Bake
      in a moderately hot oven until firm and serve hot or cold with any
      sauce desired.
      FARINA SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 c. cold farina 1-1/2 c. milk ½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. paprika 1 c. grated
      cheese 2 eggs
      Stir the farina smooth with the milk, add the salt, paprika, grated
      cheese, and egg yolks, which should first be beaten. Then beat the
      egg whites stiff and fold them into the mixture. Pour all into a
      buttered baking dish, place this in a large pan filled with enough hot
      water to reach almost to the top of the baking dish, and bake in a
      moderately hot oven until the mixture in the dish is firm in the
      center. Serve at once upon taking from the oven.




102
RICE

VARIETIES AND STRUCTURE
220.52. RICE, next to wheat, is used more extensively as a food than any
    other cereal. It is a plant much like wheat in appearance, but it grows
    only in warm climates and requires very moist soil. In fact, the best
    land for rice is that which may be flooded with about 6 inches of
    water. This cereal is of two kinds, namely, Carolina rice and Japanese
    rice. Carolina rice, which is raised chiefly in the southeastern part
    of the United States, has a long, narrow grain, whereas Japanese rice,
    which originated in Japan and is raised extensively in that country
    and China and India, has a short, flat, oval grain. Efforts made to
    raise the Japanese variety in the United States show a peculiarity of
    this cereal, for when it is planted in the same locality as Carolina rice,
    it soon loses its identity and takes on the shape of the other.
    Although vast crops of rice are raised in the United States, a large
    quantity of it must be imported, because these crops are not
    sufficient to supply the demands of this country.
221.53. Before rice grains are prepared for use as food, they have
    two coverings. One is a coarse husk that is thrashed off and leaves the
    grain in the form of unpolished rice and the other, a thin, brown
    coating resembling bran. This thin coating, which is very difficult to
    remove, is called, after its removal, rice polishings. At one time, so
    much was said about the harmful effect of polished rice that a
    demand for unpolished rice was begun. This feeling of harm,
    however, was unnecessary, for while polished rice lacks mineral
    matter to a great extent, it is hot harmful to a person and need cause
    no uneasiness, unless the other articles of the diet do not supply a
    sufficient amount of this food substance. After the inner coating has
    been removed, some of the rice is treated with paraffin or glucose
    and talc to give it a glazed appearance. This is called polish, and is
    sometimes confounded with the term rice polishings. However, no
    confusion regarding these terms will result if it is remembered that
    rice polishings are the thin inner coating that is removed and polish is
    what is added to the rice. In composition, rice differs from the other
    cereals in that it is practically all starch and contains almost no fat
    nor protein.
222.54. To be perfect, rice should be unbroken and uniform in size,
    and in order that it may be put on the market in this form the broken
    grains are sifted out. These broken grains are sold at a lower price
    than the whole grains, but the only difference between them is

                                                                          103
      their appearance, the broken grains being quite as nutritious as the
      whole grains. In either form, rice is a comparatively cheap food,
      because it is plentiful, easily transported, and keeps perfectly for an
      indefinite period of time with very little care in storage. Before rice is
      used, it should be carefully examined and freed from the husks that
      are apt to remain in it; then it should be washed in hot water. The
      water in which rice is washed will have a milky appearance, which is
      due to the coating that is put on in polishing rice.




RECIPES FOR RICE
223.55. Rice may be cooked by three methods, each of which
    requires a different proportion of water. These methods are boiling,
    which requires twelve times as much water as rice; the Japanese
    method, which requires five times as much; and steaming, which
    requires two and one-half times as much. Whichever of these
    methods is employed, however, it should be remembered that the
    rice grains, when properly cooked, must be whole and distinct. To
    give them this form and prevent the rice from having a pasty
    appearance, this cereal should not be stirred too much in cooking
    nor should it be cooked too long.
224.56. BOILED RICE.—Boiling is about the simplest way in which
    to prepare rice for the table. Properly boiled rice not only forms a
    valuable dish itself, but is an excellent foundation for other dishes
    that may be served at any meal. The water in which rice is boiled
    should not be wasted, as it contains much nutritive material. This
    water may be utilized in the preparation of soups or sauces, or it
    may even be used to supply the liquid required in the making of
    yeast bread. The following recipe sets forth clearly how rice should
    be boiled:


      BOILED RICE (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      1 c. rice 3 tsp. salt 3 qt. boiling water
      Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Boil
      rapidly until the water begins to appear milky because of the
      starch coming out of the rice into the water or until a grain can be
      easily crushed between the fingers. Drain the cooked rice through a
      colander, and then pour cold water over the rice in the colander, so as

104
    to wash out the loose starch and leave each grain distinct. Reheat the
    rice by shaking it over the fire, and serve hot with butter, gravy, or
    cream or milk and sugar.
225.57. JAPANESE METHOD OF COOKING RICE.—Rice prepared
    by the Japanese method may be used in the same ways as boiled rice.
    However, unless some use is to be made of the liquid from boiled
    rice, the Japanese method has the advantage of being a more
    economical way of cooking this cereal.


    JAPANESE METHOD (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
    1 c. rice 1-1/2 tsp. salt 5 c. boiling water
    Wash the rice, add it to the boiling salted water, and boil slowly for
    15 minutes. Then cover the utensil in which the rice is cooking and
    place it in the oven for 15 minutes more, in order to evaporate the
    water more completely and make the grains soft without being
    mushy. Serve in the same way as boiled rice.
226.58. STEAMED RICE.—To steam rice requires more time than
    either of the preceding cooking methods, but it causes no loss of
    food material. Then, too, unless the rice is stirred too much while it
    is steaming, it will have a better appearance than rice cooked by the
    other methods. As in the case of boiled rice, steamed rice may be
    used as the foundation for a variety of dishes and may be served in
    any meal.


    STEAMED RICE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. rice 1-1/2 tsp. salt 2-1/2 c. water
    Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Cook
    it for 5 minutes and then place it in a double boiler and allow it to
    cook until it is soft. Keep the cooking utensil covered and do not
    stir the rice. About 1 hour will be required to cook rice in this way.
    Serve in the same way as boiled rice.
227.59. CREAMED RICE.—To increase the nutritive value of rice,
    it is sometimes cooked with milk and cream to form what is
    known as creamed rice. These dairy products added to rice supply
    protein and fat, food substances in which this cereal is lacking,
    and also add to its palatability.




                                                                      105
      CREAMED RICE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2-1/2 c. milk 1 c. rice 1-1/2 tsp. salt ½ c. cream
      Heat the milk in the small pan of a double boiler and add to it the
      rice and salt. Place this pan into the larger one and cook for about 1
      hour, or until the rice is soft. Then pour the cream over the rice and
      cook a few minutes longer. Serve hot.
228.60. ORIENTAL RICE.—As rice is a bland food, practically
    lacking in flavor, any flavoring material that may be added in its
    preparation or serving aids in making it more appetizing. Oriental
    rice, which is prepared according to the following recipe, therefore
    makes a very tasty dish and one that may be used in place of a
    vegetable for lunch or dinner.


      ORIENTAL RICE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 c. rice 2-1/2 c. stock, or meat broth 2 Tb. butter 1 slice onion ½ c.
      canned tomatoes
      Steam the rice in the stock until it is soft by the method given for
      steaming rice. Then brown the butter and onion in a frying pan, add
      the tomatoes, and heat thoroughly. Pour this mixture into the rice,
      mix well, and serve.
229.61. BROWNED RICE.—Another way in which to add variety in
    serving rice is to brown it. Sufficient browned rice for six persons
    may be prepared by putting 1 cupful of clean rice in an iron frying
    pan that contains no fat, placing the pan directly over the flame, and
    stirring the rice until the grains become an even, light brown. Rice
    that has been treated in this way has additional flavor added to it
    and can be used in the same way as boiled or steamed rice.
230.62. SAVORY RICE.—Rice browned in the manner just explained is
    used in the preparation of savory rice, a dish that serves as a very
    good substitute for a vegetable. Savory rice may be prepared
    according to the following recipe:


      SAVORY RICE (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      1 c. browned rice 2-1/2 c. water 1 tsp. salt ½ c. chopped celery 2
      Tb. butter 1 small onion, chopped ½ c. canned tomatoes ¼ c.
      chopped pimiento



106
    Steam the browned rice in the salted water as in steaming rice, and
    cook the celery, which should be chopped fine, with the rice for the
    last half hour of the steaming. Brown the butter and add to it the
    onion finely chopped, the tomatoes, and the pimiento. A few
    minutes before serving time, add this to the rice, mix well, and serve
    hot.
231.63. LEFT-OVER RICE.—There are a variety of ways in which left-
    over rice may be used. For instance, rice that has been cooked and is
    not used may be utilized in soups, combined with pancake, muffin,
    or omelet mixtures, or made into puddings by mixing it with a
    custard and then baking. It may be served with fruit, made into
    patties, or combined with tomatoes, cheese, or meat to form an
    appetizing dish.
232.64. As has been shown, rice is one of the cereals that contain very
    little cellulose. Fruit added to it in the preparation of any dish makes
    up for this lack of cellulose and at the same time produces a
    delicious combination. Rice combined with pineapple to form a dish
    like that shown in Fig. 3 not only is very attractive but meets with
    the favor of many; besides, it provides a good way in which to utilize
    left-over rice.


    RICE WITH PINEAPPLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. steamed or creamed rice ¼ c. sugar 6 rings pineapple ¾ c.
    whipped cream
    Stir the sugar into the rice and if necessary moisten with a little cream.
    Shape the rice into six balls of equal size, making them so that they
    will be about the same in diameter as the rings of the pineapple, and
    place one in the center of each pineapple ring. Whip the cream with
    an egg whip or beater until it stands up well, and garnish each dish
    with the whipped cream before serving.
233.65. Another satisfactory dish may be made by combining eggs with
    left-over rice to form RICE PATTIES. Owing to the protein supplied
    by the eggs, such a combination as this may be made to take the
    place of a light meat dish for luncheon or supper, and, to impart
    additional flavor, it may be served with any sauce desired.


    RICE PATTIES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. stale crumbs ½ tsp. salt ½ tsp. celery salt 2 eggs 2 c. steamed
    rice

                                                                          107
      Add ½ cupful of the crumbs, the salt, the celery salt, and the eggs,
      slightly beaten, to the cold steamed rice. If more moisture seems to
      be necessary, add a very little milk. Shape the rice with the
      other ingredients into round patties, and then roll these in the
      remainder of the crumbs and saute them in hot butter. Serve the
      patties hot and with sauce, if desired.
234.66. Besides left-over rice, small quantities of one or more kinds of
    left over meat and stock or gravy can be used to make a very
    appetizing dish known as SPANISH RICE, which may be used as the
    main, or heavy, dish in a luncheon.


      SPANISH RICE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 small onion 2 Tb. butter 1-1/2 c. steamed or boiled rice 1 c.
      chopped meat ½ c. meat stock or gravy ½ c. canned tomatoes 2 Tb.
      grated cheese ¼ c. stale crumbs
      Chop the onion and brown it in butter. Mix well the browned onion,
      rice, chopped meat, stock or gravy, and tomatoes, and pour all into a
      buttered baking dish. Then sprinkle the cheese and crumbs on top of
      the mixture and bake for 1 hour in a slow oven. Serve hot.


      *    *     *    *     *



OATS

COMPOSITION AND VARIETIES
235.67. As an article of food, OATS are used very extensively. In
    Scotland, this cereal formed the principal article of diet for many
    years, and as the hardiness of the Scotch people is usually attributed
    to their diet the value of oats as a food cannot be overestimated.
    This grain, or cereal, grows very much like wheat and yields an
    abundant crop in fairly good soil; but it is unlike wheat in
    composition, for it contains very little protein and considerable fat.
    In fact, it contains more fat than any other cereal. Because of its lack
    of protein, it will not make raised bread, and when it must serve the
    purpose of bread it is made into flat cakes and baked. Although it is
    used to some extent in this way, its greatest use for food, particularly
    in the United States, is in the form of oatmeal and rolled oats. In the

108
    preparation of oatmeal for the market, the oat grains are crushed or
    cut into very small pieces, while in the preparation of rolled oats
    they are crushed flat between large rollers.




RECIPES FOR OATS
236.68. The same methods of cooking can be applied to both oatmeal
    and rolled oats. Therefore, while the recipes here given are for rolled
    oats, it will be well to note that they can be used for oatmeal by
    merely substituting this cereal wherever rolled oats are mentioned.
237.69. ROLLED OATS.—Because of the high food value of rolled
    oats, this cereal is excellent for cold weather, especially when it is
    served with hot cream or milk and sugar. It can be prepared very
    easily, as the accompanying recipe shows.


    ROLLED OATS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. rolled oats 3 c. boiling water 1 tsp. salt
    Stir the oats into the boiling water to which the salt has been
    added. Boil 2 minutes, stirring them occasionally to keep them
    from sticking. Then cook them in a double boiler for 2 to 4 hours.
    During this time, stir the oats as little as possible, so as to prevent
    them from becoming mushy. Serve hot.
238.70. ROLLED OATS WITH APPLES.—The combination of rolled
    oats and apples is rather unusual, still it makes a dish that lends variety
    to a breakfast or a luncheon. Such a dish is easily digested, because
    the apples supply to it a considerable quantity of cellulose and
    mineral salts.


    ROLLED OATS WITH APPLES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2/3 c. rolled oats 2 c. boiling water ½ tsp. salt 6 medium-sized apples
    1 c. water ½ c. sugar
    Stir the rolled oats into the boiling salted water and cook them until
    they set; then place them in a double boiler and cook for 2 to 4
    hours. Pare and core the apples, and then cook them whole in a
    syrup made of 1 cupful of water and ½ cupful of sugar until they are
    soft, but not soft enough to fall apart. To serve the food, place it in

                                                                           109
      six cereal dishes. Put a large spoonful of the cooked oats in each dish,
      arrange an apple on top of the oats, and then fill the hole left by the
      core with rolled oats. Over each portion, pour some of the sirup left
      from cooking the apples, and serve hot with cream.


239.71. ROLLED-OATS JELLY WITH PRUNES.—If an appetizing
    dish for warm weather is desired, rolled oats may be cooked to form a
    jelly and then have stewed prunes added to it. When served with
    cream, this combination of rolled oats and prunes is high in food
    value and consequently may be made the important dish in the meal
    for which it is used.


      ROLLED-OATS JELLY WITH PRUNES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 c. rolled oats 3 c. water 1 tsp. salt 12 stewed prunes
      Cook the rolled oats according to the directions already given, and
      then force them through a fine sieve. Remove the seeds from the
      prunes that have been stewed by cooking them very slowly until
      they are soft in a sufficient quantity of water to cover them well,
      drain off all the juice, and place two prunes in the bottom of each
      of six cups, or molds, that have been moistened with cold water. Fill
      each with the rolled-oats jelly and set them aside to chill. When
      ready to serve, turn the food out of each mold into a cereal dish and
      serve with cream and sugar.
240.72. LEFT-OVER ROLLED OATS.—Every housewife should
    refrain from throwing away any left-over rolled oats, because all of
    this cereal remaining from a previous meal can be used to good
    advantage. For example, it can be made especially tasty if, before it is
    cold, it is added to fruit, poured into molds and allowed to stand in
    them until it is cold, and then served with sugar and cream. Fruits of
    any kind, such as cooked peaches, prunes, and apricots or fresh
    bananas, may be used for this purpose by cutting them into small
    pieces. Another way of utilizing this cereal when it is warm is to pour
    it into a pan or a dish, press it down until it is about 1 inch thick,
    and then, after it is cold, cut it into pieces of any desirable size or
    shape, brown these pieces in butter, and then serve them with
    sirup. If the left-over cereal is cold, a good plan would be to serve it
    with baked apple; that is, for each person to be served, place a
    spoonful of the cereal in a dish with a baked apple, sprinkle a little
    cinnamon or nutmeg over it, and then serve it with cream. Still


110
    another very good way in which to utilize left-over rolled oats is to
    make it into croquettes according to the following recipe:


    ROLLED-OATS CROQUETTES (Sufficient to Serve Four)
    ½ c. grated cheese ¾ c. crumbs ½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. paprika 1 c.
    cooked rolled oats 1 egg
    Work the cheese with ½ cupful of the crumbs, the salt, and the
    paprika into the cold rolled oats; then add the egg, which should
    be slightly beaten. If more moisture seems to be necessary, add a
    little milk. Form the ingredients into small croquettes, and then roll
    them in the remaining ¼ cupful of crumbs and saute then in butter.
    Garnish with parsley and serve.


    *     *    *     *     *



BARLEY

ORIGIN AND USE
241.73. BARLEY is a grain, or cereal, that grows very much like
    wheat. However, it is hardier than wheat or any other cereals and
    may be grown through a greater range of climates. Barley has been
    cultivated from the most ancient times; in fact, its cultivation can be
    traced as far back as man’s occupations have been recorded. The
    grain of this cereal has also played an important part in the
    advancement of man, for, according to history, some of the present
    weights and measures originated from it. Thus, the Troy weight
    grain is said to have been first fixed by finding the average weight of
    a barley grain, and the inch of linear measure, by placing three grains
    of barley end to end.
242.74. Although several varieties of barley have been cultivated as food
    from the earliest times, the grain is now used principally in the
    manufacture of malt. In this form, it is used for the malting of
    foods and in the making of alcoholic liquors. To produce malt,
    the barley grains are moistened and allowed to sprout, and during
    this process of sprouting the starch of the barley is changed to sugar.
    The grains are then dried, and the sprouts, which are called malt
    sprouts, are broken off and sold as cattle food. The grain that

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      remains, which is really malt, is then crushed and combined with
      other grains for use as malted cereal food. When barley is used to
      make malt, or fermented, liquors, it is soaked in water, which absorbs
      the sugar in it; then yeast is added, and this produces alcohol by
      causing the fermentation of the sugar.
243.75. In the United States, pearl barley is the name applied to the
    most common form of barley used as food. In this form, the layer
    of bran is removed from the outside of the barley grain, but no
    change is made in the grain itself. Pearl barley is used for soups and
    as a breakfast cereal, but for whatever purpose it is employed it
    requires very long cooking to make it palatable. Very often the water
    in which a small amount of pearl barley has been cooked for a long
    time is used to dilute the milk given to a child who has indigestion or
    who is not able to take whole milk.




RECIPES FOR BARLEY
244.76. PEARL BARLEY.—As a breakfast cereal, possibly the only
    satisfactory way in which to prepare pearl barley is to cook it in a
    double boiler, although after it is cooked in this way it may, of
    course, be used to prepare other breakfast dishes. Barley is not
    liked by everybody; nevertheless, it is an excellent food and its
    nature is such that even after long cooking it remains so firm as to
    require thorough mastication, which is the first great step in the
    digestion of starchy foods.


      PEARL BARLEY (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 c. pearl barley 1 tsp. salt 4-1/2 c. boiling water
      Look the barley over carefully and remove any foreign particles it
      may contain. Add it to the boiling salted water, and cook it directly
      over the flame for 10 minutes. Then place it in a double boiler and
      cook for 3 to 4 hours. For the barley to be cooked properly, the
      water should be completely absorbed. Serve hot with cream or milk
      and sugar.
245.77. PEARL BARLEY WITH FRUIT.—Cooked barley does not
    contain very much flavor. Therefore, if a more tasty dish is
    desired, it is usually necessary to add something, such as fruit, that


112
    will improve the flavor. Various fruits may be used with barley, as is
    shown in the accompanying recipe.


    PEARL BARLEY WITH FRUIT (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
    1 c. pearl barley 1 tsp. salt 5 c. boiling water 1 c. dates, figs, or
    prunes
    Examine the barley to see that it contains no foreign matter, and then
    put it to cook in the boiling water to which the salt has been added.
    After cooking directly over the flame for 10 minutes, place it in a
    double boiler and cook it for 3 to 4 hours. If dates are to be used,
    wash them in warm water, remove the seeds, and cut each into four
    pieces. In the case of figs, soak them in hot water for ½ hour and
    then cut them into small pieces. If prunes are desired, stew them as
    explained in Art. 71, and when the seeds are removed cut them into
    small pieces. Add the fruit to the barley 10 or 15 minutes before
    removing it from the stove. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.
246.78. LEFT-OVER BARLEY.—Cooked barley that is left over from a
    meal should not be wasted. That which has been cooked without
    fruit may be added to meat stock or used with vegetables for soup.
    Also, cooked barley that has had time to set and become stiff may
    be sauted in butter until it is slightly brown. When served with
    meat gravy, barley prepared in this manner makes a very appetizing
    and satisfying luncheon dish.




RYE, BUCKWHEAT, AND MILLET
247.79. RYE is a grain that grows very much like wheat, but it can be
    cultivated in poorer soil and colder climates than this cereal. It is not
    used alone to any great extent for anything except the making of
    bread, but it is particularly well adapted for this purpose, since it
    contains a large amount of gluten, the food substance necessary for
    successful bread making, and, like wheat, will make yeast bread when
    used alone. Bread made of rye flour has a dark color and a peculiar
    flavor, and while these characteristics make it unpopular with some
    persons it is used extensively by certain classes, especially persons
    from foreign countries. Besides its use for bread, rye is frequently
    combined with other cereals in the manufacture of ready-to-eat
    cereal foods.

                                                                         113
248.80. BUCKWHEAT is used less extensively than any of the other
    cereals already mentioned, but it has an advantage over them in that it
    thrives in soil that is too poor for any other crop. The buckwheat
    plant grows to a height of about 2 feet and blossoms with a white
    flower. Its seeds, which are three-cornered in shape, bear a close
    resemblance to beechnuts, and because of this peculiar similarity,
    this cereal was originally called beech wheat. Practically the only use
    to which buckwheat is put is to grind it into very fine flour for
    griddle cakes, recipes for which are given in another Section.
249.81. MILLET as a cereal food finds practically no use in the United
    States; in fact, in this country it is grown almost exclusively for cattle
    food, the stalk of the plant being large and juicy and containing a
    considerable amount of food. The seed of this plant furnishes the
    smallest grain known for use as food, and because of its size it is
    very hard to gather. Millet, however, is used extensively by some
    of the people of Southern Asia and India, who depend on it very
    largely, since, in some localities, it forms their only cereal food. In
    these countries, it is ground into flour and used for making bread.



PREPARED, OR READY-TO-EAT, CEREALS
250.82. All the cereals that have been discussed up to this point
    require cooking; but there are many varieties of cereal food on the
    market that are ready to eat and therefore need no further
    preparation. Chief among these are the cereal foods known as
    flakes. These are first made by cooking the grain, then rolling it
    between rollers, and finally toasting it. The grains that are treated in
    this way for the preparation of flake foods are wheat, corn, rye, and
    rice. It is well to remember this fact, because the trade name does
    not always indicate the kind of grain that has been used to make the
    food. In another form in which cereals, principally wheat, appear on
    the market, they are cooked, shredded, pressed into biscuits, and
    then toasted. Again, cereals are made into loaves with the use of
    yeast, like bread, and after being thoroughly baked, are ground into
    small pieces. Wheat generally forms the basis of these preparations,
    and to it are added such other grains as rye and barley.
251.83. The toasting of cereals improves their flavor very materially and
    at the same time increases their digestibility. In fact, cereals that
    have been subjected to this process are said to be predigested,
    because the starch granules that have been browned in the toasting
    are changed into dextrine, and this is one of the stages through

114
    which they must pass in their process of digestion in the body.
    However, the housewife should not allow herself to be influenced
    unduly by what is said about all prepared cereals, because the
    manufacturer, who has depended largely on advertising for the sale
    of his product, sometimes becomes slightly overzealous and makes
    statements that will bear questioning. For instance, some of these
    foods are claimed to be muscle builders, but every one should
    remember that, with the exception of rye and wheat, which build up
    the tissues to a certain extent, the cereals strengthen the muscles in
    only a slight degree. Others of these foods are said to be nerve and
    brain foods, but it should be borne in mind that no food acts
    directly on the nerves or the brain. In reality, only those foods
    which keep the body mentally and physically in good condition
    have an effect on the nerves and the brain, and this at best is an
    indirect effect.




SERVING CEREALS
252.84. Although, as is shown by the recipes that have been given, cereals
    may have a place in practically all meals that the housewife is called
    on to prepare, they are used more frequently for breakfast than for
    any other meal. When a cereal forms a part of this meal, it should, as
    a rule, be served immediately after the fruit, provided the breakfast
    is served in courses. Many persons, of course, like fresh fruit served
    with cooked or dry cereal, and, in such an event, the fruit and cereal
    courses should be combined. A banana sliced over flakes or a few
    spoonfuls of berries or sliced peaches placed on top afford a
    pleasing change from the usual method of serving cereals. Another
    way in which to lend variety to the cereal and at the same time
    add nourishment to the diet is to serve a poached egg on top of the
    shredded-wheat biscuit or in a nest of corn flakes, especially if they
    have been previously heated. In fact, any of the dry cereals become
    more appetizing if they are heated thoroughly in a slow oven and
    then allowed to cool, as this process freshens them by driving off
    the moisture that they absorb and that makes them tough.


    To add to both dry and cooked cereals protein and fat, or the
    food elements in which they are not so high, milk or cream is
    usually served with them. Of these dairy products, which may be


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      served hot or cold, milk adds more protein than cream, and cream
      more fat than milk. Some persons, however, who do not care for
      milk and cream or cannot take them, substitute a little butter for
      them or find fruit juice a very good accompaniment, especially to a
      dry cereal. Sugar is generally served with both kinds of cereals, as
      the majority of persons prefer them slightly sweet; but there is no
      logical reason for its use except to add flavor.


      *    *     *    *     *



ITALIAN PASTES

PREPARATION,                         VARIETIES,                     AND
COMPOSITION
253.85. In addition to the cereals that have already been discussed,
    macaroni and foods of a similar nature are entitled to a place in this
    Section, because they are made from wheat flour and are therefore
    truly cereal products. These foods, which are commonly referred to
    as ITALIAN PASTES, originated in Italy. In that country they were
    made from a flour called semolina, which is derived from a native
    wheat that is very hard and contains more protein than is required
    for the making of ordinary dough mixtures. Later, when the
    manufacture of these foods was taken up in the United States, the
    flour for them had to be imported from Italy; but it has since been
    discovered that flour made from the variety of wheat called durum,
    which is grown in the spring-wheat territory of this country, can be
    used for producing these pastes. In fact, this kind of flour has proved
    to be so successful that it now takes the place of what was
    formerly imported.
254.86. To produce the Italian pastes, the wheat, from which the bran has
    been removed, is ground into flour. This flour is made into a stiff
    dough, which is rolled into sheets and forced over rods, usually of
    metal, or made into a mass and forced over rods, and allowed to dry
    in the air. When sufficiently dry, the rods are removed, leaving slender
    tubes, or sticks, that have holes through the center. Because of the
    manufacturing processes involved in the production of these foods
    for market, they are higher in price than some cereals, but their value



116
    lies in the fact that they are practically imperishable and are easily
    prepared and digested.
255.87. Italian pastes are of several varieties, chief among which are
    macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli. Macaroni is the largest in
    circumference; spaghetti, a trifle smaller; and vermicelli, very small
    and without a hole through the center. These pastes and variations of
    them are made from the same dough; therefore, the tests for
    determining the quality of one applies to all of them. These tests
    pertain to their color, the way in which they break, and the manner in
    which they cook. To be right, they should be of an even, creamy
    color; if they look gray or are white or streaked with white, they are
    of inferior quality. When they are broken into pieces, they should
    break off perfectly straight; if they split up lengthwise, they contain
    weak places due to streaks. All the varieties should, upon boiling,
    hold their shape and double in size; in case they break into pieces
    and flatten, they are of poor quality.
256.88. Since the Italian pastes are made from wheat, their food
    substances are similar to those of wheat. As in other wheat
    products, protein is found in them in the form of gluten, but, owing
    to the variety of wheat used for them, it occurs in greater proportion
    in these foods than in most wheat products. In fact, the Italian
    pastes are so high in protein, or tissue-building material, that they
    very readily take the place of meat. Unlike meat, however, they
    contain carbohydrates in the form of wheat starch. They do not
    contain much fat or mineral salts, though, being lower in these food
    substances than many of the other foods made from wheat.




RECIPES FOR ITALIAN PASTES
257.89. In nearly all recipes for macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli, as
    well as the numerous varieties of these foods, the first steps in
    their preparation for the table are practically the same, for all of these
    foods must be cooked to a certain point and in a certain way before
    they can be used in the numerous ways possible to prepare them.
    Therefore, in order that success may be met in the preparation of
    the dishes that are made from these foods, these underlying
    principles should be thoroughly understood.




                                                                          117
      In the first place, it should be borne in mind that while the time
      required to cook the Italian pastes depends on their composition
      and dryness, the average length of time is about 30 minutes. Another
      important thing to remember is that they should always be put to
      cook in boiling water that contains 2 teaspoonfuls of salt to each
      cupful of macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli, and that they should be
      kept boiling until the cooking is done, for if the pieces are not in
      constant motion they will settle and burn. Tests may be applied to
      determine whether these foods have been cooked sufficiently. Thus,
      if a fork passes through them easily or they crush readily on being
      pressed between the fingers and the thumb, they are done, but as
      long as they feel hard and elastic they have not cooked enough.
      In the majority of recipes here given, macaroni is specified, but
      spaghetti, vermicelli, or any of the fancy Italian pastes may be
      substituted for the macaroni if one of them is preferred. It should
      also be remembered that any of these, when cut into small pieces,
      may be used in soups or served with sauce or gravy.
258.90. MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE.—Possibly the simplest
    way in which to prepare macaroni is with cream sauce, as is
    explained in the accompanying recipe. Such a sauce not only
    increases the food value of any Italian paste, but improves its flavor.
    Macaroni prepared in this way may be used as the principal dish of a
    light meal, as it serves to take the place of meat.


      MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1-1/2 c. macaroni 3 qt. boiling water 3 tsp. salt ¼ c. crumbs

CREAM SAUCE




118
2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp.
pepper 1 ½ c. milk
Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the salted boiling water, and cook it until it
is tender. To prepare the sauce, melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, and
pepper, stir until smooth, and gradually add the milk, which must be hot, stirring
rapidly so that no lumps form. Cook the cream sauce until it thickens and then add it to
the macaroni. Pour all into a baking dish, sprinkle the bread or cracker crumbs over
the top, dot with butter, and bake until the crumbs are brown. Serve hot.
259.91. MACARONI WITH EGGS.—Since macaroni is high in
    protein, it takes the place of meat in whatever form it is served, but
    when it is prepared with eggs it becomes an unusually good meat
    substitute. Therefore, when eggs are added as in the following recipe,
    no meat should be served in the same meal.


     MACARONI WITH EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
     1 c. macaroni 2 qt. boiling water 2 tsp. salt 1-1/2 c. milk 2 Tb. butter
     2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 4 hard-boiled eggs ¼ c. crumbs
     Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the boiling salted
     water, and cook it until tender. Make a cream, or white, sauce of
     the milk, butter, flour, salt, and pepper as explained in the recipe
     given in Art. 90. When the macaroni is tender, drain it and arrange
     a layer on the bottom of a baking dish, with a layer of sliced, hard-
     boiled eggs on top. Fill the dish with alternate layers of macaroni
     and eggs, pour the sauce over all, and sprinkle the crumbs over the
     top. Then place the dish in the oven and bake the food until the
     crumbs are brown. Serve hot.
260.92. Macaroni With Tomato and Bacon.—Macaroni alone is
    somewhat tasteless, so that, as has been pointed out, something is
    usually added to give this food a more appetizing flavor. In the
    recipe here given, tomatoes and bacon are used for this purpose.
    Besides improving the flavor, the bacon supplies the macaroni with
    fat, a food substance in which it is low.


     MACARONI WITH TOMATO AND BACON (Sufficient to Serve
     Six)
     1 c. macaroni 2 qt. boiling water 2 tsp. salt 2 c. canned tomatoes 8
     thin slices bacon


                                                                                         119
      Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling
      salted water until it is tender. Place a layer of the cooked macaroni
      on the bottom of a baking dish; over this layer put 1 cupful of the
      tomatoes, and on top of them spread four slices of bacon. Then add
      another layer of the macaroni, the other cupful of tomatoes, and a
      third layer of macaroni. On top of this layer, place the remaining four
      slices of bacon, and then bake the food for one half hour in a slow
      oven. Serve hot.
261.93. Macaroni With Cheese.—Cheese is combined with macaroni
    probably more often than any other food. It supplies considerable
    flavor to the macaroni and at the same time provides fat and
    additional protein. The cooking operation is practically the same as
    that just given for macaroni with tomatoes and bacon.


      MACARONI WITH CHEESE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1-1/2 c. macaroni 3 qt. boiling water 3 tsp. salt 1-1/2 Tb. butter 1-
      1/2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1/8 tsp. paprika 1-1/2 c. milk
      1 c. grated or finely cut cheese ¼ c. crumbs
      Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
      the 3 quarts of boiling water to which 3 teaspoonfuls of salt has been
      added. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, the 1 teaspoonful
      of salt, the pepper, and the paprika, stir until smooth, and then
      gradually add the milk, which should be hot. Allow to cook until it
      thickens. Arrange the cooked macaroni in layers, pouring the sauce
      and sprinkling salt and cheese over each layer. Then cover the top
      layer with the crumbs and bake the food in a moderate oven for one
      half hour. Serve hot.


262.94. Macaroni With Cheese and Tomato.—Although the food
    combinations given are very satisfactory, a dish that is extremely
    appetizing to many persons may be made by combining both
    cheese and tomato with macaroni. Such a nutritious combination,
    can be used as the principal dish of a heavy meal.


      MACARONI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO (Sufficient to Serve
      Six)
      1 c. macaroni 1 c. grated cheese 2 qt. boiling water 2 Tb. butter 2
      tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1 ½ c. canned tomatoes 1 tsp. salt


120
    Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
    the boiling water to which 2 teaspoonfuls of salt has been added. Put
    a layer of the cooked macaroni on the bottom of a baking dish,
    pour one-half of the tomatoes and one-third of the cheese over it,
    dot with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Then add
    another layer of macaroni, the remainder of the tomatoes, one-third
    more of the cheese, butter, salt, and pepper. Finally, arrange another
    layer of macaroni, put the remaining cheese and some butter on top
    of it, and bake the food for ½ hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot.
263.95. Macaroni Italian Style.—If small quantities of fried or boiled
    ham remain after a meal, they can be used with macaroni to make a
    very tasty dish known as macaroni Italian style. As ham is a highly
    seasoned meat, it improves the flavor of the macaroni and at the same
    time adds nutrition to the dish.


    MACARONI ITALIAN STYLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. macaroni 2 qt. boiling water 2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1
    ½ c. scalded milk 2/3 c. grated cheese 1 tsp. salt ½ tsp. paprika ½ c.
    finely chopped, cold boiled ham ¼ c. crumbs
    Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling water
    to which has been added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Drain, and then
    reheat it in a white sauce made of the butter, flour, and milk. Add
    the cheese and season with salt and paprika. Arrange in layers in a
    baking dish, placing the cold ham between each two layers of
    macaroni and having the top layer of macaroni, sprinkle the crumbs
    on top of the upper layer, and bake the food until the crumbs are
    brown. Garnish with parsley and serve.
264.96. MACARONI AND KIDNEY BEANS.—The combination of
    canned kidney beans and macaroni is a rather unusual one, but it
    makes a very appetizing dish, especially when canned tomatoes are
    added, as in the recipe here given.


    MACARONI AND KIDNEY BEANS (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
    1 c. macaroni 2 qt. water 2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ¾ c. hot
    milk ½ c. canned tomatoes 1 tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper 1 c. canned
    kidney beans
    Cook the macaroni in the salted water until it is tender and then
    drain it. Prepare the sauce by melting the butter in a saucepan,
    rubbing the flour into it until a smooth paste is formed, and then

                                                                        121
      adding slowly the hot milk. Cook this sauce for 5 minutes. Force the
      tomato through a sieve, turn it into the hot sauce, and season all with
      salt and pepper. Pour the sauce over the macaroni and the kidney
      beans, and then heat all together. When the food is thoroughly
      heated, turn it into a dish and serve.
265.97. SPAGHETTI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO SAUCE.—
    The accompanying recipe for spaghetti with cheese and tomato sauce
    will serve to illustrate that this form of Italian paste may be prepared
    in the same manner as macaroni; that is, to show how simple it is to
    substitute one kind of Italian paste for another. Any of these
    pastes, as has been mentioned, is especially appetizing when
    prepared with cheese and tomato.


      SPAGHETTI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO SAUCE (Sufficient
      to Serve Six)
      1 c. spaghetti 2 Tb. butter 2 qt. boiling water 2 Tb. flour 2 tsp. salt
      ½ c. grated cheese 1 can tomatoes 1 tsp. salt 1 small onion, chopped
      ¼ tsp. pepper ½ c. water
      Boil the spaghetti in the 2 quarts of boiling water to which has
      been added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, and after it is tender drain off the
      water. Then proceed to make the sauce. Boil the tomatoes and the
      chopped onion in the ½ cupful of water for 10 minutes. Strain this
      mixture and to it add the butter and the flour, which should first be
      mixed with a little cold water. Cook this until it thickens and then
      add the cheese, 1 teaspoonful of salt, and the pepper. Pour the
      entire mixture over the cooked spaghetti, reheat, and serve.
266.98. Left-Over Italian Pastes.—No cooked Italian paste of any kind
    should ever be wasted. Any left-over macaroni, spaghetti, or
    vermicelli can be reheated and served as it was originally or it can be
    used in soups. If a sufficient amount is left after a meal, a good plan
    is to utilize it in croquettes. To make such croquettes, chop the left-
    over food fine and hold it together with a thick white sauce or with
    raw eggs. Then form it into croquettes of the desired shape, roll
    these in bread or cracker crumbs, and brown them in butter.



BREAKFAST MENU
267.99. A well-planned breakfast menu is here given, with the intention
    that it be prepared and used. This menu, as will be observed, calls

122
     for at least one of the dishes that have been described, as well as
     some that have not. Directions for the latter, however, are given,
     so that no difficulty will be experienced in preparing the menu.
     After the recipes have been followed out carefully, it will be
     necessary to report on the success that is had with each dish and to
     send this report in with the answers to the Examination Questions
     at the end of this Section. The recipes are intended to serve six
     persons, but they may be changed if the family consists of fewer or
     more persons by merely regulating the amounts to suit the required
     number, as is explained elsewhere.



MENU
Berries and Cream or Oranges Cream of Wheat or Rolled Oats and Cream Scrambled
Eggs Buttered Toast Cocoa or Coffee


SCRAMBLED EGGS
5 eggs ½ c. milk ½ tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 1/8 tsp. pepper
Beat the eggs slightly and add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat a pan, put in the butter,
and, when it is melted, turn in the mixture. Cook this mixture until it thickens as much
as desired, being careful to stir it and to scrape it from the bottom of the pan, so that it will
not burn. Remove from the pan and serve hot.


BUTTERED TOAST
Bread for toasting should as a rule be 48 hours or more old. Cut the desired number of
slices, making each about ¼ to ½ inch thick. Place the slices on a toaster over a bed of
clear coals or on a broiler under a slow gas flame. Turn the bread frequently until it
assumes an even light brown on both sides. Remove from the heat, spread each slice with
butter, and serve while hot and crisp.


COCOA
2 c. scalded milk 3 Tb. cocoa 3 Tb. sugar ¼ tsp. salt 2-1/2 c. boiling water
Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt. Stir the boiling water
into this mixture gradually, and let it boil for several minutes over the fire. Then turn the
mixture into the hot milk in the double boiler, and beat all with an egg beater for several
minutes. A drop of vanilla added to the cocoa just before serving adds to its flavor.


BOILED COFFEE
Scald a clean coffee pot, and into it put 12 level tablespoonfuls of ground coffee. Add
several crushed egg shells or the white of one egg, pour in 1 cupful of cold water, and

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shake until the whole is well mixed. Add 5 cupfuls of freshly boiling water and put over
the fire to boil. After the coffee has boiled for 5 minutes, pour ¼ cupful of cold water
down the spout. Allow it to stand for a few minutes where it will keep hot and then serve.


      *     *      *     *      *



CEREALS

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
268.(1) (a) Mention the eight cereals that are used for food. (b) How may
    the universal consumption of cereals be accounted for?
269.(2) (a) Explain why cereals and cereal products are economical foods.
    (b) What factors should be considered in the selection of cereals?
270.(3) (a) Why are cereals not easily contaminated? (b) What care in
    storage should be given to both prepared and unprepared cereals?
271.(4) (a) Explain briefly the composition of cereals. (b) Describe the
    structure of cereal grains.
272.(5) What food substance is found in the greatest proportion in
    cereals?
273.(6) What characteristics of cereals make them valuable in the diet?
274.(7) What material, besides the food substances, is always present
    in cereals, and what are its purposes?
275.(8) What is the purpose of cooking cereals?
276.(9) (a) What occurs when starch is cooked in a liquid? (b) Describe
    the process of setting a cereal.
277.(10) (a) Mention the various methods of cooking cereals, (b) What are
    the advantages of the double-boiler method?
278.(11) (a) What influences the proportion of water required and the
    length of time necessary to cook cereals? (b) Is it an advantage to
    cook cereals for a long time? Tell why.
279.(12) Mention the cereals that you would use in winter and tell why
    you would use them.
280.(13) (a) Of what advantage is it to add dates to cream of wheat?
    (b) Mention some of the ways in which left-over wheat cereals may be
    utilized.

124
281.(14) (a) Explain the three methods of cooking rice, giving the
    proportion of water to rice in each one. (b) How should rice grains
    look when they are properly cooked?
282.(15) Mention several ways in which to utilize left-over rolled oats.
283.(16) (a) What advantages have ready-to-eat cereals over unprepared
    ones? (b) Tell why cereals that have been toasted are said to be
    predigested.
284.(17) (a) What is the advantage of serving milk or cream with cereals?
    (b) How may variety be secured in the serving of cereals?
285.(18) (a) How are Italian pastes made? (b) Mention and describe the
    three principal varieties of Italian paste, (c) What tests can be
    applied to judge the quality of these foods?
286.(19) (a) Explain the first steps in cooking macaroni, (b) How much
    does macaroni increase upon being boiled?
287.(20) (a) Why may macaroni be substituted for meat in the diet? (b)
    What foods used in the preparation of macaroni make it a
    better meat substitute?


     *      *      *      *      *



REPORT ON MENU
After trying out the breakfast menu given in the text, send with your answers to the
Examination Questions a report of your success. In making out your report, simply
write the name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified in
the following list?
Cream of Wheat: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?
Rolled Oats: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?
Scrambled Eggs: dry? moist? watery? salty? well flavored?
Buttered Toast: thin? thick? crisp? soggy? browned? not sufficiently toasted? unevenly
browned?
Cocoa: smooth? strong? weak? thick? scum formed on top?
Coffee: strong? weak? muddy? clear?


     *      *      *      *      *




                                                                                   125
BREAD

      *   *     *    *     *



BREAD-MAKING REQUIREMENTS

IMPORTANCE OF BREAD AS FOOD
288.1. BREAD is sometimes defined as any form of baked flour, but as
    the word is commonly understood it means only those forms of
    baked flour which contain some leavening substance that produces
    fermentation. The making of bread has come down through the ages
    from the simplest methods practiced by the most primitive peoples
    to the more elaborate processes of the present day. In truth, to
    study the history of bread making would amount to studying the
    accounts of the progress that has been made by the human race.
    Still, in order that the production of bread from suitable
    ingredients may be fully understood, it will be well to note the
    advancement that has been made.
289.2. In the earliest times, what was used as bread was made in much
    the same way as it is today by many uncivilized and semicivilized
    people. The grain was ground between stones, usually by hand, and
    then mixed with water to form a dough; then this dough was
    formed into flat, compact cakes and baked in hot ashes, the result
    being a food very difficult to digest. Later on, some one discovered
    that by allowing the dough to stand until fermentation took place
    and then mixing it with new dough, the whole mass would rise, and
    also that by subjecting this mass to the action of heat, that is, baking
    it, the mass would be held in place and become a loaf of raised bread
    that was lighter and, of course, more digestible. It was this discovery
    that led up to the modern bread-making processes, in which
    substances known as leavening agents, or ferments, are used to make
    bread light, or porous. Chief among the substances is yeast, a
    microscopic plant that produces fermentation under favorable
    conditions.


126
    Indeed, so important is this ferment that, in the United States,
    whenever the term bread is used alone it means yeast, or leavened,
    bread, whereas, when other leavening agents are used, the bread is
    referred to as hot bread, or quick bread, as is fully explained in
    another Section. It will be well to note this fact, for in all cases
    throughout these COOKING lessons yeast, or leavened, bread is
    always meant when the term bread is used alone.
290.3. References in the history of the ancient Hebrews show that
    bread made light by means of fermentation was known thousands
    of years ago, but it was not until after the accidental discovery of the
    action of yeast that the making of wholesome and digestible bread
    became possible. Through this important advance in the making of
    bread came a demand for better grains and more improved methods
    of making flour. Indeed, so much attention has been given to these
    matters that at present the three important processes relating to
    bread-making—the raising of wheat, the milling of flour, and the
    manufacture of yeast—are carefully and scientifically performed.
    These industries, together with the commercial manufacture of
    bread, occupy an important place in the business of practically all
    civilized nations.
291.4. Among people who are not highly civilized, bread forms the
    chief article of food and often almost the entire diet, even at the
    present time; but as man progresses in civilization he seems to require
    a greater variety of food, and he accordingly devises means of
    getting it. Since bread is only one of the many foods he finds at his
    disposal, it does not assume a place of so much importance in
    present-day meals as it formerly did. However, it still makes up a
    sufficient proportion of the food of every family to warrant such
    careful and extensive study, as well as such mastery of the processes
    involved, that the housewife may present to her family only the best
    quality of this food.


    Although it does not have such extensive use as it had in the past,
    bread of some description, whether in the form of loaves, biscuits,
    or rolls, forms a part of each meal in every household. This fact
    proves that, with the exception of milk, it is more frequently eaten
    than any other food. A food so constantly used contributes very
    largely to the family’s health if it is properly made. However, there is
    possibly nothing in the whole range of domestic life that so disturbs
    the welfare of the entire family as an inferior quality of this food,

                                                                        127
      which, besides proving detrimental to the digestion, adds materially
      to the household expense.
292.5. Of course, in many bakeries, bread of an excellent quality is made
    in a perfectly hygienic manner, and to be able to procure such
    bread is a wonderful help to the busy housewife or to the
    woman who finds it inconvenient to make her own bread. Still,
    practically every person enjoys “home-made” bread so much more
    than what is made commercially that the housewife will do well to
    make a careful study of this branch of COOKING. If it is properly
    understood, it will not be found difficult; but the woman who takes
    it up must manifest her interest to master a few essential principles
    and to follow them explicitly. After she has obtained the
    knowledge that she must possess, experience and practice will give
    her the skill necessary to prevent poor results and a consequent
    waste of material.


      *    *     *    *     *



INGREDIENTS FOR BREAD MAKING

INGREDIENTS REQUIRED
293.6. Possibly the first essential to a correct knowledge of bread
    making is familiarity with the ingredients required. These are few in
    number, being merely flour, liquid, which may be either milk or
    water, sugar, salt, and yeast; but the nature of these, particularly the
    flour and the yeast, is such as to demand careful consideration. It will
    be admitted that the more the housewife knows about bread-making
    materials and processes the greater will be her success in this work.
    Likewise, it is extremely important that this food be made just as
    wholesome as possible, for next to milk and eggs, bread ranks as a
    perfect food, containing all the elements necessary for the growth of
    the body. This does not mean, though, that any of these foods used
    as the sole article of diet would be ideal, but that each one of them is
    of such composition that it alone would sustain life for a long period
    of time.




128
FLOUR
294.7. Grains Used for Flour.—As has been pointed out elsewhere,
    numerous grains are raised by man, but only two of them, namely,
    wheat and rye, are used alone for the making of yeast, or leavened,
    bread. The other grains, such as corn, rice, and oats, produce a flat,
    unleavened cake, so they are seldom used for bread making unless
    they are mixed with white flour. Wheat and rye have been used for
    bread making for a very long time, and their universal use today is
    due to the fact that they contain considerable protein in the form
    of gluten. This is the substance that produces elasticity in the
    dough mixture, a condition that is absolutely essential in the making
    of raised bread. In fact, the toughness and elasticity of bread dough
    are what make it possible for the dough to catch and hold air and gas
    and thus produce a light, porous loaf.
295.8. Of these two grains, rye is used less extensively in the United
    States for the making of bread than wheat, although in some
    countries, particularly the inland countries of Continental Europe,
    considerable use is made of it. Its limited use here is undoubtedly
    due to the fact that when rye is used alone it makes a moist, sticky
    bread, which is considered undesirable by most persons. The reason
    for this is that, although rye contains a sufficient quantity of gluten,
    this substance is not of the proper quality to make the elastic
    dough that produces a light, spongy loaf. Therefore, when rye is
    used, wheat flour is generally mixed with it. The result is a bread
    having a good texture, but the dark color and the typical flavor that
    rye produces.
296.9. Wheat, the other grain used for bread making, is an annual
    grass of unknown origin. It is used more extensively for food than
    any other grain. In fact, it has been estimated that the average quantity
    consumed by each person is about 6 bushels a year, and of this
    amount by far the greater part is used in the making of bread. Since
    so much of this grain is used as food, considerable time and effort
    have been spent in developing those qualities which are most
    desirable for the purpose to which wheat is put and in perfecting the
    processes whereby wheat flour of a good quality may be obtained.


    This grain is particularly well adapted for bread making because of
    the nature of the proteins it contains and the relative proportions of
    these. These proteins, which occur in the wheat grain in the form of
    gluten, are known as gliadin and glutenin. The gliadin imparts
    elasticity and tenacity, or toughness, to the gluten, and the glutenin

                                                                         129
      gives it strength. It is not, however, so much the quantity of gluten in
      the wheat grain that actually determines the quality of flour as the
      fact that the two varieties must be present in the proper
      proportions in order for the gluten to have the properties desired for
      bread making.
      Wheat consists of numerous varieties, but only two of these are
      grown and used in the United States, namely, spring, or hard, wheat
      and winter, or soft, wheat.
297.10. SPRING, OR HARD WHEAT is so named because it is sown in
    the spring of the year and is very tough or firm. Before this variety
    was known, the wheat used for bread making was not ideal, and the
    efforts that were made to produce a grain that would be suitable for
    this purpose resulted in this variety. To obtain its particular
    composition, spring wheat must be grown under suitable climatic
    and soil conditions. In North America, it grows in the north
    central part of the United States and along the southern border of
    Canada. This variety, which is harvested in the late summer, is
    characterized by a         large proportion of gluten and           a
    correspondingly small amount of starch. It is the presence of the
    gluten that accounts for the hardness of the spring-wheat grain and
    the tough, elastic quality of the dough made from the spring-wheat
    flour. Bread dough, to be right, must have this quality, so that the
    flour made from spring wheat is used almost exclusively for bread;
    whereas, for cake and pastry, which should have a tender, unelastic
    texture, flour made from soft wheat is more satisfactory.
298.11. WINTER, OR SOFT WHEAT derives its name from the fact
    that it is planted in the autumn and is soft in texture. It is of less
    importance in the making of bread than spring, or hard, wheat, but it
    is the kind that has been grown for centuries and from which the
    varieties of spring wheat have been cultivated. It is a softer grain
    than spring wheat, because it contains less gluten and more starch.
    The flour made from it does not produce so elastic a dough
    mixture as does that made from the other variety of wheat;
    consequently, the finished product, such as bread, rolls, etc., is
    likely to be more tender and more friable, or crumbly. It is for this
    reason that winter, or soft, wheat is not used extensively for bread,
    but is employed for pastry flour or mixed with spring wheat to make
    what is called a blend flour, which may be used for all purposes.
299.12. STRUCTURE OF WHEAT GRAIN.—In its natural state,
    wheat contains all the food substances required for the
    nourishment of the human body in nearly the proper proportions,


130
     and in addition it has in its composition sufficient cellulose to give it
     considerable bulk. It has been           estimated that the average
     composition of this grain is as follows:


                                    PER                                        CENT.
Protein.......................                          ...............            11.9
Fat...........................                          ...............              2.1
Carbohydrates.................                                     ............... 71.9
Mineral                                                     salts.........................
........                      1.8                        Water.........................
...............           10.5                          Cellulose.....................
................            1.8                           Total.........................
.............. 100.0



So that the composition of wheat and the making of wheat flour may be
more clearly understood, it will be well to observe the structure of a
grain, or kernel, of wheat, which is shown greatly enlarged in Fig. 1. At a
is shown the germ of the young plant, which remains undeveloped until
the grain is planted. This part contains practically all the fat found in the
grain, some starch, and a small quantity of protein. At b is shown the
inside of the kernel, or the endosperm, as it is called, which is composed
of starch granules interlaced with protein and mineral salts. Surrounding
these, as at c, is a layer of coarse cells that contain mineral matter and
protein, and between these cells and the outer husk, as at d, e, f, and g, are
layers of bran, which are composed of cellulose and contain mineral
salts and small quantities of starch and protein. Enveloping the entire
kernel is a husk, or bran covering, h. This forms a protection to the rest of
the grain, but it cannot be used as food, because it is composed almost
entirely of cellulose, which is practically indigestible. The center of the
grain, or the heart, is the softest part and consists of cells filled with
starch. From this soft center the contents of the grain gradually grow
harder toward the outside, the harder part and that containing the most
gluten occurring next to the bran covering.


300.13. MILLING OF WHEAT FLOUR.—Great advances have
    been made in the production of flour from wheat, and these are very
    good evidence of man’s progress in the way of invention. The
    earliest method consisted in crushing the grain by hand between two
    stones, and from this crude device came the mortar and pestle. A


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      little later millstones in the form of thick, heavy disks were brought
      into use for grinding grain. Two of these stones were placed so that
      their surfaces came together, the lower one being stationary and
      the upper one made to revolve. Early grinding apparatus of this
      kind was turned by human power, but this kind of power was first
      displaced by domestic animals and later by wind and water. Out of
      this arrangement, which is still used to some extent in small mills,
      has grown the present-day complicated machinery of the roller
      process, by which any part of the grain may be included or rejected.
301.14. In the roller process, the grain is crushed between metal rolls
    instead of being ground between stones. It is first screened in order
    to separate all foreign matter from it, and then stored in bins. When
    it is taken from these receptacles, it is put through another cleaning
    process, called scouring, or it is thoroughly washed and dried in order
    to loosen the dirt that clings to it and to free it entirely from dust,
    lint, etc. As soon as it is completely cleansed, it is softened by heat
    and moisture and then passed through a set of corrugated rollers,
    which are adjustable as are the rubber rollers of a clothes wringer and
    which flatten and break the grains. After this first crushing, some of
    the bran is sifted out, while the main portion of the grain is put
    through another set of rollers and crushed more finely. During the
    milling, these processes of crushing the grain and removing the bran
    are repeated from six to nine times, each pair of rollers being set
    somewhat closer than the pair before, until the grain is pulverized.
    After the grain has been thus reduced to a powder, it is passed
    through bolting cloth, which acts as a very fine sieve and separates
    from it any foreign material that may remain. The result is a very
    fine, white flour.
302.15. GRAHAM FLOUR.—Sometimes the entire grain, including the
    bran, germ, etc., is ground fine enough merely for baking purposes
    and is used as flour in this form. Such flour is called graham flour. It
    contains all the nutriment, mineral matter, and cellulose of the
    original grain, and is therefore considered valuable as food. However,
    the objection to this kind of flour is that its keeping quality is not so
    good as that of the kinds from which the germ has been removed,
    because the fat contained in the germ is liable to become rancid.
303.16. WHOLE-WHEAT FLOUR.—The best grades of fine white
    flour make bread of excellent quality, but such bread is not so
    nutritious as that made from whole-wheat flour. In the making of
    this kind of flour, some of the choicest varieties of wheat are first
    moistened in order to soften the woody fiber of the bran and are
    then sifted until the outer husk of the grain is removed. After this

132
    treatment, the grains are dried and then pulverized into various
    grades of so-called whole-wheat flour. The name whole-wheat flour
    is misleading, because it implies that all of the grain is used; whereas,
    since several of the outer layers of bran and the germ are removed in
    its production, whole-wheat flour is merely flour in which practically
    all the gluten and the starch are retained. Because this variety is not
    sifted as are the white flours, it is not so fine as they are; but it is not
    so coarse as graham flour, nor is bread made from it so dark in color.
    Both graham and whole-wheat flours produce a more wholesome
    bread than any of the varieties of white flour, because they contain
    more of the nutritive elements and mineral salts, which are
    necessary in the diet. The bran that is retained in them is not used by
    the body as food, but it adds bulk to the diet and assists in
    carrying on the normal functions of the digestive tract.
304.17. SELECTION OF FLOUR.—If a large quantity of flour must
    be bought at one time, as, for instance, enough to last through an
    entire season, it is advisable to test it carefully before the purchase is
    made, so as to avoid the danger of getting a poor grade. As a rule,
    however, housewives are obliged to purchase only a small quantity
    at a time. In such cases, it will not be necessary to test the flour
    before purchasing it, provided a standard make is selected. Very
    often, too, a housewife in a small family finds it inconvenient to
    keep on hand a supply of both bread flour and pastry flour. In
    such an event, a blend flour, which, as has been mentioned, is a
    mixture of flour made from spring and winter wheat that will do for
    all purposes, is the kind to purchase. While such flour is not ideal for
    either bread or pastry, it serves the purpose of both very well.
305.18. QUALITY OF FLOUR.—Flour is put on the market in various
    grades, and is named according to its quality. The highest grade, or
    best quality, is called high-grade patent; the next grade, bakers’; and
    the next, second grade patent. The lowest grade, or poorest quality,
    is called red dog. This grade is seldom sold for food purposes, but it
    is used considerably for the making of paste.


    The quality of flour used in bread making is of very great
    importance, because flour of poor quality will not, of course, make
    good bread. Every housewife should therefore be familiar with the
    characteristics of good flour and should buy accordingly.
306.19. Several tests can be applied to flour to determine its kind and
    its quality. The first test is its color. Bread flour, or flour made
    from spring wheat, is usually of a creamy-white color, while pastry

                                                                            133
      flour, or that made from winter wheat, is more nearly pure white in
      color. A dark, chalky-white, or gray color indicates that the flour is
      poor in quality. The second test is the feel of the flour. A pinch of
      good bread flour, when rubbed lightly between the thumb and the
      index finger, will be found to be rather coarse and the particles will
      feel sharp and gritty. When good pastry flour is treated in the same
      way, it will feel smooth and powdery. The third test is its adhering
      power. When squeezed tightly in the hand, good bread flour holds
      together in a mass and retains slightly the impression of the fingers;
      poor bread flour treated in the same way either does not retain its
      shape or, provided it contains too much moisture, is liable to make
      a damp, hard lump. The odor of flour might also be considered a
      test. Flour must not have a musty odor nor any other odor foreign to
      the normal, rather nutty flavor that is characteristic of flour.


      The bleaching and adulteration of flour are governed by the United
      States laws. Bleaching is permitted only when it does not reduce the
      quality or strength nor conceal any damage or inferiority. Such flour
      must be plainly labeled to show that it has been bleached.
307.20. CARE OF FLOUR.—There is considerable economy in buying
    flour in large quantities, but unless an adequate storing place can be
    secured, it is advisable to buy only small amounts at a time. Flour
    absorbs odors very readily, so that when it is not bought in barrels it
    should if possible be purchased in moisture-proof bags. Then, after it
    is purchased, it should be kept where it will remain dry and will not
    be accessible to odors, for unless the storage conditions are
    favorable, it will soon acquire an offensive odor and become unfit
    for use. Flour sometimes becomes infested with weevils, or beetles,
    whose presence can be detected by little webs. To prevent the
    entrance of insects and vermin of all kinds, flour should be kept in
    tightly closed bins after it is taken from the barrels or sacks in which
    it is purchased. If newly purchased flour is found to be
    contaminated with such insects, it should be returned to the dealer.




YEAST
308.21. NATURE AND ACTION OF YEAST.—How yeast came to
    be discovered is not definitely known, but its discovery is believed
    to have been purely accidental. Some mixture of flour and liquid

134
    was probably allowed to remain exposed to the air until it fermented
    and then when baked was found to be light and porous. Whatever
    the origin of this discovery was, it is certain that yeast was used
    hundreds of years ago and that its action was not at that time
    understood. Even at the present time everything concerning the
    action of yeast is not known; still continued study and observation
    have brought to light enough information to show that yeast is the
    agency that, under favorable conditions, produces light, spongy bread
    out of a flour mixture.
309.22. It has been determined that yeast is a microscopic plant
    existing everywhere in the air and in dust; consequently, it is found on
    all things that are exposed to air or dust. In order that it may grow,
    this plant requires the three things necessary for the growth of any
    plant, namely, food, moisture, and warmth. Carbohydrate in the form
    of sugar proves to be an ideal food for yeast, and 70 to 90
    degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature at which the most rapid
    growth occurs. When these conditions exist and a sufficient amount
    of moisture is provided, yeast grows very rapidly and produces
    fermentation.


    The changes that take place when yeast causes fermentation can be
    detected very readily by observing the fermenting of fruit juice.
    As every housewife knows, the first indication of a ferment in fruit
    juice is the appearance of tiny bubbles, which collect on the sides
    and the bottom of the vessel containing the fruit and then gradually
    rise to the top. These bubbles are a form of gas called carbon-
    dioxide, or carbonic-acid, gas. If, after they appear, the juice is
    tasted, it will be found to be slightly alcoholic and to have a
    somewhat sour or acid taste. The gas, the acid, and the alcohol thus
    produced are the three results of the action of the ferment.
310.23. When yeast is used in the making of bread out of wheat flour,
    the changes just mentioned take place. To understand the action of
    this plant, it will be necessary to remember that wheat contains a large
    proportion of starch. This substance, however, cannot be acted on by
    the yeast plant; it must first be changed into sugar. The yeast that is
    added to the flour changes some of the starch into sugar and
    transforms the sugar into alcohol and carbonic-acid gas. This gas,
    which is lighter than the dough, rises, and in its efforts to escape
    expands the elastic, glutinous dough into a mass of bubbles with
    thin walls until the dough is two or three times its original bulk.
    The yeast plants, though, must be well distributed throughout


                                                                        135
      the dough; otherwise, there are likely to be no bubbles in some
      places and large bubbles with thick walls in others. The gas thus
      formed is prevented from escaping by the toughness or the
      elasticity of the gluten, and the spaces that it leaves are what produce
      a light, porous loaf. When the expansion has gone on long
      enough, the formation of gas is checked and the ferment is killed by
      baking the dough in a hot oven. During the baking, the alcohol is
      driven off by heat, some of the starch is browned and forms the
      crust, and so little acid is produced in the short time in which the
      yeast is active that it is not noticeable.
311.24. Commercial Yeast.—When yeast plants are deprived of water
    and food, they cease to multiply. However, under these conditions,
    they may be kept alive so that when water and food are again
    provided they will increase in number and carry on their work.
    Advantage has been taken of these characteristics of yeast, for
    although at one time the making of yeast was entirely a household
    process, it has now, like butter, cheese, canned fruit, etc., become
    a commercial product. The first yeast put on the market was
    collected from the surface of the contents of brewers’ vats, where it
    floated in large quantities; but as this was an impure, unreliable
    product composed of various kinds of bacteria, it is no longer used
    for the purpose of making bread. At present, yeast is carefully grown
    as a pure yeast culture, or product. It is marketed in such a way that
    when proper food, such as soft dough, or sponge, and a
    favorable temperature are provided, the plants will multiply and
    act on the carbohydrate that they find in the food. In fact, the
    purpose of the well known process of “setting” a sponge is to obtain
    a large number of yeast plants from a few.


      Commercial yeast is placed on the market in two forms—moist and
      dry. Each of these yeasts has its advantages, so that the one to select
      depends on the method preferred for the making of bread as well as
      the time that may be devoted to the preparation of this food.
312.25. Moist yeast, which is usually called compressed yeast, consists of
    the pure yeast culture, or growth, mixed with starch to make a sort
    of dough and then compressed into small cakes, the form in which it
    is sold. The moist condition of this kind of commercial yeast keeps
    the plants in an active state and permits of very rapid growth in
    a dough mixture. Consequently, it proves very useful for the rapid
    methods of making bread. It is soft, yet brittle, is of a grayish-white
    color, and has no odor except that of yeast.


136
    Since the plants of compressed yeast require very little moisture to
    make them grow, an unfavorable, or low, temperature is needed to
    keep the yeast from spoiling; in fact, it is not guaranteed to remain
    good longer than a few days, and then only if it is kept at a
    temperature low enough to prevent the plants from growing. This
    fact makes it inadvisable to purchase compressed yeast at great
    distances from the source of supply, although it may be obtained by
    parcel post from manufacturers or dealers.
313.26. Dry yeast, the other form of commercial yeast, is made in
    much the same way as moist yeast, but, instead of being mixed with a
    small amount of starch, the yeast culture is combined with a large
    quantity of starch or meal and then dried. The process of drying kills
    off some of the plants and renders the remainder inactive; because of
    this, the yeast requires no special care and will keep for an indefinite
    period of time, facts that account for its extensive use by housewives
    who are not within easy reach of the markets. However, because of
    the inactivity of the yeast plants, much longer time is required to
    produce fermentation in a bread mixture containing dry yeast than
    in one in which moist yeast is used. Consequently, the long
    processes of bread making are brought about by the use of dry yeast.
    If moist yeast is used for these processes, a smaller quantity is
    required.
314.27. Liquid Yeast.—Some housewives are so situated that they find
    it difficult to obtain commercial yeast in either of its forms; but
    this disadvantage need not deprive them of the means of making
    good home-made bread, for they can prepare a very satisfactory
    liquid yeast themselves. To make such yeast, flour, water, and a
    small quantity of sugar are stirred together, and the mixture is then
    allowed to remain at ordinary room temperature, or 70 degrees
    Fahrenheit, until it is filled with bubbles. If hops are available, a
    few of them may be added. When such yeast is added to a sponge
    mixture, it will lighten the whole amount. Before the sponge is made
    stiff with flour, however, a little of it should be taken out, put in a
    covered dish, and set away in a cool, dark place for the next baking.
    If properly looked after in the manner explained, this yeast may be
    kept for about 2 weeks.


    More certain results and a better flavor are insured in the use of
    liquid yeast if it is started with commercial yeast, so that whenever this
    can be obtained it should be used. Then, as just explained, some of

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      the liquid containing the yeast or some of the sponge made with it
      may be retained for the next baking.
315.28. Quality of Yeast.—Of equal importance with the quality of
    flour is the quality of yeast used in the baking of bread. Yeast is, of
    course, accountable for the lightness or sponginess of bread, but, in
    addition, it improves the flavor of the bread if it is of good quality or
    detracts from the flavor if it is of poor quality. Since the condition of
    yeast cannot be determined until its effect on the finished product
    is noted, the housewife should take no chances, but should employ
    only yeast, whether she uses commercial or liquid, that she knows
    to be good and reliable. Compressed yeast may be easily judged as to
    quality. It should be grayish white in color, without streaks or spots,
    and it should have no sour nor disagreeable odor. If home-made
    yeast is used and the results obtained are not satisfactory, it may be
    taken for granted that a fresh supply should be prepared.




YEAST AIDS
316.29. As has already been explained, yeast, in order to grow,
    requires something on which to feed, and the food that produces
    the most rapid growth is that which contains carbohydrate. Certain of
    the carbohydrates, however, prove to be better food and produce
    more rapid growth than others, and these, which are known as
    yeast aids, are usually added as ingredients in the making of bread.
    The ones that are most commonly used are sugar and potato water.
    Sugar is almost always added, but it should be limited in quantity,
    because a dough mixture that is made heavy with sugar will rise very
    slowly. Potato water has been found to be a very satisfactory aid,
    because the starch of the potato is utilized readily by the yeast. If this
    aid is to be used, the water in which potatoes are boiled may be
    saved and, when the ingredients required for the making of bread
    are mixed, it may be added as a part or all of the liquid required. If it
    is desired to increase the amount of starch in the potato water, a
    boiled potato or two may be mashed and added to it.




138
MILK AND FAT IN BREAD
317.30. Milk is sometimes used as a part or as all of the liquid in bread.
    While it adds nutritive value and is thought by many persons to
    improve the texture, it is not absolutely essential to successful bread
    making. Whenever milk is used, it should first be scalded thoroughly.
    A point that should not be overlooked in connection with the use of
    milk is that the crust of milk bread browns more readily and has a
    more uniform color than that of bread in which water is used as
    liquid.
318.31. Like milk, fat adds nutritive value to bread, but it is not an
    essential ingredient. If it is included, care should be taken not to use
    too much, for an excessive amount will retard the growth of the
    yeast. Almost any kind of fat, such as butter, lard or other clear
    tasteless fats, or any mixture of these, may be used for this purpose,
    provided it does not impart an unpleasant flavor to the bread.




PROPORTION                       OF             BREAD-MAKING
MATERIALS
319.32. No definite rule can be given for the exact proportion of liquid
    and flour to be used in bread making, because some kinds of flour
    absorb much more liquid than others. It has been determined,
    however, that 3 cupfuls of flour is generally needed for each small
    loaf of bread. With this known, the quantity of flour can be
    determined by the amount of bread that is to be made. The quantity
    of liquid required depends on the quantity and kind of flour selected,
    but usually there should be about one-third as much liquid as flour.


    The particular method that is selected for the making of bread, as
    is explained later, determines the amount of yeast to be used. If it
    is desired not to have the bread rise quickly, a small quantity, about
    one eighth cake of compressed yeast or 2 tablespoonfuls of liquid
    yeast, is sufficient for each loaf; but if rapid rising is wanted, two,
    three, or four times as much yeast must be used to produce a
    sufficient amount of carbon dioxide in less time. It should be
    remembered that the more yeast used, the more quickly will the
    necessary gas be created, and that, as has already been shown, it is the
    formation of gas that makes bread light and porous. In addition to

                                                                        139
      flour, liquid, and yeast, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of
      sugar, and 1 tablespoonful of fat are the ingredients generally used
      for each loaf of bread.



UTENSILS FOR BREAD MAKING

320.33. Necessary Equipment.—Not many utensils are required for bread
    making, but the ones that are needed must be of the right kind if the
    best results are to be obtained. It includes a mixing bowl and cover,
    a flour sieve, measuring cups c of standard size, one for moist
    and one for dry ingredients, measuring spoons , and a case knife
    or a spatula for measuring; a long-handled spoon for mixing; and
    baking, or bread, pans . Unless the table is such that it can be used as
    a molding board, it will be necessary to provide in addition to the
    equipment mentioned, a molding board of suitable size.


      The mixing bowl may be an earthen one or a metal one. The size of
      the pans used and the material of which the pans are made should
      also receive attention. The loaves will be found to bake more quickly
      and thoroughly if they are not made too large and each one is baked
      in a separate pan. Pans that are 8 inches long, 3 ½ inches wide, and
      3 inches deep are of a convenient size. They may be made of tin,
      sheet iron, aluminum, or heat resisting glass, the only requirements
      being that all the pans used at one baking be of the same material,
      because, as heat penetrates some materials more quickly than others,
      the baking will then be more uniform.
321.34. Convenient Equipment.—While the utensils shown in Fig. 2 are
    all that are actually required in the making of bread, a bread mixer,
    one style of which is described in Essentials of COOKING, Part
    2, will be found extremely convenient by the housewife who must
    bake large quantities of bread at one time and who has not a great
    deal of time to devote to the work. This labor-saving device can be
    used and, of course, often is used by the housewife who makes
    only a small quantity of bread, as, for instance, two to four loaves;
    but it is not actually needed by her, as she can handle such an amount
    easily and quickly.




140
    A cooler, which consists of a framework covered with wire netting
    and supported by short legs, is also a convenient utensil, as it serves
    as a good place on which to put baked bread to cool. If one of these
    devices is not available, however, a substitute can be easily made by
    stretching a wire netting over a wooden frame.


    *     *    *     *     *



BREAD-MAKING PROCESSES

ACQUIRING SKILL IN BREAD MAKING
322.35. The nature and the quality of the ingredients required to make
    bread, as well as the utensils that are needed for this purpose,
    being understood, it is next in order to take up the actual work of
    making bread. Several processes are included in this work; namely,
    making the dough, caring for the rising dough, kneading the dough,
    shaping the dough into loaves, baking the loaves, and caring for
    the bread after it is baked. When the finished product is obtained,
    the loaves are ready to be scored and served. A knowledge of how to
    carry out these processes is of the utmost importance, for much of
    the success achieved in bread making depends on the proper
    handling of the ingredients. Of course, skill in manipulation is
    acquired only by constant practice, so that the more opportunity
    the housewife has to apply her knowledge of the processes, the more
    proficient will she become in this phase of COOKING. Each one of
    the processes mentioned is here discussed in the order in which it
    comes in the actual work of bread making, and while the proper
    consideration should be given to every one of them, it will be well,
    before entering into them, to observe the qualities that characterize
    good wheat bread.
323.36. Good wheat bread may be described in various ways, but, as
    has been learned by experience and as is pointed out by United
    States government authorities, probably the best way in which to
    think of it, so far as its structure is concerned, is as a mass of tiny
    bubbles made of flour and water, having very thin walls and fixed in
    shape by means of heat. The size of the cells and the nature of the
    bubble walls are points that should not be overlooked.



                                                                       141
      Each loaf should be light in weight, considering its size, should be
      regular in form, and should have an unbroken, golden-brown crust.
      The top crust should be smooth and should have a luster, which is
      usually spoken of as the “bloom” of the crust. Taken as a whole, the
      loaf should have a certain sponginess, which is known as its
      elasticity, and which is evidenced by the way in which the loaf acts
      when it is pressed slightly out of shape. As soon as the pressure is
      removed, the loaf should resume its original shape. This test should
      produce the same results when it is applied to small pieces of the
      crust and to the cut surface of the loaf.
      The internal appearance must also receive consideration. To be
      right, wheat bread should be creamy white in color and should have
      a definite “sheen,” which can best be seen by looking across a slice,
      rather than directly down into it. As already explained, the holes in
      it should be small and evenly distributed and their walls should be
      very thin. These points can be readily determined by holding a very
      thin slice up to the light.
      The flavor of bread is also a very important factor, but it is
      somewhat difficult to describe just the exact flavor that bread
      should have in order to be considered good. Probably the best way
      in which to explain this is to say that its flavor should be that which
      is brought about by treating the wheat with salt. While such a flavor
      may not be known to all, it is familiar to those who have tasted the
      wheat kernel.


      *     *    *     *     *



MAKING THE DOUGH

PRELIMINARY                          TREATMENT                          OF
INGREDIENTS
324.37. The first step in bread making, and without doubt the most
    important one, is the making of the dough. It consists in moistening
    the flour by means of a liquid of some kind in order to soften the
    gluten and the starch, to dissolve the sugar, and to cement all the
    particles together, and then combining these ingredients. Before the
    ingredients are combined, however, particularly the flour, the liquid,
    and the yeast, they must generally be warmed in order to shorten

142
    the length of time necessary for the yeast to start growing. Much care
    should be exercised in heating these materials, for good results will
    not be obtained unless they are brought to the proper temperature.
    The flour should feel warm and the liquid, whether it be water or
    milk, should, when it is added, be of such a temperature that it also
    will feel warm to the fingers. If water is used, it ought to be just as
    pure as possible, but if milk is preferred it should be used only
    after it has been scalded. The yeast should be dissolved in a small
    quantity of lukewarm water. Hot water used for this purpose is liable
    to kill the yeast and prevent the bread from rising, whereas cold
    water will retard the growth of the yeast.




COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS
325.38. As soon as the bread ingredients have received the proper
    treatment, they are ready to be combined. Combining may be done
    by two different methods, one of which is known as the short
    process and the other as the long process. As their names indicate,
    these methods are characterized by the length of time required for
    the bread to rise. Each method has its advantages, and the one to
    select depends on the amount of time and energy the housewife can
    afford to give to this part of her work. Persons who use the long
    process believe that bread made by it tastes better and keeps longer
    than that made by the short process; whereas, those who favor the
    short process find that it saves time and labor and are convinced that
    the quality of the bread is not impaired. The more rapid methods of
    making breads are possible only when yeast in the active state is used
    and when more of it than would be necessary in the long process, in
    which time must be allowed for its growth, is employed. However,
    regardless of the method followed, all bread mixtures must be
    begun in the same manner. The liquids, seasonings, and fat are
    combined, and to these is added the flour, which should be sifted
    in, as shown in Fig. 3.
326.39. Long Process.—By the long process, there are two ways of
    combining the ingredients in order to make bread. One is known as
    the sponge method and the other as the straight-dough method.
327.40. The long-process sponge method is employed when sufficient
    time can be allowed to permit the natural growth of the yeast. To
    make bread according to this process, start it in the evening by


                                                                       143
      warming the liquid and dissolving the yeast and then adding these
      ingredients to the sugar, salt, and fat, which should first be placed
      in the mixing bowl. Stir this mixture well, and then add one-half of
      the quantity of flour that is to be used, stirring this also. Place this
      mixture, or sponge, as such a mixture is called, where it will remain
      warm, or at a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit,
      through the night. In the morning, stir the remaining flour into the
      sponge and knead for a few minutes the dough thus formed. When
      this is accomplished, put the dough in a warm place and allow it to
      rise until it doubles in bulk. When the dough is in this condition, it is
      ready to be kneaded again, after which it may be shaped into
      loaves, placed in the pans, allowed to double in bulk again, and finally
      baked.
328.41. The long-process straight-dough method is a shortened form
    of the method just explained. It does away with the necessity of one
    kneading and one rising and consequently saves considerable time
    and labor. To make bread by this method, combine the ingredients
    in the evening as for the sponge method, but instead of adding only
    half of the flour, put all of it into the mixture, make a stiff dough at
    once, and knead. Then allow this to rise during the night, so that in
    the morning it can be kneaded again and put directly into the bread
    pans. After it rises in the pans until it doubles in bulk, it is ready to be
    baked.


      The only disadvantage of the straight-dough method is that a stiff
      dough rises more slowly than a sponge, but since the entire night is
      given to the rising no difficulty will be experienced in carrying out this
      process. A point to remember, however, is that dough made
      according to this method must be kept warmer than that made by the
      sponge method.
329.42. Quick Process.—In the quick process of combining bread
    ingredients, there are also two methods of procedure—the
    sponge method and the straight-dough method. The chief
    differences between the methods of this process and those of the
    long process are in the quantity of yeast used and the length of time
    required for the bread to rise. More yeast must be used and much
    less time is required for the completion of the entire process. This
    shorter period of time is doubtless due to the fact that throughout
    the process, whether the straight-dough or the sponge method is
    followed, the mixture must be kept at a uniform temperature of
    about 90 degrees Fahrenheit.


144
330.43. The quick-process sponge method requires only about 5 hours
    for its completion, and the bread may be started at any time of the
    day that will allow this amount of time for carrying on the work. For
    this method, warm the ingredients and then combine the sugar,
    salt, fat, liquid, and dissolved yeast. Into this mixture, stir enough
    of the flour to make a sponge and put it where it will keep
    uniformly warm until it has about doubled in quantity and is full of
    bubbles. Then add the remainder of the flour, knead the mixture,
    and return the dough thus formed to a warm place. When the
    dough has doubled in bulk, remove it from the bowl to the kneading
    board, knead it slightly, and then shape it into loaves. Place these
    into the pans, and after allowing them to rise sufficiently, bake
    them.
331.44. The quick-process straight-dough method differs from the quick-
    process sponge method in that the entire amount of flour is
    added when the ingredients are first mixed, with the result that a stiff
    dough instead of a sponge is formed. As has already been learned,
    this stiff dough rises more slowly than a sponge, but it requires one
    rising less. It must be kept at a uniform temperature as much of the
    time as possible, so that the rising will not be retarded. When it has
    doubled in bulk, remove it from the bowl and knead it. Then shape it
    into loaves, place these in the pans, allow them to rise sufficiently, and
    proceed with the baking.




CARE OF THE RISING DOUGH
332.45. Purpose of Rising.—Rising is an important part of the process
    of bread making, no matter which method is employed. In a sponge,
    its purpose is to blend the ingredients after they have been mixed,
    as well as to permit the growth of the yeast; in a dough, after the gas
    has been evenly distributed by means of kneading, the purpose of
    rising is to permit the incorporation of a sufficient quantity of carbon
    dioxide to make the bread light when it is baked. As has just been
    explained, three risings are necessary in the sponge method of both
    the long and the short process, whereas only two are required in
    the straight-dough methods. The last rising, or the one that takes
    place after the dough is shaped into loaves, is the one that affects the
    texture of the bread most, so that it should receive considerable
    attention. If the dough is not allowed to rise sufficiently at this
    time, the bread will be too fine in texture and will likely be heavy;

                                                                          145
      and if it is permitted to rise too much, it will be coarse in texture.
      Allowance, however, should be made for the fact that the rising will
      continue after the bread has been placed in the oven.
333.46. Temperature for Rising.—As has been mentioned, the best
    results are obtained if the bread dough is kept at a uniform
    temperature throughout its rising. The temperature at which it rises
    most rapidly is about 86 degrees Fahrenheit; but, unless it can be
    watched closely, a better plan is to keep it, especially if the long
    process of bread making is followed, at a temperature that runs no
    higher than 80 degrees. Various methods of maintaining a uniform
    temperature have been devised, but the ones usually resorted to
    consist in placing the bowl containing the sponge or the dough in a
    bread raiser, a fireless cooker, or a vessel of hot water.



334.47. Bread raisers can be purchased, but if desired a simple bread-
    raising device may be constructed from a good-sized wooden box.
    To make such a device, line the box with tin or similar metal and fit it
    with a door or a cover that may be closed tight. Make a hole in one
    side of the box into which to insert a thermometer, and, at about the
    center of the box, place a shelf on which to set the bowl or pan
    containing the sponge or dough. For heating the interior, use may be
    made of a single gas burner, an oil lamp, or any other small heating
    device. This should be placed in the bottom of the box, under the
    shelf, and over it should be placed a pan of water to keep the air in
    the box moist, moist air being essential to good results. Where large
    quantities of bread must be baked regularly, such a device will prove
    very satisfactory. The temperature inside should be kept somewhere
    in the neighborhood of 95 to 105 degrees Fahrenheit if the bread is to
    rise rapidly; but it may be kept from 80 to 95 degrees if slower
    rising is desired.
335.48. Placing the bowl containing the dough mixture in a larger vessel
    of hot water is a simple and satisfactory way of obtaining a
    uniform temperature, being especially desirable for a sponge in the
    quick-process sponge method. The water in the large vessel should be
    at a temperature of about 110 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit. After the
    bowl of sponge or dough is placed in the water, the large vessel
    should be covered very carefully, so that the heat from the water will
    be retained. To maintain the temperature in the vessel and thus keep
    it right for the bread mixture, the hot water has to be replenished



146
    occasionally. If this is done, the sponge or dough will be maintained
    at a temperature of about 90 degrees and will therefore rise rapidly.



336.49. To insure the best results with the rising of bread mixtures, it is
    advisable, for the beginner at least, to use a thermometer for
    determining the temperature of air or water, as this instrument will
    save considerable time until experience in judging such matters
    has been gained. A Fahrenheit thermometer is the ideal kind for use
    in bread making. It can be used outside the bowl to maintain a
    temperature of 75 to 90 degrees in the dough when the plan
    mentioned in Art. 48 for keeping dough at a uniform temperature
    is followed. In addition, the oven temperatures for baking bread
    and rolls, which are explained later, are also shown. The
    temperature of water can, however, be determined fairly accurately
    with the hands. If it feels very warm but does not burn the hand, it
    may be considered at about a temperature of 110 to 115 degrees.


    In order to prevent the formation of a hard surface on the dough, the
    bowl in which it rises should be kept tightly covered. A further
    means of preventing this condition consists in oiling the surface of
    the dough; that is, brushing it lightly with melted fat. In case a crust
    does form, it should be well moistened with water or milk and
    allowed to soften completely before the next kneading is begun.


337.50. Time Required for Rising.—No definite rule can be given for
    the length of time required for dough to rise, for this depends
    entirely on the activity of the yeast. If the yeast is active, the dough
    will rise quickly; but if it is not of good quality or if it has been
    killed or retarded in its growth by improper handling, the dough will
    rise slowly. Usually, dough should be allowed to rise until it has
    doubled in bulk. A good way in which to determine when this takes
    place is to put a small piece of the dough in a glass, such as a
    measuring glass, a tumbler, or a jelly glass, and mark on this glass
    where the dough should come when it has increased to twice its
    size. This glass set beside the vessel containing the dough will
    show when it has risen sufficiently.




                                                                        147
KNEADING THE DOUGH
338.51. Purpose of Kneading.—As has been pointed out, it is
    necessary to knead dough one or more times in the making of
    bread, the number of kneadings depending on the method that is
    employed. The purpose of kneading is to work the dough so as to
    distribute evenly the gas that is produced by the yeast, to increase
    the elasticity of the gluten, and to blend the ingredients. It is a very
    important part of the work of bread making, for to a great extent it
    is responsible for the texture of the finished product. At first,
    kneading may be found to be somewhat difficult, but the
    beginner need not become discouraged if she is not proficient at
    once, because the skill that is necessary to knead the bread
    successfully comes with practice. So that the best results may be
    attained, however, it is advisable that the purpose for which the
    kneading is done be kept constantly before the mind during the
    process.



339.52. Kneading Motions.—Several motions are involved in the
    kneading of bread. In order to carry out the kneading process, first
    cover lightly with flour the surface on which the kneading is to be
    done; this may be a suitable table top or a molding board placed on
    a table. Then remove the dough from the mixing bowl with the aid
    of a case knife or a spatula, and place it on the floured surface. Sift a
    little flour over the dough, and flatten it slightly by patting it gently.
    Next, take hold of the edge of the mass at the side farthest from you
    and fold the dough over the edge nearest you. Then work the dough
    with a downward pressure and, push it out with the palms of the
    hands. With the motion completed, turn the entire mass around and
    knead it in the same way in another direction. Continue the
    kneading by repeating these motions until the dough has a smooth
    appearance, is elastic, does not stick to either the hands or the board,
    and rises quickly when it is pressed down.


      To prevent the dough from sticking to the hands and the board,
      flour should be added gradually during the process of kneading, but
      care should be taken not to use too much flour for this purpose.
      The lightness and sponginess of the finished loaf depend largely on
      the quantity of flour used at this time, so that if the dough is made
      too stiff with flour, the bread will be hard and close after it is baked.


148
    As soon as the dough can be kneaded without its sticking to either
    the hands or the board, no more flour need be added; but, in case
    too much flour is used, the dough may be softened by means of
    milk or water. Such dough, however, is not so satisfactory as that
    which does not have to be softened.



SHAPING THE DOUGH INTO LOAVES
340.53. After the dough is properly kneaded in the manner just
    explained, it is placed in the mixing bowl and allowed to rise again.
    When it has risen sufficiently for the last time, depending on the
    process employed, it should be kneaded again, if it must be reduced
    in size, and then shaped into loaves and put in the pans. Here,
    again, much care should be exercised, for the way in which bread is
    prepared for the pans has much to do with the shape of the loaf after
    it is baked.
341.54. In order to shape the dough into loaves, first loosen it from
    the sides of the mixing bowl, using a knife or a spatula for this
    purpose, and then turn it out on a flat surface on which flour has
    been sprinkled, as in preparing for kneading. Knead the dough a
    little, and then cut it into pieces that will be the correct size for the
    pans in which the loaves are to be baked, as shown at the right in
    Fig. 11. Dust each piece with a small quantity of flour and knead it
    until the large bubbles of gas it contains are worked out and it is
    smooth and round. In working it, stretch the under side, which is to
    be the top of the loaf, and form it into a roll that is as long and half
    as high as the pan and as thick at each end as in the center. A good
    idea of the size and shape can be formed from the loaf held in the
    hands in Fig. 11.
342.55. As each loaf is formed, place it in the pan and allow it to rise until
    the dough comes to the top of the pan, or has doubled in bulk. So
    that the loaf will be symmetrical after it has risen—that is, as high at
    each end as in the middle—the shaped dough must fit well into the
    corners and ends of the pan.. To produce the result the dough
    must be kept in a warm temperature, and to exclude the air and
    prevent the formation of a hard crust on the dough, it must be
    covered well with both a cloth and a metal cover. Another way in
    which to prevent the formation of a hard crust consists in greasing
    the surface of the dough when it is placed in the pan, for rising.



                                                                          149
BAKING THE BREAD
343.56. PURPOSE OF BAKING.—The various processes in the making
    of bread that have been considered up to this point may be
    successfully carried out, but unless the baking, which is the last step,
    is properly done, the bread is likely to be unpalatable and indigestible.
    Much attention should therefore be given to this part of the work.
    So that the best results may be obtained, it should be borne in
    mind that bread is baked for the purpose of killing the ferment,
    rupturing the starch grains of the flour so that they become
    digestible, fixing the air cells, and forming a nicely flavored crust.
    During the process of baking, certain changes take place in the loaf.
    The gluten that the dough contains is hardened by the heat and
    remains in the shape of bubbles, which give the bread a porous
    appearance; also, the starch contained in the dough is cooked within
    the loaf, but the outside is first cooked and then toasted.
344.57. OVEN TEMPERATURE FOR BAKING.—In baking bread, it
    is necessary first to provide the oven with heat of the right
    temperature and of sufficient strength to last throughout the baking.
    As is indicated in Fig. 4, the usual oven temperature for successful
    bread baking is from 380 to 425 degrees Fahrenheit, but in both the
    first and the last part of the baking the heat should be less than
    during the middle of it. An oven thermometer or an oven gauge is a
    very good means of determining the temperature of the oven. But if
    neither of these is available the heat may be tested by placing in the
    oven a white cracker, a piece of white paper, or a layer of flour spread
    on a shallow tin pan. If any one of these becomes a light brown in
    5 minutes, the oven is right to commence baking. Every precaution
    should be taken to have the oven just right at first, for if the bread is
    placed in an oven that is too hot the yeast plant will be killed
    immediately and the rising consequently checked. Of course, the
    bread will rise to some extent even if the yeast plant is killed at
    once, for the carbon dioxide that the dough contains will expand as
    it becomes heated and will force the loaf up; but bread baked in this
    way is generally very unsatisfactory, because a hard crust forms on
    the top and it must either burst or retard the rising of the loaf. If the
    heat is not sufficient, the dough will continue to rise until the air
    cells run together and cause large holes to form in the loaf. In an
    oven that is just moderately hot, or has a temperature of about 400
    degrees, the yeast plant will not be killed so quickly, the dough will


150
    continue to rise for some time, and the crust of the bread should
    begin to brown in about 15 minutes.
345.58. A loaf of bread that has risen too much will have the inside
    texture to coarse and the shape of the loaf is not good. The result
    of uneven temperature will be a high side caused by exposure to
    more intense heat than the opposite side, and a crack will be the
    result of a too rapid formation of the crust. Sometimes it is advisable
    to keep the crust from becoming hard too rapidly. In order to do
    this, and at the same time produce a more even color, the top of
    the loaf may be moistened by brushing it with milk before it is put
    into the oven.
346.59. TIME FOR BAKING AND CARE OF BREAD IN
    OVEN.—The time required for baking bread and the care it should
    receive in the oven are also important matters to know. How long the
    bread should bake depends on the size of the loaf. Under proper
    oven temperature, a small loaf, or one made with 1 cupful of
    liquid, ought to bake in from 50 minutes to 1 hour, while a large
    loaf requires from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. As has been explained, the loaf
    should begin to brown, or have its crust formed, in about 15 minutes
    after it is placed in the oven, and the baking should proceed rather
    slowly.


    To get the best results in baking, the pans should be placed so that
    the air in the oven will circulate freely around them. If they are so
    placed that the loaves touch each other or the sides of the oven, the
    loaves will rise unevenly and consequently will be unsightly in
    shape, like those shown in Figs. 14 and 15. If the loaves rise higher
    on one side than on the other, even when the pans are properly
    placed, it is evident that the heat is greater in that place than in the
    other parts of the oven and the loaves should therefore be changed
    to another position. Proper care given to bread while baking will
    produce loaves that are an even brown on the bottom, sides, and top
    and that shrink from the sides of the pan.


347.60. CARE OF BREAD AFTER BAKING.—As soon as the
    bread has baked sufficiently, take it from the oven, remove the
    loaves from the pans, and place them to cool where the air may
    circulate freely around them. A bread rack, or cake cooler,is very
    satisfactory for this purpose, but if such a device is not available, the
    loaves may be placed across the edges of the empty pans so that
    nearly the entire surface is exposed. Whichever plan is adopted, it

                                                                         151
       should be remembered that the bread must be carefully protected
       from dust and flies. Bread should never be permitted to remain in
       the pans after it has been baked nor to cool on a flat surface; neither
       should the loaves be wrapped while they are warm, because the
       moisture will collect on the surface and the bread will not keep so
       well.


       After the loaves have become sufficiently cool, place them in
       the receptacle in which they are to be kept. This should have been
       previously washed and dried and then allowed to stand in the
       sunshine, so as to be free from mold or any substance that will taint
       or otherwise injure the bread. After the loaves have been put into it,
       keep it well covered and allow no stale crumbs nor pieces of bread
       to collect. To keep such a receptacle in good condition, it should be
       scalded and dried every 2 or 3 days.



SCORING BREAD
348.61. OBJECT OF SCORING BREAD.—By the scoring of bread is
    meant simply the judging of its qualities. Persons who understand
    what good bread is agree very closely on the qualities that should
    characterize it, and they make these qualities a standard by which any
    kind of bread may be scored, or judged. Those who are not
    proficient in the making of bread, as well as those who have had
    very little experience, will do well to have their bread judged by
    experts or to learn how to score it themselves. By following this
    plan, they will be able to find out the good and bad points of their
    bread and then, by ascertaining the causes of any poor qualities, will
    be in a position to make improvements. So that the beginner may
    learn how to judge the qualities of her bread, she should study
    carefully the accompanying score card and its explanation.



SCORE CARD
External               Appearance:                            PER               CENT. Shape.................................
5 Size.................................. 2         Crust: Shade...............................       2      Uniformity
of Color.................                2     Character...........................         2 Depth............................
2--8 Lightness.............................. 20           Internal Appearance:                    Even distribution of
gas............. 10 Moisture.............................. 5 Elasticity............................                          5



152
Color................................ 15 Flavor................................. 30   -- Total.............................
100
349.62. EXPLANATION OF SCORE CARD.—A study of the score
    card will reveal that a certain number of points are given to a loaf of
    bread for appearance, both external and internal, for lightness, and
    for flavor. To determine these qualities best, allow the loaf to cool
    thoroughly after baking. Then consider the various points, and decide
    how nearly perfect the loaf is in respect to each one of them. Add the
    numbers that are determined upon, and the result obtained will show
    how the bread scores.
350.63. The shape of the loaf, in order to be perfect and to score 5,
    should be uniform and symmetrical. Any such shape as that shown in
    Fig. 15 would fall below perfect.


       The size of the loaf, for which a score of 2 is given, is determined
       from the standpoint of thorough baking. The exact size that a loaf
       must be is a rather difficult thing to state, because the sizes vary
       considerably, but a loaf of an ungainly size should be guarded
       against, for it would not score well. Bread made in pans of the size
       already mentioned would score high with regard to size.
       The crust, whose combined characteristics score 8, should be a
       golden brown in color in order to receive the score of 2 for its
       shade. A pale loaf or one baked too brown would not receive full
       credit. If the required color extends uniformly over the entire loaf, the
       bottom and the sides, as well as the top, 2 more is added to the score
       of the crust for uniformity of color. After these points are scored, a
       slice of bread should be cut from the loaf in order that the remaining
       points may be scored. As fresh bread does not cut easily, and as a
       well-cut slice must be had for this purpose, special care must be
       taken to obtain the slice. Therefore, sharpen a large knife and heat
       the blade slightly by holding it near a flame; then cut a slice at least
       ½ inch thick from the loaf before the blade has had time to cool.
       With such a slice cut, the character of the crust, by which is meant
       its toughness or its tenderness, may be determined. A score of 2 is
       given if it is of sufficient tenderness or is devoid of toughness. The
       depth of the crust, which depends on the amount of baking the loaf
       has had, receives a score of 2 if it is perfect. A deep crust, which is
       the preferred kind, is produced by long, slow baking; bread that is
       baked only a short time has a thin crust, which is not so desirable
       and would not score so high.



                                                                                                                    153
351.64. The lightness of the bread can easily be scored when the bread is
    cut. It is judged by the size of the holes, and if it is perfect it receives
    a score of 20. If the bread is not light enough, the holes will be small
    and the bread will feel solid and unelastic; if it is too light, the holes
    will be large and coarse.
352.65. The internal appearance, which is scored next, includes
    several characteristics. For the even distribution of gas, which is
    determined by the uniformity of the holes, 10 points are given. If the
    kneading has been done right and the bread has risen properly, the
    gas will be distributed evenly through the loaf, with the result that
    the holes, which make the bread porous, will be practically the
    same throughout the entire loaf. Such a texture is better than that of
    a loaf that has some large and some small holes. The moisture in the
    bread, which receives 5 if it is of the right amount, is tested by
    pinching a crumb between the fingers. If the crumb feels harsh and
    dry, the bread is not moist enough, and if it feels doughy, the bread is
    too moist. The elasticity, for which 5 is given, is determined by
    pressing the finger gently into a cut place in the loaf. The bread may
    be considered to be elastic if it springs back after the finger is
    removed and does not break nor crumble. As compared with cake,
    bread is always more elastic, a characteristic that is due to the
    quantity of gluten it contains. Still it should be remembered that the
    elasticity must not amount to toughness, for if it does the quality
    of the bread is impaired. To score 15 for color, the inside of the
    loaf should be of an even, creamy white. A dull white or gray color
    would indicate that flour of a poor quality had been used, and dark
    or white streaks in the bread would denote uneven mixing and
    insufficient kneading.
353.66. The last thing to be scored, namely, the flavor, merits 30 points.
    To determine this characteristic, chew a small piece of bread well. If it
    is not sour nor musty, has a sweet, nutty flavor, and shows that the
    correct amount of salt and sugar were added in the mixing, it may
    receive a perfect score.




USE OF THE BREAD MIXER
354.67. The advantage of a bread mixer in bread making is that it
    practically does away with hand mixing and kneading; however, all
    the other steps described are the same, depending on the process


154
    used. As has been mentioned, the housewife who bakes such a small
    quantity as three or four loaves of bread can get along very well
    without a bread mixer; at least, for so few loaves a bread mixer does
    not seem so necessary as when six or more loaves are to be made at
    one time, when it is a decided convenience. However, bread mixers
    can be had in various sizes to meet the requirements of the
    housewife.
355.68. In using a bread mixer like that described in Essentials of
    COOKING, Part 2, the ingredients are placed in the mixer and
    thoroughly mixed together by turning the handle, and after the
    sponge or the dough has risen, the kneading is performed by again
    turning the handle. The amount of turning to be done is, of course,
    regulated by the ingredients and the method that is followed.


    In addition to the bread mixer mentioned, there is another convenient
    type that is constructed in two parts, the top part having a sifter in
    its bottom, through which the flour or other dry ingredients are
    sifted. The sifting is done with a crank, which also operates a shaft
    to which is attached a number of knives extending in different
    directions. These knives accomplish the mixing and the kneading.
    The bread is allowed to rise in the lower part of the bread mixer,
    the top part being removed after the mixing and sifting have been
    accomplished.
    Any of the bread-making methods described may be used with the
    bread mixer without change in the process, and no kneading need be
    done by hand except a sufficient amount to shape the loaves after the
    last rising and before they are placed in the pans.



SERVING BREAD
356.69. Bread is one of the foods that every one takes so much as a
    matter of course that little thought is given to its serving. Of course,
    it does not offer so much opportunity for variety in serving as do
    some foods; yet, like all other foods, it appeals more to the appetites
    of those who are to eat it if it is served in an attractive manner. A few
    ideas as to the ways in which it may be served will therefore not be
    amiss.




                                                                         155
      As fresh bread is not easily digested, it should not usually be served
      until it is at least 24 hours old. Before it is placed on the table, it
      should be cut in slices, the thickness of which will depend on the
      preference of the persons who are to eat it. If the loaf is large in size,
      the pieces should be cut in two, lengthwise of the slice, but in the
      case of a small loaf the slices need not be cut.
      Various receptacles for placing bread and rolls on the table, such as
      a bread boat, a bread plate, and a bread basket, are also used to
      add variety in serving. Whichever of these is selected, it may be
      improved in appearance by the addition of a white linen doily. For
      rolls, a hot-roll cover is both convenient and attractive. Sometimes,
      especially when a large number of persons are to be served, a roll is
      placed between the folds of each person’s napkin before they are
      seated at the table.
      Occasionally bread becomes stale before it is needed on the table.
      Such bread, however, should not be discarded, especially if the
      loaves are uncut. Uncut loaves of this kind may be freshened by
      dipping them quickly into boiling water and then placing them in a
      very hot oven until their surface becomes dry. If desired, slices of
      bread that have become stale may be steamed in order to freshen
      them; but unless great care is taken in steaming them the bread is
      liable to become too moist and soggy.


      *     *     *     *     *



RECIPES

BREAD RECIPES
357.70. In order that the beginner may bring into use the bread-
    making principles and directions that have been set forth, and at the
    same time become familiar with the quantities of ingredients that
    must be used, there are here given a number of recipes for the
    making of bread. These recipes include not only white bread-that is,
    bread made from white flour -but whole-wheat, graham, rye, and corn
    bread, as well as bread in which fruit and nuts are incorporated.
    Before these recipes are taken up, though, it will not be amiss to
    look further into the various ingredients used in the making of bread.


156
358.71. The fat used in bread making may vary in both quantity and
    kind. For instance, if less than 2 tablespoonfuls is called for in a
    recipe, this amount may be decreased; but it is not well to increase
    the amount to any extent. Likewise, the fat may be of any kind
    that will not impart a disagreeable flavor to the finished product. It
    may be left-over chicken fat, clarified beef fat, lard, butter, cooking
    oil, or any mixture of clear, fresh fats that may be in supply.


    The sweetening for bread is, as a rule, granulated sugar, although
    syrup, molasses, brown sugar, or white sugar of any kind may be
    employed. Sweetening is used merely to give a slightly sweet flavor
    to the bread, and the kind that is used is of slight importance.
    The liquid, as has been stated, may be water or milk or any
    proportion of both. The milk that is used may be either whole or
    skim. In addition to these two liquids, the whey from cottage
    cheese or the water in which rice, macaroni, or potatoes have been
    cooked should not be overlooked. Potato water in which a small
    quantity of potato may be mashed serves as a yeast aid, as has been
    pointed out. Therefore, whenever, in a bread recipe, liquid is called
    for and the kind to be used is not stated specifically, use may be
    made of any of the liquids that have been mentioned.
    The quantity of flour required for a bread recipe will depend entirely
    on the kind of flour that is to be used, bread flour having a much
    greater absorbing power for liquid than has pastry or blend flour.
    When, in the process of mixing the bread, the sponge is stiffened
    by adding the remaining flour to it, the last cupful or two should be
    added cautiously, in order not to make the mixture too stiff. In some
    instances, more flour than the recipe calls for may be required to
    make the dough of the right consistency. The amount can be
    determined only by a knowledge of what this consistency should be,
    and this will be easily acquired with practice in bread making.
359.72. The beginner will find it a good plan to begin making bread
    entirely of white flour, for the reason that it is easier to
    determine the consistency of the dough mixture at various stages, as
    well as during the kneading, if there is no coarse material, such as
    bran, corn meal, nuts, fruits, etc., in the dough. Later, when a
    definite knowledge along this line has been acquired, one after the
    other of the bread recipes should be tried. They are no more difficult
    to carry out than the recipes for white bread; indeed, the woman who
    has had experience in bread making will find that she will be equally
    successful with all of them.

                                                                       157
360.73. WHITE BREAD.—Bread made from white flour, which is
    commonly referred to as white bread, is used to a much greater
    extent than any other kind, for it is the variety that most persons
    prefer and of which they do not tire quickly. However, white bread
    should not be used to the exclusion of other breads, because they
    are of considerable importance economically. This kind of bread may
    be made by both the quick and the long processes, for the
    ingredients are the same, with the exception of the quantity of yeast
    used. The amounts given in the following recipes are sufficient to
    make two large loaves or three small ones, but, of course, if more
    bread is desired, the quantity of each ingredient may be
    increased proportionately.


      WHITE BREAD—LONG PROCESS (Sufficient for Two Large or
      Three Small Loaves)
      2 Tb. fat 2 Tb. sugar ½ cake compressed yeast, or 1 cake dried yeast
      1 Tb. salt 1 qt. lukewarm liquid 3 qt. flour 1 c. flour additional for
      kneading
      Put into the mixing bowl the fat, the sugar, the salt, and the yeast that
      has been dissolved in a little of the lukewarm liquid. Add the
      remainder of the liquid and stir in half of the flour. Place this
      sponge where it will rise overnight and will not become chilled. In
      the morning, add the remainder of the flour, stirring it well into the
      risen sponge, and knead the dough thus formed. Allow it to rise
      until it has doubled in bulk and then knead it again. After it is
      properly kneaded, shape it into loaves, place them in greased pans, let
      them rise until they have doubled in bulk, and then bake them.
      Combining the ingredients in the manner just mentioned is
      following the sponge method of the long process. By adding all
      instead of half of the flour at night, the straight-dough method of
      this process may be followed.
      WHITE BREAD—QUICK PROCESS (Sufficient for Two Large
      or Three Small Loaves)
      2 Tb. fat 2 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. salt 2 cakes compressed yeast 1 qt.
      lukewarm liquid 3 qt. flour 1 c. flour additional for kneading
      Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt into the mixing bowl, and then
      to them add the yeast dissolved in a few tablespoonfuls of the
      lukewarm liquid. Add the remaining liquid and stir in half or all of
      the flour, according to whether the process is to be completed by the


158
    sponge or the straight-dough method. One yeast cake may be used
    instead of two. However, if the smaller quantity of yeast is used, the
    process will require more time, but the results will be equally as
    good. After the dough has been allowed to rise the required number
    of times and has been kneaded properly for the method selected,
    place it in greased pans, let it rise sufficiently, and proceed with
    the baking.
361.74. Whole-Wheat Bread.—Bread made out of whole-wheat flour
    has a distinctive flavor that is very agreeable to most persons. This
    kind of bread is not used so extensively as that made of white flour,
    but since it contains more mineral salts and bulk, it should have a
    place in the diet of every family. When made according to the
    following recipe, whole-wheat bread will be found to be a very
    desirable substitute for bread made of the finer flours.


    WHOLE-WHEAT BREAD—QUICK PROCESS (Sufficient for
    Two Small Loaves)
    3 Tb. fat ¼ c. brown sugar 1 Tb. salt 1 cake compressed yeast 3 c.
    lukewarm liquid 8 c. whole-wheat flour 1 c. white flour for kneading
    Place the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl and add
    the yeast cake dissolved in a little of the liquid. Add the remainder of
    the liquid, and then stir in half or all of the flour, according to
    whether the sponge or the straight-dough method is preferred.
    Then proceed according to the directions previously given for making
    bread by the quick process.
    The long process may also be followed in making whole-wheat bread,
    and if it is, only one-half the quantity of yeast should be used.
362.75. Graham Bread.—To lend variety to the family diet, frequent use
    should be made of graham bread, which contains even more bulk
    and mineral salts than whole-wheat bread. In bread of this kind, both
    graham and white flour are used. Since graham flour is very heavy, it
    prevents the bread from rising quickly, so the bread is started with
    white flour. The accompanying recipe contains quantities for the
    short process, although it may be adapted to the long process by
    merely using one-half the amount of yeast.


    GRAHAM BREAD (Sufficient for Two Loaves)




                                                                        159
      2 Tb. fat ¼ c. brown sugar 2 tsp. salt 1 cake compressed yeast 2 c.
      lukewarm liquid 2 c. white flour 3 c. graham flour 1 c. white flour
      additional for kneading
      Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl, and to them
      add the yeast that has been dissolved in a little of the liquid. Pour
      over these ingredients the remainder of the liquid and stir in the white
      flour. When the mixture is to be made stiff, add the graham flour.
      Then knead the dough, let it rise, knead again, place it in greased
      pans, let rise, and bake.
      A point to be remembered in the making of graham bread is that
      sifting removes the bran from graham flour, and if lightness is
      desired, the flour may be sifted and the bran then replaced.
363.76. Graham Bread With Nuts.—To increase the food value of
    graham bread, nuts are sometimes added. This kind of bread also
    provides an agreeable variety to the diet. The following recipe is
    intended to be carried out by the short process, so that if the long
    process is desired the quantity of yeast must be reduced.


      GRAHAM BREAD WITH NUTS (Sufficient for Two Loaves)
      1 cake compressed yeast 2 c. lukewarm liquid ¼ c. molasses 2 Tb. fat
      1 Tb. salt 2 c. white flour 4 c. graham flour 1-1/2 c. chopped nuts
      1 c. white flour additional for kneading
      Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm liquid and mix it with
      the molasses, fat, and salt. Add the remaining liquid and the white
      flour. Let this sponge rise until it is light. Then stir in the graham
      flour, adding the nuts while kneading. Let the dough rise until it
      doubles in bulk. Shape into loaves, place it in the greased pans, and let
      it rise until it doubles in size. Bake for an hour or more, according
      to the size of the loaves.
364.77. Whole-Wheat Fruit Bread.—A very delicious whole-wheat
    bread is produced by combining fruit, which, besides improving the
    flavor, adds to the food value of the bread. Thin slices of this kind of
    bread spread with butter make excellent summer sandwiches. If the
    short process is employed, the amounts specified in the following
    recipe should be used, but for the long process the quantity of yeast
    should be decreased.


      WHOLE-WHEAT FRUIT BREAD (Sufficient for Three Small
      Loaves)

160
    1 yeast cake 2 c. lukewarm liquid 2 Tb. fat ¼ c. brown sugar
    stoned, chopped dates 2 tsp. salt 6 c. whole-wheat flour 1-1/2 c.
    seeded raisins or stoned, chopped dates 1 c. white flour for kneading
    Dissolve the yeast cake in a little of the lukewarm liquid and add it to
    the fat, sugar, and salt that have been put into the mixing bowl. Pour
    in the remainder of the liquid and add half or all of the flour,
    depending on the bread-making method that is followed. Stir in the
    fruit before all the flour is added and just before the dough is shaped
    into loaves. After it has risen sufficiently in the greased pans, proceed
    with the baking.
365.78. BRAN BREAD.—Bread in which                    bran is used is
    proportionately a trifle lower in food value than that in which whole
    wheat or white flour is used. However, it has the advantage of an
    additional amount of bulk in the form of bran, and because of this it
    is a wholesome food.


    BRAN BREAD (Sufficient for Two Loaves)
    2 c. milk 6 Tb. molasses 1-1/2 tsp. salt ½ yeast cake ¼ c. lukewarm
    water 2 c. white flour 4 c. graham flour 1 c. sterilized bran 1 c. white
    flour additional for kneading
    Scald the milk and to it add the molasses and salt. When this is
    lukewarm, add to it the yeast cake dissolved in the lukewarm water,
    as well as the white flour and 1 cupful of the graham flour. Cover
    this mixture and let it rise. When it has risen sufficiently, add the bran
    and the rest of the graham flour and knead. Cover this dough, and let
    it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then shape it into loaves, place it in
    the greased pans, let it rise again until it doubles in bulk, and bake in
    a hot oven.
366.79. RYE BREAD.—Rye bread has a typical flavor that many
    persons enjoy. When rye flour is used alone, it makes a moist, sticky
    bread; therefore, in order to produce bread of a good texture, wheat
    flour must be used with the rye flour. The recipe here given is for
    the short process of bread making, but by reducing the quantity of
    yeast it may be used for the long process.


    RYE BREAD (Sufficient for Three Loaves)
    2 Tb. fat 1 Tb. salt 2 Tb. sugar 1 cake compressed yeast 3 c.
    lukewarm liquid 6 c. rye flour 4 c. white flour 1 c. white flour
    additional for kneading

                                                                          161
      Into the mixing bowl, put the fat, the salt, the sugar, and the yeast that
      has been dissolved in a small quantity of the lukewarm liquid. Then
      stir in the flour, one-half or all of it, according to whether the
      sponge or the straight-dough method is followed. When the dough is
      formed, allow it to rise until it doubles in bulk; then knead it and
      shape it into loaves for the greased pans. When these have risen until
      they are double in size and therefore ready for the oven, glaze the
      surface of each by brushing it with the white of egg and water and
      put them in the oven to bake. If desired, caraway seed may be
      added to the dough when it is formed into loaves or simply
      sprinkled on the top of each loaf. To many persons the caraway
      seed imparts a flavor to the bread that is very satisfactory.
367.80. Corn Bread.—Corn meal is sometimes combined with wheat
    flour to make corn bread. Such a combination decreases the cost of
    bread at times when corn meal is cheap. Bread of this kind is high in
    food value, because corn meal contains a large proportion of fat,
    which is more or less lacking in white flour. The following recipe is
    given for the short process, but it may be used for the long process
    by merely decreasing the quantity of yeast.


      CORN BREAD (Sufficient for Two Loaves)
      1 yeast cake 2 c. lukewarm liquid 2 tsp. salt 1 Tb. sugar 2 Tb. fat 4-
      1/2 c. white flour 2 c. corn meal 1 c. white flour additional for
      kneading
      Put the yeast to soak in ¼ cupful of warm water and let it dissolve.
      Heat the liquid and cool it to lukewarm, and then add to it the salt,
      the sugar, the dissolved yeast, and the melted fat. Make a sponge with
      some of the flour and let it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then make a
      dough with the corn meal and the remaining flour. Knead the dough,
      let it rise again, and form it into loaves. Let these rise in the greased
      pans until they double in bulk; then bake about 45 minutes.
368.81. Rice Bread.—Very often variety is given to bread by the addition
    of rice, which imparts an unusual flavor to bread and effects a
    saving of wheat flour. Oatmeal and other cereals may be used in
    the same way as rice, and bread containing any of these moist cereals
    will remain moist longer than bread in which they are not used.


      RICE BREAD (Sufficient for Three Loaves)



162
    ½ c. uncooked rice 1-1/2 c. water 1 Tb. salt 1 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. fat ½
    yeast cake 1 c. lukewarm liquid 6 c. white flour 1 c. white flour
    additional for kneading
    Steam the rice in a double boiler in 1 and a half cupfuls of water
    until it is soft and dry. Add the salt, sugar, and fat, and allow all to
    become lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm liquid, and
    add it to the rice. Put all in the mixing bowl, stir in 2 cupfuls of
    flour, and allow the mixture to become very light. Add the remainder
    of the flour and knead lightly. Let the dough rise until it has
    doubled in bulk and knead to reduce the quantity. Place in greased
    pans. When the loaves have risen sufficiently, bake for about 50
    minutes.
369.82. SALT-RISING BREAD.—Recipes for                  bread would be
    incomplete if mention were not made of salt-rising bread. Such bread
    differs from ordinary bread in that the gas that causes the rising is
    due to the action of bacteria. Salt-rising bread is not universally
    popular, yet many persons are fond of it. Its taste is very agreeable,
    and, as a rule, its texture is excellent; however, it always has an
    unpleasant odor. The method given in the accompanying recipe for
    salt-rising bread differs in no way from the usual method of making it.
    It is very necessary that the first mixture of corn meal, salt, sugar,
    and milk be kept at a uniformly warm temperature in order to
    induce bacteria to grow. Any failure to make such bread
    successfully will probably be due to the violation of this precaution
    rather than to any other cause.


    SALT-RISING BREAD (Sufficient for Two Loaves)
    1 c. fresh milk ¼ c. corn meal 1 tsp. salt 2 tsp. sugar 2 c. lukewarm
    water 7 c. white flour ½ c. white flour additional for kneading
    Scald the milk and pour it over the corn meal, salt, and sugar. Allow
    this mixture to stand in a warm place for several hours or overnight,
    when it should be light. To this batter add the warm water and
    enough flour to make a drop batter. Allow this to stand in a warm
    place until it is light; and then add the remainder of the flour so as to
    make a dough, and knead. Allow this to rise, shape it into loaves,
    put it in pans, let it rise again, and bake.




                                                                         163
RECIPES FOR ROLLS, BUNS, AND BISCUITS
370.83. While the preceding recipes call for bread in the form of loaves,
    it should be understood that bread may be made up in other forms,
    such as rolls, buns, and biscuits. These forms of bread may be made
    from any of the bread recipes by adding to the mixture shortening,
    sugar, eggs, fruit, nuts, spices, flavoring, or anything else desirable.
    Since these things in any quantity retard the rising of the sponge or
    dough, they should be added after it has risen at least once. Rolls,
    buns, and biscuits may be made in various shapes, as is shown in
    Fig. 18. To shape them, the dough may be rolled thin and then cut
    with cutters, or the pieces used for them may be pinched or cut from
    the dough and shaped with the hands. After they are shaped, they
    should be allowed to rise until they double in bulk. To give them a
    glazed appearance, the surface of each may be brushed before
    baking with milk, with white of egg and water, or with sugar and
    water. Butter is also desirable for this purpose, as it produces a crust
    that is more tender and less likely to be tough. Rolls, buns, or
    biscuits may be baked in an oven that has a higher temperature
    than that required for bread in the form of loaves, as is indicated in
    Fig. 4, and only 15 to 20 minutes is needed for baking them. If such
    forms of bread are desired with a crust covering the entire surface,
    they must be placed far enough apart so that the edges will not touch
    when they are baking.


      So that experience may be had in the preparation of rolls, buns,
      and biscuits there are given here several recipes that can be worked
      out to advantage, especially after proficiency in bread making has
      been attained.
371.84. Parker House Rolls.—Of the various kinds of rolls, perhaps none
    meets with greater favor than the so-called Parker House rolls,. Such
    rolls may be used in almost any kind of meal, and since they are
    brushed with butter before they are baked, they may be served
    without butter, if desired, in a meal that includes gravy or fat meat.


      PARKER HOUSE ROLLS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)
      1 cake compressed yeast 1 pt. lukewarm milk 4 Tb. fat 2 Tb. sugar 1
      tsp. salt 3 pt. white flour 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
      Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Pour the remainder
      of the warm milk over the fat, sugar, salt, and dissolved yeast, all of


164
    which should first be put in a mixing bowl. Stir into these ingredients
    half of the flour, and beat until smooth. Cover this sponge and let it
    rise until it is light. Add the remainder of the flour, and knead until
    the dough is smooth and does not stick to the board. Place the
    dough in a greased bowl, and let it rise again until it doubles in
    bulk. Roll the dough on a molding board until it is about ¼ inch
    thick. Then cut the rolled dough with a round cutter; brush each
    piece with soft butter; mark it through the center, with the dull edge
    of a kitchen knife; and fold it over. Place the pieces of dough thus
    prepared in shallow pans, about 1 inch apart, and let them rise until
    they are light. Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.
372.85. Dinner Rolls.—As their name implies, dinner rolls are an
    especially desirable kind of roll to serve with a dinner. They should
    be made small enough to be dainty, and as an even, brown crust all
    over the rolls is desirable they should be placed far enough apart in
    the pans to prevent them from touching one another, as shown in
    Fig. 20 (a). If they are placed as in (b), that is, close together, only
    part of the crust will be brown. When made according to the
    accompanying recipe, dinner rolls are very palatable.


    DINNER ROLLS (Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Rolls)
    1 cake compressed yeast 1 c. lukewarm milk 2 Tb. sugar 2 Tb. fat 1
    tsp. salt 3 c. white flour 1 egg white ½ c. white flour additional
    for kneading
    Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Put the sugar, fat,
    salt, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl, and pour the remainder
    of the milk over these ingredients. Stir half of the flour into this
    mixture and allow the sponge to rise. When it is light, add the egg
    white, which should first be beaten, and the remainder of the flour,
    and then knead the dough. Let the dough rise until it doubles in bulk.
    Roll out the dough until it is ½ inch thick, and then cut out the rolls
    with a small round cutter. Place these in a shallow pan and let them
    rise until they are light. Then glaze each one with the white of egg to
    which is added a little water and bake them in a hot oven for about
    15 minutes.
373.86. LUNCHEON ROLLS.—If rolls smaller than dinner rolls are
    desired, luncheon rolls will undoubtedly be just what is wanted.
    Since these are very small, they become thoroughly baked and are
    therefore likely to be even more digestible than bread or biscuit



                                                                        165
      dough baked in a loaf. For rolls of this kind, the following recipe will
      prove satisfactory:


      LUNCHEON ROLLS (Sufficient for 2 Dozen Rolls)
      1 cake compressed yeast 1-1/4 c. lukewarm milk 2 Tb. sugar 2 Tb.
      fat 1 tsp. salt 4 c. white flour 1 egg white ½ c. white flour additional
      for kneading
      Combine the ingredients in the manner directed for making dinner
      rolls. Shape the dough into biscuits the size of a small walnut, place
      them in a shallow pan, spacing them a short distance apart, and let
      them rise until they are light. Next, brush the tops of them with
      melted butter, and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15
      minutes.
374.87. WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS.—Rolls made of whole-wheat flour
    are not so common as those made of white flour, and for this
    reason they appeal to the appetite more than ordinary rolls.
    Whole-wheat rolls have the same advantage as bread made of
    whole-wheat flour, and if they are well baked they have a crust that
    adds to their palatableness.


      WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)
      1 pt. lukewarm milk 1 cake compressed yeast 1 tsp. salt 3 Tb. sugar 4
      Tb. fat 2 c. white flour 4 c. whole-wheat flour ½ c. white flour
      additional for kneading
      Set a sponge with the lukewarm milk, in which are put the yeast
      cake, salt, sugar, fat, and white flour. Allow this to become very
      light, and then add the whole-wheat flour. Knead this dough and
      allow it to double in bulk. Then shape it into rolls, allow them to rise,
      and bake for 15 to 20 minutes.
375.88. GRAHAM NUT BUNS.—Buns made of graham flour and
    containing nuts are not only especially delightful in flavor, but highly
    nutritious. Because they are high in food value, they may be served
    with a light meal, such as lunch or supper, to add nutrition to it. The
    recipe here given will result in excellent buns if it is followed closely.


      GRAHAM NUT BUNS (Sufficient for 3 Dozen Buns)



166
    1 cake compressed yeast 2 c. lukewarm milk 4 Tb. brown sugar 2 tsp.
    salt 2 Tb. fat 2-1/2 c. white flour 1 egg 1 c. chopped nuts 3-1/2 c.
    graham flour 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
    Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm milk. Place the sugar,
    salt, fat, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl and add the remainder
    of the warm milk. Stir in the white flour and let the sponge thus
    formed rise. Then add the egg, which should first be beaten, the
    nuts, and the graham flour. Knead the dough and shape it into buns.
    Let these rise and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15
    minutes.
376.89. NUT OR FRUIT BUNS.—Nuts or fruit added to buns made of
    white flour provide more mineral salts and bulk, substances in which
    white flour is lacking. Buns containing either of these ingredients,
    therefore, are especially valuable in the diet. Besides increasing the
    food value of the buns, nuts and fruit improve the flavor and make a
    very palatable form of bun. Buns of this kind are made as follows:


    NUT OR FRUIT BUNS (Sufficient for 2 Dozen Buns)
    4 Tb. sugar 1 Tb. fat 1 tsp. salt 1 cake compressed yeast 1 c.
    lukewarm milk 3 c. white flour ¾ c. chopped nuts or raisins 1 c.
    white flour additional for kneading
    Add the sugar, fat, and salt to the yeast dissolved in a little of the
    milk. Then stir in the remainder of the milk and half of the flour.
    Allow this sponge to rise until it is very light, and then add the
    remainder of the flour and the nuts or the raisins. Knead at once and
    form into buns. Let these rise until they are light. Then moisten
    them with milk and sprinkle sugar over them before placing them in
    the oven. Bake for about 15 minutes.
377.90. SWEET BUNS.—Persons who prefer a sweet bun will find buns
    like those shown in Fig. 21 and made according to the following
    recipe very much to their taste. The sweetening, eggs, and lemon
    extract used in this recipe give to the white buns a delightful flavor
    and help to lend variety to the usual kind of bun.


    SWEET BUNS (Sufficient for 1-1/3 Dozen Buns)
    1 cake compressed yeast 1 c. lukewarm scalded milk ¼ c. sugar 2 Tb.
    fat 1 tsp. 1 tsp. salt 3-1/2 c. white flour 2 eggs 1 tsp. lemon extract 1
    c. white flour additional for kneading


                                                                         167
      Dissolve the yeast in a small amount of the lukewarm milk and add
      it to the sugar, fat, salt, and remaining milk in the mixing bowl. Stir
      into this mixture half of the flour, beat well, and let the sponge rise
      until it is light. Add the eggs, which should first be beaten, the
      lemon extract, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is
      smooth. Let the dough rise again and then shape it into rolls. Allow
      these to rise, and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.
378.91. COFFEE CAKE.—When an especially good kind of biscuit
    that can be served for breakfast and eaten with coffee is desired,
    coffee cake made according to the following recipe should be used.
    Cinnamon sprinkled over the top of such cake imparts a very
    pleasing flavor, but if more of this flavor is preferred 1 teaspoonful
    of cinnamon may be mixed with the dough.


      COFFEE CAKE (Sufficient for One Cake)
      1 cake compressed yeast ½ c. lukewarm milk 1 Tb. sugar ½ tsp. salt
      2 c. white flour 1 egg 2 Tb. fat ¼ c. brown sugar ½ c. white flour
      additional for kneading
      Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm milk and add the sugar and the
      salt. Stir in 1 cupful of flour and let the mixture rise. When the
      sponge is light, add the beaten egg, the fat and the brown sugar
      creamed, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth
      and allow it to rise until it is double in bulk. Then roll the dough
      until it is ½ inch thick, place it in a shallow pan, and let it rise until it
      is light. Brush the top with 1 tablespoonful of melted butter and
      sprinkle it with 3 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon and 3 tablespoonfuls
      of sugar. Bake 10 to 15 minutes in a moderately hot oven.


379.92. CINNAMON ROLLS.—To make cinnamon rolls, which are
    preferred by some persons to coffee cake, use may be made of the
    preceding coffee-cake recipe. However, instead of rolling the dough
    ½ inch thick, roll it ¼ inch thick and brush it with melted butter.
    Then sprinkle it with 1 tablespoonful of cinnamon, ½ cupful of
    light-brown sugar, and ½ cupful of chopped raisins. Next, roll this as
    a jelly roll and cut the roll into ½-inch slices, as shown in Fig. 22.
    Place these slices close together in a shallow pan and let them rise
    until they are light, as in Fig. 23. Then bake them in a hot oven for
    about 15 minutes.



168
TOAST
380.93. As every one knows, TOAST is sliced bread browned by means
    of heat. To make toast is not a difficult process, but a certain amount
    of care must be exercised if good results are desired. The slices used
    for toast may be cut thick or thin, depending on whether the persons
    for whom the toast is made prefer a soft or a dry toast and whether
    the digestibility of the toast is to be taken into consideration. If thick
    slices are used and they are toasted the usual length of time necessary
    to make the surfaces brown, the center of the slices will remain soft.
    Toast made of thin slices and toasted over a slow fire becomes dry
    and crisp during the process of browning and is more digestible
    than that which is moist. Such toast will not lose its crispness unless
    the pieces are piled in a heap while they are hot and are allowed to
    soften from the moisture that collects. While toast is usually served in
    the form of slices, just as they are cut from the loaf, the pieces may
    be cut into shapes of various kinds; in fact, toast becomes more
    attractive if it is cut in unusual shapes. The crust of toast may be
    trimmed off or left on, as desired.
381.94. If the best results are desired in the making of toast,
    considerable attention must be given to the heat that is to produce the
    toast. Whatever kind is employed, it should be steady and without
    flame. Before a coal or a coke fire is used for this purpose, it should
    be allowed to burn down until the flame is gone and the coals are
    hot enough to reflect the heat for toasting. If a gas toaster is
    used, the gas should be turned sufficiently low for the bread to
    brown slowly. Very good results are obtained from the use of an
    electric toaster, also. This device has become a rather common
    household article where electricity is used in the home, and by
    means of it the toast can be made on the table and served while it is
    fresh and hot. In whatever way toast is made, it will lose much of its
    attractiveness unless it is served while it is fresh and before it loses
    its heat. If toast becomes burned, either from a flame that is too hot
    or from inattention on the part of the person who is preparing it, it
    may be made fit for use by scraping it lightly with a knife or by
    rubbing it across a grater, so as to remove the burned portion.
382.95. MILK TOAST.—Milk and toast make a combination that is
    liked by many persons, and when these two foods are combined the
    result is known as milk toast. To make milk toast, simply pour over
    the toast rich milk that has been heated and seasoned with salt, a

                                                                          169
      little sugar, and a little butter. Thin white sauce may also be used for
      this purpose if desired.
383.96. FRENCH TOAST.—Possibly no dish in which toast is used is
    better known than the so-called French toast. Both milk and egg are
    used in making this dish, and these of course add to the food value of
    the bread. French toast made according to the following recipe will
    prove very satisfactory.


      FRENCH TOAST (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      1 egg 1 c. milk 2 tsp. sugar 8 slices of bread ½ tsp. salt
      Beat the egg and add it to the milk, salt, and sugar. Dip each slice of
      bread into this liquid, turn it quickly, and then remove it. Place the
      bread thus dipped in a hot frying pan and saute it until the under side
      is brown; then turn it and brown the other side. Serve hot with
      syrup or jelly.



LEFT-OVER BREAD
384.97. Bread that has become stale need not be wasted, for there are
    many uses to which it may be put. As such bread has lost much of its
    moisture, it is desirable for toast, for it browns more quickly and
    makes crisper toast than fresh bread. Thick slices of it may also be
    cut into cubes or long, narrow strips and then toasted on all sides, to
    be served with soup instead of crackers. Still another use that can be
    made of stale bread is to toast it and then cut it into triangular
    pieces to be served with creamed dishes or used as a garnish for
    meats, eggs, and various entrees. Left-over toast may also be cut in
    this way and used for these purposes.
385.98. The ends of loaves, crusts trimmed from bread used for
    sandwiches, or stale bread or rolls that cannot be used for the
    purposes that have been mentioned can also be utilized, so none of
    them need be thrown away. If such pieces are saved and allowed to
    dry thoroughly in the warming oven or in an oven that is not very
    hot, they may be broken into crumbs by putting them through a food
    chopper or rolling them with a rolling pin. After the crumbs are
    obtained, they should be put through a coarse sieve in order to
    separate the coarse ones from the fine ones. Such crumbs, both
    coarse and fine, may be kept for some time if they are put into jars or
    cans.

170
    It is a very good plan to keep a supply of bread crumbs on hand, for
    there are numerous dishes that require the use of bread in this
    form. For instance, bread crumbs are used for all kinds of
    scalloped dishes; for making puddings, such as bread pudding,
    brown Betty, etc.; for stuffing fish, fowl, and such vegetables as
    tomatoes and peppers; for covering the top of baked dishes, such as
    various egg and cheese dishes; for breading steaks and chops; and
    for covering croquettes or oysters that are to be fried. They may also
    be added to muffins, griddle cakes, and even yeast bread dough.
    With so many uses to which bread crumbs can be put, no
    housewife need be at a loss to know how to utilize any scraps of
    bread that are not, for some reason, suitable for the table.


    *     *    *     *     *



BREAD

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
386.(1) Mention the ingredients required for bread making.
387.(2) From what kind of wheat is bread flour usually made?
388.(3) (a) What is gluten? (b) Why is it necessary for the making of
    bread?
389.(4) (a) What is meant by a blend flour? (b) When is its use indicated?
390.(5) How may the kind and quality of flour be judged in purchasing it?
391.(6) (a) What is yeast? (b) What things are necessary for its growth?
    (c) What temperature is best for its growth?
392.(7) (a) What is produced by the growth of yeast? (b) What part does
    this play in bread making?
393.(8) What determines the quantity of yeast to use in bread making?
394.(9) (a) What will hasten the bread-making process? (b) What will
    retard it?
395.(10) Give the general proportions of the main ingredients used for
    making a loaf of bread.


                                                                        171
396.(11) What are the advantages of: (a) the long process of bread making?
    (b) the quick process?
397.(12) What is: (a) a sponge? (b) a dough?
398.(13) (a) Why must bread dough be kneaded? (b) How is it possible to
    tell when dough has been kneaded sufficiently?
399.(14) At what temperature should bread be kneaded?
400.(15) How should bread be cared for after it is removed from the
    oven?
401.(16) What points are considered in the scoring of bread?
402.(17) What part of bread making may be done in a bread mixer?
403.(18) What are the differences in time and oven temperatures in
    baking rolls and bread?
404.(19) Mention briefly the procedure in making rolls, buns, and biscuits.
405.(20) Score a loaf of bread you have made and submit the points as you
    have scored it.


      *   *     *    *     *




HOT BREADS

      *   *     *    *     *

REQUIREMENTS AND PROCESSES FOR MAKING HOT BREADS


HOT BREADS IN THE DIET
406.1. Closely related to yeast breads, or those in which yeast is used as
    the leavening agent, are breads known as HOT BREADS, or QUICK
    BREADS. As these names indicate, such breads are prepared in a
    very short time and are intended to be served while they are fresh
    and hot. Hot breads, to call such breads by the name in common
    use, are made by baking a batter or a dough mixture formed by

172
   mixing flour, liquid, salt, and a leavening agent. The nature of the
   mixture, however, is governed by the proportion of flour and liquid,
   the two ingredients that form the basis of all bread mixtures; and by
   incorporating with them such ingredients as eggs, sugar,
   shortening, flavoring, fruits, nuts, etc. there may be produced an
   almost endless variety of appetizing hot breads, which include
   popovers, griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, soft gingerbread, corn cake
   or corn bread, Boston brown bread, nut loaf, and baking-powder
   and beaten biscuit. Because of the variety these hot breads afford,
   they help considerably to relieve the monotony of meals. In fact, the
   housewife has come to depend so much on breads of this kind that
   their use has become almost universal. As is well known, however,
   certain kinds are typical of certain localities; for instance, beaten
   biscuit and hoe cake are characteristic of the Southern States of the
   United States, while Boston brown bread is used most extensively
   in the New England States and throughout the East. The popular
   opinion of most persons is that hot breads are injurious. It is
   perhaps true that they may be injurious to individuals afflicted
   with some digestive disturbance, but, at any rate, the harmful effect
   may be reduced to a minimum by the correct preparation and baking
   of these foods.




PRINCIPAL            REQUIREMENTS                    FOR         HOT
BREADS
407.2. Hot breads are quickly and easily made, but in this part of
    COOKING, as in every other phase of it, certain principles must
    be understood and applied if the most satisfactory results are
    desired. These principles pertain chiefly to the ingredients used,
    the way in which they are measured and handled, the proportions
    in which they are combined, the necessary utensils, and the proper
    baking of the mixtures that are formed.


   In the first place, the quality of the ingredients should be carefully
   considered, because on this depends the quality of the finished
   product. No one who prepares foods can expect good food to result
   from the use of inferior materials. Next, the proportion of the
   ingredients demands attention, for much importance is attached to

                                                                     173
      this point. For instance, in making a certain kind of hot bread, the
      quantity of flour to be used is regulated by the quantity of bread that
      is desired, and the quantity of flour governs, in turn, the quantities
      of liquid, leavening, and other ingredients that are to be put into the
      mixture. When the proportions of ingredients required for a hot
      bread are known, it is necessary that the ingredients be measured
      very accurately. Leavening material, for example, will serve to make
      clear the need for accuracy in measuring. A definite quantity of
      leavening will do only a definite amount of work. Therefore, if too
      little or too much is used, unsatisfactory results may be expected; and,
      as with this ingredient, so it is with all the materials used for hot
      breads.
      The handling of the ingredients and the mixture has also much
      influence on the success with which hot breads are produced. A
      heavy touch and excessive handling, both of which are usually
      characteristic of the beginner, are more likely to result in a tough
      product than is the light, careful handling of the expert. However,
      as skill in this matter comes with practice, no discouragement need
      result if successful results are not forthcoming at the very start in this
      work. A good rule to follow in this particular, and one that has few
      exceptions, is to handle and stir the ingredients only enough to
      blend them properly.
      In addition to the matters just mentioned, the utensils in which to
      combine the hot-bread materials and bake the batters or doughs
      are of importance. While none of these is complicated, each must be
      of the right kind if the best results are expected. The final point to
      which attention must be given is the baking of this food. Proper
      baking requires on the part of the housewife familiarity with the
      oven that is to be used, accuracy in judging temperature, and a
      knowledge of the principles underlying the process of baking.


      *     *     *     *     *



LEAVENING AGENTS

CLASSES OF LEAVENING AGENTS
408.3. As has been pointed out, the ingredients that are actually required
    in the making of hot breads are flour, liquid, salt, and leavening, and

174
    to give variety to breads of this kind, numerous other materials,
    including sugar, shortening, eggs, fruit, nuts, etc., are often added.
    With the exception of leavening agents, none of these ingredients
    requires special attention at present; however, the instruction that is
    given in Bread regarding flour should be kept in mind, as should also
    the fact that all the materials for hot breads should be of the best
    quality that can be obtained.


    As is known by this time, leavening agents are the materials used
    to leaven, or make light, any kind of flour mixture. These agents
    are of three classes, namely, organic, physical, and chemical. The
    organic agent is the oldest recognized leavening material, it being the
    one that is used in the making of yeast breads; but as a complete
    discussion of this class of leavening agents is given in Bread and as
    it is not employed in the making of hot breads, no consideration
    need be given to it here. Physical leavening is accomplished by the
    incorporation of air into a mixture or by the expansion of the water
    into steam, and chemical leavening agents are the most modern and
    accurate of all the agents that have been devised for the quick rising
    of flour mixtures.



PHYSICAL LEAVENING
409.4. PHYSICAL LEAVENING                    consists in aerating,       or
    incorporating gas or air into, a mixture that is to be baked, and it is
    based on the principle that air or gas expands, or increases in volume,
    when heated. It is definitely known that when air is incorporated
    into dough and then heated, the air increases 1/273 of its own
    volume for each degree that the temperature is increased. For
    instance, if the temperature of an aerated mixture is 65 degrees
    Fahrenheit when it is put into the oven, the air or gas will have
    doubled in volume by the time it has reached 338 degrees Fahrenheit.
    Thus, the success of aerated bread depends to some extent on the
    temperature of the mixture when it goes into the oven. The colder it
    is at that time, the greater is the number of degrees it will have to
    rise before it is sufficiently baked, and the more opportunity will the
    gas have to expand.
410.5. The air or gas required for physical leavening is incorporated into
    a mixture by beating or folding the batter or dough itself, or by
    folding beaten egg whites into it. If the mixture is thin enough, the


                                                                       175
      beating may be done with a spoon or an egg beater; but if it is thick
      enough to be handled on a board, air may be incorporated into it by
      rolling and folding it repeatedly. If eggs are to be used for aerating
      the batter or dough, the entire egg may be beaten and then added,
      but as more air can be incorporated into the egg whites, the yolks
      and whites are usually beaten separately. To make the white of eggs
      most satisfactory for this purpose, it should be beaten stiff enough
      to stand up well, but not until it becomes dry and begins to break
      up. In adding the beaten egg white, it should be folded carefully
      and lightly into the mixture after all the other ingredients have been
      combined. Beaten egg white may be used to lighten any mixture
      that is soft enough to permit it to be folded in.
411.6. To insure the best results from mixtures that are to be made light
    by means of physical leavening agents, certain precautions must be
    taken. Such mixtures should be baked as soon as possible after the
    mixing is done, so that the gas or air will not pass out before the
    dough is baked. Likewise, they should be handled as lightly and
    quickly as possible, for a heavy touch and too much handling are
    often the cause of imperfect results. For baking aerated mixtures,
    heavy irons are better than tin muffin pans; also, the pans that are
    used should be heated before the mixture is put into them, so that
    the batter or dough will begin to expand immediately. Gem irons
    should be filled level with an aerated mixture.




CHEMICAL LEAVENING
412.7. CHEMICAL LEAVENING is brought about by the action of
    gas produced by an acid and an alkali. All chemical leavening agents
    are Similar in their action, and they are composed of an acid and an
    alkali. When an acid and an alkali are brought together in the
    presence of moisture and heat, the result is the rapid production of
    carbon dioxide, a gas that expands on being heated, just as all other
    gases do. In expanding, the gas pushes up the batters or doughs, and
    these, when baked, set, or harden, into porous shapes. In addition to
    forming the gas, the acid and the alkali produce a salt that remains in
    the bread, and it is this salt that is responsible for the harmful effect
    usually attributed to chemical leavening agents.
413.8. The first chemical leavening agents were devised by
    housewives themselves. They consisted of a combination of


176
    saleratus, an alkali made from wood ashes, and sour milk or
    molasses. The results obtained were more or less satisfactory, but
    never entirely accurate or certain. Later on, chemists by employing
    the same idea combined an alkali with an acid in powder form and
    produced an accurate and satisfactory leavening agent in the form of
    baking powder. The discovery of baking powder, however, has not
    displaced the use of other combinations that form chemical
    leavening agents, for soda is still combined with sour milk, molasses,
    and cream of tartar in the making of various hot breads. Therefore,
    so that a proper understanding of the various chemical leavening
    agents may be obtained, a discussion of each is here given.
414.9. SODA AND SOUR MILK.—When soda is used with sour
    milk for leavening purposes, the lactic acid in the milk is so acted
    upon by the soda as to produce gas. However, these two
    ingredients—soda and sour milk—do not make an absolutely
    accurate leavening agent, because the quantity of acid in the sour
    milk varies according to the fermentation that has taken place. For
    example, sour milk 48 hours old contains more acid than sour milk
    that is kept under the same conditions but is only 24 hours old.


    The proportion of these ingredients that is usually effective in
    batters and doughs for hot breads is 1 level teaspoonful of soda to 1
    pint of sour milk. So as to derive the best results in using these
    chemical leavening agents, it will be well to observe that if they are
    mixed together in a cup the milk will bubble and may, provided the
    quantity is sufficient, run over. These bubbles are caused by the gas
    that is formed when the acid and soda meet, and when they break gas
    escapes, with the result that some of it is lost. Formerly, it was the
    custom to mix these leavening substances in this way, and then to
    add them to the other ingredients. Now, however, in order that all
    gas produced may be kept in the dough mixture, the soda is sifted in
    with the dry ingredients and the sour milk is added with the liquid
    ingredients.
415.10. A point well worth remembering is that sour milk and soda
    may be substituted for sweet milk and baking powder in a recipe
    that calls for these ingredients by using 1 teaspoonful of soda to
    each pint of sour milk. This information should prove valuable to the
    housewife, especially if she has accumulated a supply of sour milk
    that should not be wasted. Occasionally it will be found that baking
    powder and soda are required in the same recipe, but this occurs only



                                                                      177
      when an insufficient amount of soda to produce the desired result is
      specified.
416.11. SODA AND MOLASSES.—Although molasses, which is a
    product of sugar cane, is sweet, it contains an acid that is formed by
    the fermentation that continually occurs in it, an evidence of which
    is the tiny bubbles that may be seen in molasses, especially when it is
    kept in a warm place. Because of the presence of this acid, molasses
    may be used with soda to form a chemical leavening agent, and when
    they are combined in hot breads or cake, the chemical action of the
    two produces carbon dioxide. However, accurate results cannot
    always be obtained when these ingredients are used, for the degree
    of acidity in molasses is as uncertain as it is in sour milk. Molasses
    that is old or has been kept in a warm place will contain more acid
    than molasses that has been manufactured only a short time or that
    has been kept cool to retard fermentation.


      The proportion of soda to molasses that can usually be relied on for
      hot breads and cakes is 1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 cupful of molasses,
      or just twice the quantity of soda that is generally used with sour
      milk. To produce the best results, the molasses should be mixed
      with the liquid ingredients and the soda sifted in with the dry ones.
      As molasses burns very quickly in a hot oven, all breads or cakes
      containing it as an ingredient should be baked in an oven of
      moderate temperature.
417.12. SODA AND CREAM OF TARTAR.—Some housewives are
    inclined to use soda and cream of tartar for leavening purposes;
    but there is really no advantage in doing this when baking powder
    can be obtained, for some baking powders are a combination of
    these two ingredients and produce the same result. In fact, the
    housewife cannot measure soda and cream of tartar so accurately as
    the chemist can combine them in the manufacture of baking powder.
    Nevertheless, if their use is preferred, they should be measured in
    the proportion of twice as much cream of tartar as soda. As in the
    case of soda alone, these leavening agents should be sifted with the
    dry ingredients. A small quantity of cream of tartar is used without
    soda in such mixtures as angel-food cake, in which egg white alone is
    used to make the mixture light. The addition of the cream of tartar
    has the effect of so solidifying the egg white that it holds up until
    the heat of the oven hardens it permanently.
418.13. BAKING POWDER.—Without doubt, baking powder is the
    most satisfactory of the chemical leavening agents. It comes in three

178
    varieties, but they are all similar in composition, for each contains an
    alkali in the form of soda and an acid of some kind, as well as a filler
    of starch, which serves to prevent the acid and the alkali from
    acting upon each other. When moisture is added to baking powder,
    chemical action sets in, but it is not very rapid, as is apparent when a
    cake or a muffin mixture is allowed to stand before baking. The
    bubbles of gas that form in such a mixture can easily be observed if
    the mixture is stirred after it has stood for a short time. When both
    moisture and heat are applied to baking powder, however, the
    chemical action that takes place is more rapid, and this accounts for
    its usefulness in baking hot breads and cake.
419.14. The price of the different kinds of baking powder, which
    usually varies from 10 cents to 50 cents a pound, is generally an
    indication of the ingredients that they contain. Powders that sell for
    40 to 50 cents a pound usually contain cream of tartar for the acid,
    the high price of this substance accounting for the price of the
    powder. Powders that may be purchased for 30 to 40 cents a pound
    generally contain acid phosphate of lime, and as this substance is
    cheaper than cream of tartar, a baking powder mixture containing it
    may well be sold for less. The cheapest grade of powders, or those
    which sell for 10 to 25 cents a pound, have for their acid a salt of
    aluminum called alum. Still other powders that are sometimes
    made up to sell for 20 to 30 cents a pound contain a mixture of
    phosphate and alum.
420.15. As baking powders vary in price, so do they vary in their
    keeping qualities, their effectiveness, and their tendency toward being
    injurious. Most phosphate and alum powders do not keep so well as
    the cream-of-tartar powders, and the longer they are kept, the less
    effective do they become. The powders that contain phosphate
    yield more gas for each teaspoonful used than do the other
    varieties. Much controversy has taken place with regard to the
    different kinds of baking powder and their effects on the digestive
    tract, but authorities have not yet agreed on this matter. However,
    if foods made with the aid of baking powders are not used
    excessively, no concern need be felt as to their injurious effect. The
    housewife in her choice of baking powder should be guided by the
    price she can afford to pay and the results she is able to get after she
    has become well informed as to the effect of the different varieties.
    She may easily become familiar with the composition of baking
    powder, for a statement of what substances each kind contains is
    generally found on the label of every variety. This information is



                                                                        179
      invaluable to the housewife, as it will assist her considerably in making
      a selection.
421.16. The proportion of baking powder to be used in a batter or a
    dough is regulated by the quantity of flour employed and not, as is
    the case with soda and molasses or sour milk, by the quantity of
    liquid, the usual proportion being 2 level teaspoonfuls to 1 cupful of
    flour. Sometimes this proportion is decreased, 6 or 7 teaspoonfuls
    being used instead of 8 to each quart of flour in the making of large
    quantities of some kinds of baked foods. In adding baking powder to
    a mixture, as in adding other dry leavening agents, it should be
    sifted with flour and the other dry ingredients.
422.17. Although baking powder may be purchased at various prices,
    a good grade can be made in the home without much effort and
    usually for less than that which can be bought ready made. For
    these reasons, many housewives prefer to make their own. The
    following recipe tells how to make a cream-of-tartar powder that is
    very satisfactory:



RECIPE FOR BAKING POWDER
½ lb. cream of tartar ¼ lb. bicarbonate of soda ¼ lb. corn starch
Weigh all the ingredients accurately. If the cream of tartar and the bicarbonate of soda
are to be purchased from a druggist, it will be better for him to weigh them than for the
housewife, as he uses scales that weigh accurately. After all the ingredients are weighed,
mix them together thoroughly by sifting them a number of times or by shaking them well
in a can or a jar on which the lid has been tightly closed. The baking powder thus made
should be kept in a can or a jar that may be rendered air-tight by means of a lid, or cover.


      *     *      *      *      *



HOT-BREAD UTENSILS AND THEIR USE

PURPOSE OF UTENSILS

423.18. The utensils required for the making of hot breads consist of
    two kinds: those in which the ingredients are prepared and
    combined to form the mixture and those in which the mixture is to

180
    be baked. As soon as it is known just what ones are needed to carry
    out the recipe for the hot bread that is to be made, they, together
    with the necessary ingredients, such as milk, fat, flour, baking
    powder, salt, eggs, etc., should be collected and arranged in the
    manner shown in Fig. 1, so that they will be convenient. Usually,
    much of the success of hot breads depends on the quickness and
    dexterity with which the ingredients are put together, and if the
    person making them has to interrupt her work every now and then to
    get out a utensil, she will find that her results will not be so
    satisfactory and that she will use up more energy than the work
    really demands. The pans in which the mixture is to be baked need
    particular attention, for they should be greased and ready to fill before
    the mixing is begun. If they are to be heated, they should be greased
    and put into the oven a few minutes before the mixture is ready to be
    put into them, so that they may be taken from the oven and filled at
    once.




UTENSILS FOR PREPARING THE MIXTURE
424.19. The utensils required for preparing hot-bread mixtures consist
    of a bowl of the proper size for mixing; a smaller bowl for beating
    eggs, provided eggs are to be used; two standard half-pint measuring
    cups, one for dry ingredients and the other for wet ingredients; a
    tablespoon, a case knife, and a teaspoon for measuring and mixing;
    an egg beater and a flour sifter. Of course, if an egg whip is
    preferred, it may take the place of the egg beater, but for some hot-
    bread mixtures use will be found for both of these utensils.




UTENSILS FOR BAKING THE MIXTURE

425.20. The kind of utensil required for the baking of hot-bread
    mixtures depends entirely on the nature of the mixture and the recipe
    that is to be prepared. For popovers, popover cups similar to those
    shown in Fig. 2 or gem irons are necessary. Muffins require muffin
    pans. Boston brown breads need cans that have tight-fitting lids; soft
    ginger bread, nut loaf, and corn cake are baked in loaf pans;

                                                                         181
      baking-powder or beaten biscuits are placed in shallow pans or on
      oiled sheets; griddle cakes must be baked on griddles; and waffles
      require waffle irons. None of these utensils are likely to present any
      difficulty in their use except griddles and waffle irons, so in order
      that these may be thoroughly understood and good results thereby
      obtained, explanations of them are here given.



426.21. GRIDDLES.—A style of griddle in common use is circular
    and has a projecting handle, griddles of different shapes and fitted
    with different handles are to be had. Such utensils are made of
    numerous materials, but the most satisfactory ones are constructed
    of steel, iron, soapstone, and aluminum. Steel and iron griddles must
    be greased before cakes are baked on them so as to prevent the cakes
    from sticking; for this reason they are less convenient than soapstone
    and aluminum griddles, which do not require any grease.


      The size of griddle to use is governed by the number of persons that
      are to be served. One that is unusually large, however, should be
      avoided if a gas stove is used for cooking, as it is difficult to heat a
      large griddle evenly on such a stove, and even a small one must be
      shifted frequently so that some spots will not be hotter than others.
      In this respect, a griddle made of aluminum has the advantage over
      the other kinds, for this material conducts the heat evenly over its
      entire surface.


      Before a new steel or iron griddle is used, it must be tempered so as
      to prevent the food that is to be baked on it from sticking. If it is
      not tempered, much time will be consumed before its surface will
      be in the right condition to permit baking to proceed without
      difficulty, and this, of course, will result in wasting considerable
      food material. Tempering may be done by covering the griddle with
      a quantity of fat, placing it over a flame or in a very hot oven,
      and then allowing it to heat thoroughly to such a temperature that
      the fat will burn onto the surface. This same precaution should be
      observed with new waffle irons and frying pans made of steel or
      iron if the best results from such utensils are desired.
427.22. WAFFLE IRONS.—A waffle iron, consists of two corrugated
    griddles fastened together with a hinge in such a way that the
    surfaces nearly touch when the handles are brought together.

182
    These griddles are so suspended in a frame that they may be turned
    completely over in order to allow each side to be exposed to the heat.
    The waffle iron is intended for a coal range. In order to use it,a stove
    lid is removed from one of the openings and the waffle iron is set
    in the opening, which allows the griddle part to be turned. Another
    type of waffle iron is intended for a gas range. In this type, the
    griddle part rests on a base that is deep enough to permit it to be
    turned. In using a waffle iron of either kind, it should be heated
    while the waffle mixture is being prepared; then it should be
    thoroughly greased on both sides. No excess fat, however, should be
    used, as it will run out when the griddle is turned over.


    *     *    *     *     *



THE MIXTURE

VARIETIES OF MIXTURES AND GENERAL
PROPORTIONS
428.23. BATTERS AND DOUGHS.—The mixtures from which hot
    breads are produced are of different consistencies, and familiarity
    with them is necessary if good results in the making of such breads
    are desired. This difference in the consistencies is due to the
    proportion of flour and liquid used, a small proportion of flour
    producing a batter and a large proportion, a dough. It will be well to
    note, however, that some kinds of flour thicken a mixture much
    more readily than do others. Experience in the handling of flour
    teaches how to vary the other ingredients of a recipe in order to
    make them correspond to the difference in flour, but the person who
    lacks a knowledge of COOKING, or has had very little experience in
    the handling of foods, must know the general proportions that are
    correct under most circumstances. The names of the mixtures that
    the ingredients produce are thin batter, thick batter, soft dough, and
    stiff dough.
429.24. A THIN BATTER is one in which the general proportion of
    liquid and flour is 1 measure of flour to 1 measure of liquid. Such a
    batter, when poured, immediately seeks its own level and has the
    consistency of thin cream. The most common examples of thin
    batters are popovers and griddle cakes.


                                                                        183
      A THICK BATTER, which is known as a drop, or muffin, batter, is
      one that is made of 2 measures of flour and 1 measure of liquid. A
      batter of this kind may be poured, but it will not immediately seek
      its own level. Muffins, gems, puddings, and cakes are made of thick
      batters.
      A SOFT DOUGH is one whose proportions are 3 measures of
      flour and 1 measure of liquid. A dough of this kind will stand up
      alone—that is, without support at the sides—and has more of the
      properties of a solid than of a liquid. Baking-powder biscuits, tea
      rolls, and certain kinds of cake are made of this form of dough.
      A STIFF DOUGH is made of 4 measures of flour and 1 measure of
      liquid. Such a dough will not cling to the mixing bowl, can be handled
      with the hands, and will not stick when rolled out on a board. Pie
      crust, hard cookies, and beaten biscuit are made of such dough.
430.25. APPLYING            KNOWLEDGE              OF             GENERAL
    PROPORTIONS. While the general proportions just mentioned
    remain the same in the majority of cases, they vary somewhat when
    ingredients other than liquid and flour are added. Shortening and
    eggs in particular change the quantity of liquid required, less liquid
    being necessary when these ingredients are used. To get the best
    results from a new recipe, it is always advisable upon reading the
    recipe to notice the proportions that are given and then to try to
    judge whether they bear a close enough resemblance to the general
    proportions to make a successful dish. For instance, if a griddle-cake
    recipe calls for 3 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid, the cook who
    understands what the general proportions for such a batter ought to
    be would know immediately that the recipe calls for too much flour.
    Likewise, she would know that a recipe for baking-powder biscuits
    that calls for 2 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid would make a
    dough that would be too soft to handle. Besides enabling a woman
    to judge a recipe, a knowledge of the correct proportions for things
    of this kind makes it possible for her to combine the ingredients for
    a certain recipe without resorting to a cook book, or, in other words,
    to originate a recipe. Because of the importance of such an
    understanding, attention should always be given to details that will
    assist in obtaining a thorough knowledge of this matter.




184
PREPARING THE MIXTURE
431.26. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS.—
    Before the mixing of the ingredients that are to be used in the
    batters and doughs of hot breads is begun, all that are needed for the
    recipe selected should be collected and properly measured. Always
    sift the flour that is to be used for this purpose. This is a rule that
    never varies with regard to flour to be used for any dough mixture or
    as a thickening agent. Then, to prevent the flour from packing too
    solidly, measure it by dipping it into the cup with a spoon. To
    obtain the proper amount, heap the cup and then level it with the
    edge of a knife. Measure with a spoon whatever dry leavening agent
    is called for, and be sure that it does not contain any lumps. If
    salt, sugar, and spices are to be used, measure them carefully.
    Mix the leavening agent, the salt, the sugar, and the other dry
    ingredients with the flour by sifting them together once or twice.
    Measure the butter or other fat by packing it in the spoon and then
    leveling it with a knife. Be particular in measuring the liquid, using
    neither more nor less than is called for. Regarding this ingredient, it
    should always be remembered that when a cupful is required, a half-
    pint cup full to the brim is meant and that any fraction of a cupful
    should be measured with the same exactness.
432.27. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.—The manner in which a
    batter or a dough is mixed is very important, for much of the success
    of the finished product depends on the order in which the various
    steps are accomplished. Two general methods of combining the
    ingredients for such mixtures have been devised and either of them
    may be followed, because they produce equally good results.


    In one of these methods, the fat is worked into the dry ingredients
    and the liquid then added. As eggs are usually considered a liquid
    ingredient, they are beaten and added to the rest of the liquid before
    it is mixed with the dry ingredients. However, if eggs are to be used
    for leavening, only the yolks are added with the liquid ingredients,
    the whites being beaten separately and folded in last.
    The other method is used only when the mixtures are to contain a
    small quantity of fat. In this method, all the liquid ingredients,
    including the eggs, are first mixed together. Then the dry ingredients
    are combined and sifted into the liquid. The fat is melted last and
    beaten into the dough mixture. If the mixture to be handled is a
    stiff one, the fat should be put in cold, for adding melted fat makes
    the dough soft and sticky and therefore difficult to handle.

                                                                       185
BAKING THE MIXTURE
433.28. REGULATING THE OVEN.—When the ingredients have
    been properly combined, the mixture is ready to be baked. With the
    exception of waffles and griddle cakes, the baking of which is
    explained in connection with the recipes, all hot breads are baked in
    the oven; therefore, while the mixture is being prepared, the oven
    should be properly regulated in order that the temperature will be
    just right when it is time to start the baking. Particular thought
    should be given to this matter, for if no attention is paid to the
    oven until the mixture is ready to be baked, it will be necessary to
    allow the mixture to stand until the heat of the oven can be regulated
    or to put it into the oven and run the risk of spoiling the food. To
    prevent either of these conditions and to insure success, the fuel, no
    matter what kind is used, should be lighted before mixing is begun,
    so that the oven may be heating while the mixture is being
    prepared, unless, as is sometimes the case, there are steps in the
    preparation of the mixture that consume considerable time. For
    instance, looking over raisins and cleaning them or cracking nuts
    and picking the meats out of the shells should be done before the rest
    of the ingredients are prepared or the oven is regulated.
434.29. CORRECT OVEN TEMPERATURES.—Quick breads that are
    to be baked in the form of loaves require an oven temperature of
    from 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Muffins, biscuits, and the
    smaller varieties of these breads need a higher temperature, 425 to
    450 degrees Fahrenheit being best. As they are not so large, the heat
    has less dough through which to penetrate, and consequently the
    baking can be accomplished more quickly.
435.30. DETERMINING                AND        REGULATING              OVEN
    TEMPERATURE.—Regulating the oven and testing its temperature
    present very little difficulty to the housewife of experience, but they
    are not always easy problems for the woman who is learning to
    cook. However, if the untrained and inexperienced cook will
    observe her oven closely and determine the results of certain
    temperatures, she will soon find herself becoming more successful in
    this matter. To assist the housewife in this matter, as well as to help in
    the saving of much loss in fuel and in underdone or overdone food,
    many stoves are equipped with an oven thermometer, an indicator, or
    a thermostat. The thermometer is more likely to be reliable than the
    indicator, as it has a column of mercury like that of any other

186
    thermometer and is graduated; also, a certain kind may be secured
    that can be used with any sort of oven. The indicator is in the form
    of a dial with a hand attached to a metal spring. This spring
    contracts and expands with the changes in the temperature of the
    oven and thus causes the hand to point out the temperature. The
    thermostat is a device that automatically regulates the heat of the
    oven. On a stove equipped with a thermostat, it is simply necessary
    to set the device at the temperature desired. When this
    temperature is reached, the device keeps it stationary.
436.31. If neither an indicator nor a thermometer is available, the heat
    of the oven may be determined in other ways. Some housewives test
    the oven with the hand, and while such a test is more or less
    dependent on experience, those who use it find it very satisfactory. If
    the hand can be held in the oven while 15 is counted slowly, the
    temperature is that of a moderate oven and will be right for the
    baking of loaves. An oven that is of the proper temperature for
    muffins or rolls will permit the hand to be held in it while only 10 is
    counted slowly. Those who do not test with the hand find that
    placing a piece of white paper in the oven is an accurate way of
    determining its temperature. Such paper will turn a delicate brown in
    5 minutes in a moderate oven, and a deeper brown in 4 minutes in a
    hot oven.
437.32. PROPER PLACING OF THE MIXTURE IN THE
    OVEN.—As is pointed out in Essentials of COOKING, Part 1,
    the top of the oven is hotter than the bottom. This truth and the
    fact that in an oven, as in any other space, air expands and rises on
    becoming heated, are points that have much to do with the baking of
    quick breads, for these are mixtures that rise after being placed in
    the oven. So that they may rise properly, they should be placed on
    the bottom first; then, as they become heated, they will have a
    tendency to rise as the air does. If the food is placed near the top
    first, the heated air will be likely to press it down and retard its
    rising. As soon as the rising is completed and the food has
    baked sufficiently on the bottom, it should be moved up so that it will
    brown on the top.
438.33. TESTING THE BAKED MIXTURE.—Recipes for baked
    dishes usually state the length of time required to bake them, but such
    directions cannot always be depended on, because the temperature
    of the oven varies at different times. The best way in which to
    judge whether the food has baked the necessary length of time is to
    apply to it one of the reliable tests that have been devised for this
    purpose.

                                                                       187
      Probably the most satisfactory test is to insert a toothpick as deep
      as possible into the center of the loaf. The center, rather than some
      other part of the loaf, is the place where the testing should be done,
      because the heat penetrates a mixture from the outside and the center
      is therefore the last part to bake. If the toothpick comes out without
      particles of dough adhering, the mixture is sufficiently baked in
      that place and consequently throughout the loaf. In case the
      dough sticks to the toothpick, the baking is not completed and will
      have to be continued. Since this is a test that is frequently used, a
      supply of toothpicks, preferably round ones, should be kept in a
      handy place near the stove.
      Another fairly accurate means of testing baked mixtures that do not
      form a very hard crust consists in making a dent in the center with
      the finger. If the dent remains, the baking must be continued, but if it
      springs back into place, the baking is completed.



SERVING HOT BREADS
439.34. Hot breads, in contrast with yeast breads, are intended to be
    eaten hot, and, to be most satisfactory, should be served as soon as
    possible after they are baked. They usually take the place of bread in
    the meal for which they are served, but there are various ways of
    using them whereby variety is given to them and to the meal. A
    favorite combination with many persons is hot biscuits or muffins
    served with honey. If honey is not available, jam, preserves, or
    syrup may be substituted to advantage. A mixture made like
    baking-powder biscuits and baked or steamed is especially good
    when served with chicken or meat stew poured over it. The same
    mixture sweetened and made a trifle richer may be served with fruit
    and cream for short cake. For afternoon tea, tiny muffins and
    biscuits about the size of a 50-cent piece are very attractive. Then,
    too, if they are split and buttered, they may be served with salad
    for a light luncheon.


      Hot breads baked in the form of a loaf require some attention as far
      as preparing them for the table is concerned. Gingerbread and corn
      cake are better if they are broken rather than cut while hot. In case
      they are preferred cut, a sharp knife should be employed, and, to
      obtain slices that have a good appearance, the knife should be

188
    heated and the cutting done before it cools. Usually, gingerbread is
    served plain, but the addition of icing improves it considerably and
    provides a simple cake that can be used for dessert.


    *     *     *     *     *



RECIPES FOR HOT BREADS

POPOVER RECIPES
440.35. POPOVERS.—A delightful change from the puffs, muffins,
    and biscuits that are usually served for breakfast or luncheon is
    afforded by means of popovers. Popovers are not difficult to make.
    For them is required a thin batter in equal proportions of liquid and
    flour. In giving the method for mixing popovers, some of the older
    cook books recommend beating for 5 minutes just before they are
    baked, because the lightness was formerly supposed to be due to the
    air that is incorporated by this beating. It is possible, however, to
    make very light popovers with only enough beating to mix the
    ingredients thoroughly, and it is now known that the rising is due to
    the expansion of water into steam in the mixture. This knowledge
    is useful in that it saves time and energy.


    POPOVERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. flour ¼ tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg
    Mix the flour, salt, and milk in a bowl, and then drop in the
    unbeaten egg. Beat all with a rotary egg beater until the mixture is
    perfectly smooth and free from lumps. Grease and warm gem irons
    or popover cups. Then fill them about two-thirds full of the
    popover batter. Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes or
    until the popovers can be lifted from the cups and do not shrink
    when removed from the oven.
441.36. POPOVERS WITH FRUIT.—Popovers made according to the
    preceding recipe are particularly good if fruit is added to them. To
    add the fruit, cut a slit in the side of the popovers as soon as they are
    removed from the oven and insert a few spoonfuls of apple sauce,
    marmalade, preserves, jelly, or canned fruit. These may be served
    either warm or cold as a breakfast dish, or they may be sprinkled with

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      powdered sugar and served with cream for a dessert or a luncheon
      dish.
442.37. NUT PUFFS.—An example of a thin batter not in equal
    proportions of liquid and flour is afforded by nut puffs. In hot
    breads of this kind, aeration is used as the leavening agent. In
    order to assist with the incorporation of air, the egg yolk is well
    beaten before it is added; but the greater part of the lightness that
    is produced is due to the egg white, which is beaten and folded in
    last. The addition of nuts to a batter of this kind considerably
    increases its food value.


      NUT PUFFS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1-1/2 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg 1 Tb. fat ¼ c.
      chopped nuts
      Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together, and add the milk and beaten
      egg yolk. Melt the fat and add it and the chopped nuts. Beat the egg
      white stiff and fold it into the mixture carefully. Fill hot, well-greased
      gem irons level full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven about 20
      minutes.
443.38. WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS.—Puffs in which use is made of
    whole-wheat flour instead of white flour are also an example of a
    thin batter that is made light by aeration. If desired, graham flour
    may be substituted for the whole-wheat flour, but if it is a coarser
    bread will be the result. This coarseness, however, does not refer to
    the texture of the bread, but is due to the quantity of bran in
    graham flour. Whole-wheat puffs, as shown in Fig. 7, are attractive,
    and besides they possess the valuable food substances contained in
    whole-wheat flour, eggs, and milk.


      WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1-1/2 c. whole-wheat flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 c. milk 1 egg 1
      Tb. fat
      Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together and add the milk and the egg
      yolk, which should be well beaten. Melt the fat and stir it into the
      batter. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it in carefully. Heat well
      greased gem irons, fill them level full with the mixture, and bake in
      a hot oven for about 20 minutes.



190
GRIDDLE-CAKE RECIPES
444.39. PROCEDURE IN BAKING GRIDDLE CAKES.—During
    the preparation of the batter for griddle cakes, have the griddle
    heating, so that it will be sufficiently hot when the cakes are ready
    to be baked. Each time, before the baking is begun, grease the
    griddle, provided it is the kind that requires greasing, by rubbing
    over it a rind of salt pork or a small cloth pad that has been dipped
    into a dish of grease. In greasing the griddle, see that there is no
    excess of grease, as this burns and produces smoke.


    When the griddle has become hot enough for the batter to sizzle
    when it is put on, the baking may be started. Pour the batter on the
    griddle from the tip of a large spoon, so that the cakes will form as
    nearly round as possible. When the top surface is full of bubbles,
    turn the cakes with a spatula or a pancake turner, and allow them to
    brown on the other side. By the time the cakes are sufficiently
    browned on both sides, they should be cooked through and ready to
    serve. If they brown before they have had time to cook through, the
    griddle is too hot and should be cooled by moving it to a cooler part
    of the stove or by reducing the heat. A very important point to
    remember in the baking of griddle cakes is that they should not be
    turned twice, as this has a tendency to make them heavy.
445.40. GRIDDLE CAKES.—As is generally known, griddle cakes are
    thin batters that are made light with a chemical leavening agent.
    Eggs are often used in such batters, but it is possible to make very
    excellent griddle cakes without the use of any eggs. It should also be
    remembered that the use of too much egg is more certain to make
    the cakes tough and less palatable than if none is used. The kind of
    flour used for griddle cakes has much to do with the consistency of
    the batter used for them. If, when the first cakes are placed upon the
    griddle, the batter seems to be either too thick or too thin, liquid or
    flour may be added to dilute or thicken the batter until it is of the
    right consistency. For instance, if bread flour is used, more liquid
    may be needed, and if pastry flour is used, more flour may be
    required.


    GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt ¼ c. sugar 1 egg 2-1/4 c.
    milk 2 Tb. melted fat


                                                                       191
      Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Beat the egg,
      add to it the milk, and pour this liquid slowly into the dry ingredients.
      Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add the melted fat. Bake the
      cakes on a hot griddle as soon as possible after the batter is mixed.
446.41. SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES.—Very delicious griddle
    cakes may be made by using sour milk and soda for the liquid and
    leavening instead of sweet milk and baking powder. Besides being
    particularly appetizing, such cakes serve to use up left-over milk that
    may have soured. There is very little difference between the
    ingredients for this recipe and one calling for sweet milk, except
    that sour milk, which is a trifle thicker in consistency than sweet
    milk, requires less flour to thicken the mixture.


      SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2-1/2 c. flour ½ tsp. salt 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. soda 2 c. sour milk (not
      thick) 1 egg
      Mix and sift the flour, salt, sugar, and soda. Add to these the sour
      milk and the egg well beaten. If the milk is thick, the quantity
      should be increased accordingly. Beat the mixture thoroughly and
      bake at once on a hot griddle.
447.42. CORN GRIDDLE CAKES.—The addition of corn meal to a
    griddle-cake mixture adds variety and food value and produces an
    agreeable flavor. Where corn meal is cheap, it is an economical
    ingredient to use in griddle cakes and other hot breads.


      CORN GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      ½ c. corn meal 1-1/2 c. boiling water 2 c. milk 2 c. flour 5 tsp. baking
      powder 1-1/2 tsp. salt ¼ c. sugar 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
      Add the corn meal to the boiling water, boil 5 minutes, and turn
      into a bowl. Then add the milk. Next, mix and sift the flour,
      baking powder, salt, and sugar, and stir them into the first mixture.
      Beat the egg and add to the whole. Finally, stir in the melted fat. Bake
      on a hot griddle.
448.43. RICE GRIDDLE CAKES.—If a change in the ordinary
    griddle cakes that are used for breakfast is desired, rice griddle
    cakes should be tried. Besides lending variety, the addition of rice to
    a griddle-cake mixture helps to use up any left-over rice that may
    have been cooked for another purpose. Steamed or boiled rice used

192
    for this purpose should be broken up with a fork before it is mixed
    in the batter, so that the grains of rice will not stick together in
    chunks.


    RICE GRIDDLE CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2-1/2 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder ¼ c. sugar ½ tsp. salt ½ c. cold
    cooked rice 1 egg 1-1/2 c. milk 2 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Work the rice
    into the dry ingredients. Add the egg, well beaten, the milk, and the
    melted fat. Bake on a hot griddle.
449.44. BUCKWHEAT CAKES.—Buckwheat flour is used for griddle
    cakes more than for any other purpose. When used in this way it has
    a very typical flavor that most people find very agreeable. Many
    prepared buckwheat flours, to which have been added the quantity
    of leavening agent necessary to raise the mixture, are on the market
    for the convenience of those who do not desire to prepare the
    mixture at home. As a rule, these contain a combination of
    buckwheat and wheat flour. To make cakes from these flours, add the
    required amount of liquid, either milk or water, and a little sugar, if
    necessary, and then proceed to bake them on a griddle. While there
    is no objection to the use of such flours if they are found
    agreeable, it is more expensive to use them than to make up the
    buckwheat mixture at home. A recipe for buckwheat cakes that
    proves very satisfactory is the following:


    BUCKWHEAT CAKES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. scalded milk ½ c. fine bread crumbs ½ tsp. salt ¼ yeast cake ¾
    c. lukewarm water 1-1/2 c. buckwheat flour ½ c. white flour 1 Tb.
    molasses ¼ tsp. soda
    Pour the scalded milk over the bread crumbs and add the salt.
    Dissolve the yeast cake in ½ cupful of the lukewarm water and add
    this to the bread crumbs and milk. Stir in the buckwheat and the
    white flour, and let the mixture rise overnight. In the morning, stir it
    well and add the molasses, the soda, and ¼ cupful of lukewarm water.
    Bake on a hot griddle.
    If cakes are to be baked the next day, retain ½ cupful of the batter, to
    which may be added flour, milk, salt, and molasses. By doing this
    each day, a starter may be had for a long period of time. If a strong
    buckwheat flavor is desired, use all buckwheat flour, but if only a

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      slight buckwheat flavor is desired, make the proportion of wheat flour
      greater and that of the buckwheat smaller.



WAFFLE RECIPES
450.45. PROCEDURE IN BAKING WAFFLES.—The procedure in
    making waffles is very similar to that in making griddle cakes. While
    the waffle mixture is being prepared, heat the waffle iron. Then
    grease it thoroughly on both sides with a rind of salt pork or a cloth
    pad dipped in fat, being careful that there is no excess fat, as it will
    run out when the iron is turned over. With the iron properly
    greased and sufficiently hot, place several spoonfuls of the batter in
    the center and close the iron. By so doing, the batter will be pressed
    out to cover the entire surface. In pouring the batter, do not cover
    the entire surface of the iron with batter nor place any near the
    outside edge, for it is liable to run out when the iron is closed. In
    case this happens, be sure to put in less batter the next time. Allow
    the waffle to brown on the side near the fire and then turn the
    iron, so as to brown the other side. When the waffle is sufficiently
    brown, remove it; then grease the iron and repeat the process.



451.46. WAFFLES.—The form of hot bread known as waffles, offers
    the housewife an excellent opportunity to add variety to meals.
    Practically no one dislikes waffles, and they are especially appetizing
    when sprinkled with powdered sugar or served with syrup. They are
    often served with chicken or other gravy.


      WAFFLES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2 c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder ½ tsp. salt 2 eggs 1-2/3 c. milk 2 Tb.
      melted fat
      Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together. Beat the yolks and
      whites of the eggs separately. Add the beaten yolks and the milk to
      the dry ingredients and then stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg whites
      stiff and fold them into the batter. Bake according to the directions
      given in Art. 45.
452.47. RICE WAFFLES.—Rice waffles offer an excellent means of
    utilizing left-over rice. Such waffles are prepared in about the same

194
    way as the waffles just mentioned. In working the cooked rice
    into the dry ingredients, use should be made of a light motion that
    will not crush the grains, but will separate them from one another.
    Left-over cereals other than rice may also be used in this way.


    RICE WAFFLES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1-3/4 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar ½ tsp. baking powder ½ tsp. salt 2/3 c.
    cooked rice 1-1/2 c. milk 1 egg 1 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work
    the rice into the dry ingredients. Add the milk and the well-beaten
    yolk of egg. Stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold
    it into the batter. Bake as previously directed.



MUFFIN RECIPES
453.48. Muffins are examples of thick batters with variations. This form
    of hot bread, may be baked in a pan , or in individual tins. Just as
    other forms of hot breads assist the housewife in making changes or
    additions to meals, so do muffins, as they are usually relished by
    nearly every one.
454.49. PLAIN MUFFINS.—Perhaps the simplest form of muffin is the
    plain, or one-egg, muffin,            and made according to the
    accompanying recipe. To a plain-muffin recipe, however, may be
    added any kind of fruit, nuts, or other ingredients to give variety of
    flavor. Likewise, it may be made richer and sweeter and then
    steamed or baked to be served with a sauce for dessert. If it is made
    still richer and sweeter, the result is a simple cake mixture. Any given
    muffin recipe in which sweet milk is used may be made with sour
    milk by using soda instead of baking powder.


    PLAIN MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. flour 2 Tb. sugar 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 1 c. milk 1 egg 2
    Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder, and to these
    add the milk and beaten egg. Then stir in the melted fat. Fill well-
    greased muffin pans about two-thirds full of the mixture and bake in
    a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


                                                                         195
455.50. BLUEBERRY MUFFINS.—Muffins containing blueberries
    can be made successfully only in blueberry season, but other fruit,
    as, for example, dates, may be used in place of the blueberries.
    Cranberries are often used in muffins, but to many persons they are
    not agreeable because of the excessive amount of acid they contain.


      BLUEBERRY MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      3 Tb. fat 1/3 c. sugar 1 egg 1 c. milk 2-1/4 c. flour ½ tsp. salt 4 tsp.
      baking powder 1 c. fresh blueberries
      Cream the fat, and add the sugar gradually. Then stir in the beaten
      egg and milk. Reserve ¼ cupful of flour, and mix the remainder with
      the salt and the baking powder. Stir the dry ingredients into the first
      mixture. Next, mix the ¼ cupful of flour with the berries and fold
      them into the batter. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds
      full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.
456.51. DATE MUFFINS.—The recipe given for blueberry muffins may
    be used for date muffins by substituting dates for blueberries. To
    prepare the dates, wash them in warm water, rinse them in cold
    water, and then dry them between towels. Cut them lengthwise
    along the seed with a sharp knife, remove the seed, and then cut
    each date into three or four pieces.
457.52. CORN-MEAL MUFFINS.—To many persons, corn-meal
    muffins, are more agreeable than plain white-flour muffins. Corn
    meal gives to muffins an attractive flavor and appearance and
    increases their food value slightly; but perhaps its chief value lies in
    the variety that results from its use.


      CORN-MEAL MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      ½ c. corn meal 1 c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. sugar ½ tsp. salt
      ¾ c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
      Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Add
      to these the milk and the well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted fat.
      Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot oven
      for about 20 minutes.
458.53. GRAHAM MUFFINS.—A pleasing variety in the way of muffins
    is produced by using part graham flour, but whole-wheat flour may
    be substituted for the graham flour in case it is preferred. Sour milk
    is used in the recipe here given, but if there is no sour milk in supply,

196
    sweet milk and baking powder may be used instead, with merely the
    correct proportion of soda for the molasses. If the taste of molasses
    is undesirable, liquid, which may be either sweet or sour milk, may
    be substituted for it. It is an excellent plan to be able to substitute
    one thing for another in recipes of this kind, and this may be done
    if the materials are used in correct proportion.


    GRAHAM MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1-1/4 c. graham flour 1 c. white flour ¾ tsp. soda 1 tsp. salt 1 c. sour
    milk 1/3 c. molasses 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the graham and the white flour, the soda, and the salt.
    Put the bran that sifts out back into the mixture. Add the milk,
    molasses, and well-beaten egg to the dry ingredients, and then stir in
    the melted fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full and bake
    in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes.
459.54. RICE MUFFINS.—Rice may be combined with white flour in
    the making of muffins if variety is desired. As rice used for this
    purpose is added hot, it may be cooked either purposely for the
    muffins or for something else and only part used for the muffins.
    Cereals other than rice may be used in exactly the same quantity and
    in the same way in making muffins.


    RICE MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2-1/4 c. flour 5 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. sugar ½ tsp. salt 1-1/4 c.
    milk 1 egg ¾ c. hot, cooked rice 2 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt, and to these
    add half of the milk and the egg, well beaten. Mix the remaining half
    of the milk with the rice and add it to the mixture. Stir in the melted
    fat last. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot
    oven for about 20 minutes.
460.55. BRAN MUFFINS.—The particular value of bran muffins lies
    in the laxative quality that they introduce into the diet. In addition,
    they will be found to be very tasty and superior to many other kinds
    of muffins. Bran for such purposes as this may be bought in
    packages, in the same way as many cereals.


    BRAN MUFFINS (Sufficient to Serve Six)


                                                                          197
      1-1/2 c. white flour ½ tsp. soda ½ tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 2 c.
      bran 1-1/4 c. milk ½ c. molasses 1 egg
      Mix and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, and salt. Then add the
      bran, the milk, the molasses, and the well-beaten egg. Fill well-greased
      muffin pans about two-thirds full, and bake in a moderate oven
      for about 25 minutes.



CORN-CAKE RECIPES
461.56. CORN CAKE.—Corn cakes were among the first breads
    made of cereal foods in America, being at first often made of only
    corn meal, water, and salt. These cakes of corn meal were prepared
    and carried on long journeys made by people when there were no
    means of rapid transportation. The cakes did not spoil, were not
    bulky, and contained a great deal of nutriment, so they made a
    convenient kind of food for such purposes and were called journey
    cakes. From this term came the name Johnny cake, which is often
    applied to cake of this kind. The combining of flour, eggs,
    shortening, and sugar makes a cake that does not resemble the
    original very much, but in many localities such cake is still called
    Johnny cake. The proportion of corn meal to flour that is used
    determines to a large extent the consistency of the cake; the greater
    the quantity of corn meal, the more the cake will crumble and break
    into pieces. The addition of white flour makes the particles of corn
    meal adhere, so that most persons consider that white flour
    improves the consistency.


      CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)
      ¾ c. yellow corn meal 1-1/4 c. flour ¼ c. sugar ¾ tsp. salt 4 tsp.
      baking powder 1 c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
      Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder. Add
      the milk and well-beaten egg, and then stir in the melted fat. Pour
      into a well-greased loaf pan and bake in a hot oven for about 30
      minutes.
462.57. SOUTHERN CORN CAKE.—In the preceding recipe for corn
    cake, more flour than corn meal is used, but many persons prefer
    cake of this kind made with more corn meal than flour. Southern
    corn cake, which contains more corn meal and less white flour,
    proves very satisfactory to such persons. Therefore, which of these

198
    recipes should be used depends on the taste of those who are to eat
    the cake.


    SOUTHERN CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized
    Loaf)
    1 c. corn meal ½ c. flour 3 tsp. baking powder ¾ tsp. salt ¼ c.
    sugar ¾ c. milk 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift together the corn meal, flour, baking powder, salt,
    and sugar. Add to them the milk and well-beaten egg, and stir in the
    melted fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate
    oven for about 30 minutes.
463.58. Molasses Corn Cake.—Molasses corn cake, just as its name
    indicates, is corn cake containing molasses. To those who find the
    taste of molasses agreeable, this recipe will appeal. Others not so
    fond of molasses will, without doubt, prefer the plain corn cake.
    Besides adding flavor, the molasses in this recipe adds food value to
    the product.


    MOLASSES CORN CAKE (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)
    1 c. corn meal ¾ c. flour 3-1/2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt ¾ c.
    milk ¼ c. molasses 1 egg 2 Tb. melted fat
    Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Add the
    milk, molasses, and well-beaten egg and stir in the melted fat. Pour
    into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about
    30 minutes.

BISCUIT RECIPES
464.59. Baking-Powder Biscuits.—The ability of the housewife as a
    cook is very often judged by the biscuits she makes; but they are
    really very simple to make, and if recipes are followed carefully and
    measurements are made accurately, only a little experience is required
    to produce excellent ones. The principal requirement in making
    baking-powder biscuits, is that all the ingredients be kept as cold as
    possible during the mixing. Tiny, thin biscuits may be split, buttered,
    and served with tea, while larger ones may be served with breakfast
    or luncheon. In order to utilize left over biscuits of this kind, they
    may be split and toasted or dipped quickly into boiling water and
    heated in a quick oven until the surface is dry.

                                                                       199
      BAKING-POWDER BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2 c. flour 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. fat ¾ c. milk
      Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop the fat into the
      dry ingredients until it is in pieces about the size of small peas. Pour
      the milk into the dry ingredients, and mix them just enough to take
      up the liquid. Make the mixture as moist as possible, and still have it
      in good condition to handle. Then sprinkle flour on a molding board,
      and lift the dough from the mixing bowl to the board.

HOT BREADS
Sprinkle flour thinly over the top and pat out the dough until it is about 1 inch thick. Cut
the dough with a biscuit cutter, and place the biscuits thus cut out on baking sheets or in
shallow pans. If a crusty surface is desired, place the biscuits in the pan so that they are
about an inch apart; but if thick, soft biscuits are preferred, place them so that the edges
touch. Bake 18 to 20 minutes in a hot oven.


465.60. EMERGENCY BISCUITS.—As shown in Fig. 12, emergency
    biscuits resemble very closely baking-powder biscuits, and so they
    should, because the recipe given for baking-powder biscuits may be
    used for emergency biscuits by merely adding more milk—just
    enough to make the dough a trifle too moist to handle with the
    hands. When the dough is of this consistency, drop it by spoonfuls
    in shallow pans, as in Fig. 13, or on baking sheets. Then bake the
    biscuits in a hot oven for 18 to 20 minutes.
466.61. PINWHEEL BISCUITS.—To create variety, a baking-powder
    biscuit mixture may be made into pinwheel biscuits, a kind of hot
    bread that is always pleasing to children. Such biscuits, differ from
    cinnamon rolls only in the leavening agent used, cinnamon rolls
    being made with yeast and pinwheel biscuits with baking powder.


      PINWHEEL BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2 c. flour 1 tsp. salt 4 tsp. baking powder 2 Tb. fat f ¾ c. milk 2 Tb.
      butter 1/3 c. sugar 1 Tb. cinnamon ¾ c. chopped raisins
      To make the dough, combine the ingredients in the same way as for
      baking powder biscuits. Roll it on a well-floured board until it is
      about ¼ inch thick and twice as long as it is wide. Spread the surface
      with the 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Mix the sugar and cinnamon


200
    and sprinkle them evenly over the buttered surface, and on top of this
    sprinkle the chopped raisins. Start with one of the long edges and
    roll the dough carefully toward the opposite long edge, as shown in
    Fig. 15. Then cut the roll into slices 1 inch thick. Place these slices
    in a shallow pan with the cut edges down and the sides touching.
    Bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


467.62. BEATEN BISCUITS.—A form of hot bread known as beaten
    biscuits. Such biscuits are used very extensively in the South; in fact,
    they are usually considered typical of the South. Formerly, all the
    lightness of beaten biscuits was produced by beating, but as the
    mixture is made today it may be run through a food chopper a few
    times before it is beaten. If this is done, the labor of beating is
    lessened considerably, beating for 15 to 20 minutes being sufficient.
    When the beating is finished, the texture of the dough should be fine
    and close and the surface should be smooth and flat.


    BEATEN BISCUITS (Sufficient to Serve Twelve)
    1 qt. pastry flour 1 tsp. salt 1/3 c. fat 1 c. milk or water
    Sift the flour and salt and chop in the fat. Moisten with the milk or
    water and form into a mass. Toss this on a floured board, and beat it
    with a rolling pin for 30 minutes, folding the dough over every few
    seconds. Roll the dough 1/3 inch in thickness, form the biscuits by
    cutting them out with a small round cutter, and prick each one
    several times with a fork. Place the biscuits on baking sheets or in
    shallow pans, and bake them in a moderate oven for 20 to 30
    minutes.



MISCELLANEOUS HOT-BREAD RECIPES
468.63. SOFT GINGERBREAD.—As a hot bread for breakfast, soft
    gingerbread is very satisfactory, and with or without icing it may be
    served as cake with fruit for luncheon. Sweet milk and baking
    powder are generally used in gingerbread, but sour milk may be
    substituted for sweet milk and soda in the proper proportion may be
    used in place of baking powder. If not too much spice is used in a
    bread of this kind, it is better for children than rich cake, and, as a
    rule, they are very fond of it.


                                                                        201
      SOFT GINGERBREAD (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)
      2 c. flour 2 tsp. baking powder ½ tsp. soda ¼ c. sugar ½ tsp. salt 2
      tsp. ginger 1 tsp. cinnamon 1 egg ½ c. milk ½ c. molasses ¼ c.
      butter or other fat
      Mix the flour, baking powder, soda, sugar, salt, and spices. Beat the
      egg, add the milk and molasses to it, and stir these into the first
      mixture. Melt the fat and stir it into the batter. Pour the batter into
      a well greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 35
      minutes. If preferred, the mixture may be poured into individual
      muffin pans and baked in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes.
469.64. BOSTON BROWN BREAD.—A hot bread that finds favor
    with most persons is Boston brown bread.




HOT BREADS
Such bread, instead of being baked in the oven, is steamed for 3-1/2 hours. It may be
made plain, according to the accompanying recipe, or, to give it variety, raisins or
currants may be added to it. Boston brown bread may be steamed in an ordinary coffee
can, such as is shown in Fig. 18, in a large baking-powder can, or in a can that is made
especially for this purpose. A regular steaming can for Boston brown bread is, of course,
very convenient, but the other cans mentioned are very satisfactory. A point to
remember in the making of brown bread is that the time for steaming should never be
decreased. Oversteaming will do no harm, but understeaming is liable to leave an
unbaked place through the center of the loaf.
BOSTON BROWN BREAD (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)
1 c. white flour 1 c. graham flour 1 c. corn meal ¾ tsp. soda 2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp.
salt ¾ c. molasses 1-3/4 c. sweet milk
Mix and sift the flour, corn meal, soda, baking powder, and salt. Add the molasses and
milk and mix all thoroughly. Grease a can and a cover that fits the can tightly. Fill the
can two-thirds full of the mixture and cover it. Place it in a steamer and steam for 3-
1/2 hours. Dry in a moderate oven for a few minutes before serving.
470.65. NUT LOAF.—The use of nuts in a hot bread increases the food
    value and imparts a very delicious flavor. It is therefore very
    attractive to most persons, but it is not a cheap food on account of
    the usual high price of nuts. Thin slices of nut bread spread with
    butter make very fine sandwiches, which are especially delicious
    when served with tea.



202
    NUT LOAF (Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)
    2 c. flour ½ c. sugar 4 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. salt 4 Tb. fat 1 egg 1
    c. milk ½ c. English walnuts
    Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work
    in the fat. Add the egg, well beaten, and the milk, and then stir in the
    nut meats, which should be chopped. Turn into a well-greased loaf
    pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes.



UTILISING LEFT-OVER HOT BREADS
471.66. As a general rule, not much consideration need be given to
    the utilizing of left-over hot breads, for these are not often baked in
    large quantities and consequently are usually eaten at the meal for
    which they are intended. Still, if any should be left over, they
    should never be wasted, for there are various ways in which they
    may be used. The small varieties, such as muffins, biscuits, etc, may
    be freshened so that they will be almost as good as when first baked
    by putting them into a hot oven for a few minutes. If they are quite
    stale, they should be dipped quickly into hot water before being
    placed in the oven. The moisture on the surface is driven into the
    interior of the bread by the intense heat, with the result that the
    biscuits become moist and appear as fresh as they did formerly. If it
    is not desired to freshen them in this way, biscuits, muffins, and
    even pieces of corn bread that have become slightly stale may be
    made delicious by splitting them and then toasting them.




LUNCHEON MENU
472.67. As in the preceding Sections, there is here submitted a menu
    that should be worked out and reported on at the same time that the
    answers to the Examination Questions are sent in. This menu is
    planned to serve six persons, but, as in the case of the other menus,
    it may be increased or decreased to meet requirements. The recipe
    for macaroni with cheese and tomatoes may be found in Cereals,
    and that for baking-powder biscuit, as well as that for popovers with
    apple sauce, in this Section. Recipes for the remainder of the items
    follow the menu.


                                                                        203
MENU
Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes Baking-Powder Biscuit Jam Watercress and-Celery
Salad Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce Tea


RECIPES

WATERCRESS-AND-CELERY SALAD
Arrange on each salad plate a bed of watercress, or, if it is impossible to obtain this, shred
lettuce by cutting it in narrow strips across the leaf and use it instead of the watercress.
Dice one or two stems of celery, depending on the size, and place the diced pieces on
top of the watercress or the lettuce. Pour over each serving about 2 teaspoonfuls of
French dressing made as follows:
½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper ¼ tsp. paprika 6 Tb. oil 2 Tb. vinegar
Mix the salt, pepper, and paprika, and beat the oil into them until it forms an emulsion.
Add the vinegar gradually, a few drops at a time, and continue the beating. Pour the
dressing over the salad.




TEA
Measure 1 teaspoonful of tea for each cupful that is to be served. Scald the teapot, put
the tea into it, and add the required number of cups of freshly boiling water. Allow it to
steep until the desired strength is obtained. Serve at once, or pour from the leaves, serving
cream and sugar with it if desired.


      *     *      *       *      *



HOT BREADS

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
473.(1) (a) In what way do hot breads differ from yeast breads? (b) What
    are the principal ingredients of hot-bread batters and doughs?
474.(2) (a) What is a leavening agent? (b) What is the effect of
    leavening agents on batters and doughs?

204
475.(3) (a) How is physical leavening accomplished? (b) On what does
    the success of breads raised by physical leavening depend?
476.(4) (a) How is chemical leavening brought about? (b) What two
    things must be supplied to produce the best action of a chemical
    leavening agent for making a flour mixture light?
477.(5) Why are soda and sour milk and soda and molasses not
    accurate leavening agents?
478.(6) In making a batter or a dough, how much soda should be used
    with: (a) each cupful of sour milk? (b) each cupful of molasses?
479.(7) How should soda and sour milk or soda and molasses be
    combined with the other ingredients of a hot-bread mixture?
480.(8) (a) In hot-bread batters and doughs, how much baking powder
    should be used to 1 cupful of flour? (b) How should baking powder
    be combined with the other ingredients?
481.(9) Mention, in the order they should be carried out, the steps for
    making and baking a dough mixture.
482.(10) Tell what general proportion of liquid and flour is usually used
    for: (a) a thin batter; (b) a thick batter; (c) a soft dough; (d) a stiff
    dough.
483.(11) Give examples of hot breads made from: (a) thin batters; (b)
    thick batters; (c) soft doughs; (d) stiff doughs.
484.(12) What will cause a change in the general proportions of liquid
    and flour for a batter or a dough?
485.(13) Explain briefly the two general methods of combining ingredients
    for hot-bread mixtures.
486.(14) What is the approximate temperature for: (a) a moderate oven?
    (b) a hot oven?
487.(15) Mention a simple test for: (a) a moderate oven; (b) a hot oven.
488.(16) How may hot breads be tested in order to determine whether
    or not they are properly baked?
489.(17) Why are baking-powder biscuits and popovers mixed differently?
490.(18) (a) Why does a loaf of nut bread require longer baking than
    muffins? (b) Which should be baked in a moderate oven?
491.(19) Why should gingerbread be baked in a moderate oven?
492.(20) Make a recipe for muffins, using 2 cupfuls of flour and sour milk
    and soda for liquid and leavening.


                                                                           205
REPORT ON MENU
After trying out the luncheon menu given in the text, send with your answers to the
Examination Questions a report of your success. In making out your report, simply
write the name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified
here.
Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes: cooked sufficiently? properly flavored? too much
salt? not enough salt? too much liquid? too little liquid?
Baking-Powder Biscuit: tender? tough? light? heavy? good texture? poor texture?
sufficiently baked? underdone? overdone? sufficient salt?
Watercress-and-Celery Salad: appearance   attractive? dressing well   mixed? properly
seasoned?
Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce: tender? tough? underdone (this is observed by
shrinking or falling after removing the popovers from the popover cups)? overdone?




206
Tea: strong? weak? clear? hot? bitter?

     *      *      *      *      *




INDEX

A
Abbreviations of measures, Absorption and digestion of food, of food, Abundance of
production of cereals, Acquiring skill in bread making, Action of yeast, Adjusting
cook-stove dampers, Agents, Classes of leavening, Leavening, Aids, Yeast, A la, au, and
aux, Meaning of terms, la creole, Meaning of, Albumin, Effect of cooking on,
Aluminum cooking utensils, Anthracite, or hard, coal, Apple, Composition of, corer,
Artificial gas, Ash, or mineral salts, pan, Coal-stove, pit, Coal-stove, Au gratin, Meaning
of, naturel, Meaning of, Avoirdupois weight,


B
Bacon, Composition of, Bacteria, Baked hot breads, Testing, potatoes, Bakers’ flour,
Baking bread, Distinction between roasting and, griddle cakes, Procedure in, Meaning
of, Oven temperature for bread, powder, powder biscuits, Baking powder, Recipe for,
Purpose of bread, the hot bread mixture, the hot-bread mixture, Utensils for, Time
for bread, waffles, Procedure in, Balanced diet, Elements of a, Banana, Composition of,
Banking a coal fire, Barley, Left-over, Pearl, Recipes for, Use and origin of, with fruit,
Pearl, Batter, Thick, Thin, Batters and doughs, Bean, Composition of dry navy,
Composition of fresh shelled, Composition of green string, Beaten biscuits, Beating of
food ingredients, Bechamel, Meaning of, Beech wheat, Beef, Composition of dried,
steak, Composition of, suet, Composition of, Biscuit glace, recipes, Biscuits, Baking-
powder, Beaten, Emergency, rolls, and buns, Recipes for, Bisque, Meaning of,
Bituminous, or soft, coal, Blanching foods, Blend flour, Blueberry muffins, Body,
Function of water in the, Boiled coffee, rice, Boiler, Cooking cereals in double, Boiling,
Cooking cereals by, on foods, Effect of, point, rice, to sterilize water, Boston brown
bread, Bouchees, Meaning of, Boudin, Meaning of, Bouquet of herbs, Boxes, Window,
Braizing, Bran bread, muffins, Bread, after baking, Care of, and cake mixer, as food,
Importance of, Baking, Baking hot, Boston brown, Bran, Composition of corn,
Composition of rye, Composition of toasted, Composition of whole wheat, Convenient
equipment for making, Corn, Distinction between hot and leavened, dough, Care of the
rising, dough, Kneading, dough, Motions used in kneading, dough, Purpose of kneading,
Graham, Hot, ingredients, Quick process, sponge method of combining, Leavened,
Left-over, Long-process, sponge method of making, making, Acquiring skill in, making,
Combining the ingredients in, making, Convenient equipment for, making, Ingredients for,

                                                                                      207
making, Long process of, making, Long-process, sponge method of, making, Long-
process, straight-dough method of, -making materials, Proportion of, making, Necessary
equipment for, -making processes, making, Quick process of, making, Quick-process,
sponge method of, making, Quick-process, straight-dough method of, -making
requirements, making, Utensils for, Milk and fat in, mixer, Use of, mixers, mixture,
Preparation of hot-, Object of scoring, Oven temperature for baking, Purpose of baking,
Quick, recipes, Rice, Rye, Salt-rising, Scoring, Serving, sponge, Utilizing left-over hot,
White, Whole-wheat, Whole-wheat fruit, with nuts, Graham, Breads, Correct oven
temperature for hot, Distinction between yeast and hot, General proportions used in
hot, Hot, in the diet, Hot, Mixtures used for hot, Principal requirements for hot,
Purpose of utensils for making hot, Quick, Recipes for hot, Requirements and processes
for making hot, Serving hot, Varieties of mixtures in hot, Breakfast food, Composition of
cooked oat, foods, Meaning of, menu, Broiling, Pan, Brown bread, Boston, Browned rice,
Browning, or toasting, of cereals, Buckwheat, cakes, Composition of, Description of,
rye, and millet, Building a coal fire, Buns, Fruit or nut, Graham nut, Nut or fruit, rolls,
and biscuits, Buns, Sweet, Butter, Composition of, Composition of peanut, Buttered
hominy, toast, Buttermilk, Composition of,


C
Cabbage salad, -salad dressing, Cafe au lait, Meaning of, noir, Meaning of, Cake,
Coffee, Corn, mixers, Molasses corn, Southern corn, Cakes, Buckwheat, Corn griddle,
Griddle, Procedure in baking griddle, Rice griddle, Calorie, or calory, Definition of,
Canapes, Meaning of, Canard, Meaning of, Candy, Composition of stick, Canned fruit,
Composition of, Canning of foods, Capers, Meaning of, Capon, Meaning of, Caramel,
Meaning of, Carbohydrates, Composition of, Elements in, in cereals, Carbon,
Carbonic-acid, or carbon-dioxide, gas, Card, Explanation of score, Care of bread after
baking, of bread in oven, of cereals, of flour, of food, of food in refrigerator, of food,
Methods of, of the refrigerator, of the rising bread dough, Carolina rice, Casein,
Effect of cooking on, Casserole, Definition of, Use of, Celery, Composition of, Cellars,
Storing food in, Cellulose, Cooking foods containing, Definition of, in cereals, in the diet,
Place of, Cereal flakes, products, selection, Factors that govern, Setting a, Cereals,
Abundance of production of, as a food, Browning, or toasting, of, by boiling,
Cooking, by dry heat, Cooking, Carbohydrates in, Care of, Cellulose in, Composition of,
Economic value of, Fat in, for the table, Preparation of, Left-over wheat, Methods of
cooking, Mineral matter in, Origin of, Points to observe in cooking, Preparation for
cooking, Prepared, or ready-to-eat, Production of, Protein in, Purpose of cooking, Ready-
to-eat, Selection of, Serving, Table showing composition of, undergo in cooking,
Changes, Uses of, Water in, Champignons, Meaning of, Chartreuse, Meaning of,
Cheese, Composition of cottage, Composition of cream, Chemical composition of food,
leavening, Chestnut coal, Composition of, Chiffonade, Meaning of, Chillies, Meaning of,
Chives, Meaning of, Chop, Composition of lamb, Composition of pork, Chopper, Meat,
Chops, Pan-broiled, Chutney, Meaning of, Cinnamon rolls, Citron, Clinkers, Coal and
coke, Anthracite, or hard, Bituminous, or soft, Chestnut, Egg, fire, Building a, fire,
Building a, Pea, Quality of, Coal range, Sizes of, Stove, -stove dampers, -stove firebox,
stove for cooking, General construction of, -stove grate, stoves and their operation,
Varieties of, Cocoa, Coconut, Composition of, Cod, Composition of fresh, Composition
of salt, Coffee, cake, Coke, and coal, Collops, Meaning of, Commercial yeast, Common
labor-saving devices, Composition and varieties of oats, of apple, of bacon, of banana, of
beef steak, of beef suet, of buckwheat, of butter, of buttermilk, of canned fruit, of
carbohydrates, of celery, of cereals, of cereals, Table showing, of chestnut, of coconut, of
cooked macaroni, of cooked oat breakfast food, of corn, of corn bread, of cottage cheese,


208
of cream, of cream cheese, of dried beef, of dried fig, of dry navy bean, of egg white
and yolk, of food, Chemical, of food materials, of fresh cod, of fresh shelled bean, of
fruit jelly, of grape juice, of grapes, of green corn, of green string bean, of honey, of
Italian pastes, of lamb chop, of lard, of mackerel, of maple sugar, of molasses, of oats,
of olive oil, of onion, of oyster, of parsnip, of peanut, of peanut butter, of pork chop,
of potato, of raisins, of rice, of rye, of rye bread, of salt cod, of skim milk, of smoked
ham, of smoked herring, of stick candy, of strawberry, of sugar, of toasted bread, of
walnut, of wheat, of white and yolk of egg, of whole egg, of whole milk, of whole wheat
bread, Compote, Meaning of, Compressed yeast, Constituents, Food principles, or,
Conveying heat to food, Methods of, Cooker, Cooking cereals in fireless, Fireless,
COOKING, Meaning of, Terms used in, time table, Cooking cereals by boiling, cereals
in double boiler, cereals in fireless cooker, cereals, Methods of, cereals, Points to
observe in, cereals, Preparation for, cereals, Purpose of, cereals with dry heat, food,
Reasons for, foods, Importance of, foods, Table for, Getting foods ready for, Heat for,
Methods of, Methods of using moist heat for, of food, processes, rice, Japanese method
of, rice, Methods of, Uses of water in, Cooking utensils, Aluminum, utensils, Copper,
utensils, Earthenware, utensils, Enamel, utensils, Glass, utensils, Iron and steel, utensils,
Tin, utensils, Wooden, with dry heat, with hot fat, Copper cooking utensils,
Coquilles, Meaning of, Corer, Apple, Corn bread, bread, Composition of, cake, cake,
Molasses, -cake recipes, cake, Southern, Composition of, Composition of green, Field,
griddle cakes, Maize, or Indian, meal, -meal croquettes, -meal muffins, -meal mush, -
meal mush, Left-over, meal, Recipes for, Pop, Sweet, Cottage cheese, Composition of,
Cracked wheat, Cream cheese, Composition of, Composition of, of tartar and soda, of
wheat, of wheat with dates, sauce, Creamed hominy, peas, rice, Creaming of food
ingredients, Croquettes, Corn-meal,            Rolled-oats, Croutons, Meaning of, Cups,
Measuring, Curry, Custard, Farina, Cutting-in of food ingredients,


D
Dampers, Adjusting cook-stove, Coal-stove, Date muffins, Dates, Cream of wheat with,
Graham mush with, Demi-tasse, Meaning of, Deviled, Meaning of, Dextrine, Formation
of, Diet, Hot breads in the, Meaning of, Well balanced, Dietetics, Definition of,
Digestion and absorption of food, of food, Dill, Meaning of, Dinner rolls, Dish-
washing machines, Double boiler, Cooking cereals in, boiler, Use of, Dough, Kneading
bread, Making bread, Motions used in kneading bread, Soft, Stiff, Doughs and batters,
Dressing, Cabbage-salad, Dried beef, Composition of, fig, Composition of, Dry heat,
Cooking cereals by, heat, Cooking with, measure, steaming, yeast, Drying of foods,


E
Earthenware cooking utensils, Economic value of cereals, Effect of boiling on foods, Egg
beater, Rotary, coal, Composition of white and yolk of, Composition of whole, whip,
Eggs, Scrambled, Electric meter, Reading an, stoves, stoves and utensils, Electricity as a
fuel, Emergency biscuits, En coquille, Meaning of, Enamel cooking utensils,
Endosperm, Meaning of, Entrees, Equipment for bread making, Convenient, Escarole,
Meaning of,




                                                                                        209
F
Factors that govern cereal selection, Farce, or forcemeat, Meaning of, Farina, custard,
souffle, Fat and milk in bread, Cooking with hot, Fat in cereals, Fats, Ferments, or
leavening agents, Field corn, Fig, Composition of dried, Fillet mignons, Meaning of,
Fillets, Meaning of, Firebox, Coal stove, Fireless cooker, cooker, Cooking cereals in, -
cooking gas stoves, Flour, Bakers’, Blend, Care of, Graham, Grains used for, High-
grade patent, Kinds of, made from spring or hard wheat, Discussion of, Milling of
wheat, Quality of, Red dog, Rye, Scouring, Second-grade patent, Selection of, Whole-
wheat, Flue, Coal-stove, opening of a coal stove, Fluff, Orange, Sauce for orange,
Folding of food ingredients, Fondant, Meaning of, Fondue, Meaning of, Food,
Absorption of, Care of, Cereals as a, Chemical composition of, Cooking of, Definition
of, Digestion and absorption of, Digestion of, in cellars, Storing, ingredients, Beating of,
ingredients, Creaming of, ingredients, Cutting-in of, ingredients, Folding of, ingredients,
Mixing of, ingredients, Processes involved in mixing of, ingredients, Ricing of, ingredients,
Rubbing of, ingredients, Sifting of, ingredients, Stirring of, Matters involved in right
selection of, Methods of caring for, or fuel, value, Food, Preparation of, principles or
constituents, Problem of, Reasons for cooking, Selection of, substances, value, Foods,
Blanching, Canning of, Drying of, for cooking, Preparation of, Importance of cooking,
Importance of variety of, Meaning of breakfast, Storing of non-perishable, Storing of
semiperishable, with ice, Keeping, without ice, Keeping, Forcemeat, or farce, Meaning of,
Frappe, Meaning of, French toast, Fricasseeing, Fromage, Meaning of, Fruit bread, Whole-
wheat, Composition of canned, jelly, Composition of, or nut buns, Frying, Fuel, Use of
coal as a, Use of coke as a, Use of electricity as a, Use of gas as a, Use of kerosene as a,
value, Food, or, Value of gas as, Furnishing a kitchen, Utensils for,


G
Gas, Artificial, as fuel, Use of, as fuel, Value of, Carbonic-acid, or carbon-dioxide,
Measurement of, meter, meter, Reading a, Natural, ranges, Description of, stove, Mixer
of a, stove, Pilot of a, stoves and their operation, stoves, Fireless-cooking, General
proportions, Applying knowledge of, Germ, Definition of, Germs, Gingerbread, Soft,
Glace, Biscuit, Meaning of, Glass cooking utensils, Glaze, Meaning of, Gliadin, Glucose,
Gluten, Glutenin, Goulash, Meaning of, Graham bread, bread with nuts, flour, muffins,
mush with dates, nut buns, Grain for market, Preparation of, products, Table of,
Structure of wheat, Grains used for flour, Grape juice, Composition of, Grapes,
Composition of, Grate, Coal stove, Green corn, Composition of, Griddle-cake recipes,
cakes, cakes, Corn, cakes, Procedure in baking, cakes, Rice, cakes, Sour-milk, Griddles,
Grinder, Grits, Hominy, Wheat, Gumbo, Meaning of,


H
Ham, Composition of smoked, Hard water, How to soften, Haricot, Meaning of, Heat,
Cooking cereals with dry, Cooking with dry, for cooking, for cooking, Discussion of,
Methods of cooking with moist, Herring, Composition of smoked, High-grade
patent flour, Homard, Meaning of, Hominy, and cheese souffle, Buttered, Creamed,
grits, Left-over, Recipes for, Honey, Composition of, Hors-d’oeuvres, Meaning of, Hot
bread, bread, Distinction between leavened and, -bread mixture. Baking the, -bread
mixture, Testing of baked, -bread mixture, Preparation of, Hot-bread mixture, Utensils
for baking the, -bread mixture, Utensils for preparing the, -bread recipes, Miscellaneous, -
bread utensils and their use, bread, Utilizing left-over, breads, breads, Baking of,


210
breads, Combining ingredients for, breads, Correct oven temperature for, breads,
Distinction between yeast and, breads in the diet, breads, Mixtures used for, breads,
Principal requirements for, breads, Purpose of utensils for making, breads, Recipes
for, breads, Regulating the oven for, breads, Requirements and processes for making,
breads, Serving, breads, Varieties of mixtures and general, proportions used in, fat,
Cooking with, Hotplates, Hulled, or whole, wheat, wheat, Huller, Berry,


I
Ice, Keeping foods with, Indian corn, or maize, Ingredients, Beating of food, Combining
hot-bread, Creaming of food, Cutting-in of food, Folding of food, for bread making,
Mixing of food, Preparation of hot-bread, Processes involved in mixing food, Quick-
process, sponge method of combining bread, required for bread making, Ricing of
food, Rubbing of food, Sifting of food, Stirring of food, Iron and steel cooking utensils,
Irons, Waffle, Italian pastes, pastes, Composition of, pastes, Left-over, pastes,
Preparation of, pastes, Recipes for, pastes, Varieties of, Italiene, Meaning of a la,
Japanese method of cooking rice, rice, Jardiniere, Meaning of, Jelly, Composition of
fruit, Juice, Composition of grape, Julienne, Meaning of, Junket, Meaning of,


K
Keeping foods with ice, foods without ice, Kerosene as a fuel, Use of, stoves and their
operation, Kilowatt-hours in meter reading, Kippered, Meaning of, Kitchen, Utensils
for furnishing a, Kneading bread dough, bread dough, Motions used in, bread dough,
Purpose of,


L
Labour-saving devices, Lactose, Occurrence of, Lamb chop, Composition of, Lard,
Composition of, Larding, Meaning of, Lardon, Meaning of, Leavened bread, Leavening
agents, agents, Classes of, agents, or ferments, Chemical, Physical, Left-over barley, -
over bread, -over corn-meal mush, over hominy, -over hot bread, Utilizing, -over Italian
pastes, -over rice, -over rolled oats, -over wheat cereals, Legumes, Meaning of, Lentils,
Meaning of, Liquid measure, yeast, Loaf, Nut, Loaves, Shaping the bread dough into,
Long process of bread making, process of making white bread, process, sponge method
of bread making, -process, straight-dough method of bread making, Luncheon menu, rolls,


M
Macaroni, and kidney beans, Composition of cooked, Italian style, with cheese, with
cheese and tomato, with cream sauce, with eggs, with tomato and bacon, Macedoine,
Meaning of, Machines, Dish-washing, Mackerel, Composition of, Maize, Malt
sprouts, Maple sugar, Composition of, Marinade, Meaning of, Marinate, Meaning of,
Market, Preparation of grains for the, Marrons, Meaning of, Materials, Proportion of
bread-making used for cooking utensils, Matter, Mineral, Mayonnaise mixer, The, Meal,
Corn, Recipes for corn, Meaning of breakfast foods, Measure, Dry, Liquid,
Measurement of gas, Measures, Abbreviations of, Measuring, cups, Precautions to
observe, spoons, Meat chopper, grinder, Menu, Breakfast, Luncheon, Meaning of, Menus
and recipes, Meringue, Meaning of, Meter, Gas, Reading a gas, Reading an electric,
Meters, Prepayment, Micro-organisms, Microbes, Milk and fat in bread, Composition

                                                                                     211
of skim, Composition of whole, Soda and sour, toast, Millet, buckwheat, and rye,
Description of, Milling of wheat flour, Mineral matter, matter in cereals, salts, salts,
Purpose of, Miscellaneous hot-bread recipes, Mixer, Gas-stove, Mayonnaise, Use of the
bread, Mixers, Bread, Cake, Mixing of food ingredients, of food ingredients, Processes
involved in, processes, Application of, Mixture, Testing baked hot-bread, Mixtures used
for hot breads, Moist heat, Cooking with, yeast, Molasses and soda, Composition of, corn
cake, Molds, Motions used in kneading bread dough, Mousse, Meaning of, Muffin recipes,
Muffins, Blueberry, Bran, Corn-meal, Date, Graham, Plain, Rice, Mush, Corn-meal,
Left-over corn-meal, Sauted corn-meal, with dates, Graham,


N
Natural gas, Navy bean, Composition of dry, Non-perishable foods, Storing of, Nougat,
Meaning of, Nut buns, Graham, loaf, or fruit buns, puffs,


O
Oat breakfast food, Composition of cooked, Composition of, Oatmeal, Oats,
Composition and varieties of, Recipes for, Rolled, with apples, Rolled, Olive oil,
Composition of, Onion, Composition of, Orange fluff, fluff, Sauce for, Order of work,
Oriental rice, Oven, Coal-stove, for hot breads, Regulating the, Proper placing of hot-
bread mixture in, temperature, Determining and regulating, temperature for baking bread,
temperature for hot breads, Oxygen, Oyster, Composition of,


P
Pan-broiled chops, broiling, Paprika, Parker House rolls, Parsnip, Composition of,
Pastes, Italian, Recipes for Italian, Pate, Meaning of, Patent flour, High-grade, flour,
Second-grade, Patties, Rice, Pea coal, Peanut butter, Composition of, Composition of,
Pearl barley, barley, Description of, barley with fruit, Peas, Creamed, Sauce for,
Physical leavening, Pilot, Gas-stove, Pimiento, Meaning of, Pineapple, Rice with,
Pinwheel biscuits, Piquante, Meaning of sauce, Pistachio, Meaning of, Plain muffins,
Point, Boiling, Polishings, Rice, Pop corn, Popover recipes, with fruit, Pork chop,
Composition of, Potage, Meaning of, Potato, Composition of, ricer, Potatoes, Baked,
Powder, Baking, Recipe for baking, Precautions to observe in measuring, Preparation
for cooking cereals, for cooking foods, of cereals for the table, Preparation of food, of
grains for the market, of hot-bread ingredients, of hot-bread mixture, of Italian pastes,
Prepared, or ready-to-eat, cereals, Preparing the hot bread mixture, Utensils for,
Prepayment meters, Principle of stoves, Principles, or constituents, Food, Problem of
food, Processes and requirements for making hot breads, Application of mixing, Bread-
making, Cooking, involved in mixing food ingredients, Production of cereals,
Products, Cereal, Table of grain, Proportion of bread-making materials, Proportions,
Applying knowledge of general, Protein, in cereals, Puffs, Nut, Whole-wheat, Puree,
Meaning of, Purpose, of baking bread, of bread rising, of cooking cereals, of kneading
bread dough, of utensils for making hot breads,


Q
Quality, of coal, of flour, of yeast, Quick, bread, Hot or, breads, process of combining
bread ingredients, process of making white bread, process of making whole-wheat bread,

212
-process, sponge method of combining, bread          ingredients, -process,   straight-dough
method of combining, bread ingredients,


R
Ragout, Meaning of, Raisins, Composition of, Ramekin, Meaning of, Range, Coal,
Ranges, Description of gas, Reading, a gas meter, an electric meter, Ready, -to-eat cereals, -
to-eat, or prepared, cereals, Reasons for cooking food, Rechauffe, Meaning of, Recipe,
Definition of, Red-dog flour, Refrigerator, Care of food in, Care of the,
Refrigerators, Refuse, Distinction between waste and, Meaning of, Relative weights and
measures, Tables of, Requirements, and processes for making hot breads, of bread
making, Rice, Boiled, Boiling, bread, Browned, Carolina, Composition of, Creamed,
griddle cakes, Japanese, Japanese method of cooking, Left-over, Methods of cooking,
muffins, Oriental, patties, polishings, Recipes for, Savory, Spanish, Steamed, Steaming,
Varieties and structure of, waffles, with pineapple, Ricer, Potato, Ricing of food
ingredients, Rising, bread dough, Care of the, Temperature for bread, Time required
for bread, Rissoles, Meaning of, Roasting, Distinction between baking and, Meaning of,
Rolled, oats, -oats croquettes, -oats jelly with prunes, oats, Left over, oats with apples,
Rolls, buns and biscuits, Recipes for, Cinnamon, Dinner, Luncheon, Parker House,
Whole-wheat, Rotary egg beater, Roux, Meaning of, Rubbing of food ingredients, Rye,
bread, bread, Composition of, buckwheat, and millet, Composition of, Description of,
flour,


S
Salad, Cabbage, Watercress-and-celery, Salmi, Meaning of, Salpicon, Meaning of, Salt
cod, Composition of, -rising bread, Salts, Mineral, Purpose of mineral, Sauce, Cream,
for orange fluff, for peas, piquante, Meaning of, Meaning of tartare, Meaning of
vinaigrette, Sauted corn-meal mush, Sauteing, Savoury rice, Scales, Score card,
Explanation of, Scoring bread, bread, Object of, Scouring of flour, Scrambled eggs,
Second-grade patent flour, Selection and care of cereals, of flour, of food,
Semiperishable foods, Storing of, Semolina, Serving bread, cereals, hot breads, Setting a
cereal or grain, Shallot, Meaning of, Shaping bread dough into loaves, Shelled bean,
Composition of fresh, Sifting of food ingredients, Simmering, or stewing, Sizes of coal,
Skim milk, Composition of, Small electric utensils, Smoked ham, Composition of,
herring, Composition of, Soda and cream of tartar, Soda and molasses, and sour milk,
Soft dough, gingerbread, Softening hard water, Soluble starch, Sorbet, Meaning of,
Souffle, Meaning of, Farina, Sour milk, Soda and, milk griddle cakes, Southern corn
cake, Soy, Meaning of, Spaghetti, with cheese and tomato sauce, Spanish rice, Sponge
method of making bread, Long-process, method of making bread, Quick-process,
Spoons, Measuring, Spring, or hard, wheat, or hard, wheat, Flour made from, Sprouts,
Malt, Starch, Steak, Composition of beef, Steamed rice, Steamer, Steaming, Dry, rice,
Steel-and-iron cooking utensils, Sterilize water, Boiling to, Sterilizing, Stewing or
simmering, Stick candy, Composition of, Stiff dough, Stirring of food ingredients, Stock,
Meaning of, Storing food in cellars, of non-perishable foods, of semiperishable foods,
Stove ash pan, Coal-, ash pit, Coal-, Coal, dampers, Coal-, flue opening, Coal-, oven,
Coal-, Stoves and utensils, Electric, Fireless-cooking gas, Operation of kerosene,
Principle of, Straight-dough method of bread making, -dough method of bread making,
Long-process, -dough method of bread making, Quick-process, Strawberry,
Composition of, String bean, Composition of green, Structure and varieties of rice, of



                                                                                         213
wheat grain, Substances, Food, Suet, Composition of beef, Sugar, Composition of,
Composition of maple, Sultanas, Meaning of, Sweet buns, corn,


T
Table, COOKING time, of grain products, showing composition of cereals, Tables of
relative weights and measures, of weights and measures, Tarragon, Meaning of,
Tartare sauce, Meaning of, Temperature, Determining and regulating oven, for bread
rising, for hot breads, Correct oven, Terms used in COOKING, Testing baked hot-
bread mixture, Thick batter, Thin batter, Timbale, Meaning of, Time for baking and
care of bread in oven, required for bread rising, table, COOKING, Tin cooking utensils,
Toast, Buttered, French, Milk, Toasted Bread, Composition of, Toasting, Troy weight,
Truffles, Meaning of,


U
Utensils, Aluminum cooking, and their use, Hot-bread, Copper cooking, Earthenware
cooking, Enamel cooking, for baking the hot-bread mixture, for bread making, for
cooking, for furnishing a kitchen, for preparing hot bread mixture, Glass cooking,
Importance of, Iron and steel cooking, Materials used for, Small electric, Tin cooking,
Wooden cooking,


V
Value, Food, Food, or fuel, of cereals, Economic, of gas as fuel, Vanilla, Meaning of,
Varieties and composition of oats, and structure of rice, of coal, of Italian pastes, of
mixtures used in hot breads, Variety of foods, Importance of a, Vermicelli, Vinaigrette
sauce, Meaning of, Vol au vent, Meaning of,


W
Waffle irons, Waffles, procedure in baking, Rice, Walnut, Composition of, Waste and
refuse, Distinction between, Definition of, Water as a food substance, Boiling to
sterilize, How to soften hard, in cereals, in the body, Function of, Watercress-and-celery
salad, Weight, Avoirdupois, Troy, Weights and measures, Tables of, and measures, Tables
of relative, Wheat, and wheat products, Recipes for, Beech, bread, Composition of
whole, cereals, Left-over, Composition of, Cracked, Cream of, flour, Milling of, grain,
Structure of, grits, Hulled, Hulled, or whole, Origin and use of, products, Recipes for,
Spring, or hard, Winter, or soft, White bread, bread, Long process of making, bread,
Quick process of making, of egg, Composition of, Whole egg, Composition of, milk,
Composition of, -wheat bread, Whole-wheat bread, Composition of, -wheat bread, Quick
process of making, -wheat flour, -wheat fruit bread, -wheat puffs, -wheat rolls, Window
boxes, Winter, or soft, wheat, Wooden cooking utensils, Work, Order of,


Y
Yeast, Action of, Yeast aids, and hot breads, Distinction between, Commercial,
Compressed, Dry, Liquid, Moist, or leavened, bread, Quality of, Yeasts, Yolk of egg,
Composition of,

214
Z
Zwieback,




            215
VOLUME TWO




216
MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE EGGS
VEGETABLES




                                217
PREFACE
This volume, which is the second of the Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, deals
with such essentials of diet as the dairy products—milk, butter, and cheese—the
protein food, eggs, and the energy-producing nutrients, vegetables.
In Milk, Butter, and Cheese, Parts 1 and 2, are explained the place that milk occupies in
the diet, its composition, grades, and the dishes for which it is used; the purchase,
care, and use of butter and butter substitutes; and the characteristics, care, and varieties
of both domestic and imported cheeses, as well as a number of excellent recipes for
cheese dishes. A luncheon menu, in which a cheese dish is substituted for meat, is of
interest in this connection, for it shows the housewife, early in her studies, not only how
to combine dishes to produce a balanced meal, but also how to make up a menu in which
meat is not needed.
In Eggs are discussed the nutritive value of eggs, the ways in which to select, preserve,
cook, and serve them, and how to utilize left-over eggs. So many uses have eggs in the diet
and so nourishing is this food that too much attention cannot be paid to its preparation. In
this lesson, also, is given a breakfast menu to afford practice in preparing several simple
dishes usually served in this meal.
In Vegetables, Parts 1 and 2, every variety of vegetable is discussed as to food value,
preparation, place in the meal, and proper methods of serving. With such a fund of
knowledge, the housewife will be well equipped to give pleasing variety to her meals.
In addition to the instruction in these matters, there are many recipes showing certain
steps as well as the finished result. With such detailed information, it is our desire that as
many of the recipes as possible be tried, for it is only through constant practice that
the rules and principles of cookery will become thoroughly instilled in the mind.
Nothing is of more value to the housewife than such a knowledge of food and its
preparation, for, as every one knows, proper diet is the chief requisite of good health.
To be of the greatest assistance to the woman in the home is the purpose of these
volumes—to relieve her household tasks of much of their drudgery and to help her come
to a realization of the opportunity for good that is hers. In no better way can she create
happiness and contentment in her home than by preparing appetizing, nutritious meals
and serving them in the most attractive manner.




CONTENTS
MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE Milk in the Diet Composition of Milk Products
Obtained from Milk Characteristics of Wholesome Milk Grades of Clean Milk Preserved
Milk Milk in the Home Recipes for Milk Dishes and Sauces Economical Use of
Butter Flavor and Composition of Butter Purchase and Care of Butter Cooking With
Butter Serving Butter Butter Substitutes Characteristics and Care of Cheese Imported
Cheese Domestic Cheese Serving Cheese Recipes for Cheese Dishes Luncheon Menu
EGGS Description of Eggs and Place in the Diet Nutritive Value of Eggs Selection of
Eggs Preservation of Eggs Cooking of Eggs Serving of Eggs Egg Recipes Use of Left-
Over Eggs Breakfast Menu
VEGETABLES Variety in Vegetables Structure, Composition, and
Food Value Purchase and Care of Vegetables Classification of
Vegetables Methods of Preparing and Cooking Vegetables Sauces for

218
Vegetables Asparagus and Its Preparation Beans and Their Preparation
Beets and Their Preparation Brussels Sprouts and Their Preparation
Cabbage and Its Preparation Carrots and Their Preparation Cauliflower
and Its Preparation Celery and Its Preparation Corn and Its
Preparation Cucumbers and Their Preparation Eggplant and Its
Preparation French Artichokes and Their Preparation Greens and
Their Preparation Jerusalem Artichokes and Their Preparation Kohlrabi
and Its Preparation Lentils and Their Preparation Mushrooms and Their
Preparation Okra and Its Preparation Onions and Their Preparation
Parsnips and Their Preparation Peas and Their Preparation Peppers
and Their Preparation White Potatoes and Their Preparation Sweet
Potatoes and Their Preparation Radishes and Their Preparation
Salsify and Its Preparation Squash and Its Preparation Tomatoes and
Their Preparation Turnips and Their Preparation Vegetable Combinations
Serving Vegetables


    *     *    *     *     *




MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 1)


    *     *    *     *     *


MILK
MILK IN THE DIET
493.1. As is well understood, milk is the liquid that is secreted by the
    mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their
    young. The word milk as it is commonly used, however, refers to
    cow’s milk, because such milk is employed to a greater extent as
    human food than the milk from any other animal. Cow’s milk in its
    perfectly fresh raw state is a yellowish-white, opaque fluid, called
    whole milk, and, as is well known, possesses a distinctly sweet taste
    and characteristic odor. When such milk is allowed to stand for some
    time without being disturbed, it separates into two distinct layers, an
    upper and a lower one. The upper layer, which is lighter than the
    lower one and occupies a smaller space, consists largely of globules
    of fat and is called cream; the lower layer, which is white or bluish-


                                                                       219
      white in color and is composed of water, solids, and protein, is,
      when separated from the cream, called skim milk.
494.2. As an article of diet, milk is very important, because its sole
    function in nature is to serve as food. It is required by the infant; it is
    needed in the diet of all growing children; and it is desirable in the
    preparation of dishes for both young and old.


      Milk is used to such a great extent because it fills many of the
      requirements of an ideal food. It is generally liked, requires little or
      no time for preparation, agrees with the majority of persons when
      used properly, and contains substances that supply energy and build
      and repair tissue. Still, it does not contain these substances in such
      proportions as to make it an ideal or exclusive article of diet for
      adults, and it must often be modified to suit the needs of infants,
      because it is ideal for only the young of the species for which it is
      intended. Therefore, while milk is often called a perfect food, in
      reality it is perfect for only the calf. When it is desired for the feeding
      of a very young child, it must be changed to meet the requirements
      before it can be used with good results.
495.3. So important is milk as an article of food that, outside of the
    purely rural districts, producing the milk supply is a business of
    considerable importance. This is due to the fact that the purity of
    milk must be constantly safeguarded in order that clean, safe milk
    may be provided for the countless numbers that depend on it. In
    fact, milk undoubtedly bears a closer relation to public health than
    any other food. To produce an adequate amount of clean, safe, pure
    milk is one of the food problems of the city and country alike. In the
    city much of the difficulty is overcome by the ordinances that
    provide standards of composition and cleanliness, as well as
    inspection to insure them; but such ordinances are rarely provided
    for in villages and country districts.


      When there is no law to prevent it, unclean milk is sometimes used in
      the manufacture of butter and cheese, but when this happens, great
      injustice, if not positive harm, is done to the consumers of these
      articles. Then, too, unless milk is carefully inspected, tubercular milk
      is liable to be used in the making of butter, and such a condition
      will cause the spreading of tuberculosis as readily as the use of the
      contaminated milk itself.



220
496.4. With its various products, milk helps to form a very large part of
    the dietary in most homes, but while nothing can take the place of
    this food and while it is high in food value, there seems to be a
    general tendency to think of it as an addition to the bill of fare,
    rather than as a possible substitute for more expensive food. For
    instance, milk is very often served as a beverage in a meal in which
    the quantity of meat or other protein foods is not reduced. From an
    economical standpoint, as well as from the point of view of the
    needs of the body, this is really extravagant, for milk is itself largely
    a protein food. The serving of a glass of milk or of a dish that
    contains generous quantities of milk offers the housewife an
    opportunity to cut down considerably the allowance of meat and
    eggs. Because of this fact and because milk and its products may be
    used to add nutritive value to a food, to give variety, and to
    improve flavor, they deserve considerable study on the part of
    the housewife.
497.5. Since milk may be used in such a variety of ways, it may be
    easily included in the dietary for the family. Being liquid in form, it
    may always be served without any preparation as a beverage or
    with other beverages, cereals, and fruits. It also has numerous
    other uses, being employed in the making of sauces for vegetables
    and meats, in the place of stock for soups, and as the liquid for
    bread, cakes, puddings, custards, and many frozen desserts. Because
    of its extensive use, every housewife not only should know how to
    buy milk and care for it, but should be familiar with its
    composition, so that she may determine whether or not it suits the
    needs of her family. In addition, she should know the effect of heat
    on milk and the various methods of preparation if she would be able
    to judge what food combinations can be used with milk.



    COMPOSITION OF MILK
498.6. As milk is usually taken into the body in liquid form, the
    common tendency is to regard it as a beverage, rather than as an
    important source of nourishing food material. However, a knowledge
    of its composition, as well as the fact that milk becomes a solid
    food in the stomach and must then be dissolved in the process of
    digestion, will serve to show that milk contains solids. That it
    possesses all the elements required to sustain life and promote
    health is proved by the fact that a child may live for months on milk
    alone and during this time increase in weight.

                                                                         221
499.7. The solids contained in milk are proteins, fat, carbohydrate in
    the form of sugar, and mineral salts, besides which, of course, water
    occurs in large quantities. The sugar and fat of milk serve as fuel; the
    mineral salts are chiefly valuable for the growth of bones and teeth
    and for their effect on the liquids of the body; and the proteins,
    like the fat and sugar, serve as fuel, but they also make and repair the
    muscular tissues of the body.


      In considering the food substances of milk, it will be well to note
      also that they vary according to the breed, feeding, and
      individual characteristics of the cow. Jerseys and Guernseys give
      milk rich in fat and total solids, and while Holstein cows give a
      greater quantity of milk, such milk has a smaller proportion of fat
      and total solids. As a rule, though, the composition of milk may be
      considered as approximately 3.3 per cent. protein, 4 per cent. fat, 5
      per cent. carbohydrate, and .7 per cent. mineral matter, making a total
      of 13 per cent. This indicates the quantity of actual food material in
      milk, the remainder, or 87 per cent., being water.
500.8. PROTEIN IN MILK.—Because of the double usefulness of
    protein—to serve as fuel and to make and repair muscular tissue—
    this element is regarded as an important ingredient of milk. The
    protein in milk is called casein. The opaque whiteness of milk is
    largely due to the presence of this substance. As long as milk
    remains sweet, the lime salts it contains hold this casein in solution;
    but when it sours, the salts are made soluble and the casein thickens,
    or coagulates. In addition to casein, milk contains a small amount of
    protein in the form of albumin. This substance, upon being heated,
    coagulates and causes the formation of the skin that is always
    found on the top of milk that has been heated. The skin thus
    formed contains everything that is found in milk, because, as it forms,
    casein is dried with it and sugar and fat, too, are caught and held
    there. It is the protein of milk and its characteristic coagulation that
    are made use of in the making of cheese. In cooking, the protein of
    milk is probably more affected than any of the other substances, but
    the degree to which the digestion of milk is thus affected is not
    definitely known, this being a much disputed question.
501.9. FAT IN MILK.—The other substance in milk that serves as
    fuel, or to produce energy, is fat. It occurs in the form of tiny
    particles, each surrounded by a thin covering and suspended in the
    liquid. Such a mixture, which is called an emulsion, is the most easily
    digested form in which fat is found. The fat in milk varies more than


222
    the other food substances, it being sometimes as low as 2 per cent,
    and again as high as 6 per cent. However, the average of these two,
    or 4 per cent., is the usual amount found in most milk.


    As has been mentioned, the fat globules of milk rise to the top
    because fat is lighter than water, so that when milk has been
    undisturbed for some time the top, which is known as cream, will be
    found to contain most of the fat. Because of the fat it contains, the
    cream is yellower in color than the milk underneath. If the cream is
    beaten, or churned, these fat particles will adhere in a mass,
    advantage of this fact being taken in the making of butter.
502.10. CARBOHYDRATE IN MILK.—The carbohydrate contained
    in milk is in the form of sugar called lactose. It is unlike other sugars
    in that it is not very sweet and does not disagree with most
    persons nor upset their digestion. For this reason, it is often given
    to children, invalids, and persons who have digestive disturbances.
    However, it is like other carbohydrates in that in solution it
    ferments. The result of the fermentation in this case is the
    production of lactic acid, which makes the milk sour. With the fat,
    lactose makes up the bulk of the energy producing material of
    milk, and while this is important it is only secondary when
    compared to the tissue-building power of the protein and minerals.
    Besides being an important part of milk itself, lactose is a valuable
    by-product in the manufacture of cheese. After being taken from
    whey, which is the clear, straw-colored liquid that remains when the
    curd, or coagulated portion, is completely removed from the milk, the
    lactose is refined and sold in the form of a powder that is used for
    various kinds of infant and invalid feeding.
503.11. MINERAL MATTER IN MILK.—Considerable quantities of
    mineral salts, which are chiefly lime, potash, and phosphates, are
    found in milk. As has already been pointed out, these are important
    in the building of bone and hard tissue in the body, but in addition
    they help to keep the fluids of the body in the right condition.
    Because of the work they do, these mineral salts are necessary in
    the building of the bodies of growing children, and are useful for
    repair and the regulation of the body processes in adults. In cheese,
    butter, and cream, which are the products of milk, less of the mineral
    salts are found in proportion to the quantity than in whole milk, skim
    milk, and whey.
504.12. WATER IN MILK.—The percentage of water in milk is much
    greater than that of all the other food substances combined, there

                                                                         223
      being more than six times as much. While this quantity seems very
      large, it is an advantage, for milk provides nourishment to persons
      when they can take neither solid nor more condensed food. On the
      other hand, the water is a disadvantage, for it is responsible for the
      rapid spoiling of milk. This fact is clearly shown in the case of
      condensed milk, where the water is partly or completely
      evaporated, for milk of this kind keeps much longer without
      spoiling than either whole or skim milk.



      PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM MILK
505.13. Although milk is used extensively in its natural liquid form,
    considerable use is also made of the numerous products of milk,
    chief among which are cream, skim milk, buttermilk, sour milk, whey,
    butter, and cheese. In fact, all of these occupy such an important
    place in the dietary of the majority of homes that it is well for every
    housewife to understand their value. Butter and cheese are discussed
    in detail later, so that at this time no attention need be given to
    them. The other products, however, are taken up now, with the
    intention of enabling the housewife to familiarize herself with their
    production, nature, and use.
506.14. CREAM.—As has been pointed out, the particles of fat that rise
    to the top of milk when it is allowed to remain undisturbed for some
    time form the product known as cream. Cream may be removed from
    the milk by skimming it off, or it may be separated from the milk
    by means of machinery especially designed for the purpose. The
    greater the proportion of fat in milk, the thicker, or “heavier,” will be
    the cream.


      Various grades of separated cream are placed on the market, the usual
      ones being those which contain 8, 12, 16, 20, and 40 per cent, of
      fat. Thin cream, which includes the grades that have only a small
      percentage of fat, contains a larger quantity of milk than the others
      and is not so desirable for many purposes. Still, it is used to some
      extent, because it is cheaper and there are definite uses to which it can
      be put. Medium-heavy cream is the kind to select when it is desired
      for whipping. This is a process that consists in beating the cream
      rapidly until a mass of tiny bubbles form and become stiff, very
      much as the white of egg does.



224
507.15. SKIM MILK.—After a part or all of the cream has been
    removed from whole milk, that which remains is called skim milk.
    While practically all of the fat is taken out when milk is skimmed,
    very little protein or sugar is removed. Therefore, skim milk is still a
    valuable food, it being used to a large extent for cheese making,
    for the manufacture of certain commercial foods, and for the
    feeding of animals. The housewife does not, as a rule, buy skim milk;
    indeed, in some localities the laws prevent its sale because it is
    considered an adulterated food. However, it is really a wholesome,
    valuable food that is cheaper than whole milk, and its use in the
    home should therefore be encouraged from an economical
    standpoint. Here it may be used in the preparation of many dishes,
    such as sauces, cakes, biscuits, muffins, griddle cakes, bread, etc., in
    which butter or other fats are used, and in custards, puddings, ices,
    and numerous other desserts.
508.16. BUTTERMILK.—The milk that remains in butter making after
    the butter fat has been removed from cream by churning is
    known by the name buttermilk. Such milk is similar to skim milk in
    composition, and unless butter is made of sweet cream, buttermilk
    is sour. Buttermilk is used considerably as a beverage, but besides
    this use there are numerous ways in which it may be employed in the
    preparation of foods, as is pointed out in various recipes. An
    advantage of buttermilk is that its cost is less than that of whole
    milk, so that the housewife will do well to make use of it in the
    preparation of those foods in which it produces satisfactory results.
509.17. ARTIFICIAL BUTTERMILK.—Several kinds of sour milk
    that are called buttermilk are to be had, particularly at soda fountains
    and restaurants. While they are similar to buttermilk they are not the
    same, because they are produced artificially from whole or
    skimmed sweet milk. The usual method employed in the making of
    these artificial buttermilks, as they may well be called, consists in
    adding to sweet milk tablets containing lactic acid or a certain culture
    of bacteria that induce fermentation, very much as yeast does, and
    then keeping it at about body temperature for a number of hours in
    order to allow the milk to thicken and sour. Such milks exert a
    beneficial action in the digestive tract, and their food value, provided
    they are made from whole milk, is just as high as that of the
    original sweet milk. Artificial buttermilks therefore prove a valuable
    source of food supply for persons who find them palatable and who
    do not care for sweet milk. Their food value may be increased by
    adding cream to them.



                                                                        225
510.18. SOUR MILK.—Ordinary milk contains large numbers of
    bacteria that produce fermentation. When it is allowed to stand for
    some time, these bacteria act upon the sugar, or lactose, contained in
    the milk and change it into lactic acid. This acid gives to the milk a
    sour taste and at the same time causes the casein of the milk to
    become a mass known as curd, or clabber. This mass continues to
    grow sour and tough until all the milk sugar is converted into lactic
    acid, so that the longer the milk stands, the more acid it becomes.
    Sour milk, however, is useful in the preparation of various dishes,
    such as hot breads and griddle cakes.




511.19. WHEY.—When the curd is completely removed from milk, as
    in making cheese, a clear, light, yellowish liquid known as whey
    remains. Whey is composed of water, minerals, and milk sugar or
    lactic acid, and is the least valuable part of the milk. The ingenious
    housewife will never be at a loss to make use of this product, for,
    while its food value is slight, the minerals it contains are important
    ones. Whey is sometimes used to furnish the liquid for bread making
    and, in addition, it may be used as a beverage for persons who
    cannot digest food as heavy as milk itself.
512.20. COMPARISON OF FOOD VALUES OF MILK
    PRODUCTS.—So that the housewife may become familiar with the
    food values of milk products, there is here given, in Fig. 1, a
    graphic table for the comparison of such products. Each glass is
    represented as containing approximately 1 pint or 1 pound of the
    milk product, and the figures underneath each indicate the number
    of calories found in the quantity represented. The triangle at the
    side of each indicates the proportion of ash, protein, fat,
    carbohydrate, and water, the percentage composition being given at
    the side. Housewives as a rule fully appreciate the food value that is to
    be found in whole milk and cream, but such products as skim milk,
    buttermilk, and whey are likely to be ignored.



      CHARACTERISTICS OF WHOLESOME MILK
513.21. So far as the housewife is concerned, the qualities that
    characterize wholesome milk are without doubt of great interest. She


226
    may know of what use milk is in the diet and the food substances of
    which it is composed, but unless she understands just what
    constitutes milk of good quality, as well as the nature of inferior
    milk, she cannot very well provide her family with the kind it
    should have. Therefore, to assist her in this matter, the
    characteristics of wholesome milk are here discussed. Such milk, it
    will be well to note, must be of the right composition, must not be
    adulterated, must be fresh—that is, not older when delivered than is
    permitted by law—and must be as clean as possible.
514.22. STANDARD OF MILK COMPOSITION.—The housewife
    usually judges the quality of milk by the amount of cream that rises
    to the top when milk in a bottle is allowed to remain undisturbed for
    some time. This is really an excellent test, because milk that contains
    only a small amount of cream is of poorer quality than that which
    contains a larger amount; in other words, the more cream milk
    contains, the higher will be its food value and the greater its energy-
    producing ability. Then, too, milk that is rich in cream usually
    contains proportionately large amounts of protein and sugar.


    While the composition of milk has much to do with the quality of
    this food, it varies, as should be noted, in different breeds and
    even in individual cows, depending on both the food and the care
    given to them. For this reason, milk that is mixed is preferable to the
    milk of a single cow, as the mixing of the milk of a number of
    cows insures a better average composition.
515.23. ADULTERATION OF MILK.—The composition of milk, and
    hence its quality, is seriously affected by its adulteration. By this is
    meant the extraction of any of the food substances from whole milk;
    the addition of anything that tends to weaken or lower its quality or
    strength; the use of coloring matter to make it appear of greater value
    than it actually is; or the use of preservatives to prevent it from
    souring as soon as it ordinarily would. It is, of course, illegal to
    adulterate milk, yet it is sometimes done. The most convenient and
    possibly the most common materials used to adulterate milk are
    water and skim milk. The addition of water to milk decreases the
    quantity of all its food substances, but the addition of skim milk
    reduces the quantity of fat only. The color of the milk is often
    affected by the use of these adulterants, but when this happens,
    yellow coloring is usually added to restore the original appearance.




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      Sometimes the milk that a dairyman markets contains more fat than
      the law requires; but even such milk cannot legally be skimmed nor
      diluted with skim milk. The only thing that may be done to it is to
      mix it with milk that is low in butter fat and thus obtain a milk that
      will average the legal percentage. For instance, if milk from a dairy
      averages 5 per cent, of butter fat, it may be diluted with milk that
      contains only 3 per cent, of butter fat, because the result of such
      mixing, which will be milk averaging 4 per cent, of this food
      substance, will be the legal standard.
516.24. To prevent milk from souring, dishonest milk dealers often put
    into it such preservatives as soda, borax, and formaldehyde. There is
    no definite way of telling whether or not one of these has been
    used, except by a chemical analysis. However, if milk does not sour
    within a reasonable time when no precautions have been taken to
    keep it sweet, it should be looked on with suspicion, for it
    undoubtedly contains a preservative.
517.25. FRESHNESS OF MILK.—To be most satisfactory for all
    purposes, milk should be absolutely fresh. However, it is almost
    impossible to obtain milk in this condition, because it is generally
    sold at a distance from the source of supply. Milk that is sold in
    small towns and cities is usually 12 and often 18 to 21 hours old
    when it is delivered; whereas, in large cities, where the demand is so
    great that milk must be shipped from great distances, it is often 24 to
    36 or even 48 hours old when it reaches the consumer. In order that
    milk may remain sweet long enough to permit it to be delivered at
    places so far removed from the source of supply, it must be handled
    and cared for in the cleanest possible way by the dealers. Likewise, if
    the housewife desires to get the best results from it, she must follow
    the same plan, cooling it immediately on delivery and keeping it cool
    until it is consumed. The freshness of milk can be determined only by
    the length of time it will remain sweet when proper care is given to
    it.
518.26. CLEANLINESS OF MILK.—Milk may be of the right
    composition, free from all adulteration, and as fresh as it is possible
    to obtain it, but unless it is clean, it is an injurious food. Milk is
    rendered unclean or impure by dirt. In reality, there are two kinds of
    dirt that may be present in milk, and it is important to know just
    what these are and what effect they have on milk.
519.27. The less harmful of the two kinds of dirt is the visible dirt that
    gets into the milk from the cow, the stable, the milker, the milking
    utensils, and similar sources when these are not scrupulously clean.


228
    If milk containing such dirt is allowed to stand long enough in
    pans or bottles for the heavier particles to settle, it will be found as
    sediment in the bottom of the receptacle. To say the least, the
    presence of such dirt is always disagreeable and frequently produces
    foreign flavors.


    Straining the milk through clean absorbent cotton will reveal the
    presence of such dirt and another kind of dirt that does not show
    through the opaque fluid. This second kind of dirt is generally found
    in milk when the first kind is present in any quantity. It is more
    liable to be harmful than the other, because it enters the milk from
    the water used in cleaning the receptacles or from some contaminated
    source.



520.28. Whenever dirt is present in milk, bacteria are sure to be there;
    and the greater the quantity of dirt the greater will be the
    number of bacteria. Should the housewife desire to compare the
    cleanliness of several lots of milk, she may filter a like quantity from
    each lot, say a quart or a pint, through small disks of absorbent
    cotton. If, after the milk has passed through the cotton disk, very
    little dirt remains on it, as in Fig. 2 (a), the milk may be considered
    as comparatively clean; if the cotton disk appears as in (b), the
    milk may be said to be only slightly dirty; if it appears as in (c),
    the milk is dirty; and if it appears as in (d), the milk is very dirty. Milk
    that leaves a stain like that in (d) contains more bacteria than milk
    that leaves a stain like that in (c), and so on through all the lots of
    milk. Filtering milk in this manner, however, does not indicate
    whether the bacteria are disease producing. Such information can
    be secured only by microscopic examination, and only then by
    persons who have a knowledge of such matters.
521.29. Since, as has been pointed out, bacteria cling to all dirt, the dirt
    that milk contains is one of the causes of souring and putrefaction
    of milk, and may be a cause of disease. Indeed, it is definitely known
    that dirty milk sours much more quickly than does clean milk. Actual
    tests in which clean milk was put in a cool place have proved that it
    will keep for weeks, whereas dirty milk will sour in a day or two,
    especially in warm weather. This information should point out
    clearly to the housewife that it is not merely heat that changes milk
    or causes it to sour. She should understand in addition, that bacteria
    grow and multiply very rapidly when conditions for their growth are

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      provided. These conditions are moisture, warmth, and the right kind
      of food, and as all of these are found in milk, this product is really
      ideal for bacterial development. The only way in which to protect
      milk is to make sure that no bacteria enter it, or, if they do, to make
      it impossible for them to grow. This may be done by keeping the
      milk so cold that they cannot thrive, or by destroying them in various
      ways, which are taken up later.
522.30. In former times, there was not much danger of wide-spread
    disease from the milk supply, for it was cared for almost entirely by
    those who kept a few cows and distributed milk to a small number of
    customers. In fact, it has been only within the past 50 years that
    large quantities of milk are handled by separate dairies and shipped
    great distances from the source of supply and that the distribution of
    milk has become a great industry. When so much milk is handled in
    one place, it is more or less unsafe unless the dairy is kept extremely
    clean and is conducted in the most sanitary manner. Experience
    has shown that too much attention cannot be given to the care of
    milk, for the lives of great numbers of children have been sacrificed
    through the carelessness of dairymen and persons selling and
    distributing milk, as well as through the negligence of those who
    handle the milk after it has entered the home. To overcome
    much of this carelessness, both the Federal Government and the
    various states of this country have set standards for safe milk
    production, and in order to make their laws effective have
    established inspection service. Independently of these state and
    national laws, many of the cities, particularly the large ones, have
    made their own standards, which, as a rule, are very rigid. One of the
    usual requirements is to compel each person who wishes to sell milk
    in the city to buy a license, so that the city authorities may keep in
    touch with those handling milk and so that conditions may be
    investigated at any time. In view of the care required of dealers in
    handling milk, the housewife owes it to herself and the members of
    her family to keep the milk in the home in the best possible manner.



      GRADES OF CLEAN MILK
523.31. Ever since milk has come to be a commercial product, authorities
    have been devising ways in which it may be brought to the
    consumer in a condition that will permit it to be used without
    causing ill results. Their efforts have been rewarded to such an extent
    that nowadays consumers have little to fear from the milk they

230
    purchase, provided they get it from dealers who live up to the laws.
    Chief among the different grades of clean milk is certified milk, and
    next in order comes pasteurized milk, followed by sterilized milk.
524.32. CERTIFIED MILK.—The grade of clean milk sold under the
    name of certified milk is simply natural, raw milk that is produced
    and marketed under conditions that permit it to be guaranteed as
    pure, wholesome, and of definite composition. Such milk is
    necessarily higher in price than milk that is less wholesome and
    sanitary, because of the extra cost to the dairyman in meeting the
    requirements that make it possible for him to produce clean milk
    under sanitary conditions. These requirements pertain to the health
    and cleanliness of those who handle the milk, to the health, housing
    condition, and care of the herd and the dairy cows, and to the
    handling and care of milk in the dairy and during transportation
    and delivery. They are usually established and enforced by an
    inspection commission appointed by the city, county, or state in
    which the milk is produced.
525.33. If a little careful thought is given to the milk situation, it will be
    admitted that such precautions are necessary if clean milk is to be
    the result. Such milk cannot be produced if the surroundings are
    dirty, because dust and flies, which are two sources of
    contamination, are practically always present in such places. A stable
    with poor ventilation, without screens to keep out flies, and with
    floors that will not permit of cleaning, but cause filth and refuse to
    accumulate, is sure to contaminate milk that is handled in it. In
    addition, cows that are not well fed, comfortably housed, or
    carefully groomed cannot be expected to give milk of as good
    quality as cows that are properly cared for. Likewise, if the persons
    who do the milking are not clean, the milk is subject to
    contamination from this source.
526.34. All such unfavorable conditions can be remedied, and must be
    in the production of certified milk; but the good accomplished in this
    direction will be lost if the milk is carelessly handled after milking.
    Therefore, in producing certified milk, only the cleanest water
    available is allowed to be used in the dairy. Impure water is a
    common source of the contamination of milk in such places. On
    some farms, the water supply comes from a well that is too near
    the barn or that is too shallow to avoid being made impure by the
    germs that filter into it from the barnyard or a cesspool. If vessels in
    which milk is placed are washed in such water, it is necessary to
    sterilize them by boiling or steaming before milk is put into them,
    in order to kill the germs that come from the water. If such a

                                                                          231
      precaution as this is not observed, the germs will multiply rapidly
      in the milk and, provided they are disease-producing, will make the
      milk extremely dangerous.


      Besides observing the precautions mentioned, it is necessary that
      all utensils used in a dairy, such as pails for milking, strainers,
      containers, etc., be kept scrupulously clean. Likewise, they must
      be sterilized by boiling each time they are used, for, while disease
      germs may be absent, those which cause the milk to sour are always
      present and must be destroyed. Finally, to prevent any germs that
      enter milk from multiplying, even when it is properly cared for, the
      milk has to be cooled to a temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit or
      lower immediately after milking and then bottled in sterilized bottles,
      sealed, and packed in ice, within 20 minutes after milking.
527.35. It is by giving attention to all such matters that certified milk is
    possible. Such milk, as will be understood from what has been said,
    is neither a cooked milk nor a dirty milk that is processed, but a
    natural, raw milk that is clean at all stages of its production and
    marketing. Because of this fact, it is the best and cleanest milk to be
    had and may be used without hesitation, not only by grown persons
    in good health, but for infants and invalids.


      The sanitary condition of certified milk and the consequent length of
      time it will remain sweet was demonstrated conclusively as far back as
      1900 at the Paris Exposition. At this time, two model dairies in
      the United States—one located at the University of Illinois and
      the other at Briarcliff Manor, Westchester County, New York—
      delivered to their booths at the Exposition milk that was bottled
      under the most sanitary conditions at their dairies. During its transit
      across the ocean the milk was kept at a temperature of 40 to 42
      degrees Fahrenheit, and on its arrival, 2 weeks after leaving the
      dairies, it was found to be in a perfectly sweet condition. Similar
      experiments made at later dates, such as shipping certified milk
      from the East to California, serve to bear out the test made in
      1900, and prove what can be done with milk so produced as to be as
      free as possible from bacteria or the conditions that permit their
      growth.
528.36. PASTEURIZED MILK.—While certified milk is undoubtedly
    the safest kind of milk to use and is constantly growing in favor,
    much of the milk received in the home is pasteurized. By
    pasteurized milk is meant milk that has been heated to a temperature

232
    of 140 to 155 degrees Fahrenheit, kept at this temperature for 15 to
    20 minutes, and then cooled rapidly. The result of such a treatment
    is that any disease-producing germs that are present in the milk, as
    well as those which are likely to cause intestinal disturbances, are
    destroyed, and that the milk is rendered safe as food for a time.
    Pasteurizing does not materially change the taste of milk, nor does it
    seriously affect the digestive properties of this food. It is true, of
    course, that pasteurized milk is not so good as clean raw milk. Still it
    is better to use such milk than to run the risk of using milk that
    might be contaminated with the germs of tuberculosis, typhoid
    fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or any other of the numerous
    diseases that have been known to be carried to whole families and
    communities through the milk supply.
529.37. Although pasteurizing is done on a large scale in dairies, there is
    no reason why the housewife cannot pasteurize the milk she buys,
    provided it is raw milk and she feels that it is not safe to use. If
    pasteurizing is to be done frequently and large quantities of milk are
    to be treated, it would be advisable to purchase the convenient
    apparatus that is to be had. However, if only a small quantity of milk
    is to be pasteurized at a time, a simple improvised outfit will
    prove satisfactory, because milk pasteurized in the home may be
    heated in the bottles in which it is received. Such an outfit consists
    of a dairy thermometer, a deep vessel, and a perforated pie tin or a
    wire rack of suitable size.
530.38. To pasteurize milk in the home, Place the rack or invert the
    perforated pie tin in the bottom of the vessel, and on it place the
    bottles of milk from which the caps have not been removed. Make
    a hole through the cap of one bottle, and insert the thermometer
    into the milk through this hole. Then fill the vessel with cold water to
    within an inch or so of the top of the bottles, taking care not to put
    in so much water as to make the bottles float. Place the vessel over
    the fire, heat it until the thermometer in the bottle registers a few
    degrees over 150 degrees Fahrenheit, and keep the milk at this
    temperature for 15 to 20 minutes. At the end of this time, the
    milk will be sufficiently pasteurized and may be removed from the
    fire. As soon as it is taken from the water, cool it as rapidly as
    possible by running cold water into the vessel slowly or by placing
    the bottles in several changes of water, taking care not to place the
    hot bottles in very cold water at first, as this may cause them to
    crack.




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      When the milk has been cooled by some rapid method, keep it cool
      until it is used. This precaution is necessary because of the nature of
      pasteurized milk. The temperature at which milk is pasteurized is
      sufficient to kill all fully developed bacteria, but those which exist
      in an undeveloped state, or in the form of spores, develop very
      rapidly after pasteurization unless the milk is kept cold and clean. If
      these bacteria were allowed to develop, the purpose of pasteurization
      would be lost, and the milk would become as dangerous as it was
      originally.


531.39. STERILIZED MILK.—By sterilized milk is meant milk in which
    all germs are destroyed by sterilization. Such milk is not sold by
    dealers, but the process of sterilization is resorted to in the home
    when pasteurization is not sufficient to render milk safe. This
    process, which is the only positive means of destroying all germs,
    consists in bringing the milk to the boiling point, or 212 degrees
    Fahrenheit, allowing it to boil for three quarters of an hour, and then
    cooling it rapidly. One who undertakes to treat milk in this way
    should remember that it is difficult to boil milk, because the solids in
    the milk adhere to the bottom and sides of the vessel and soon
    burn. However, this difficulty can be overcome by sterilizing the
    milk in the bottles in which it is bought.
532.40. To sterilize milk, place the sealed bottles on a wire rack or a
    perforated pie tin in a deep vessel, as for the pasteurizing of milk,
    and pour cold water into the vessel until it nearly covers the bottles.
    Then raise the temperature of the water quickly to the boiling point,
    and after it has begun to bubble, allow it to boil for three quarters of
    an hour. At the end of this time, cool the milk rapidly and then keep
    it cool until it is used.
533.41. Although milk thus treated becomes safe, sterilization changes
    its flavor and digestibility. If milk of this kind must be used, some raw
    food should be given with it. A diet composed entirely of cooked
    food is not so ideal as one in which some raw food is included,
    because raw foods contain substances that are essential to health.
    The change that takes place in the composition of milk that has been
    sterilized can be easily observed. Such milk on becoming sour does
    not coagulate as does pasteurized or raw milk, owing to the fact that
    the lime salts in the milk are so changed by the high temperature as
    to prevent the thickening process from taking place. Then, too,
    sterilized milk is not likely to become sour even after considerable
    time. Still, such milk is not safe to use except when it is fresh, for


234
    instead of fermenting in the usual way it putrefies and is liable to
    cause such a dangerous sickness as ptomaine poisoning.
534.42. MODIFIED MILK.—For infants who cannot be fed their
    normal diet, cow’s milk must be used as a substitute, but in order to
    make it a more nearly ideal food for them it must usually be
    modified, or changed, by adding other materials. When it is so
    treated, it is known as modified milk. The materials used to modify
    milk are sterile water, lime water, barley water, cream, skim milk, milk
    sugar, or some other easily digested carbohydrate, one of these or
    a combination of them always being employed. The proportion of
    these ingredients to use varies with the age of the child that is to be
    fed and must be constantly changed to meet the child’s
    requirements. In         the production      of modified       milk, a
    physician’s prescription and directions should always be followed
    closely. Only the best quality of milk should be used, and, in
    addition, the greatest care should be taken to have all the bottles,
    utensils, and materials used as clean and sterile as it is possible to
    make them. If such conditions cannot be met, it is advisable to
    pasteurize the modified-milk mixture after the materials have been
    put together.



    PRESERVED MILK
535.43. Besides milk that is commonly sold by dairymen and milk dealers,
    it is possible to buy in the market many grades of so-called
    PRESERVED MILK. Such milk is produced by driving off all or part
    of the water contained in milk, and it is sold as condensed,
    evaporated, and powdered milk. Usually, it is put up in tin cans, and
    while it is not used so extensively as regular milk, many firms are
    engaged in its preparation.
536.44. CONDENSED AND EVAPORATED MILK.—As has just
    been mentioned, condensed and evaporated milk is produced by the
    complete or partial evaporation of the water contained in milk. Such
    milk can be shipped long distances or kept for long periods of
    time, because it does not contain sufficient moisture to permit the
    growth of bacteria. In evaporating milk to produce these preserved
    milks, each gallon is diminished in quantity to about two and one
    quarter pints, the original 87 per cent. of water being reduced to
    about 25 per cent. Therefore, in order to use such milk, sufficient
    water must be added to restore it to its original composition.
    Sometimes comparatively large amounts of cane sugar are added to

                                                                        235
      such milks, which, besides sweetening them, assist in their
      preservation. If cane sugar is not used, the milks are usually made
      sterile in order to prevent them from spoiling.
537.45. POWDERED MILK.—The form of preserved milk known as
    powdered milk is the result of completely evaporating the water in
    milk. Such milk has the appearance of a dry powdered substance. It
    does not spoil easily and is so greatly reduced in quantity that it can be
    conveniently stored. Because of these characteristics, this product,
    for which skim milk is generally used, is extensively manufactured.
    It is used chiefly by bakers and confectioners, and, as in the case
    of evaporated or condensed milk, the water that has been evaporated
    in the powdering process must be supplied when the milk is used.



      STANDARD GRADING OF MILK AND CREAM
538.46. In order that a definite idea may be formed of the sanitary
    and bacteriological standards that are set by milk commissions, there
    are here given, in Table I, the regulations governing the grades and
    designation of milk and cream that may be sold in the city of New
    York. As will be observed from a study of this table, only definite
    grades of milk and cream can be sold in that city; likewise, it must
    conform to certain standards of purity and the producer must handle
    it in such a way that it may be delivered to the consumer in as
    clean and fresh a condition as possible.


      Without doubt, a grading similar to this one will become
      general throughout the United States eventually, for this is the only
      way by which the housewife may know with certainty whether or
      not the milk she purchases is of the right composition and is safe,
      fresh, and sanitary in every respect. The different qualities of milk
      and cream as shown by this grading are, of course, sold at different
      prices, those which require the greatest care and expense in handling
      selling for the highest price.


      MILK IN THE HOME
      PURCHASE OF MILK
539.47. After the housewife has become familiar with the points that
    she should know concerning milk, she will be much better equipped


236
    to purchase milk of the right kind for her home. However, there are
    still some points for her to observe when she is purchasing milk if
    she would supply her family with the best quality of this food.
540.48. In the first place, she should buy milk from a reliable dealer
    who will not object to questioning, and, if possible, she should
    make an investigation of the dairy that supplies the milk that she
    uses. If she cannot investigate the dairy personally, she should at
    least endeavor to obtain information from those who are prepared
    to give it. If she learns that the conditions in the dairy that is
    supplying her with milk are not what they should be, she should try
    to obtain milk from some other source. Of course, she should
    remember that milk of the best and cleanest quality is the highest in
    price, because of the increased cost of production; but it is usually
    advisable to pay the higher price, especially if children are to be fed,
    because cheap milk is liable to be unsafe, at least for any purpose that
    will require it to be served without cooking. Should the income not
    allow the best quality of milk to be used for all purposes, a cheaper
    grade can be used for cooking, but it is always economical to
    purchase the best quality when this food is to be used as a beverage.



541.49. In the next place, the housewife should purchase milk from a
    dealer who delivers cold milk, because, as has been mentioned,
    bacteria multiply rapidly in warm milk. She should also try to
    obtain milk put up in bottles, for such milk has advantages over milk
    dipped from a can in that it does not have the same chance to
    become dirty and it affords a greater opportunity to secure accurate
    measurement. The kind of caps used on milk bottles should also be
    observed. Caps that have to be pried out with a knife or a similar
    utensil are not nearly so satisfactory as those shown in Fig. 5 (a),
    which have small tabs a that permit the cap to be lifted out. In
    addition to the caps, which serve to keep dirt out of the milk and
    permit it to be delivered without being spilled, some dealers use
    covers like that shown in (b). Such covers are held in place by a wire
    and serve further to protect the milk from contamination.


    If milk purchased in bottles is clean, there should be no sediment in
    the bottom of the bottle after it has been allowed to stand for some
    time. Also, if it is fresh, it will not sour quickly after it is delivered, so
    that in case it is properly cared for and sours quickly, it may be
    known to be stale milk. However, if it does not sour in the normal

                                                                              237
      length of time, it should be looked on with suspicion, for, as has been
      pointed out, such milk may have added to it a preservative to
      prevent souring. The housewife may expect milk that is delivered
      cold and is guaranteed to be sanitary and fresh to remain sweet at
      least 24 hours, provided, of course, it is placed in the refrigerator
      immediately upon delivery and kept there until used.


      *     *      *      *      *

REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE GRADES AND DESIGNATION OF MILK
AND CREAM WHICH MAY BE SOLD IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK
The following classifications apply to milk and cream. The regulations regarding
bacterial content and time of delivery shall not apply to sour cream.
Grades of Milk or Cream Sold in the City of New York:
GRADE A Milk or cream (Raw)
Definition: Grade A milk or cream (raw) is milk or cream produced and handled in
accordance with the minimum requirements, rules and regulations as herein set forth.
Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: 1. Only such cows shall be admitted to the
herd as have not reacted to a diagnostic injection of tuberculin and are in good physical
condition. 2. All cows shall be tested with tuberculin and all reacting animals shall be
excluded from the herd.
Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk shall not contain more than 60,000 bacteria per
cubic centimeter, and cream more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when
delivered to the consumer or at any time prior to such delivery.
Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 50, Total 75
Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after production.
Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream shall be delivered
to consumers only in bottles.
Labeling: Outer caps of bottles shall be white and shall contain the words Grade A, Raw,
in black letters in large type, and shall state the name and address of the dealer.
Pasteurization: None.
Milk or cream (Pasteurized)
Definition: Grade A milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream handled and sold by
dealers holding permits therefor from the Board of Health, and produced and handled in
accordance with the requirements, rules, and regulations as herein set forth.
Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but cows must be
healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.
Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk (pasteurized) shall not contain more than 30,000 bacteria
per cubic centimeter and cream (pasteurized) more then 150,000 bacteria per cubic
centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time after pasteurization and prior to



238
such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 200,000 bacteria per cubic
centimeter shall be pasteurized for sale under this designation.
Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 43, Total 68.
Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after pasteurization.
Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream shall be delivered
to the consumer only in bottles.
Labeling: Outer cap of bottles shall be white and contain the word Grade A in black
letters in large type, date and hours between which pasteurization was completed;
place where pasteurization was performed; name of the person, firm, or corporation
offering for sale, selling, or delivering same.
Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been
subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30
minutes.
Grade B Milk or cream (Pasteurized)
Definition: Grade B milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream produced and handled
in accordance with the minimal requirements, rules, and regulations herein set forth
and which has been pasteurized in accordance with the requirements and rules and
regulations of the Department of Health for pasteurization.
Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but cows must be
healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.
Bacterial Contents: No milk under this grade shall contain more than 100,000 bacteria
per cubic centimeter and no claim shall contain more than 500,000 bacteria per cubic
centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at anytime after pasteurization and prior to
such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic
centimeter shall be pasteurized in this city for sale under this designation. No milk
supply averaging more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter shall be pasteurized
outside of the city for sale under this designation.
Necessary Scores: Equip. 20, Meth. 35, Total 55
Time of Delivery: Milk shall be delivered within 36 hours and cream within 48 hours after
pasteurization.
Bottling: May be delivered in cans or bottles.
Labeling: Outer caps of bottles containing milk and tags affixed to cans containing milk
or cream shall be white and marked Grade B in bright green letters in large type, date
pasteurization was completed, place where pasteurization was performed, name of the
person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same. Bottles
containing cream shall be labeled with caps marked Grade B in bright green letters, in
large type and shall give the place and date of bottling and shall give the name of
person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same.
Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been
subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30
minutes.
Grade C Milk or cream (Pasteurized) (For cooking and manufacturing purposes
only.)




                                                                                    239
Definition: Grade C milk or cream is milk or cream not conforming to
the requirements of any of the subdivisions of Grade A or Grade B and
which has been pasteurized according to the requirements and rules
and regulations of the Board of Health or boiled for at least two (2)
minutes.


Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required,
but cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made
annually.


Bacterial Contents: No milk of this grade shall contain more than 300,000
bacteria per cubic centimeter and no cream of this grade show contain
more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter after pasteurization.


Necessary Scores: Score 40


Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 48 hours after pasteurization.


Bottling: May be delivered in the cans only.


Labeling: Tags affixed to cans shall be white and shall be marked in red
with the words, Grade C in large type and “for cooking” in plainly visible
type, and cans and shall have properly sealed metal collars, painted red
on necks.


Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized
as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees
Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes.


NOTE.—Sour milk, buttermilk, sour cream, kumyss, matzoon, zoolac,
and similar products shall not be made from any milk of a less grade than
that designated for Grade B and shall be pasteurized before being put
through the process of souring. Sour cream shall not contained a less
percentage of fats than that designated for cream.




240
No other words than those designated herein shall appear on the label of
any container containing milk or cream or milk or cream products
except the word certified when authorized under the State law.


    *     *     *     *    *



CARE OF MILK
542.50. NECESSITY FOR CARE IN THE HOME.—If milk of good
    quality is bought, and, as has been suggested, this should be done
    whenever it is possible, the next thing to do is to care for it in such a
    way that it may be fed to the family in the same condition as it was
    when delivered. It is, of course, of prime importance that the
    dairyman deliver clean fresh milk, but this is not sufficient; the milk
    must remain in this condition until it is used, and this can occur only
    when the housewife knows how to care for it properly after it enters
    the home. It is possible to make safe milk unsafe and unsafe milk
    positively dangerous unless the housewife understands how to
    care for milk and puts into practice what she knows concerning this
    matter. Indeed, some of the blame laid to the careless handling of
    milk by dairymen really belongs to housewives, for very often they
    do not take care of milk in the right way after delivery. As too much
    attention cannot be given to this matter, explicit directions are here
    outlined, with the idea of assisting the housewife in this matter as
    much as possible.
543.51. KEEPING MILK CLEAN IN THE HOME.—Immediately
    upon delivery, the bottle containing the milk should be placed in the
    coolest place available, never being allowed to stand on the porch in
    the sun or where such animals as cats or dogs may come in contact
    with it. When the milk is to be used, the paper cap should be carefully
    wiped before it is removed from the bottle, so that any dirt that may
    be on top will not fall into the milk. If not all the milk is used and
    the bottle must be returned to the cool place where it is kept, it
    should be covered by means of an inverted drinking glass or, as
    shown in Fig. 6, by a glass or porcelain cover. Such covers, or
    sanitary milk caps, as they are called, are very convenient for this
    purpose and may be purchased at a slight cost.
544.52. Another precaution that should be taken is never to mix stale
    milk with fresh milk, because the entire quantity will become sour in
    the same length of time as the stale milk would. Also, milk that has

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      been poured into a pitcher or any other open vessel and allowed to
      stand exposed to the air for some time should never be put back
      into the bottle with the remaining milk. Such milk is sure to be
      contaminated with the germs that are always present in the dust
      constantly circulating in the air. It is sometimes necessary to keep
      milk in a vessel other than the bottle in which it is delivered. In such
      an event, the vessel that is used should be washed thoroughly, boiled
      in clean water, and cooled before the milk is poured into it.



545.53. Particular care should be taken of the empty milk bottles. They
    should never be used for anything except milk. Before they are
    returned to the dairyman to be used again, they should first be
    rinsed with cold water, then washed thoroughly with hot, soapy
    water, and finally rinsed with hot water. If there is illness in the
    home, the washed bottles should be put into a pan of cool water,
    allowed to come to a boil, and permitted to boil for a few minutes.
    Such attention will free the bottles from any contamination they
    might have received. The dairyman, of course, gives the bottles
    further attention before he uses them again, but the housewife
    should do her part by making sure that they are thoroughly cleansed
    before they are collected by him.
546.54. KEEPING MILK COOL IN THE HOME.—As has been
    pointed out, milk should, upon being received, be kept in the coolest
    place available, which, in the majority of homes at the present time, is
    the refrigerator. In making use of the refrigerator for this purpose,
    the housewife should put into practice what she learned in
    Essentials of Cookery, Part 2, concerning the proper placing of food
    in the refrigerator, remembering that milk should be placed where it
    will remain the coolest and where it is least likely to absorb odors. She
    should also bear in mind that the temperature inside of a refrigerator
    varies with that of the surrounding air. It is because of this fact that
    milk often sours when the temperature is high, as in summer, for
    instance, even though it is kept in the refrigerator.
547.55. In case a refrigerator is not available, it will be necessary to
    resort to other means of keeping milk cool. A cool cellar or
    basement is an excellent substitute, but if milk is kept in either of
    these places, it must be tightly covered. Then, too, the spring house
    with its stream of running water is fully as good as a refrigerator And
    is used extensively in farming districts. But even though a housewife
    has none of these at her disposal, she need not be deprived of fresh

242
    milk, for there are still other ways of keeping milk cool and
    consequently fresh. A very simple way in which to keep milk cool is
    to weight down the bottles in a vessel that is deeper than they are and
    then pour cold water into the vessel until it reaches the top of the
    bottles, replacing the water occasionally as it becomes warm. A still
    better way, however, is to wrap the bottle in a clean towel or piece
    of cotton cloth so that one corner of it is left loose at the top. Then
    place this end in a pan of cold water that stands higher than the
    bottle. Such an arrangement will keep the cloth wet constantly and
    by the evaporation of the water from it will cause the milk to remain
    cool.


    COOKING MILK
548.56. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN COOKING MILK.—
    Because of the nature of milk and its constituents, the cooking of
    this liquid is a little more difficult than would appear at first
    thought. In fact, heating milk to a temperature greater than 155
    degrees Fahrenheit causes several changes to occur in it, one of
    which, the coagulation of the albumin, has already been mentioned.
    As the albumin hardens into the layer that forms on the top of
    boiled milk, a certain amount of fat, sugar, and casein becomes
    entangled in it, and if the coagulated skin is rejected, these food
    substances, in addition to the albumin, are lost. Another change
    that results from boiling is in the fat globules that remain, for
    these separate and exist no longer in the form of cream.
549.57. When milk that is not perfectly fresh is cooked with other
    materials or soups, sauces, and puddings it sometimes curdles. To
    prevent curdling, the milk should be heated as rapidly as possible
    before it is used with the other ingredients. While the separate
    heating of the milk involves a little more work, time may be gained
    by heating the milk while the remaining ingredients are being
    prepared. The curdling of comparatively fresh milk is often caused by
    the addition of salt, especially if the salt is added when the milk is hot.
    However, if a pinch of bicarbonate of soda is added to the milk
    before it is heated, it will not be likely to curdle even though it is not
    absolutely fresh. When tomato is to be used in soup that contains
    milk or cream, curdling can be prevented if the milk or the cream to
    be used is thickened with flour or corn starch or a little soda is
    added to the tomato before the two are mixed. The mixing is
    accomplished by pouring the tomato into the milk instead of the milk
    into the tomato. When acid fruit juices are to be added to milk or


                                                                           243
      cream and the mixture then frozen, curdling can be prevented by
      thoroughly chilling the milk or cream in the freezer can before
      combining it with the juices.
550.58. As has already been learned, great care must be taken in the
    heating of milk, because the solids that it contains adhere quickly to
    the bottom of the pan and cause the milk to scorch. For this
    reason, milk should never be heated directly over the flame unless
    the intention is to boil it, and even if it must be boiled every
    precaution should be taken to prevent it from burning. It should be
    remembered, too, that a very small scorched area will be sufficient to
    make a quantity of milk taste burned. The utensil in which milk can
    be heated in the most satisfactory way is the double boiler, for the
    milk does not come in direct contact with the heat in this utensil. If
    a double boiler is not available, good results can be obtained by
    setting one pan into another that contains water.
551.59. Milk is often used in place of water for cooking cereals,
    beverages, puddings, soups, etc. This is good practice and should
    be followed whenever possible, for when milk is added it serves to
    increase the nutritive value of the food. It should be observed,
    however, that more time is required to cook grains or cereals in milk
    than to cook them in water, because milk contains more solid
    matter than water and is not absorbed so quickly. Another
    frequent use of milk is in breads and biscuits, where, as is
    explained in Bread and Hot Breads, it produces a browner and more
    tender crust than water.
552.60. VARIETY OF WAYS TO USE MILK IN COOKING.—
    Because of the numerous purposes for which milk is required in
    the preparation of foods, the smallest amount of it, whether sweet
    or sour, can be utilized in cooking; therefore, no milk need ever be
    wasted. A few of the uses to which this food is oftenest put are
    mentioned briefly in order that the housewife may be familiar enough
    with them to call them to mind whenever she desires to carry out a
    recipe that calls for milk or when she has occasion to utilize milk that
    she has on hand.


      Milk thickened slightly with flour and flavored with such material
      as corn, asparagus, celery, tomatoes, beans, peas, or fish makes a
      delicious soup. In bisques, or thickened soups, and in chowders,
      the liquid used need not be milk, but these are made very appetizing
      if milk is used for part or all of the liquid. Then, too, sauces or
      gravies made with milk, thickened with flour, and made rich with

244
    butter or other fat lend themselves to a variety of uses. Dice of
    vegetables, meat, fish, or game added to a sauce of this kind and
    served in pastry cases or over toast provide dishes that are
    delightful additions to any meal. Milk is also used as the basis for
    custards, blanc manges, ices, sherbets, ice creams, and tapioca, rice,
    and bread puddings in which eggs, starchy materials, and flavorings
    are added and the mixture then baked, steamed, boiled, or frozen, as
    the desired result may require. As is well known, milk is practically
    indispensable in the making of cakes, cookies, quick breads, and in
    fact nearly all dough mixtures. Even if it has soured, it can be used
    with soda to take the place of cream of tartar in mixtures that are to
    be made light, the lactic acid in the sour milk acting with the soda as
    leavening. Left-over milk in comparatively large quantities may also
    be used in the home for the making of cheese, although this product
    of milk is usually produced commercially.


    RECIPES FOR MILK DISHES AND SAUCES
    FOODS CONTAINING MILK
553.61. From the discussion given up to this point, it will be noted that
    milk is used in a large variety of ways and in the making of numerous
    dishes. However, most of the dishes in which this liquid occurs
    involve other important materials, so that the recipes for them are
    usually listed under some other ingredient or division of cookery. For
    instance, milk is used in the making of ice cream, but as the ice
    creams are included among cold desserts, recipes for them would
    naturally come in the Section pertaining to this subject. Milk is also
    an important ingredient in puddings, but the recipes for such dishes
    are given in the Section in which puddings and their sauces are
    discussed.


    Because of this fact, there are only a few recipes that have milk as
    their basis, and this accounts for the small number of recipes here
    given. Chief among the recipes that involve principally milk are those
    for junket and white sauce, and while the number of these is small
    and the use of the dishes not so general as some kinds of food, just
    as much attention should be given to them as if they occurred in
    greater numbers and were used more commonly. Junket is very
    easily made and should therefore cause the housewife no concern;
    likewise, little difficulty will be experienced if the directions here
    given for white sauces are followed explicitly.


                                                                       245
      RECIPES FOR JUNKET
554.62. Plain Junket.—In the stomachs of all animals that use milk as
    food is found a digestive ferment known as rennin. This is taken from
    the stomachs of calves, made up commercially, and sold in the form
    of tablets called junket. When these tablets are used properly with
    milk, they coagulate the milk and make an excellent dessert that
    resembles custard and that is very easy to digest. Because of its nature
    and qualities, this kind of dessert is used largely for invalids and
    children. The following recipe gives the proportion and directions for
    making this dessert in its simplest form.


      PLAIN JUNKET (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      1 junket tablet 1 Tb. cold water 1 qt. milk 4 Tb. sugar ¼ tsp. salt ½
      tsp. vanilla or other flavoring
      Dissolve the junket tablet in the cold water. Warm the milk very
      slowly to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing the temperature to make
      sure that it is right. If a thermometer is not on hand, this can be
      done by dropping a drop on the back of the hand. When neither heat
      nor cold can be felt from this drop of milk, it may be known to be
      very near the body temperature, the temperature at which rennin is
      active. If temperature is found to be too high, the milk must be
      cooled before the tablet is added. When the desired temperature has
      been reached, add the sugar, the alt, the junket dissolved in the
      water, and the flavoring. Then pour all into individual molds and
      keep it where it will remain warm for about 10 minutes, at the end
      of which it should be firm like a custard and may be cooled. Keep
      the junket cool until it is to be served, when it may be turned out of
      the mold or served in it. As junket will turn to whey if it is broken
      with a spoon to any extent, serving it in the mold is the better plan.



555.63. Junket With. Fruit.—The addition of fruit to junket, makes
    an attractive dessert for both sick and well people. If the fruit used
    is permissible in the diet of an invalid, its combination with junket
    adds variety to the diet. In the making of this dessert, all juice
    should be carefully drained from the fruit before the junket is
    poured over it. Canned or fresh fruits may be used with equally good
    results.

246
    JUNKET WITH FRUIT (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
    1 junket tablet 1 Tb. cold water 1 qt. milk ¼ c. sugar ¼ tsp. salt
    Flavoring 8 halves of canned peaches or 1 c. of berries or small fruit
    Make a junket as directed in the preceding recipe. Drain all juice
    from the fruit and place a half peach or a spoonful of fruit in the
    bottom of each of the eight molds and pour the junket over it to fill
    the mold. Let it solidify and serve cold.
556.64. CHOCOLATE JUNKET.—Chocolate added to plain junket not
    only varies the junket dessert, but also adds food value, since
    chocolate contains a large quantity of fat that is easily digested by
    most persons. Where the flavor of chocolate is found agreeable, such
    junket may be served in place of the plain junket.


    CHOCOLATE JUNKET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 c. milk 2 sq. chocolate 6 Tb. sugar ¾ c. water ¼ tsp. salt ½ tsp.
    vanilla 1 junket tablet
    Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing in the manner
    explained in Art. 62. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan, add to it the
    sugar and 1 cupful of water, and cook until smooth; then cool and
    add to the warm milk, putting in the salt, vanilla, and junket tablet
    dissolved in cupful of the water. Turn the junket into a dish or into
    molds and let stand in a warm place until set; then chill and serve. In
    preparing this recipe, it will be well to note that if sweet chocolate is
    used less sugar than is specified may be employed.
557.65. CARAMEL JUNKET.—In the making of caramel junket,
    browned, or caramelized, sugar and water take the place of part of
    the milk, and while a certain amount of the sugar is reduced in the
    browning, the caramel is still very high in food value and adds
    nutritive material to the dessert. There is nothing about caramel
    junket to prevent its being given to any one able to take plain junket,
    and if it is made correctly it has a very delightful flavor.


    CARAMEL JUNKET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 c.    milk ½ c. sugar ½ c. boiling water ¼ tsp. salt 1 tsp. vanilla
    1      junket tablet Whipped cream ¼ c. chopped nuts



                                                                         247
      Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Caramelize the sugar by
      melting it in a saucepan directly over the flame until it is a light-brown
      color; then stir in the boiling water and cook until the caramel and
      the water become a sirup, after which cool and add to the milk Add
      the salt, the vanilla, and the junket tablet dissolved in a tablespoonful
      of cold water Pour the mixture into a dish, let it stand in a warm
      place until it sets; then chill, cover with sweetened whipped cream,
      sprinkle with chopped nuts, and serve.


      RECIPES FOR WHITE SAUCE
558.66. Three white sauces are commonly used for different purposes,
    and in each one of them milk is the basis. These sauces differ from
    one another in thickness, and include thin white sauce, which is used
    for cream toast and soups; medium white sauce, which is used for
    dressing vegetables and is flavored in various ways to accompany
    meats, patties, or croquettes; and thick white sauce, which is used to
    mix with the materials used for croquettes in order to hold them
    together. To insure the best results, the proportion of flour and
    liquid should be learned for each kind, and to avoid the formation
    of lumps the proper method of mixing should be carefully
    followed out. A white sauce properly made is perfectly smooth, and
    since only little care is needed to produce such a result it is
    inexcusable to serve a lumpy sauce. Also, nothing is more
    disagreeable than thick, pasty sauce, but this can be avoided by
    employing the right proportion of flour and milk. The ingredients
    and their proportions for the various kinds of white sauce are as
    follows:


      THIN WHITE SAUCE
      1 c. milk 1 Tb. butter 1 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt
      MEDIUM WHITE SAUCE
      1 c. milk 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt
      THICK WHITE SAUCE
      1 c. milk 2 Tb. butter ¼ c. (4 Tb.) flour ½ tsp. salt
      It will be easy to remember the proportions for these three sauces if
      it is observed that each one doubles the previous one in the
      quantity of flour used, the thin one having 1 tablespoonful to 1
      cupful of milk, the medium one 2 tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of

248
    milk, and the thick one 4 tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of milk. To
    produce these sauces the ingredients may be combined in three
    different ways, each of which has its advantages. These methods,
    which are here given, should be carefully observed, for they apply
    not only to the making of this particular sauce, but to the combining
    of fat, starch, and liquid in any sauce.
    Method 1.—Heat the milk, being careful that it does not scorch.
    Brown the butter slightly in a saucepan, add the flour and salt, and
    stir the mixture until it is perfectly smooth and has a deep cream
    color. Then add the hot milk gradually, stirring to prevent the
    formation of lumps. Cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent
    the sauce from scorching. Sauce made according to this method
    does not require long cooking because the flour added to the hot fat
    cooks quickly. In fact, it is a very desirable method, for the browned
    butter and the flour lend flavor to the sauce. Many otherwise
    unattractive or rather tasteless foods can be made much more
    appetizing by the addition of white sauce made in this way.
    Method 2.—Put the milk on to heat. While this is heating, stir the
    butter, flour, and salt together until they are soft and well mixed; then
    add the hot milk to them slowly, stirring constantly. Place over the
    heat and finish cooking, or cook in a double boiler. Sauce made by
    this method requires longer cooking than the preceding one and it
    has less flavor.
    Method 3.—Heat the milk, reserving a small portion. Stir the flour
    smooth with the cold milk and add it to the hot milk, stirring rapidly.
    Add the butter and the salt, and continue to stir if cooked over
    the heat; if cooked in a double boiler, stir only until the mixture is
    completely thickened and then continue to cook for 10 or 15
    minutes. When butter is added to the mixture in this way, it is likely
    to float on top, especially if too much is used. A better sauce may be
    made according to this method by using thin cream for the liquid and
    omitting the butter.


MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 1)
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
559.(1) When milk is used in a meal, what kinds of food may be omitted?
560.(2) Name the chief uses of milk in the dietary.
561.(3) Why is it possible for a child to remain in normal condition if
    given only milk for a long period of time?


                                                                         249
562.(4) Name the solids contained in milk and tell for what each one
    is valuable.
563.(5) What causes milk to sour?
564.(6) What are the characteristics of wholesome milk?
565.(7) What is meant by the adulteration of milk?
566.(8) What quality of milk is of the most importance to the health of
    those using milk?
567.(9) (a) Why is dirty milk dangerous? (b) Pour a quart of the milk
    you purchase regularly through a pad of cotton. Note the result and
    report the condition of the milk by comparing the cotton with the
    disks shown in Fig. 2.
568.(10) Name some of the ways in which milk is likely to become
    contaminated.
569.(11) What is the safest kind of market milk to buy?
570.(12) Describe the conditions under which milk of this kind is
    marketed.
571.(13) (a) What is pasteurized milk? (b) What is the purpose of
    pasteurization?
572.(14) How may milk be pasteurized in the home?
573.(15) (a) When should milk be sterilized? (b) What changes take place
    in the sterilization of milk?
574.(16) What points should be considered in the purchase of milk?
575.(17) Why is it necessary to give milk considerable care in the home?
576.(18) Mention the precautions that should be observed in caring for
    milk.
577.(19) (a) How is milk affected by cooking? (b) Describe the best way
    to heat milk.
578.(20) Give the proportions of flour and liquid required in each of
    the three varieties of white sauce.


      *   *    *     *     *




250
BUTTER AND BUTTER SUBSTITUTES (PART 2)


    *     *     *     *     *

BUTTER
579.1. BUTTER is the fatty constituent of milk. It is obtained by
    skimming or separating the cream from milk and churning it in
    order to make the particles of fat adhere to one another. Butter is
    used largely in the household as an article of food, for it is one of the
    most appetizing and digestible forms of fat.


    To supply the demand for butter, it is produced domestically in the
    home and on farms and commercially in dairies and large
    establishments. The principle of all churns used for butter making is
    practically the same. They simply agitate the cream so that the
    butter-fat globules in it are brought together in masses of such size
    as to enable the butter maker to separate them from the buttermilk.
    Butter is seasoned, or salted, to give it a desirable flavor and to
    improve its keeping qualities; it is washed, or worked, in order to
    distribute the salt evenly, to separate from it as much of the curd and
    other non-fatty constituents of the cream as can be conveniently
    removed, to bring it into a compact, waxy mass, and to give it
    texture. The United States authorities have set a standard for the
    composition of butter, which allows this product to contain not more
    than 16 per cent. of water and requires it to have at least 82.5 per
    cent. of butter fat.
580.2. ECONOMICAL USE OF BUTTER.—In the home, butter is
    used on the table and in the cooking of many foods. Hardly any
    article of food has such general use as this one; in fact, a meal is
    usually considered to be incomplete without it, both as an
    accompaniment to bread, rolls, biscuits, or whatever variety of
    these is used, and as an ingredient in the cooking of some foods that
    require fat. But butter is not cheap, so that the wise and economical
    use of this food in the home is a point that should not be
    overlooked by the housewife. This precaution is very important, it
    having been determined that butter, as well as other fats, is wasted to
    a great extent; and still it is true that no other material can be so
    economically utilized. The very smallest amount of any kind of fat
    should be carefully saved, for there are numerous uses to which it
    can be put. Even though it is mixed with other food, it can always be

                                                                         251
      melted out, clarified—that is, freed from foreign substances—and
      then used for some purpose in cooking. The chief way in which
      butter is wasted is in the unnecessary and improper use of it, points
      that a little careful thought will do much to remedy.
581.3. FLAVOR AND COMPOSITION OF BUTTER.—That the
    housewife may have an understanding of the food substances found
    in butter and also learn how to determine the quantity of butter
    needed for her family, she should become familiar with the
    composition of this food. The flavor of butter depends to a great
    extent on the kind of cream from which it is made, both sweet and
    sour cream being used for this purpose. Of these two kinds, sour
    cream is the preferable one, because it gives to the butter a desirable
    flavor. Still, the unsalted butter that is made from sweet cream is
    apparently growing in favor, although it is usually more expensive
    than salted butter. The difference in price is due to the fact that
    unsalted butter spoils readily.
582.4. So far as its food substances are concerned, butter is composed
    largely of fat, but it also contains water, protein in the form of
    casein, and mineral matter. The quantity of water contained in butter
    determines to a large extent the weight of butter, since water is
    heavier than fat; but as only 16 per cent, of water is allowed, butter
    that contains more water than this is considered to be adulterated. As
    very little milk is retained in butter, only a small percentage of
    protein is found in this food. However, a considerable quantity of
    mineral salts are present, and these make it more valuable than most
    of the other fats. Because of the nature of its composition—a very
    high percentage of fat and a low percentage of protein—butter is
    distinctly a fuel food, that is, a heat-producing food. Of course, there
    are cheaper fats, some of which are even better heat producing
    foods than butter, but as their flavor is not especially agreeable to
    some persons, they are not used so extensively.


      In view of the nature of the composition of this food, an ounce of
      butter a day is the average allowance for each person when the diet
      of a family contains meat and such other fats as lard, olive oil, etc.
      At the most, ½ pound of butter should be purchased each week for
      each member of the family for table use, and fats cheaper than
      butter should be used for cooking purposes.
583.5. PURCHASING BUTTER.—As in the case of milk, in order that
    the housewife may judge the quality of the butter she purchases, she
    will do well to look into the cleanliness and sanitary condition of

252
    the dairy that produces it. Too much attention cannot be given to
    this matter, for if cream becomes contaminated from careless
    handling, the same contamination is liable to occur in the butter
    made from it. Butter that is produced in dairies that make large
    quantities of it usually has not much opportunity to become
    contaminated before it reaches the consumer, for it is generally
    pressed into 1-pound prints, and each one of these is then wrapped
    and placed in a paper carton. On the other hand, the farmer and the
    dairyman doing a small business do not find it profitable to install the
    equipment required to put up butter in this way, so they usually pack
    their butter into firkins or crocks or make it into rolls. When such
    butter goes to market, it is generally placed in a refrigerator with
    more butter of the same sort, some of which is good and some
    bad. As butter absorbs any strong odor present in the refrigerator
    and is perhaps cut and weighed in a most unsanitary manner, the
    good becomes contaminated with the bad. While butter of this kind
    is perhaps a few cents cheaper than that which is handled in a more
    sanitary way, it is less desirable, and if possible should be avoided by
    the housewife. In case butter is obtained from a certain farm, the
    conditions on that farm should be looked into for the same reason
    that the conditions in a dairy are investigated.
584.6. To be able to select good butter, the housewife should also be
    familiar with its characteristics. In color, butter to be good should be
    an even yellow, neither too pale nor too bright, and should contain
    no streaks. The light streaks that are sometimes found in butter
    indicate insufficient working. As to odor, butter should be pleasing
    and appetizing, any foreign or strong, disagreeable odor being
    extremely objectionable. Stale butter or that which is improperly
    kept develops an acid called butyric acid, which gives a disagreeable
    odor and flavor to butter and often renders it unfit for use.
585.7. CARE OF BUTTER.—The precautions that the farmer and
    dairyman are called on to observe in the making and handling of
    butter should be continued by the housewife after she purchases
    butter for home use. The chief point for her to remember is that
    butter should be kept as cold as possible, because a low temperature
    prevents it from spoiling, whereas a high one causes it to become
    soft and less appetizing. The most satisfactory place in which to
    keep butter is the refrigerator, where it should be placed in the
    compartment located directly under the ice and in which the milk is
    kept, for here it will not come in contact with foods that might
    impart their flavors to it. Should no refrigerator be available,



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      some other means of keeping butter cold must be resorted to, such
      as a cool cellar or basement or a window box.


      The way in which butter is bought determines to a certain extent
      the method of caring for it. If it is bought in paper cartons, it
      should be rewrapped and replaced in the carton each time some is cut
      off for use. In case it is bought in bulk, it should never be allowed
      to remain in the wooden dish in which it is often sold; rather, it
      should be put into a crock or a jar that can be tightly covered.
586.8. Attention should also be given to butter that is cut from the
    supply for the table or for cooking purposes and that is not entirely
    used. Such butter should never be returned to the original supply, but
    should be kept in a separate receptacle and used for cooking. If it
    contains foreign material, it can be clarified by allowing it to stand
    after it has melted until this has settled and then dipping or pouring
    the clear fat from the top. Butter that has become rancid or has
    developed a bad flavor need not be wasted either, for it can be made
    ready for use in cooking simply by pouring boiling water over it,
    allowing it to cool, and then removing the layer of fat that comes to
    the top. Such butter, of course, cannot be used for serving on the
    table. Still, consideration on the part of the housewife to just such
    matters as these will prevent much of the waste that prevails in the
    household in the use of this food.
587.9. COOKING WITH BUTTER.—While some housewives make
    it a practice to use butter in cooking of all kinds, there are uses in
    which other fats are preferable; or, in case butter is desired, there are
    certain points to be observed in its use. For instance, butter is
    rendered less digestible by cooking it at a high temperature, as in
    frying or sauteing; also, it cannot be used to any extent for the
    frying of foods, as it burns very readily. If it is used for sauteing, the
    dish is made much more expensive than is necessary, so that in most
    cases a cheaper fat should be employed for this purpose. In addition,
    a point to remember is that this fat should not be used to grease the
    pans in which cakes and hot breads are baked unless it is first
    melted, because the milk contained in the butter burns easily; after it
    is melted, only the top fat should be used. When butter is desired for
    very rich cakes and for pastry, it is usually washed in cold water to
    remove the milk. To neutralize the sour milk contained in butter
    that is used for baking purposes, a little soda is sometimes
    employed.



254
    Further economy can be exercised in the use of butter if a little
    thought is given to the matter. For instance, when butter is melted
    and poured over meat or fish that has been broiled or over
    vegetables that have been cooked in a plain way, much of it usually
    remains in the dish and is wasted. Such butter can be utilized again.
    Since butter undergoes a change when it is cooked, it should be
    mixed with cooked foods to flavor them, rather than be subjected to
    the temperature necessary for cooking.
    When butter is used for spreading sandwiches, it usually will be
    found advisable to soften the butter by creaming it with a spoon, but
    it should never be melted for this purpose.
588.10. SERVING BUTTER.—When butter is used for the table, some
    consideration must be given to the serving of it. Probably the most
    usual way of serving butter is to place a slice of it on a plate and then
    pass the plate with a knife to each person at the table. The advantage
    of this method is that each person can take the amount desired and
    thus prevent waste. However, a still more desirable way of serving
    butter that is to be passed is to cut it into small cubes or squares or
    to shape it into small balls and then serve it with a fork or a butter
    knife. To prevent the pieces or balls of butter from melting in warm
    weather, cracked ice may be placed on the butter dish with them.
    Butter cut into cubes or squares may also be served on an individual
    butter dish or an individual bread-and-butter plate placed at each
    person’s place before the meal is served. Whichever plan is adopted,
    any fragments of butter that remain on the plates after a meal
    should be gathered up and used for cooking purposes.



589.11. Butter that comes in pound prints lends itself readily to the
    cutting of small cubes or squares for serving. Such butter may be cut
    by drawing a string through the print or by using a knife whose
    cutting edge is covered with paper, a small piece of the oiled paper
    such as that in which the butter is wrapped answering very well for
    this purpose.


    If butter balls are desired for serving, they may be rolled with butter
    paddles in the manner shown in Fig. 1. To make butter balls, put
    wads of the butter to be used into ice water so as to make them
    hard. Then place each wad between the paddles, as shown, and give
    the paddles a circular motion. After a little practice, it will be a simple

                                                                           255
      matter to make butter balls that will add to the attractiveness of any
      meal. Paddles made especially for this purpose can be purchased in
      all stores that sell kitchen utensils.


590.12. Sometimes, for practical purposes, it is desired to know the
    quantity of butter that is served to each person. In the case of print
    butter, this is a simple matter to determine. First mark the pound
    print in the center in order to divide it in half; after cutting it into two
    pieces, cut each half into two, and finally each fourth into two. With
    the pound print cut into eight pieces, divide and cut each eighth into
    four pieces. As there will be thirty-two small pieces, each one will
    represent one thirty-second of a pound, or ½ ounce.



      BUTTER SUBSTITUTES
591.13. In about the year 1870, through a desire to procure a cheaper
    article than butter for the poorer classes of France, came the
    manufacture of the first substitute for butter. Since that time the use
    of butter substitutes has gradually increased, until at the present time
    millions of pounds are consumed every year. A certain amount of
    prejudice against their use exists, but much of this is unnecessary
    for they are less likely to be contaminated with harmful bacteria
    than the poorer qualities of butter. Then, too, they do not spoil so
    readily, and for this reason they can be handled with greater
    convenience than butter.
592.14. OLEOMARGARINE.—The best substitute for butter and
    the one most largely used is called oleomargarine, which in the
    United States alone constitutes about two and ½ per cent. of all the
    fat used as butter. This fat is called by various other names, such
    as margarine, and butterine, but oleomargarine is the name by
    which the United States authorities recognize the product. It is made
    by churning fats other than butter fat with milk or cream until a
    butterlike consistency is obtained. Originally, pure beef fat was
    employed for this purpose, and while beef fat is used to a great
    extent at present, lard, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, and peanut oil are
    also used. Whatever fats are selected are churned with milk, cream,
    and, for the finest grades, a considerable percentage of the very best
    pure butter. After they are churned, the oleomargarine is worked,
    salted, and packed in the same manner as butter.



256
593.15. The manufacture and sale of butter substitutes are controlled by
    laws that, while they do not specify the kind of fat to be used, state
    that all mixtures of butter with other fats must be sold as
    oleomargarine. They also require that a tax of 10 cents a pound be
    paid on all artificially colored oleomargarine; therefore, while
    coloring matter is used in some cases, this product is usually sold
    without coloring. In such an event, coloring matter is given with
    each pound of oleomargarine that is sold. Before using the
    oleomargarine, this coloring matter is simply worked into the fat until
    it is evenly colored.
594.16. RENOVATED BUTTER.—Another substitute                        that is
    sometimes used to take the place of the best grades of butter is
    renovated, or process, butter. This is obtained by purifying butter
    that is dirty and rancid and that contains all sorts of foreign material
    and then rechurning it with fresh cream or milk. The purifying
    process consists in melting the butter, removing the scum from the
    top, as well as the buttermilk, brine, and foreign materials that
    settle, and then blowing air through the fat to remove any odors
    that it might contain. Butter that is thus purified is replaced on the
    market, but in some states the authorities have seen fit to restrict its
    sale. While such restrictions are without doubt justifiable, it is
    possible to buy butter that is more objectionable than renovated, or
    process, butter, but that has no restriction on it.
595.17. METHOD OF TESTING BUTTER SUBSTITUTES.—Very
    often oleomargarine and process butter bear such a close resemblance
    to genuine butter that it is almost impossible to detect the
    difference. However, there is a simple test by which these substitutes
    can always be distinguished from butter, and this should be applied
    whenever there is any doubt about the matter. To make this test,
    place the fat in a tablespoon or a small dish and heat it directly over
    the flame until it boils, stirring it occasionally to assist in the
    melting. If it is oleomargarine or process butter, it will sputter
    noisily and take on a curdled appearance; whereas, if it is butter, it
    will melt and even boil without sputtering although it foams to a
    certain extent.


    *     *     *    *     *

CHEESE
CHARACTERISTICS AND CARE OF CHEESE



                                                                        257
596.18. ORIGIN, PRODUCTION, AND USE OF CHEESE.—
    Cheese is a product that is manufactured from the solids of milk, and
    it provides a valuable food. The making of cheese was known in
    ancient times, it having probably originated through a desire to utilize
    an oversupply of milk. When cheese was first made, the fact that
    bacteria were present was not known, nor were the reasons for the
    spoiling of milk understood; but it was learned that milk can be kept
    if most of its water is removed. This discovery was very important,
    for it led to various methods of making cheese and proved that
    cheese making was a satisfactory and convenient means of
    storing nourishment in a form that was not bulky and that would
    keep for long periods of time. From a very small beginning, the
    different methods of making cheese became popular, until at the
    present time more than three hundred varieties are made and their
    manufacture forms one of the large industries of the world.


      In the United States, nearly all the cheese used up to about 50 years
      ago was made on farms, and to a great extent by housewives, but
      about that time a factory for the making of this product was started in
      the state of New York, and it proved a profitable enterprise. From
      this beginning, the business of making cheese commercially in this
      country has grown until now cheese is almost entirely a factory-made
      product, in the manufacture of which the states of New York and
      Wisconsin lead.
597.19. In either the commercial or the home production of cheese, skim
    milk with all or part of the cream removed is used for some
    varieties, while whole milk is used for others, the composition
    depending largely on the kind of milk that is employed. Rennet is
    added to the milk to coagulate it, and then the curd, from which
    nearly all the water is removed, is allowed to ripen. To produce
    characteristic odors, flavors, and consistency, various coloring
    and flavoring materials, as well as bacteria, are added to the curd.
    The action of these bacteria is really the chief factor in the making
    of cheese and they are therefore not only desirable but necessary.
    Non-desirable bacteria, however, result in the formation of bad
    odors, flavors, and gases in the finished product and these must be
    carefully guarded against by cheese makers.



598.20. Cheese offers a valuable source of nutriment for the body,
    because its food value ranks high. The food value in 1 pound of

258
    cheese is equivalent to that in 2 pounds of beef, that in 24 eggs, or
    that in 4 pounds of fish. The use of cheese, however, is not nearly
    so great as its food value warrants, the amount used in the United
    States per capita being only about 3-1/2 pounds annually. This is a
    condition that should be overcome, for there is a large variety of
    ways in which cheese can be used to advantage in the diet. When
    eaten raw, it is very appetizing, and when used with soups, sauces,
    and foods that have a bland taste, it lends additional flavor and
    makes an especially attractive dish. In addition, the fact that it is an
    economical food and can be conveniently kept and stored should
    recommend its frequent use.
599.21. COMPOSITION OF CHEESE.—Since cheese is a product of
    milk, it is somewhat similar to milk in composition, but the change
    that occurs in the formation of cheese causes some differences.
    Nearly all the water present in milk is removed during the
    manufacture of cheese, so that this product becomes a concentrated
    food made up of all the nourishment that milk contains except
    small amounts of albumin, milk sugar, and mineral matter. These,
    because they are in solution in the water, are lost when the whey is
    separated from the curd. The food substances that occur in the
    largest amounts are fat and protein in the form of casein, which is
    the tissue building material of milk. Cheese made from milk that
    contains some cream has in it a greater amount of fat than that made
    from completely skimmed milk. Besides these two chief food
    substances, cheese contains a small amount of milk sugar, mineral
    matter, and water.
600.22. On account of the large quantity of protein found in cheese, this
    food can readily take the place of meat in the diet; in fact, it has
    some decided advantages over meat. As has been pointed out, cheese
    yields more than twice as much food value as an equal weight of
    beef. Then, too, the buying and care of cheese are much simpler
    matters than the buying and care of meat. As it does not require
    the low temperature that meat requires and does not spoil so
    readily, it can be bought in considerable quantity and used as
    desired without danger of spoiling and loss. In addition, the use of
    cheese as food does not require so much skill in preparation as meat
    does, nor is there loss of flavor and nutriment in its preparation, as is
    often the case with meat.
601.23. QUALITY OF CHEESE.—Every variety of cheese has its own
    standard and quality, some being hard and dry, others moist, and
    still others very soft. The difference in quality is due to the way in
    which the curd is coagulated, the amount of pressure that is put on it,

                                                                         259
      and the ripening of the cheese. The holes that often occur in
      cheese and give it a porous appearance are formed by gas, which is
      the product of the growth of bacteria. A large number of very small
      holes in cheese indicate that the milk used to make it was not clean
      and contained many kinds of bacteria. This condition could be
      overcome by the use of absolutely clean milk; indeed, milk of this
      kind is as necessary for the production of good cheese as it is for
      the making of good butter. Certain cheeses, such as Limburger and
      Roquefort, have a typical odor and flavor, the odor being due to
      bacteria and the flavor to mold. These are carefully grown and
      introduced into the cheese during its manufacture.
602.24. CARE OF CHEESE.—The very strong odor and flavor that
    characterize cheese make it necessary that care be given to cheese in
    the home in order to prevent it from coming in contact with other
    foods and transmitting its odor and flavor to them. The best place to
    keep cheese, particularly the soft varieties, is in the refrigerator,
    where it should be placed in a closed receptacle and kept as far as
    possible from foods that are easily tainted. It is well to avoid a damp
    place for the keeping of cheese, as mold frequently develops on the
    outside when too much moisture is present; but in case mold does
    appear it can be removed by cutting a thin slice from the side on
    which it has grown. On the other hand, cheese that is kept in a dry
    place becomes hard and dry unless it is wrapped in oiled paper or a
    damp cloth. However, such cheese need not be thrown away, for
    there are numerous uses, particularly in cooking, to which it can be
    put.


      *    *     *    *     *


KINDS OF CHEESE
CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES
603.25. The cheese used in the United States may be included under two
    leading classes, namely, foreign cheese and domestic cheese. Since
    the foreign cheeses are imported, they are more expensive than the
    cheeses made here, and should not be bought if cheese is to be used
    as an economical article of food. They are valuable chiefly for their
    flavor and are generally bought for this reason. The domestic
    cheeses can be used in larger quantities, for, besides being less
    expensive, they are usually of a milder type and are more easily
    digested. To enable the housewife to become familiar with the
    principal varieties of each of these classes, a discussion of them,

260
    including their names, characteristics, and, in some cases, their use
    and the method of making, is here given. IMPORTED CHEESE
604.26. Each of the European countries has originated its own peculiar
    kind of cheese, which remains representative of a certain people or
    locality. The majority of these cheeses have met with so much favor
    in the United States that large quantities of them are continually
    imported. A few of them have been copied here with success, but
    others have not been successfully made. While these are not in such
    common use as the domestic cheeses, it is well for every one to know
    their names and the characteristics by which they can be identified.
605.27. ENGLISH CHEESE.—Chief among the kinds of cheeses made
    in England is CHEDDAR CHEESE. It is rich, double-thick cream
    cheese, ranging from a pale to a dark yellow, although when
    uncolored it may be white. Such cheese, when fresh, has a milk
    flavor, but when it is well ripened it has a characteristic sharp taste.
    New Cheddar cheese is soft, but not waxy, in texture and may
    readily be shaved or broken into small pieces; when it is well
    ripened, it may be grated. English Cheddar cheese is not unlike
    AMERICAN CHEDDAR CHEESE, or, as it is commonly called,
    American cream cheese, which is shown by b. In fact the
    American variety is made according to the method used for
    the English. Owing to its characteristics, flavor, and abundance,
    Cheddar cheese, both English and American, is the kind that is used
    most extensively in the United States.


    ENGLISH DAIRY CHEESE, shown at d, is similar to Cheddar
    cheese, although it has a reddish color and, on account of the method
    of manufacture, it is harder. This kind of cheese lends itself well to
    cooking, as it may be easily grated.
    CHESHIRE CHEESE, a well-known English variety, is a dry cream
    cheese made from whole cow’s milk. It is deep yellow or red in
    color, similar in flavor to Cheddar cheese, and is used in much the
    same manner.


    STILTON CHEESE, shown at m, is a hard cheese made from cow’s
    milk to which cream has been added and which is coagulated
    with rennet. Mold is introduced into this cheese, so that it resembles
    Roquefort cheese, which is shown at j.
606.28. HOLLAND CHEESE.—The variety of cheese shown at e, Fig.
    4, is known as EDAM CHEESE. It is a hard rennet cheese of a red

                                                                        261
      color and is mild in flavor. This kind of cheese is molded into the
      shape of a ball, the outside of which is usually dyed red, and will
      keep for a long period of time. Edam cheese is one of the important
      products of the Netherlands, and while it is seldom used in cookery
      in the homes of this country, it is served at the table. Usually a
      section of the top is cut off to serve as a lid while the inside is
      scooped out as needed. Sometimes, after most of the cheese has
      been removed, the hollow shell is stuffed with macaroni or rice that
      has been cooked and seasoned and the food then baked in the
      shell.
607.29. FRENCH CHEESES.—Among the French cheeses, the variety
    called GRUYERE CHEESE, which is shown at f, Fig. 4, is well
    liked. It is usually made of skim milk, has a yellow color and a mild,
    sweetish flavor, and contains large holes like those found in Swiss
    and Emmenthal cheeses, varieties that are very similar to it. Like
    these cheeses, Gruyere cheese may be used in cooking or served
    without cooking, being used considerably in the making of
    sandwiches.


      BRIE CHEESE is a French variety of very soft cheese, with a strong
      flavor and odor. It is made from whole or partly skimmed cow’s milk
      coagulated by means of rennet. This kind of cheese is used mostly as
      an accompaniment to other foods.
      CAMEMBERT CHEESE, which is shown at h, is also a soft cheese.
      It is made by practically the same process as Brie cheese and is
      used in the same way. This cheese has a typical odor. Its rind is
      thick and dry, but its center is very soft, being sometimes almost
      liquid.
      NEUFCHATEL CHEESE, which is shown at i, is a soft rennet
      cheese made from cow’s milk. It is made at Neufchatel-en-Bray,
      France, and not at Neufchatel, Switzerland. This variety of cheese is
      wrapped in tin-foil and sold in small packages. It is used chiefly for
      salads, sandwiches, etc. As it does not keep well after the package is
      opened, the entire contents should be used at one time.
      ROQUEFORT CHEESE, which is shown at j, is a hard, highly
      flavored cheese made from sheep’s milk coagulated with rennet.
      It has a marbled appearance, which is due to a greenish mold that is
      introduced. Roquefort cheese is frequently served with crackers at
      the end of a meal, and is well liked by many persons.



262
608.30. ITALIAN CHEESES.—From Italy is imported a cheese,
    called PARMESAN CHEESE, that is used extensively for flavoring
    soups and macaroni dishes. This cheese, which is shown at g, Fig. 4,
    is very hard and granular and, provided it is well made, it will
    keep for years. Owing to its characteristics, it may be easily grated.
    It can be bought by the pound and grated as it is needed, or it can
    be secured already grated in bottles.


    GORGONZOLA, another Italian cheese, is shown at k. It is not
    unlike Roquefort in appearance and in use, but it is made from whole
    cow’s milk coagulated with rennet. Into this cheese is also
    introduced a mold that gives its center a streaked or mottled
    appearance.
609.31. SWISS CHEESES.—Possibly the             best known cheese
    imported from Switzerland is the variety known as SWISS, or
    SWITZER, CHEESE. This kind of cheese has different names,
    depending on the district of Switzerland in which it is made.
    Nevertheless all of them are similar and have a mild, sweet flavor.
    Swiss cheese may be readily recognized by its pale yellow color and
    the presence of large holes, although it resembles Gruyere cheese
    very closely.


    EMMENTHAL CHEESE is a variety of fairly hard cheese that
    originated in Switzerland, but is now made in many other countries.
    It is similar to Swiss cheese, being made from whole cow’s milk and
    characterized by large holes about 3 inches apart.
    SAPSAGO CHEESE, shown at n, Fig. 4, is a skim-milk cheese
    made in Switzerland. It is a very hard cheese, and therefore suitable
    for grating. In the process of making this cheese, melilot, a clover-
    like herb, is added, and this gives the cheese a green color and a
    peculiar flavor.
610.32. BELGIAN CHEESE.—A cheese that originated in Belgium,
    but is now manufactured in other countries, is the variety known
    as LIMBURG, or LIMBURGER, CHEESE, cheese, which is
    shown at l, Fig. 4. It is a soft rennet cheese made from whole cow’s
    milk. It is very strong in taste and smell, due to putrefactive germs
    that are added to the milk in its manufacture.




                                                                      263
      DOMESTIC CHEESE
611.33. In the United States, efforts that have been exerted to make
    cheeses similar to some of those produced in Europe have to a
    certain extent been successful. American cheese makers have
    succeeded in making several soft cream cheeses that resemble
    Neufchatel, some of which are spiced or flavored with pimiento,
    olives, etc. In addition, Limburg and Swiss cheeses have been
    successfully manufactured in Wisconsin, and Brie, Neufchatel, and
    Camembert have been copied and are produced in New York.
    Pineapple cheese, while of American origin, is really very much
    like English Cheddar cheese, except that it is harder. But while these
    fancy cheeses are desired by some persons and have a moderately
    large sale, the cheese for which there is the most demand in
    America is the so-called American Cheddar cheese, which, as has
    been stated, is made according to the method used for English
    Cheddar cheese.
612.34. AMERICAN CHEDDAR                       CHEESE.—Since American
    Cheddar cheese is the kind that is commonly used in this country,
    the way in which it is made will be well to know. The milk used for
    this kind of cheese is first inspected as to cleanliness and the extent
    of fermentation it has undergone, and when these points are
    ascertained, it is ripened; that is, allowed to sour to a certain degree of
    acidity. At this stage, coloring matter is added, after which the milk
    is prepared for setting by bringing it to a certain temperature.
    With the temperature at the right point, rennet is added to coagulate
    the milk, or form the curd. The milk is then allowed to remain
    undisturbed until the action of the rennet is at a certain point, when
    the curd is cut into little cube-shaped pieces by drawing two sets of
    knives through it and thus is separated from the whey. As soon as
    the curd is cut, the temperature of the mass is raised to help make the
    curd firm and to cause the little cubes to retain their firmness, and
    during the entire heating process the whole mass is stirred
    constantly to assist in the separation from the whey. When the curd
    is sufficiently firm, the whey is removed and the particles of curd are
    allowed to adhere and form into a solid mass. If necessary, the curd
    is cut again into small pieces to get rid of the excess whey; but if the
    curd is too dry, the pieces must be piled up until they are four or
    five deep. During this process, which is known as the cheddaring of
    the cheese, the curd is treated until it is of the proper texture to be
    milled, that is, put into a mill and ground into small pieces. The
    object of milling the curd is to cut it into pieces small enough to
    permit of uniform salting and the further escape of whey. When the


264
    curd has been brought to this point, it is salted and then pressed
    into molds. Finally, it is wrapped and cured, or ripened.
613.35. BRICK CHEESE.—Another American cheese that seems to
    meet with a popular demand is brick cheese. This kind of cheese,
    gets its name from the fact that it is pressed into “bricks” under the
    weight of one or two bricks. It is made from sweet milk, coagulated
    with rennet, cut with curd knives, and heated in the whey to firm it.
    Brick cheese is mild in flavor and of a moderately close texture. It is
    used chiefly as an accompaniment to other foods.
614.36. AMERICAN HOME-MADE CHEESE.—The making of
    Cheddar cheese and brick cheese is, of course, done commercially,
    but there is a kind of cheese that can be made very conveniently in
    the home. This home-made cheese, which is generally known as
    COTTAGE CHEESE, affords an excellent way in which to utilize
    left-over sour milk, particularly if a quart or more can be obtained at
    one time; smaller quantities can generally be used for baking
    purposes.


    If properly made, such cheese is very digestible. As it can be
    seasoned and served in a variety of ways, it makes a delightful
    addition to lunches or other light meals in which a protein dish,
    such as meat, is undesirable. Skim milk does very well for this kind
    of cheese, so that if the sour milk that is to be used has cream on it,
    the cream should be removed before the cheese is made; otherwise,
    it will remain in the whey and be lost. In case cream is desired to
    improve the texture and flavor of the cheese, it should be added after
    the cheese is made.
615.37. To make cottage cheese, allow a quantity of sour milk to clabber,
    that is, become curdled, and then place it on the back of the stove in a
    thick vessel, such as a crock, until the whey begins to appear on
    the top, turning it occasionally so that it will heat very slowly and
    evenly. Do not allow the temperature to rise above 90 degrees
    Fahrenheit, or the curd will become tough and dry. Remember that
    the two things on which the success of this product depends are
    the flavor of the milk used and the proper heating of it. No difficulty
    will be encountered in the heating of the milk if a coal or a wood
    stove is used, but in case a gas stove must be used, the vessel
    containing the milk should be placed in a larger one containing
    warm water and the milk should be heated in this manner until the
    curd and the whey begin to separate. At this point, pour off all the
    whey possible, and turn the curd into a cloth bag or a colander lined

                                                                        265
      with cloth, as shown in Fig. 5, and allow any remaining whey to drip
      out. If, after the whey is removed, the curd tastes sour, wash it with
      warm water and allow it to drip again. Then season it with salt to
      suit the taste and, provided cream is desired, add it at this time, using
      sweet or sour cream. To work in the cream, press it into the curd
      with a spoon until the cheese is quite smooth.


      Cheese made in this way may be flavored with anything desirable.
      For instance, chopped pimiento, parsley, olives, or nuts improve the
      flavor of the cheese very much and make a very appetizing
      combination. The dry curd mixed with any of these makes a
      delightful salad when it is pressed into balls, garnished with lettuce,
      and served with salad dressing.
616.38. JUNKET COTTAGE CHEESE.—Another variety of cottage
    cheese can be prepared by using sweet milk and forming the curd
    with a junket tablet, one tablet being required for each quart of milk.
    To make cheese of this kind, heat the milk until it is lukewarm,
    or not over 98 degrees Fahrenheit, and then add the junket tablet
    dissolved in cold milk or water. Keep the milk warm until the curd
    forms, and then break up the curd with a spoon and pour the whole
    mass into a bag or a colander lined with cloth. When all the whey is
    drained out, the curd, which will be sweet, can be seasoned in any
    desired way or mixed with cream and served. If more flavor is
    preferred, the curd may be allowed to sour or may be mixed with
    sour cream.
617.39. BUTTERMILK CREAM CHEESE.—A slight variation from
    the cottage cheeses just described is buttermilk cream cheese. This
    cheese is formed from the curd of buttermilk, which is finer in
    texture and not so likely to become tough as that formed from
    ordinary sour milk. To prepare buttermilk cream cheese, warm the
    buttermilk slowly, being careful not to allow the temperature to
    rise beyond 100 degrees Fahrenheit. As the milk is heated, the curd
    will form and will gradually sink to the bottom of the vessel. After
    this occurs, remove the whey and mix the curd with a little thick
    cream. The result will be a mixture having a delightfully creamy
    consistency.



      SERVING CHEESE



266
618.40. Cheese does not lend itself readily to many ways of serving, still
    it frequently adds zest to many foods. When grated, it may be
    passed with tomato or vegetable soup and sprinkled in to impart an
    unusual flavor. In this form it may also be served with macaroni
    and other Italian pastes, provided cheese has not been included in
    the preparation of such foods. When sliced, little slices may be
    served nicely with any kind of pie or pastry and with some puddings,
    such as steamed fruit puddings. Thin slices or squares of cheese and
    crackers served with coffee after the dessert add a finishing touch to
    many meals. It will be well to note that crackers to be served with
    cheese should always be crisp. Unless they have just been taken
    from a fresh package, crackers can be improved by placing them in a
    moderate oven for a few minutes before serving. Also, firm crackers
    that do not crumble easily are best to serve with cheese, water
    crackers being especially desirable.


    *     *     *     *     *


RECIPES FOR CHEESE DISHES
EFFECT OF COOKING ON CHEESE
619.41. Because cheese is a highly concentrated food, it is generally
    considered to be indigestible; but this matter can be remedied by
    mixing the cheese with other foods and thus separating it into small
    particles that are more readily digested. The way in which this may be
    done depends on the nature of the cheese. Any of the dry cheeses
    or any of the moist cheeses that have become dry may be grated or
    broken into bits, but as it is difficult to treat the moist ones in this
    way, they must be brought to a liquid state by means of heat before
    they can be added to other foods. The cooking of cheese, however,
    has an effect on this food that should be thoroughly understood.


    It will be well to note, therefore, that the application of heat to the
    form of protein found in cheese causes this food substance to
    coagulate and harden, as in the case of the albumen of eggs. In
    the process of coagulation, the first effect is the melting of the
    cheese, and when it has been brought to this semiliquid state it can
    be easily combined with other foods, such as milk, eggs, soups,
    and sauces. In forming such combinations, the addition of a small
    amount of bicarbonate of soda helps to blend the foods. Another
    characteristic of cheese that influences the cooking of it is that the fat


                                                                          267
      it contains melts only at a low temperature, so that, on the whole,
      the methods of preparation that require a low temperature are the
      best for cooking these foods. However, a precaution that should be
      taken whenever cheese is heated is not to cook it too long, for long
      cooking makes it hard and leathery in consistency, and cheese in this
      state is difficult to digest.


      VARIETY OF CHEESE DISHES
620.42. As has already been learned, cheese lends itself very readily to a
    large variety of cooked dishes. For instance, it may be grated and
    sprinkled on the top of mashed or creamed potatoes and then
    browned by placing the dish in the oven. When it is grated or
    sliced, it may be arranged between the layers of macaroni or other
    food used to make a scalloped dish. Soups and sauces flavored
    with cheese are especially appetizing, a cream sauce of this kind
    served over toast or rice making an excellent luncheon dish. Toast or
    crackers spread with cheese and placed in the oven just long enough
    for the cheese to melt are delicious to serve with a salad course or
    with tea. To assist in the preparation of such combinations, as well
    as other cheese dishes, a number of recipes are here given. In making
    up these recipes, it will be well to note that unless the variety of
    cheese is stated explicitly, use should be made of American Cheddar
    cheese, or, as it is often called, American cream cheese, or store
    cheese. Of course, some similar hard cheese could be used if desired,
    but the kind mentioned is recommended for the sake of economy.
621.43. CHEESE BONBONS.—A combination of cheese and nuts in
    the form of cheese bonbons, besides being very tasty, is highly
    nutritious, since both the cheese and the nuts used in making them
    are high in food value. Such bonbons, may be served with a light
    salad, such as a vegetable or a fruit salad, to add food value to the
    dish, or they may be served with wafers to take the place of a salad,
    when a small amount of some kind of tart jelly goes nicely with them.
    If the dessert for the dinner has been a very light one, these bonbons
    may be served with coffee and wafers after the dessert. They may be
    made as follows:


      CHEESE BONBONS (Sufficient for Twelve Bonbons)
      1 pkg. Neufchatel or cream cheese 2 Tb. finely chopped pimiento ½
      tsp. salt Few grains of paprika 1/3 c. half English-walnut meats


268
    Work the cheese smooth with the pimiento and other seasoning, and
    if the mixture is too dry add a little cream. Shape this into small balls,
    press each ball flat, and then place a half nut on top of each. If the
    pimiento is not desired, it may be omitted.
622.44. CHEESE SOUFFLE.—As a dish that will take the place of meat
    in a light meal is often desired, cheese souffle, which is comparatively
    high in food value, finds much favor. This dish contains milk, eggs,
    and cheese, as is shown in the accompanying recipe, and so may
    actually be considered as a protein dish and used accordingly. Souffle
    is served in the dish in which it is baked, but if it is quite firm and is
    to be eaten at once, it may be removed from the ramekin to a plate.


    CHEESE SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 Tb. butter 4 Tb. flour 1-1/4 c. milk ¾ c. grated cheese Dash of
    paprika ½ tsp. salt 3 eggs
    Melt the butter, add the flour, mix well, and then gradually add the
    milk, which should be scalded. To this sauce add the cheese, paprika,
    and salt. When thoroughly mixed, remove from the fire and add the
    beaten yolks of eggs, beating rapidly. Cool and fold in the stiffly
    beaten whites of the eggs. Pour into a buttered baking dish or in
    ramekins and bake 20 minutes in a slow oven. Serve at once.
623.45. CHEESE OMELET.—Grated cheese added to an omelet gives
    it a delightful flavor. Since such an omelet is a high-protein dish, it
    should never be served in the same meal in which meat, fish, or
    other protein foods are served, but should be used as the main
    dish of a luncheon or a light supper.


    CHEESE OMELET (Sufficient to Serve Four)
    4 eggs 4 Tb. hot water ½ tsp. salt 2 Tb. bread crumbs 1 c. grated
    cheese 1 Tb. butter
    Beat the egg yolks thoroughly and add to them the hot water, salt,
    crumbs, and cheese. Beat the egg whites until stiff, but not dry, and
    fold them carefully into the yolk mixture. Heat the butter in an omelet
    pan. Pour in the mixture, brown very slowly over the heat, and then
    place in the oven to cook the top. Serve at once.
624.46. CHEESE SAUCE.—To give a distinctive flavor to white sauce,
    cheese is often added to it. A sauce flavored in this way lends itself
    nicely to the garnishing of croquettes or souffles, and it will be found

                                                                          269
      quite tasty if it is served over some vegetables, such as steamed
      cauliflower, mashed potatoes, or rice served as a vegetable. Such
      sauce may also be served over toast to make an attractive luncheon
      dish.


      CHEESE SAUCE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2 c. milk 4 Tb. flour 4 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. paprika ½ c.
      grated cheese
      Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, butter, salt, and paprika, and
      to it add the grated cheese. If desired, a dash of catsup or chili sauce
      may be added for flavoring.
625.47. CHEESE TOAST.—When toast has added to it eggs, milk, and
    cheese, as in the recipe here given, it is sufficiently high in protein to
    serve as a meat substitute and is a particularly good dish for a light
    meal. It combines well with a vegetable salad for luncheon and is an
    excellent dish to serve for Sunday night supper, when very little else
    need be served with it.


      CHEESE TOAST (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      2 c. milk 4 Tb. flour 4 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt ¾ c. grated cheese 2
      hard-cooked eggs 6 squares of toast
      Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, butter, and salt, and to it add ½
      cupful of the grated cheese and the egg whites chopped fine. Arrange
      the toast on a platter, pour the sauce over it, sprinkle the top with the
      egg yolks that have been run through a ricer or a sieve, and
      sprinkle the remaining ¼ cupful of cheese over all. Place in hot
      oven or under a broiler until the cheese melts a little. Serve hot.


626.48. WELSH RAREBIT.—Whenever a dish that can be made in a
    chafing dish is desired, Welsh rarebit is immediately thought of. This
    is possibly due to the fact that this tasty cheese dish is very often
    served at evening parties, when a crowd may gather around a table
    and enjoy the preparation of this food in the chafing dish. This kind
    of cooking utensil, together with its outfit, which consists of a long-
    handled spoon and fork, is shown in Fig. 7. As will be observed, a
    chafing dish consists of a frame to which is attached a lamp that
    provides the heat, a pan in which water is placed, another pan with
    a handle in which the food is cooked, and a cover. The heat for

270
    cooking is furnished by alcohol, although it is possible to get
    chafing dishes that are heated by electricity. Chafing dishes are used
    by many housewives, for in addition to the use mentioned, they serve
    very well for the making of practically any kind of creamed dish,
    including those in which sea foods and vegetables are used, as well as
    for the sauteing of foods. It should not be understood, however,
    that Welsh rarebit must be made in a chafing dish, for this food
    can be prepared as well in a heavy frying pan or a double boiler; nor
    should it be taken for granted that it is served only at parties, for it
    may be served as the main dish for luncheon or supper. Rarebit is
    often flavored with ale or beer, but this is not required to make an
    appetizing dish, as the following recipe shows.


    WELSH RAREBIT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 Tb. butter 1 Tb. flour 1 c. milk ¼ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. paprika ½ lb.
    cheese cut into small pieces 6 slices of toast or 6 wafers
    Melt the butter, add to it the flour, and stir until smooth. Gradually
    add the milk, and cook for a few minutes; then add the salt,
    paprika, and cheese, stirring until the cheese is melted. The finished
    rarebit should not be stringy. Pour over the toast or wafers and serve.
627.49. ENGLISH MONKEY.—Another cheese dish that is
    frequently made in a chafing dish and served from it is English
    monkey, but this may likewise be made with ordinary kitchen utensils
    and served directly on plates from the kitchen or from a bowl on
    the table. A dish of this kind is most satisfactory if it is served as
    soon as the sauce is poured over toast or wafers and before they have
    had time to become soaked. English monkey may be made according
    to the following recipe and served for the same purposes as Welsh
    rarebit.


    ENGLISH MONKEY (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 c. bread crumbs 1 c. milk 1 Tb. butter ½ c. soft cheese cut into
    small pieces 1 egg ½ tsp. salt 6 buttered wafers
    Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Melt the butter and add to it
    the cheese, stirring until the cheese is melted. Then add the soaked
    crumbs, the slightly beaten egg, and the salt. Cook for a few
    minutes and pour over wafers and serve. If desired, toast may be
    used in place of the wafers.


                                                                        271
628.50. CHEESE-AND-MACARONI LOAF.—Macaroni combined
    with cheese makes a high protein dish that very readily takes the
    place of meat and that may be served as the main dish in a dinner.
    If this combination is made into a loaf and baked well in an oblong
    bread pan, it may be turned out on a platter and cut into slices. In
    case a loaf is not desired, it may be baked in a baking dish and
    served directly from that. In either form, it is made more appetizing
    by the addition of a tomato sauce.


      CHEESE-AND-MACARONI LOAF (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      ½ c. macaroni (inch lengths) 1 c. milk 1 c. bread crumbs 2 Tb.
      chopped green peppers 1 Tb. chopped onion 1 Tb. chopped parsley 2
      eggs 2 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1 c. grated cheese 1 Tb. butter
      Cook the macaroni according to the directions given in Cereals.
      When it is thoroughly soft, drain off the water and mix the macaroni
      with the milk, bread crumbs, green pepper, onion, parsley, well-
      beaten egg, salt, pepper, and grated cheese. Place in a baking dish,
      dot the top with butter, and bake in a moderate oven until the
      mixture is set. Serve with or without sauce, as desired.
629.51. CHEESE FONDUE.—A dish that is very similar to cheese
    souffle and that must be served as soon as it comes from the oven
    in order to avoid shrinking is cheese fondue. It satisfactorily takes the
    place of meat in a light meal, and may be served from a large dish or
    from individual baking dishes with or without sauce, as desired.


      CHEESE FONDUE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      1 ½ c. soft bread crumbs 1 ½ c. grated cheese 1 c. hot milk 4 eggs ½
      tsp. salt
      Mix the bread crumbs and cheese, and add them to the hot milk,
      beaten egg yolks, and salt. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake
      in a buttered baking dish for about 30 minutes in a moderate oven.
      Serve at once.
630.52. CHEESE DREAMS.—If something delicious to serve with fruit
    or salad is desired for luncheon or Sunday night supper, the
    accompanying recipe for cheese dreams should be tried. They
    should be served at once on being taken from the stove, because as
    soon as they cool the cheese hardens and they are not appetizing.
    Cheese dreams may be sauted or prepared in a broiler or an oven,
    but if they are sauted, they may be made in a chafing dish.

272
    CHEESE DREAMS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    12 thinly cut slices of bread Butter Cheese sliced 1/8 in. thick
    Spread the bread thinly with butter and make sandwiches by placing a
    slice of cheese between two slices of bread. Place these sandwiches
    under a broiler or in a very hot oven and toast them on both sides,
    or omit the butter from the center, place the sandwiches in a
    slightly oiled frying pan, and brown them on both sides. In heating
    the sandwiches, the cheese melts. Serve hot.
631.53. CHEESE WAFERS.—If made daintily, cheese wafers may be
    served with salad or with tea for afternoon tea. The wafers selected
    for this purpose should be small and the layer of cheese not very
    thick. If a very thin broth is served at the beginning of a meal,
    cheese wafers may accompany it, but they should never be served
    with a heavy soup.


    CHEESE WAFERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 doz. wafers Butter ¾ grated cheese Paprika
    Spread the wafers thinly with butter and sprinkle each with 1
    tablespoonful of grated cheese and a pinch of paprika. Bake in a hot
    oven until the cheese is melted. Cool and serve.


632.54. CHEESE STRAWS.—Nothing can be more delightful to
    serve with a vegetable salad than cheese straws. An attractive way to
    serve them is to slip them through small rings made out of strips of
    the dough mixture and baked at the same time the straws are baked
    and then place them at the side of the salad plate. They may
    accompany a fruit salad, as well as a vegetable salad, but they are not
    appropriate for serving with a meat or a fish salad.


    CHEESE STRAWS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 Tb. butter 2/3 c. flour 1 c. bread crumbs 1 c. grated or cut cheese
    ½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper Pinch of Cayenne pepper ½ c. milk
    Cream the butter and to it add the flour, bread crumbs, cheese,
    and seasonings. Mix thoroughly and add the milk. Roll ¼ inch thick
    and then cut ¼ inch wide and 6 inches long. Bake until brown in a
    moderately hot oven.

                                                                       273
633.55. TOMATOES WITH CHEESE STUFFING.—The addition of
    cheese to the stuffing used in stuffed tomatoes means added flavor, as
    well as nutritive value in the form of protein, the food substance in
    which the tomatoes themselves are lacking. The bread crumbs used
    for the stuffing supply a large amount of carbohydrate, so that the
    completed dish, besides being a very attractive one, contains all
    the food principles in fairly large quantities. Stuffed tomatoes
    may be served as the main dish in a light meal or as a vegetable dish
    in a heavy meal.


      TOMATOES WITH CHEESE STUFFING (Sufficient to Serve Six)
      6 tomatoes 1 c. bread crumbs 1 c. grated cheese ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp.
      pepper 2 Tb. butter ¼ c. hot water
      Select medium-sized tomatoes and hollow out the centers. Mix the
      crumbs, cheese, salt, pepper, butter, and hot water with the pulp from
      the centers of the tomatoes. Fill the tomatoes with this stuffing, place
      in a pan, and bake in a moderate oven until the tomato can be
      pierced easily with a fork. Serve hot.
634.56. FIGS STUFFED WITH CHEESE.—As cheese is a very
    concentrated food, it is often combined with another food to offset
    this effect. An excellent combination is formed by stuffing figs with
    cheese. Figs prepared in this way will be found to be very attractive
    and tasty and may be served in the place of a dessert or a salad,
    depending on the kind and size of the meal with which they are used.


      FIGS STUFFED WITH CHEESE (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
      1 pkg. Neufchatel or cream cheese 2 Tb. cream 8 small pulled figs
      Work the cheese and cream until soft. Steam the figs for 10 or 15
      minutes or until they are soft; then cool them, cut out their stems,
      fill their centers with the soft cheese, and serve.
635.57. CHEESE SANDWICHES.—Very appetizing sandwiches that
    may be used to take the place of meat sandwiches or a protein dish
    at any time are made with a cheese filling. If these are made very
    small and dainty, they may be served with salad in a light meal. The
    addition of pickles, olives, and pimiento, which are included in the
    accompanying recipe, makes the filling more attractive than the usual
    plain cheese by producing in it a variety of tastes. They also add
    bulk, which is lacking in both the white bread and the cheese. If


274
     desired, graham or whole-wheat bread may be used in place of
     white bread.


     CHEESE SANDWICHES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
     ¼ lb. cheese 2 medium-sized pickles ½ pimiento Meat from ½
     doz. olives ¼ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. paprika Bread
     Put the cheese, pickles, pimiento, and olives through a food chopper,
     and when chopped add the salt and the paprika. If the mixture is
     not moist enough to spread, add salad dressing or vinegar until it is
     of the right consistency. Mix well and spread on thinly cut, buttered
     slices of bread.


     LUNCHEON MENU
636.58. Many of the dishes for which recipes are given in this Section,
    particularly those including cheese as one of the ingredients, do
    very well for the main dish in a light meal, such as luncheon. In
    order that practice may be had in preparing a well-balanced luncheon
    that includes a dish of this kind, a luncheon menu is here presented.
    The cheese souffle, which has been selected as the main dish in
    this menu, should be made according to the directions already
    given. Little difficulty will be experienced in making the other
    dishes, as recipes for them are given immediately after the menu. All
    the recipes are intended for six persons, so that if more or fewer are
    to be served, the recipes should be changed accordingly. This menu
    is presented with the intention that it be tried by each student and a
    report of it then prepared according to the plan outlined and sent
    with the work of the Examination Questions.


     MENU
     Cream-of-Corn Soup Cheese Souffle Stewed Tomatoes Sauted
     Potatoes Brown Bread and Butter Baked Apples Black Tea


RECIPES
CREAM-OF-CORN SOUP
1 Tb. flour 1 Tb. butter 1 pt. milk 1 c. canned corn 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper
Make a white sauce of the flour, butter, and milk. Force the corn through a colander or
sieve and add the puree to the white sauce. Season with the salt and pepper and serve.



                                                                                   275
SAUTED POTATOES
637.6 medium-sized cooked potatoes 2 Tb. butter 1-1/2 tsp. salt ¼
    tsp. pepper


Slice the boiled potatoes thin and put the slices in a frying pan in which the butter has
been melted. Add the salt and pepper. Allow the potatoes to cook until well browned,
turning frequently during the cooking. Serve hot.
STEWED TOMATOES
638.1 Tb. butter 1 small onion 6 medium-sized ripe tomatoes or 1
    can of tomatoes 1 tsp. salt 2 Tb. sugar ¼ tsp. pepper 1 Tb. flour


      Brown the butter in a saucepan, slice the onion into it, and cook for
      a few minutes. Add the tomatoes. If fresh tomatoes are to be used,
      remove the skins, cut into pieces, put into the saucepan with
      a few tablespoonfuls of water, and cook until the tomatoes are
      thoroughly softened. If canned tomatoes are to be used, merely allow
      them to come to the boiling point. Add the salt, sugar, and pepper,
      and, a few minutes before removing from the fire, moisten the flour
      with a tablespoonful of cold water and stir into the tomato. Cook for
      a few minutes and serve.
      BAKED APPLES
      6 medium-sized apples 1 lemon ¾ c. sugar ½ c. water
      Wipe and core the apples. Put them into a baking dish and place a
      slice of lemon on the top of each. Make a sirup of the sugar and the
      water, pour this around the apples, and bake slowly until they can be
      pierced easily with a fork. Serve hot or cold, with a teaspoonful of
      jelly on the top of each apple.
      BLACK TEA
      6 tsp. black tea 6 c. boiling water
      Scald out the pot with freshly boiling water, pour in the tea, add the
      6 cupfuls of freshly boiling water, and allow it to stand on the
      leaves until the tea is strong enough to serve. Then either pour the tea
      off the leaves and keep it hot or serve at once.


      MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 2)
      EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


276
     (1) From what part of milk is butter made?
     (2) What food substances does butter contain?
     (3) Tell how to select good butter.
     (4) After butter is purchased, what care should be given to it?
     (5) (a) How does cooking affect butter? (b) How can economy be
         exercised in the use of butter in cooking?
     (6) How may rancid butter be made fit for use in cooking?
     (7) Explain the advantages of butter substitutes.
     (8) Give the test for distinguishing oleomargarine and renovated
         butter from butter.
     (9) Explain briefly the way in which cheese is produced.
     (10) What food substances are found in cheese?
     (11) Why can cheese be used to take the place of meat?
     (12) Tell the advantages that cheese has over meat.
     (13) Explain how to make cottage cheese from sour milk.
     (14) Why should cheese be mixed with other foods instead of being
          served alone?
     (15) Explain the effect of cooking on cheese.



REPORT ON MENU
After trying out the luncheon menu given in the text, send with your answers to the
Examination Questions a report of your success. In making out your report, simply
write the name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified in
the following list:
Cream-of-Corn Soup: too thick? too thin? lumpy? well seasoned? milk curdled?
Cheese Souffle: light? heavy? baked sufficiently? shrunken? underdone?
Hash-Browned Potatoes: too brown? not brown enough? well seasoned? too much fat?
too little fat?
Stewed Tomatoes: sufficiently cooked? well seasoned? too sour?
Baked Apples: well done? not well done? too brown? too dry? too moist? sufficient
sugar?
Black Tea: too weak? too strong? hot? taste of tannin?


     *      *      *      *      *

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EGGS


      *     *    *     *     *


VALUE OF EGGS AS FOOD
DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND PLACE IN THE DIET
      1. Eggs are of great importance in the diet, and to appreciate this
         fact fully the true nature of this food must be understood. For
         domestic use, the eggs of guinea hens, turkeys, ducks, and
         geese occasionally find favor, but as eggs laid by hens are the
         kind that is commonly used, it is to such eggs that this Section
         is devoted. A hen’s egg may really be considered as an
         undeveloped chicken, because it contains all the elements
         required to build the body of the chick and provide it with the
         energy it needs to pick its way into the world. When it emerges
         from the shell, it is fully developed, and in a short time it
         begins an independent existence, seeking and finding its own
         food. The fact that eggs store so much nutritive material
         explains to some extent why they are a valuable source of food
         for man and why they are used so extensively. However, as in
         the case of milk, the elements that eggs contain are not in just
         the right proportion for the sole nourishment of a human being,
         so they must generally be used in combination with other foods.
      2. Most persons are familiar with the appearance of eggs, but in
         order that satisfactory results may be obtained in their selection,
         care, and cooking, it will be necessary to look into the
         details of their composition. As is well known, an egg consists
         of a porous shell lined with a fine, but tough, membrane that
         encloses the white and the yolk and serves to protect them. The
         yolk is divided from the white by a delicate membrane, which
         permits it to be separated from the white when an egg is
         carefully broken. This membrane extends to each end of the
         shell in the form of a small cord, and it is so fastened to the
         shell as to hold the yolk evenly suspended. The porous nature of
         an egg shell is required to give air to the developing chick, but
         it is this characteristic that permits eggs to spoil as they grow old
         and are exposed to air, for through these minute pores, or

278
    openings, the water in the egg evaporates and air and bacteria
    enter. Of course, as the water evaporates and is replaced by air,
    the egg becomes lighter. Because of this fact, the freshness of
    eggs can be determined by placing them in water. When they are
    fresh, they will sink in cold water, but as they decompose they
    become lighter and will float.


    Since it is known that the spoiling of eggs is due to the entrance
    of air through the porous shell, it may be inferred that their
    decay may be prevented either by protecting the shell so that air
    cannot enter or by keeping the eggs at so low a temperature
    that bacteria cannot grow. Although stored eggs always
    deteriorate more or less, both of these methods of preservation
    have proved very satisfactory, the former being used largely in
    the home and the latter finding its solution in cold storage. A
    knowledge of how eggs can be preserved, however, is of great
    value, for if there were no means of preservation and eventual
    marketing, the price of eggs would at times rise to actual
    prohibitive limits.
3. That eggs as an article of food are growing in importance is
   indicated by the fact that their production has come to be a
   large and widely distributed industry. Owing to the private
   consumption and sale of eggs, an accurate statement of the
   number of eggs produced is difficult to give. Still, in a report, the
   United States Bureau of Agriculture estimated the value of the
   yearly egg production at something more than three million
   dollars, with an allowance of about 210 eggs, or 17-1/2 dozen,
   per capita each year, or 4 eggs a week for each person. These
   figures, however, are only suggestive of the production, use,
   and value of eggs, for as the population increases so does the
   use of eggs. In fact, they are proving to be almost indispensable
   to the cook, the baker, the manufacturers of certain foods, and
   many others.
4. With the increase in the demand for eggs has come a
   corresponding steady advance in the money value of this
   product and, consequently, an increase in its price. The
   housewife who would practice economy in cookery can readily
   see, therefore, that with reference to the number of eggs
   required and the ways in which they are used, she must choose
   carefully the recipes and methods she employs. If the eggs are
   always considered a part of a meal, their use is seldom an


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          extravagance, even at such high prices as they sometimes attain.
          On the other hand, if a dessert that requires the use of many
          eggs is added to a meal that is itself sufficient in food value, it is
          not unreasonable to regard such use of eggs as an extravagance.
          A point that should be taken into consideration in the use of
          eggs in the diet, especially when their price seems very high, is
          that there is no waste matter in them, unless the shell is regarded
          as waste. Therefore, they are often more economical than other
          foods that can be bought for less money.


          It must not be understood, however, that eggs are used only as an
          article of diet. They are also a very important food ingredient,
          being employed in the preparation of many kinds of dishes. For
          instance, they are often used to thicken custards, sauces, etc.;
          to clarify soups and jellies; to lighten cakes, puddings, hot
          breads, and other baked mixtures; to form the basis for salad
          dressings; and to combine or hold together many varieties of
          food.


          NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGGS
      5. Like milk, eggs are often spoken of as a perfect food. Still, as
         has been pointed out, they are not a perfect food for man, but
         they are of especial nutritive value and should be used freely in
         the diet just as long as their cost neither limits nor prohibits their
         use. An idea of how they compare with other nutritious foods
         can be obtained from Fig. 1, which shows that eight eggs are
         equal in food value to 1 quart of milk or 1 pound and 5 ounces
         of beefsteak. A better understanding of their food value,
         however, can be gained from a study of their composition.



      6. Since an egg is an undeveloped chick that requires only the
         addition of warmth to develop it into a living, moving creature
         made of muscles, bones, and blood, it is evident that this food
         contains considerable tissue-building and energy-producing
         material. The exact proportion of this material, as well as the
         other substances found in eggs, is given in the food chart shown
         in Essentials of Cookery, Part 1. The chart relating to the
         composition of eggs points out that the edible portion of the
         whole egg consists of 73.7 per cent. of water, 14.8 per cent. of

280
    protein, 10.5 per cent. of fat, and about 1 per cent. of ash, or
    mineral matter. The protein, which is chiefly in the form of
    albumen, and the fat are the most digestible of these elements,
    while the mineral constituents are as valuable for the growing
    child as for the chick. When the total weight of an egg is taken
    into consideration, the shell constitutes about 11 per cent., the
    yolk 32 per cent., and the white 57 per cent. The composition of
    the yolk and the white differs somewhat, the yolk having the
    greater food value, a fact that is also clearly indicated in the chart.
    The white contains a larger proportion of water than the yolk,
    but the yolk contains the most of the fat and more protein and
    mineral matter, or ash, than the white. In addition, the chart
    shows that the number of calories to the pound of whole egg is
    700, of egg yolk is 1,608, and of egg white is 265.
7. PROTEIN IN EGGS.—The nature of the food substances in
   eggs is of nearly as great importance as their amount, for they
   not only determine the value of this food in the body, but
   influence its cooking. That protein is present in both the yolk
   and the white is apparent from the fact that they coagulate
   when heat is applied. Because eggs are high in protein,
   containing 14.8 per cent. of this substance, they may be regarded
   as equivalent to a meat dish, and it is only when they are
   extremely high in price that they cannot be frequently substituted
   for meat to advantage. They are often used to take the place of
   milk, too, for eggs and milk are more alike in nutritive value
   than any other two protein foods; but, of the two, milk yields
   the cheaper form of protein. Like meat and milk, eggs are rich in
   all those food materials which enter into the construction of
   bone, muscle, and blood.
8. FAT IN EGGS.—A study of the food chart previously
   mentioned will show that eggs contain proportionately almost as
   much fat as protein and that nearly all this fat is found in the
   yolk. Since fat produces more heat or energy, weight for weight,
   than any other food substance, and since eggs contain neither
   starch nor sugar, it is evident that the fat of this food is the main
   source of the energy-producing material. Fat in eggs occurs in the
   form of an emulsion, or tiny particles, and, like the fat of milk, is
   very readily digested. It is for this reason that both of these foods
   are particularly well adapted to the diet of both children and
   adults. The presence of quantities of protein and fat and the
   absence of carbohydrate in eggs indicate that the proper thing to



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          combine with this food, in order to have a well-balanced meal
          when eggs are eaten, is carbohydrate in some form.
      9. MINERALS IN EGGS.—Eggs are especially valuable for the
         mineral salts they contain, chief among which are lime,
         phosphorus, sulphur, iron, potassium, and sodium. For this
         reason, the addition of eggs to any kind of diet supplies a large
         amount of the minerals that are needed for bone, blood, and
         tissue building. A favorable point concerning the minerals
         found in eggs is that they are not affected to any extent by
         cooking. Therefore, in the preparation of any dish, if eggs are
         added to other foods, that dish will contain an additional amount
         of mineral salts, plus the nutritive value of the eggs.
      10. DIGESTIBILITY OF EGGS.—In connection with the
          discussion of the food substances of which eggs are composed,
          it will be well to note how these affect the digestibility of this
          food. But just what is meant by this characteristic with
          reference to eggs must first be understood. In some foods,
          digestibility may mean the length of time required for them to
          digest; in others, the completeness of the digestion; and in still
          others, the ease and comfort with which the process of digestion
          proceeds. In the case of eggs, digestibility refers to the quantity
          of this food that is absorbed, that is, actually dissolved and
          permitted to enter the blood stream. The nutritive value of eggs
          is not so high as would naturally be supposed, for, although the
          protein, fat, and mineral salts of an egg make up about one-
          fourth of its contents, one egg equals in nutritive value only ½
          cupful of milk, a small potato, or a medium-sized apple.
          However, when the proportion of the nutritive material that the
          body retains from this food, or its digestibility, is considered,
          eggs rank extremely high, it having been determined by
          experiments that 97 per cent. of the protein and 95 per cent. of
          the fat are assimilated. A point worthy of note in this
          connection, though, is that eggs contain no cellulose, such as
          that found in grains, vegetables, and fruits. Therefore, in order
          to add the much-needed bulk to the diet, foods that do contain
          cellulose should be served with eggs.
      11. Whether or not the cooking of eggs has any effect on their
          digestibility is a matter that has also been investigated. The results
          of the experiments made indicate that cooking makes some
          difference with the rate of digestion, but very little with its
          thoroughness. So far as the rapidity of digestion is concerned,
          there is very little difference between raw eggs and slightly

282
    cooked eggs; but hard-cooked eggs, although they may be
    digested as completely as soft-cooked ones, require longer time
    for the accomplishment of the process. This is due to the fact
    that the whites of hard-cooked eggs are so firm in texture that,
    unless they are finely chopped or thoroughly masticated, the
    digestive juices are not able to act on them quickly. As a result,
    portions of them may escape digestion or remain in the
    digestive tract for some time and decompose. For this reason,
    hard-cooked eggs are usually excluded from the diet of children
    and invalids, and even healthy adults should be careful to
    masticate them thoroughly.



    SELECTION OF EGGS
12. On first thought it would seem as if there is very little to guide
    the housewife in the selection of eggs, it being extremely difficult
    to tell from their external appearance whether or not they are
    fresh or stale. As a rule, she must trust largely to the honesty of
    the person from whom she buys eggs. Still she need not depend
    entirely on the dealer’s word, for, at least to a certain extent,
    there are ways in which she may judge the quality of eggs.
    Because of the great value of eggs as a food and for cooking
    purposes, it is important that the housewife make use of all
    available information on this matter and, in addition, become
    familiar with the trade practices in the egg industry.
13. MARKETING OF EGGS.—As is generally known, hens lay a
    large number of eggs in the spring of the year, but they do not
    lay readily in the cold winter months; and not alone are the
    greatest quantities of eggs produced in April and May, but those
    laid at this time are of the best quality. Because of this condition
    and in order that the demand during the time of scarcity may be
    supplied, it is necessary that a considerable number of eggs be
    preserved when they are comparatively cheap and abundant.
    Also, in the preserving of eggs for future use, it is of the greatest
    importance that they be kept in the best possible condition and
    manner, so that when they are used, months after they are laid,
    they may be as good as it is possible to have them.


    The advance made in storage and transportation methods in
    recent years has done much toward making the egg supply


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          uniform all the year around. Not long ago, because of
          inadequate means of storage and shipping, eggs were sold only
          a short distance from the place where they were produced.
          However, with the coming of cold storage and improved
          methods of shipping, eggs have been changed from a perishable
          and more or less seasonable food to a staple one. Now it is
          possible to collect them in large quantities, to keep them for a
          considerable time before selling them, and to ship them long
          distances. To safeguard the public, though, authorities have set
          a time limit for the storage of eggs, the legal time they may be
          kept being 8 months. By this is meant that eggs placed in the
          warehouse in May must be released or sold in December;
          whereas, those stored in June must be released no later than
          January.
      14. Eggs that have been kept too long in storage are characterized
          by a musty odor and flavor, the breaking of the yolk and its
          mixing with the white, and a watery condition of the white. Such
          eggs, of course, cannot be sold legally. Those which may be
          placed on the market are graded according to their freshness,
          cleanliness, size, cracks, and color. With the exception of their
          freshness, these points can be readily told from the appearance
          of the eggs; but, in order to determine whether an egg is fresh or
          not, it is generally put through a process known as candling, by
          which the interior condition of the egg can be ascertained.


          In the grading of eggs, all those of the best size, color, and
          condition are sold under a particular trade name and bring a
          high or a low price, according to the grading. Others that are
          not so perfect are put in another grade and sell for prices that
          vary according to the demand. Eggs, of course, differ in
          appearance and in many cases they are sorted in order to satisfy
          the demand. For instance, in some localities, eggs having a
          brown shell sell for the highest price, while in other places, eggs
          having a white shell are in the greatest demand and bring the
          highest price. Unsorted eggs are not held in much favor and do
          not bring so good a price as those which are all one color. Many
          persons have an idea that the color of the shell of an egg bears
          some relation to its nutritive value and flavor. However,
          authorities on foods agree that, other things being alike, the
          edible portion of white-shelled eggs has essentially the same
          composition and nutritive value as that of dark-shelled eggs.


284
15. QUALITY OF EGGS.—The natural quality of eggs depends
    largely on the food of the hens and their conditions of living.
    Because of this fact, the selection, breeding, and care of fowls
    have developed into a science, particularly since the production
    of eggs has grown into an industry. When the quality itself is to
    be determined, all the characteristics of eggs must be taken into
    consideration; still there is one particular point on which the
    quality of eggs depends, and that is their freshness. Various
    agencies, however, are constantly at work to render this quality
    inferior. Chief among these are the molds and bacteria that pass
    through the porous shells of eggs that have been improperly
    cared for or have become contaminated by being allowed to
    remain in unclean surroundings. Such bacteria are responsible
    for the unpleasant flavors that are found in bad eggs. Because of
    their harmful effect, every effort should be made to prevent
    the entrance of the germs that cause decay, and, as has been
    stated, the best way in which to accomplish this is to protect the
    shell. If it is found that bacteria have entered, the eggs will
    become unfit for use quickly unless their growth is prevented.
    This may be done by storing the eggs at a temperature that will
    keep the bacteria dormant, or inert.
16. If the eggs are kept under the proper conditions, they will not
    actually spoil for a long time; but it is seldom that they are not
    more or less affected by storage of any kind that covers a
    period of several months. One change that can always be looked
    for in such eggs is in the air space at the broad end. When an
    egg is first laid, this air space is small, but since the water
    contained in the egg slowly evaporates through the porous shell
    it increases in size as the egg grows staler. For this reason, the
    freshness of an egg can often be determined by the size of this
    air space.


    In addition, the purposes for which eggs are used are somewhat
    affected by their storage. A stale egg, although it may not be
    actually spoiled to the extent that it cannot be used as food, will
    not produce such good results in a cooking process as a fresh
    egg, especially if it is used for leavening. In fact, it is
    impossible to produce the desired results with eggs that have
    undergone a certain amount of change, even though their odor
    and their flavor do not indicate that they are spoiled.



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      17. JUDGING THE QUALITY OF EGGS IN THE
          MARKET.—While, as has been mentioned, the housewife must
          depend considerably on the dealer’s word as to the freshness of
          the eggs she purchases, it will be well for her to be familiar with
          the trade names of eggs and their meaning. The names used
          differ, of course, in various localities, but all large distributors
          grade and name eggs in much the same way. In deciding on the
          grade to which eggs belong, a certain number of points are given
          for color, size, freshness, and appearance, and the sum total of
          these points determines the grade, a special name being given
          for each grade. For instance, eggs that can be graded 90 are
          called extra fancy; those which receive a grade of 80, fancy;
          those which are graded 70, strictly fresh; and those which can be
          graded only 60, cooking eggs. When eggs are put on the market
          under such names, it can be expected that the quality will
          correspond to the grade and the price will vary with the grade.
          Therefore, the trade name and the price are two of the principal
          ways in which the quality of eggs in the market may be judged.
      18. Another way of judging the quality of eggs consists in observing
          the condition of the surface of the shell. When eggs are freshly
          laid, the shell is covered with a substance, called bloom, that
          gives it a feeling much like that of a thin lime coating
          deposited in a pan after water boils. This coating disappears
          gradually as the egg is exposed to the air, but as long as it
          remains, the egg may be considered as fresh and germ proof.
          While this way of determining freshness is probably the
          quickest, it is possible that the quality of some eggs from
          which the bloom has recently disappeared has not been injured.
      19. When eggs are selected in the market, certain points in their
          appearance should also be noted. If eggs of the best quality are
          desired, medium-sized ones that are uniform in size and color
          should be selected. With regard to shape, they should have a
          comparatively long oval shell, one end of which is blunt and the
          other, a sharp curve.



      20. JUDGING THE QUALITY OF EGGS IN THE HOME.—
          After eggs have been received in the home, several simple tests
          for determining their freshness can be applied in addition to
          the ones already mentioned. A rather indefinite test, but one
          that is sometimes applied to determine the freshness of an

286
    egg, is to shake it. When the water inside the shell evaporates,
    the yolk and white shrink so much that they can be felt moving
    from side to side when the egg is shaken. The staler the egg,
    the more pronounced does the movement become. This
    method should be applied only immediately before the egg is to
    be used, as the thin membrane between the yolk and the white
    and the spiral cords that hold up the yolk are liable to be
    disturbed by the shaking. If they are broken, the yolk will settle
    and finally adhere to the shell in case the egg is stored for any
    length of time after that.
21. If nothing has been done to preserve eggs, the simple test for
    freshness which consists in placing the eggs in a glass containing
    water, will be found effective. A perfectly fresh egg will sink
    when it is put into the water, but if the egg is 3 weeks old the
    broad end will rise slightly from the bottom of the glass. An egg
    that is 3 months old will sink into water until only a slight
    portion of the shell remains exposed; whereas, if the egg is older
    or stale, it will rise in the water until nearly half of it is exposed.
22. The test known as candling, which is usually applied to eggs
    before they are put on the market, can also be practiced by the
    housewife in the home. This method of determining the
    freshness of eggs consists in placing a piece of cardboard
    containing a hole a little smaller than an egg between the eye
    and a light, which may be from a lamp, a gas jet, or an electric
    light, and holding the egg in front of the light. The rays of light
    passing through the egg show the condition of the egg, the size
    of its air space, and the growth of mold or the spoiling of the
    egg by any ordinary means.


    When an egg is fresh, the yolk will be barely distinguishable
    from the white except as a slightly darker area in the center of
    the egg, and the entire egg will appear clear and bright and free
    from spots. In an egg that is a little older, candling will reveal a
    slightly darker yolk, a cloudy white, and a larger air space, In a
    watery egg, or one that is beginning to spoil, various dark spots
    and blotches usually develop. When an egg is rotten, the
    contents of the shell will look dark in candling and the yolk will
    appear to be mixed with the white.
23. If the housewife does not wish to resort to candling, she may
    determine the condition of an egg by breaking it into a saucer
    and examining it carefully. If the egg is newly laid, no odor

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          will be detected and the white will be clear, elastic, and rather
          thick; also, where it joins the yolk it will be almost solid. The yolk
          of such an egg will have an even yellow color, without lighter or
          darker spots and will stand up well from the surface of the
          white. Sometimes a small spot of blood may be detected on the
          yolk of a perfectly fresh egg, but, while this is not pleasant to
          look at, it does not affect the quality of the egg. When an egg
          that is not real fresh is broken into a saucer, the yolk will lie flat.
          In an egg that is quite stale, the membrane surrounding the
          yolk is easily destroyed, so that even when such an egg is
          broken carefully the yolk and the white are likely to run together.


      *     *    *     *      *

PRESERVATION OF EGGS
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DETERIORATION
      24. As has been implied in the discussion given thus far, eggs will
          deteriorate or spoil in a comparatively short time unless
          something is done to preserve them. In view of the eggs she
          keeps on hand at home, as well as those she buys, the causes of
          spoiling and the ways in which to prevent spoiling are matters
          with which the housewife should be familiar, particularly if she
          would secure for her family eggs of the best quality at prices that
          are not beyond her means. The spoiling of eggs is due to
          decomposition, which is caused by molds or bacteria that
          result from accidental causes, and, in fertile eggs, to the
          germination and development of the chick, which is a natural
          process. The loss of quality resulting from molds and bacteria in
          the egg is brought about by their growth and by the formation
          of chemical compounds, which give spoiled eggs their peculiar
          appearance, taste, and odor. Some of these molds are not
          injurious to health, while others may give rise to more or less
          serious illness.
      25. Various methods have been devised whereby their rapid
          deterioration may be prevented, and a knowledge of these is
          important to those who have occasion to purchase eggs or to
          keep them over from the season of plenty to the season of
          scarcity. The method followed to prevent losses due to the
          development of the embryo consists in the production of
          infertile eggs—that is, eggs that are non-productive. This is a
          point that is as well worth remembering in the home

288
    production of eggs as it is in professional poultry raising. The
    method employed to prevent the infection of eggs by molds and
    bacteria is to keep them clean and dry from the time they are laid
    until they are finally used.
26. While the preservation of eggs is carried on to a greater extent
    at present than formerly, the idea is neither new nor original;
    indeed, it has been practiced for many years by the people of
    some foreign countries. For instance, in some sections of
    China, duck eggs are preserved by covering them with a layer of
    mud, and such eggs are often kept for a year or more before they
    are eaten. However, eggs stored in this way decompose and their
    odor and flavor disappear before they are used, so that they
    must usually be hard boiled before they can be eaten. Egg
    preservation such as is practiced in the United States is the
    opposite of this and attempts to prevent not only ripening
    processes and put refactive changes but any bacterial or other
    changes that lessen the original quality. It will be well to note,
    however, that eggs preserved for any length of time deteriorate
    to some extent and cannot be expected to be equally as good as
    fresh eggs.



    COMMERCIAL PRESERVATION OF EGGS
27. The usual market method of preserving eggs is by cold
    storage, an industry that has developed to vast proportions in
    recent years. The success of this method depends on the
    fact that germs causing decomposition will not live in a low
    temperature. While the plan of storing eggs is responsible for
    their high price at certain times, it is also a means of supplying
    eggs to many persons who would otherwise not be able to obtain
    them. The greatest point in favor of this plan, however, is that it
    makes possible the marketing of quantities of eggs during the
    winter season of scarcity at a price that, although somewhat
    high at times, is much more moderate than it would be if it were
    not possible to store eggs in large quantities.
28. In order that advantage may be taken of favorable climatic
    conditions, eggs are commonly purchased for storage as early in
    the year as they are abundant. They are selected with great care,
    only those which are clean, sound, and fresh being used. These
    eggs are packed in clean cases, and then placed in warehouses
    where they are kept at a temperature just above freezing, or one

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          that ranges from 32 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit. In such storage,
          precaution is usually taken to prevent the eggs from freezing,
          for while freezing does not necessarily injure them for immediate
          use it breaks the shell because of the contraction that occurs.
          While the eggs are in storage, they are also protected as far as
          possible from air circulation, as this increases evaporation and
          causes the contents of eggs to shrink. To prevent the yolks from
          settling to one side, and finally adhering to the shell, the eggs are
          turned frequently. The usual limits of storage are from 6 to 9
          months, but eggs are not generally allowed to remain in storage
          more than 8 months. When taken out at the end of that time, it
          will be found that they have deteriorated very little, and while
          they cannot compete with the better grades of fresh eggs, they
          are as desirable as most of the eggs that can be purchased in the
          early fall when eggs are not plentiful.
      29. Sometimes eggs are removed from the shells, stored for
          commercial use in containers of about 50 pounds each, and
          kept at the freezing point until they are to be used. Eggs in this
          form, which may be bought with the yolks and whites either
          mixed or separate, find a ready market in bakeries and
          restaurants, where large quantities of eggs are continually used.
          Such eggs remain good for any length of time while they are
          kept frozen, but they must be used immediately after they are
          removed from storage.
      30. It is not always necessary to keep eggs at a cold temperature in
          order to preserve them, for a method that has proved very
          satisfactory is to reduce them to the form of powder by drying
          them. In this form, the bulk is greatly reduced, 1 pound of the
          dry material representing 30 to 40 eggs, and in order to prepare
          them for use in cooking they must be mixed with water.
          POWDERED EGGS, or desiccated eggs, as they are usually
          called, can be kept for an indefinite length of time without
          special care in storage, when they are wholesome and carefully
          handled. Tests that have been made show that eggs of this kind
          give fairly good results when used in cookery, but they are used
          principally by bakers, for they can be obtained more cheaply
          than fresh eggs, especially when it is difficult to secure eggs in
          other forms.


          HOME PRESERVATION OF EGGS



290
31. The housewife who desires to run her household on an
    economical basis will not depend entirely on eggs that are
    commercially stored, but will take advantage of one of the
    many methods by which eggs may be successfully kept in the
    home. By being prudent in this matter, she will be prepared to
    supply her family with this commodity at times when the
    market price is high.


    As many as twenty household methods have been tried out for
    the preserving of eggs, but each one is based on the theory that
    decay is hindered when the shell is covered with some
    substance that renders it air-tight and prevents evaporation or
    the entrance of bacteria and mold. Among the methods that
    have met with the most success are burying eggs in oats, bran,
    or salt; rubbing them with fat; dipping them in melted paraffin;
    covering them with varnish or shellac; and putting them down in
    lime water or in a solution of water glass.
    No matter which of these methods is adopted, however, it will
    be well to note that only eggs laid in April, May, or June should
    be used for storage purposes, as these are the best ones laid
    during the year; also, that the eggs should always be packed with
    the small end down, because the yolk will not settle toward the
    small end so readily as toward the large end or the side.
32. Of these various ways of preserving eggs in the home, probably
    the oldest method is that of packing the eggs in oats, bran, or
    salt. This method is fairly effective, but the eggs preserved by it
    do not keep so long as eggs preserved by other methods, nor is
    their quality so good. Preserving eggs by completely covering
    the shells with fat, vaseline, paraffin, varnish, or other substance
    that will exclude the air but not impart flavor to the eggs, proves
    a more satisfactory method so far as the eggs are concerned, but
    it requires more time and handling. To assist in their
    preservation, eggs are sometimes immersed in boiling water for
    12 to 15 seconds. This process, which causes the white to harden
    slightly just inside of the shell, keeps the eggs fairly well, but
    it is rather difficult to accomplish, as the least overcooking
    renders the egg unfit for use as a raw egg.


    As a result of many trials, it has been found that putting eggs
    down in the various solutions that are used for this purpose is the
    most effective way of preserving them under home conditions,

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          provided, of course, the solutions in which the eggs are
          immersed do not flavor the eggs. Therefore, to assist the
          housewife, detailed directions for using lime water and water
          glass for this purpose are here given.
      33. PRESERVATION             WITH LIMEWATER.—To                  prepare
          limewater for the preservation of eggs, dissolve 1 pound or 1
          pint of salt and 1 quart of finely slaked lime in 3 gallons of
          water, stir the solution at frequent intervals for a day or two, and
          then allow the liquid to settle. Place the eggs in tall stone crocks
          or kegs with their pointed ends turned down, filling the
          receptacles to within a few inches of the top. Pour the clear
          limewater over the eggs so arranged, allowing it to rise an inch
          or two above the top layer. Then stand the vessel in a cool
          place where the temperature will not exceed 50 degrees
          Fahrenheit. Eggs so treated will keep for at least 6 or 8 months.
          The only objection to this plan is that the eggs preserved by it
          sometimes acquire a slight lime taste.
      34. PRESERVATION WITH WATER GLASS.—Putting eggs
          down in a solution of water glass is without doubt the most
          satisfactory method of storing them in the home. So effective
          does this method prove that the housewife who has a
          convenient and proper storage room should not fail to take
          advantage of this way of laying up a supply of eggs.


          The commercial form of water glass is usually a mixture of
          potassium and sodium silicate, which, besides being cheaper
          than that which is chemically pure, is the kind that is
          preferred for the purpose of preserving eggs. A good quality of
          it either in a sirup-like solution or in the form of a powder
          retails in drug or grocery stores for about 10 cents a pound. To
          make a solution of the desired strength to preserve eggs
          satisfactorily, dissolve 1 part of water glass in 7 parts of warm
          water that has first been boiled to drive off bacteria, mold,
          spores, etc. One quart of water glass will make sufficient solution
          to cover about 12 dozen eggs. With the solution thoroughly
          mixed, it is ready to pour over the eggs.
          In selecting eggs for the purpose of storing, be careful to choose
          only those which are clean, fresh, and perfectly sound, and, if
          possible, infertile. It is advisable not to wash them before they
          are put into the preservative, for they will keep better if their
          bloom is not removed. Place the eggs in receptacles in the

292
       manner explained for preserving eggs in limewater, and over
       them pour the water-glass solution until they are all covered. If
       the eggs so prepared are stored in a cool place, they will keep as
       long as those preserved in limewater; besides, there will be no
       danger of their acquiring any foreign flavor.


   *     *     *    *     *

COOKING OF EGGS
PRELIMINARY PREPARATION
   35. The successful preparation of eggs for their use as a food
       demands that certain points must be observed by the housewife.
       For instance, she must see that the eggs she uses are in the
       right condition; that the shells are properly broken for the
       most convenient removal of the egg; that the parts of the egg
       are separated in the right way in case the whites and the yolks
       are to be used separately; and that the eggs receive the right
       treatment for the purpose for which they are to be used.
       Attention to all these points not only will insure the most
       satisfactory results, but will enable the housewife to supply her
       family with food that is extremely wholesome and nutritious.
   36. Exterior Condition of Eggs.—As has been explained, clean eggs
       are the most desirable, but it is not advisable to wash eggs that
       are to be kept for even a short time, as washing them removes
       the natural coating that helps to prevent the entrance of
       bacteria. However, as it is necessary that the shells be perfectly
       clean before they are broken or before the eggs are cooked, the
       eggs may be washed or wiped with a damp cloth immediately
       before such processes.
   37. BREAKING OF EGGS.—In cookery, it is usually desirable to
       break an egg shell so that the yolk will not run into the white; that
       is, so that these can be kept separate. While there are several
       methods of doing this, the housewife should adopt the one that
       is most convenient for her. A quick method that is often
       employed consists in striking the shell on the edge of the pan or
       the bowl into which the contents are to be put. A preferable
       method, however, is consists in striking one side of the shell,
       midway between the ends, a sharp blow with the edge of a knife.
       The advantage of this method will be evident after a trial or
       two, for it will be found that the depth of the cut made by the

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          knife can be so gauged that there will be little danger of
          breaking the yolk. Besides, fragments of the shell are not likely
          to fall into the bowl or the pan with the contents of the egg.
      38. SEPARATING OF EGGS.—Frequently recipes require that
          the yolks and whites of eggs be beaten separately before being
          added to the other ingredients. When this is the case, care must
          be exercised in taking the egg from the shell. The method by
          which this is most easily accomplished is the shell is first broken
          as nearly as possible into halves and then, while the egg is poured
          from ½ of the shell into the other, the white is dropped into a
          dish and the yolk is retained in the shell. During this process,
          the yolk should remain intact in its delicate membrane, for if it
          becomes mixed with the white the lightness of the white will be
          injured. To separate the yolk from the white is not difficult when
          eggs are fresh, but as they become stale the membrane
          surrounding the yolk grows weak and breaks easily. If the yolk
          breaks and any of it falls into the white, it must be completely
          removed before the white is beaten.
      39. BEATING OF EGGS.—Sometimes eggs are cooked in the
          shell and other times they are used alone just as they are
          removed from the shell, as in the frying and poaching processes;
          however, when they are to be combined with other ingredients,
          they are usually beaten. Eggs are beaten for the purpose of
          mixing the yolk and the white or of incorporating air to act as a
          leavening agent when the eggs are heated in the cooking process.
          Various utensils, such as a fork, an egg whip, or an egg beater,
          may be employed for beating eggs, the one to select depending
          on the use to which the eggs are to be put. The rotary, or Dover,
          egg beater, should be used to beat either whole eggs or the
          yolks of eggs when they are to be used in custards,
          mayonnaise, cakes, puddings, etc., as it will beat them
          sufficiently light for such purposes. However, for the beating
          of egg whites, use should be made of a fork or of an egg whip,
          because the whites must be lifted instead of stirred for the
          incorporation of air, and it is only with a utensil of this kind that
          this can be accomplished. Then, too, more air can be
          incorporated into the whites and the volume of the egg thereby
          increased by means of a fork or an egg whip than by an egg
          beater. An important point to remember in this connection is
          that eggs can be beaten more successfully when they are cold
          and have had a pinch of salt added to them.



294
40. In the beating of eggs, it should be remembered that for
    some purposes, as in making some kinds of sponge cake, they
    are beaten until nearly frothy, as shown in Fig. 10, when they do
    not stand up nor cling to the whip; whereas, for other purposes,
    as in making meringue, they are beaten until they are stiff enough
    to stand up well and to adhere to the whip. When egg whites are
    to be beaten stiff, care should be taken not to continue the
    beating too long. If this is done, they will become dry and will
    break up into small pieces, a condition that will mean a loss of
    some of the air that has been incorporated. It is well also to
    observe that egg whites should always be beaten in the same
    direction and that the same motion should be continued
    throughout the beating, for a change of direction or motion
    always causes a loss of air. A final precaution to take is never to
    allow egg whites to stand after they are beaten. If this is done,
    the leavening power of the eggs is reduced, because the air soon
    escapes from beaten eggs and leaves underneath them a clear
    liquid that can never be beaten up. For instance, eggs that are to
    be used for boiled icing should not be beaten until the sirup has
    finished boiling. However, eggs that have been separated but
    not beaten may stand for a couple of hours, provided they are
    covered and kept in a cool place.


    POINTS TO OBSERVE IN COOKING EGGS
41. As has been previously stated, the substance in eggs that
    requires special care in the cooking process is the protein, which
    occurs in this food in the form of albumen. Because of this,
    certain points concerning the treatment that the albumen requires
    should be kept in mind. In a raw egg, the albumen occurs in a
    semiliquid form, but it coagulates at a lower temperature than
    does the yolk, which contains a high percentage of fat. After
    coagulation, the consistency of the two parts is very different.
    The white is elastic and more or less tough, while the yolk,
    upon being thoroughly cooked, becomes powdery, or mealy,
    and breaks up into minute particles. The egg white begins to
    coagulate at 134 degrees Fahrenheit, and it becomes white and
    jellylike at 160 degrees. Bringing an egg to such a temperature
    produces a more desirable result than cooking it at a high
    temperature—boiling point, for instance—because the albumen,
    instead of becoming tough, as it does at a high temperature,
    acquires a soft, tender consistency that exists throughout the
    entire egg. An egg cooked in this way is more digestible and

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          appetizing than one that is boiled until it becomes hard and
          tough.
      42. The low temperature at which eggs will cook in the shell applies
          also to eggs when they are combined with other foods.
          Sometimes, however, a mixture in which eggs are one of the
          ingredients must be cooked at a high temperature because the
          materials mixed with them require it. This difficulty can be
          overcome when eggs are combined with starchy foods, such as
          corn starch, rice, and tapioca, that require long cooking. In such
          a case, all the ingredients except the eggs may be cooked the
          length of time they require, after which the eggs may be added
          so that they will cook just long enough to become coagulated.
          Longer cooking is liable to spoil the texture. Often the starchy
          mixture retains sufficient heat to set the eggs without further
          cooking after they are added.
      43. A very nutritious way in which to prepare eggs when they are
          to be used for a dessert is to combine them with milk to form a
          custard, which, after being sweetened and flavored, is baked. The
          proportion that has been accepted as ideal to produce a dessert
          of the right thickness is one egg to each cupful of milk; however,
          an entire egg is not always required, as one yolk is often
          sufficient to thicken 1 cupful of milk. Care should be taken in
          the cooking of such custards, for if they are cooked too long or
          at too high a temperature they will curdle and whey; whereas, a
          properly cooked custard—that is, one cooked slowly at a low
          temperature and for the required length of time—will have a
          smooth, jellylike consistency. A slight variation in a dish of this
          kind is secured by reducing the number of eggs and thickening it
          with corn starch or some other starchy material. While such a
          mixture is not a true custard, it makes an excellent dessert.
      44. In the cooking of mixtures containing eggs, no utensil proves
          quite so satisfactory as the double boiler, which has already been
          explained and illustrated. In fact, it is almost impossible to
          cook an egg mixture directly over the flame on account of
          the difficulty encountered in preventing the eggs from curdling.
          The low temperature at which cooking is possible in the double
          boiler makes it a comparatively simple matter to bring a mixture
          to the proper consistency without the formation of curds. Still, a
          certain amount of precaution must be taken even with a
          double boiler. If the degree of heat that is reached in this utensil
          is applied too long, the result will be no more satisfactory than
          when mixtures are exposed directly to the heat and cooked at a

296
    high temperature. While every effort should be made to cook
    mixtures containing eggs, such as custards or mayonnaise, so as
    to prevent curds from forming, occasionally they will form in
    spite of all that can be done. However, it is sometimes possible
    to remedy the matter by placing the vessel at once in cold
    water and beating the mixture rapidly with a Dover egg beater
    until the curds disappear. The cold water cools the mixture and
    prevents the formation of more curds, and the beating breaks
    up those which have already formed, provided they are not too
    hard.
45. In addition to the uses already mentioned, eggs have numerous
    other uses in cooking with which the housewife should be
    familiar. For instance, slightly beaten egg is used to a great
    extent to make crumbs or meal adhere to the surface of
    croquettes, meat, oysters, etc. that are to be sauted or fried in
    deep fat, a coating of this kind preventing the food from
    becoming soaked with grease. In addition, egg is used to stick
    flour together for certain kinds of dough, such as noodles. Then,
    again, it is much used to puff up mixtures and produce a hollow
    space in them, as in popovers and cream puffs. While such
    mixtures do not require beating, spongy mixtures, such as
    omelets and sponge cakes, do. In these, eggs are an important
    factor, and they must be thoroughly beaten in order to
    incorporate the air in small bubbles and thus produce the desired
    texture.



    SERVING OF EGGS
46. The manner of serving eggs depends, of course, on the way in
    which they are cooked. One point, however, that should never
    be overlooked, so far as eggs that are to be served hot is
    concerned, is that they should be served immediately upon being
    prepared, so that they will not have an opportunity to become
    cool before being eaten. This applies particularly to any spongy
    mixture, such as puff omelet and souffle, as these dishes shrink
    upon standing and become less appetizing in both appearance
    and texture.


    Several ways of serving soft-cooked eggs are in practice, but
    probably the most satisfactory way is to serve them in egg cups.


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          In case cups are used, they should be heated before being placed
          on the table, as the heat that they retain helps to keep the eggs
          warm. The eggs may be removed from the shell into the cup
          and eaten from the cup, or the unbroken egg may be placed
          point downwards in the small end of the cup, a small piece
          broken from the broad end of the shell, and the egg then eaten
          from the shell through the opening made in it. If egg cups are
          not available, the eggs may be removed from the shell and
          served in small dessert dishes, which also should be heated.
          Many egg dishes are made more attractive and appetizing by
          means of a garnish of some kind. Small strips or triangular pieces
          of toast, sprays of parsley, celery leaves, lettuce, and strips of
          pimiento are very satisfactory for this purpose. If no other
          garnish is desired, just a sprinkling of paprika adds a touch of
          color.
      47. In connection with the serving of eggs it will be well to note
          that they have a tendency to adhere to china and to discolor
          silver. Therefore, in the washing of china and the cleaning of
          silver that have been used in the serving of raw or slightly
          cooked eggs, much care should be exercised. Dishes in which
          eggs of this kind have been served should first be washed in cool
          water in order to remove all the egg, and then they should be
          thoroughly washed in hot water. If the hot water is applied first,
          the heat will cause the egg to coagulate and cling to the dishes.
          Silver that comes in contact with eggs tarnishes or becomes
          discolored through the action of the sulphur that is found in
          them, just as it does when it is exposed to the air. Dark spots
          that appear on silver from this source may be removed by means
          of a good silver cleaner.


          EGG RECIPES
      48. To enable the housewife to prepare many of the dishes
          already mentioned, as well as many other egg dishes, a number of
          recipes are here given. These recipes pertain to the cooking of
          eggs alone in various ways or to dishes in which eggs are the
          leading ingredient. There are, of course, numerous other
          dishes in which eggs are required, such as custards, cakes,
          mayonnaise, etc., but these are omitted here, as recipes for them
          are included in the lessons that pertain directly to them. In the
          first few recipes, the ingredients are omitted and merely
          directions given, for the eggs themselves are practically the only

298
    thing required, especially so far as the cooking is concerned.
    However, in the majority of cases, the ingredients are listed in
    the usual manner and explicit directions then given for carrying
    out the recipe.
49. SOFT-COOKED, OR JELLIED, EGGS.—Eggs that are
    cooked soft, or jellied, may be used for any meal in which plain
    eggs can be served. When properly prepared, they are both
    digestible and attractive, and any person who is able to eat eggs
    at all can eat them in this form.


    To prepare soft-cooked, or jellied, eggs, first bring to the boiling
    point sufficient water to cover well the desired number of
    eggs, which is usually 1 pint of water to each egg. Then drop
    the eggs into the water carefully, remove the pan from the fire,
    place a cover on it, and set it on the back of the stove, where the
    water will not heat further nor cool too rapidly. Allow the eggs
    to remain in the water for 5 minutes.
    When eggs cooked in this manner are served, they will be found
    to be the consistency of jelly all the way through. This method
    of cooking is preferable to boiling them for 3, 4, or 5 minutes,
    because boiling cooks the white just inside the shell very hard,
    while the yolk of the egg remains liquid.
50. POACHED EGGS.—Eggs properly poached make a very
    attractive breakfast dish, but the poaching should be well done
    in order to have the dish attractive and digestible. The food
    value of a plain poached egg is, of course, identically the same as
    that of a soft-cooked, a hard-cooked, or a raw egg. Eggs are
    usually poached in a shallow pan, although egg poachers are to
    be had.


    To poach eggs in a shallow pan, pour into the pan sufficient
    water to cover the eggs that are to be cooked, add a
    teaspoonful of salt or of vinegar for each pint of water, and bring
    it to the boiling point. Remove the pan from the flame or reduce
    the heat so that the water will cease to boil. Break the eggs, one
    at a time, into a saucer and then slide them carefully into the
    water. Do not allow the water to boil after the eggs have been
    added, as boiling toughens the egg white and in addition causes
    considerable loss by tearing it into shreds. When the eggs are set,
    remove them carefully from the water and season them with

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          salt and pepper. A convenient way to remove the eggs is to use a
          large spoon that has holes in the bowl for draining off the water.
          The salt or vinegar is added to the water before cooking in order
          to solidify the albumen and keep it in a mass.


          An egg poacher contains a perforated section of metal just large
          enough to hold an egg. In poaching eggs with such a utensil, the
          perforated part is placed over a pan of boiling water; then the
          egg is carefully slid into it, and allowed to poach. Eggs prepared
          in this way are really cooked by steam and are found to be very
          satisfactory.
      51. POACHED EGGS ON TOAST.—Eggs poached according to
          the directions just given can be made both appetizing and
          attractive by serving them on toast, indeed, the addition of toast
          to a poached egg adds a quantity of carbohydrate, a food
          principle in which the egg is lacking. If the toast is buttered, fat
          is added, and such a dish, together with fruit, makes a very
          excellent breakfast. A slice of toast of medium size with the
          usual amount of butter and egg will have a food value of about
          225 calories. In preparing poached eggs on toast, the usual
          custom is to butter slices of freshly made toast, moisten them
          with hot milk or cream, and place on them freshly poached eggs.
          The eggs are then seasoned with salt and pepper, and, if
          desired, a little piece of butter may be dropped on each one. To
          add to the attractiveness of such a dish, the toast may be cut
          round with a cookie cutter or a square piece may be cut
          diagonally to make two triangular pieces.
      52. HARD-COOKED EGGS.—Eggs that are cooked hard may
          be served hot or cold, or they may be used in numerous ways, as,
          for example, to garnish a dish to which the addition of protein
          is desirable or to supply a high protein dish for some light meal.


          To prepare hard-cooked eggs, bring to the boiling point
          sufficient water to cover well the desired number of eggs, about
          1 pint of water for each egg to be cooked usually being
          sufficient. Carefully drop the eggs into the water and place the
          pan on the back of the stove where the water will not boil, but
          will stay hot. Allow the eggs to remain in the hot water for 45
          minutes; then remove them, and if they are desired hot, serve
          them at once. If they are not to be served hot, pour cold water


300
    over them and allow them to cool before removing the shells
    in order to prevent the yolks from discoloring.
    When prepared in this way, eggs will be found to be tender and at
    the same time well cooked; whereas, if they are cooked at the
    boiling point, they are certain to be tough and leathery and
    consequently less digestible.
53. FRIED EGGS.—Fried eggs are likely to be more or less
    indigestible, because the hot fat coagulates the protein and
    makes it very hard. The addition of fat, however, increases the
    food value of the eggs to a certain extent. To fry eggs, melt
    enough butter or other fat in a frying pan to cover its surface
    well. Break the eggs one at a time into a saucer and slip them
    into the hot fat. Season with salt and pepper. Fry until the white
    has become well solidified on the bottom, and then either turn
    them over or put a few drops of water in the pan and cover it
    tight with a cover, so that the steam will cook the top of the
    egg. Fry until the desired degree of hardness has been obtained,
    and then serve.
54. SCRAMBLED EGGS.—A pleasing variety from the usual
    methods of preparation is offered by means of scrambled eggs,
    which are not difficult to make. Too long cooking, however,
    should be guarded against, for it will cause the protein in the eggs
    to become too hard and to separate from the liquid and will
    produce watery scrambled eggs. To be most satisfactory, they
    should be taken from the pan just before they have finished
    cooking, for the heat that they hold will complete it. Eggs
    prepared in this way, according to the accompanying recipe, may
    be served on toast or with ham and bacon. If they are served
    with meat, a smaller portion of meat should be given to a person
    than is ordinarily served.


    SCRAMBLED EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 eggs ¾ c. milk ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 2 Tb. butter
    Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk and seasonings.
    Melt the butter in a frying pan and, when the butter is hot, pour
    the egg mixture into it. As the eggs begin to thicken, stir them up
    from the bottom of the pan and continue to stir them until
    the entire mass has thickened slightly. Before the eggs are
    entirely cooked, remove them from the pan. Bacon and ham fat
    may be used instead of butter, and they are strongly

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          recommended if they can be secured, for they lend an excellent
          flavor to scrambled eggs.
      55. SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH TOMATO.—The addition of
          tomato to scrambled eggs lends an unusual flavor as well as a
          little variety to the dish. The same conditions apply to the
          cooking of scrambled eggs with tomato as apply to plain
          scrambled eggs; namely, that too long cooking ruins them. The
          onion included in the recipe here given may be omitted from the
          dish if it is not desirable. The fat to be used may be in the form
          of butter, although bacon or ham fat may be substituted to give
          an agreeable flavor.


          SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH TOMATO (Sufficient to Serve
          Six)
          3 Tb. fat 1 slice onion 1 c. stewed tomatoes ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp.
          pepper 6 eggs
          Put the fat into a frying pan, and when this grease is hot add the
          slice of onion and fry it until it is brown. Remove the onion from
          the fat, and add the stewed tomatoes, salt, and pepper. Then beat
          the eggs slightly and add them to the hot tomato. Stir the mixture
          slowly from the bottom of the pan until it is slightly thickened.
          Remove from the pan and serve hot.
      56. SCRAMBLED EGGS ON TOAST.—The addition of cheese
          to eggs, as in the accompanying recipe, makes a dish that is very
          high in protein and usually pleasing in flavor. So as not to
          overcook the eggs in this dish, they should be cooked only
          slightly in the pan, because they receive additional cooking when
          the dish is placed in the oven to melt the cheese. Browning the
          cheese slightly on top makes a very attractive dish, especially
          when garnished with parsley.


          SCRAMBLED EGGS ON TOAST (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          6 eggs ¾ c. milk ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 2 Tb. fat ½ c. grated
          cheese 6 slices of toast
          Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk, salt, and
          pepper. Melt the fat in a frying pan, and when it is hot add the
          egg mixture. Stir the mixture as it cooks until it has thickened
          slightly; then pour it over the slices of toast placed in a shallow
          pan. Sprinkle the grated cheese over the top, and place under a

302
    lighted broiler or in a very hot oven until the cheese melts.
    Remove to a platter garnish with parsley, and serve.
57. SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH HAM.—The accompanying recipe
    affords an excellent way in which to use up the little scraps of
    ham that may be cut from the bone when it is impossible to cut
    enough nice looking pieces to serve as a cold dish. Eggs prepared
    in this way will be found very tasty and will take the place of a
    meat dish for luncheon or supper.


    SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH HAM (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 eggs 1 c. milk ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1 c. chopped cooked
    ham 2 Tb. fat
    Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk, salt, pepper,
    and ham. Melt the fat in a frying pan and scramble the mixture as
    directed in Art. 54 until it is slightly thickened. Remove from
    the stove and serve at once. If desired, this dish may be served
    on toast. Other left-over meat, such as roast beef or pork, may
    be used in place of ham, but such meats do not make so tasty a
    dish, the flavor of ham in such a combination being more
    desirable. 58. PLAIN OMELET.—The simplest type of omelet,
    which is known as plain omelet, does not differ materially
    from scrambled eggs, except that the whole is collected in a
    mass in an omelet shape. No difficulty will be experienced in
    making such an omelet if the directions in the recipe here given
    are followed explicitly. To make this dish more attractive, some
    food of a contrasting color, such as jelly or tomatoes, may be
    used for garnishing.
    PLAIN OMELET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 eggs 6 Tb. water ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 3 Tb. fat
    Beat the eggs, and to them add the water, salt, and pepper. Heat
    the fat in an omelet pan or a small frying pan, and when it is
    hot add the egg mixture. When the egg on the bottom of the pan
    has thickened, tip the pan and draw the thickened portion
    toward the handle with the end of a knife, allowing the uncooked
    egg to run over the pan, and when that has thickened on the
    bottom, draw it up as before. Repeat until all of the egg has been
    cooked and an oblong-shaped omelet is formed. Place on a hot
    platter or plate, garnish with parsley or jelly, and serve.



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      59. PUFF OMELET.—Many housewives consider it to be a very
          difficult thing to make a puff omelet successfully; but such need
          not be the case if fresh eggs are used and the usual amount of
          care is taken in its preparation. The whites of the eggs must not
          be over-beaten, as too much beating will cause the loss of air
          and will not permit the omelet to become sufficiently light.
          Another precaution is that the mixture should not be
          overcooked, for the application of heat after it has been
          sufficiently cooked will cause it to shrink. This is a very pleasing
          dish and never fails to appeal to those persons who are fond of
          eggs.


          PUFF OMELET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 Tb. bread crumbs 4 Tb. milk 4 eggs ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper
          3 Tb. fat
          Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Separate the yolks and
          whites of the eggs. Beat the egg yolks and add them to the
          crumbs and milk. Add the salt and pepper. Beat the egg whites
          until stiff and fold them carefully into the yolk mixture. Heat the
          fat in an omelet pan or a frying pan, and when it is hot pour the
          mixture into it. Cook over a very slow fire, being careful not to
          burn the mixture, until a knife can be slipped under and the
          whole mixture raised. By this time the top should be quite puffed
          up. Place the pan in a hot oven, where the omelet should puff still
          more, and cook until it is no longer raw. With a knife, score
          across through the center on a straight line with the handle.
          Then carefully fold the omelet double, roll it out on a hot platter
          or plate, garnish with parsley, and serve at once. If an omelet of
          this kind stands for any length of time after it is served, it will
          shrink and be much less appetizing.



      60. CHEESE OMELET.—If an additional amount of protein in
          the form of casein is desired in an omelet, the accompanying
          recipe for cheese omelet should be tried. The addition of cheese
          makes this dish even a better meat substitute than either the plain
          or the puff omelet. Likewise, the cheese adds flavor, which may
          be increased if desired by the addition of more cheese than the
          recipe calls for. Although this recipe mentions butter, fat other
          than butter may be used.

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    CHEESE OMELET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    ½ c. grated cheese 2 Tb. bread crumbs 4 Tb. milk 4 eggs ½ tsp.
    salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 3 Tb. butter
    Mix the grated cheese with the bread crumbs, milk, egg yolks,
    salt, and pepper. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and fold
    them into the other ingredients. To cook the omelet, proceed
    according to the directions given for making puff omelet in Art.
    59.
61. TOMATO OMELET.—The addition of tomatoes to an
    omelet makes an attractive dish as far as color is concerned,
    and, at the same time, it gives variety by improving the flavor.
    Such an omelet is also less concentrated than a plain omelet,
    for the tomatoes provide bulk and additional water is added.
    While in a way these lower the food value of the dish, the loss is
    more than made up by the qualities that are added.


    TOMATO OMELET (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 eggs ½ c. milk ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 3 Tb. fat 2 medium-
    sized ripe tomatoes
    Beat the eggs, and to them add the milk, salt, and pepper. Heat
    the fat in a pan large enough to make the egg mixture ½ inch
    deep when poured into it. Cook slowly until it is well done.
    Peel and cut the tomatoes into slices 1/3 inch thick. Place the
    sliced tomatoes on ½ of the omelet, sprinkle them with salt and
    pepper, score the omelet through the center, and fold the other
    half over the tomatoes. Then slide the omelet on a hot platter,
    garnish with lettuce or parsley, and serve at once.
62. VARIETY IN OMELETS.—From the recipes given for
    omelets, it will be noted that this dish may be made plain or
    may be varied by adding ingredients that provide flavoring or
    increase the nutritive value. In addition to the suggestions that
    have been made in these recipes, there is an almost endless
    number of ways in which omelets may be varied. For instance,
    left-over bits of any kind of meat, such as a roast, a steak, or
    chops, from the day before or bits of bacon fried for a previous
    meal may be chopped fine and utilized for this purpose. Cheese
    cut fine or grated and mixed with the eggs helps to make a
    delicious omelet. Bread crumbs, cracker crumbs, rice, riced

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          potatoes, or left-over cereal may be used, as well as
          mushrooms, chopped or whole, and oysters raw or previously
          scalloped or fried and then chopped. Bits of fish, such as left-
          over crab or lobster, will do nicely for increasing variety. Often
          jelly, jam, and fruit or vegetables are folded inside after the
          omelet is cooked.
      63. STUFFED EGGS.—A highly seasoned cold dish that is
          delicious for picnics or cold lunches can be made by removing
          the yolks from hard-cooked eggs, seasoning them, and then
          stuffing them into the whites, as is explained in the recipe here
          given. Eggs so prepared also make a desirable high-protein dish
          for summer weather when meat dishes fail to appeal to the
          appetite. Wafers or tiny bread-and-butter sandwiches served
          with stuffed eggs make them more attractive.


          STUFFED EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          6 hard-cooked eggs ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1/8 tsp. paprika
          ½ tsp. mustard 2 Tb. vinegar
          Cut the eggs in half, either lengthwise or crosswise. Remove the
          yolks, mash them, add to them the salt, pepper, paprika,
          mustard, and vinegar, and mix thoroughly. Fill the egg whites
          with the yolk mixture. The eggs will be much more appetizing
          in appearance if the yolk is not packed smoothly back into the
          white but allowed to stand up roughly. The plate on which the
          eggs are served should be nicely garnished with lettuce,
          parsley, or celery leaves.
      64. CREAMED EGGS.—If a dish that will serve well for luncheon
          or a light supper is desired, creamed eggs, will be found very
          satisfactory, for the cream sauce that is served on them and the
          toast on which the eggs are placed add carbohydrate to an
          otherwise high-protein dish. The eggs used in this dish must be
          hard-cooked in water, so as not to be indigestible. Paprika
          sprinkled over the top and parsley used as a garnish add colors
          that make the dish very attractive.


          CREAMED EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1-1/2 c. milk 2 Tb. fat 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. paprika 6
          hard cooked eggs 6 slices of toast



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    Heat the milk. Put the fat in a saucepan and heat it until it is
    light brown; then add the flour, salt, and paprika to the melted fat
    and mix all thoroughly. Pour in the hot milk and stir the mixture
    constantly until the sauce has become smooth and thick. Cut the
    hard-cooked eggs into halves while they are hot, and place two
    halves with the cut sides down on each piece of toast. Pour the
    white sauce over all, sprinkle with paprika, and serve.
65. Eggs a la Goldenrod.—Closely resembling creamed eggs in
    composition and food value, but differing from them somewhat
    in appearance, are eggs a la goldenrod, This is, perhaps, even a
    more attractive dish if it is nicely made than creamed eggs, and
    many persons who do not like hard cooked eggs find this dish
    agreeable and are able to digest it.


    EGGS A LA GOLDENROD (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. milk 2 Tb. fat 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 4
    hard cooked eggs 6 slices of toast
    Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, salt,
    and pepper, and mix well. Then add the hot milk and stir until
    the sauce thickens. Chop the whites of the hard-cooked eggs into
    small pieces, and mix them with the white sauce. Arrange the
    toast on a platter and pour the sauce over it. Put the hard-cooked
    egg yolks through a sieve or a ricer and sprinkle them on top of
    the white sauce. Serve hot.
66. SCALLOPED EGGS.—A quantity of carbohydrate is added to
    eggs when they are scalloped, for the white sauce and the cracker
    crumbs that are used in this dish supply this food substance.
    The cold meat that this dish requires and that should be well
    chopped into small pieces may be left over from roasted,
    stewed, or even broiled meat. As this provides an additional
    amount of protein, the dish on the whole serves as an excellent
    substitute for meat with carbohydrate added.


    SCALLOPED EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. milk 2 Tb. fat ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 2 Tb. flour 1 c.
    cracker crumbs 4 hard-cooked eggs 1 c. chopped cold meat
    Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add the salt,
    pepper, and flour, and mix well. To this add the hot milk.
    Cook until the sauce thickens, stirring constantly. Grease a

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          baking dish and place in it 1/3 cupful of the cracker crumbs.
          Over the crumbs arrange two of the eggs sliced thinly, and on
          the top of the eggs put half of the meat. Repeat by adding a layer
          of 1/3 cupful of the crumbs, the remaining eggs sliced, and the
          remainder of the meat. Pour the white sauce over all and arrange
          the remaining 1/3 cupful of crumbs on top. Bake in a moderate
          oven for ½ hour. Serve hot from the baking dish.
      67. INDIVIDUAL BAKING DISHES FOR EGG RECIPES.—
          Although the directions given in the preceding recipe for
          scalloped eggs state that this recipe is baked in a baking dish, it is
          not necessary that one large dish of this kind be used, for, if
          desired, individual baking dishes may be substituted. In fact,
          any recipe for which a large baking dish would ordinarily be
          used may be baked in the small dishes used for a single serving,
          and eggs prepared in this way are especially attractive. Such
          dishes are also used for the baking of custards or the molding
          of jelly and blanc mange. Since they prove very useful and find
          so much favor, it is advisable for every housewife to add a few
          of them to her supply of utensils and to become familiar with the
          varieties that can be secured and the proper way to use them.


          Dishes of this kind may be purchased in both cheap and
          expensive varieties and in plain or fancy styles, being made of
          white porcelain, of glass, or of the brown ware so much used for
          large baking dishes and casseroles and having a white glazing on
          the inside.
      68. When such dishes are used as a means of adding variety to the
          cooking and serving of eggs, they should be placed in the oven
          in a shallow pan containing enough hot water to come nearly to
          the top of them. The object of this plan is to keep the
          temperature uniform. As long as the dishes are surrounded by
          water, the food to be cooked will not attain a greater heat than
          212 degrees Fahrenheit, because the surrounding water cannot
          reach a higher temperature. Food cooked in this way will be
          found to be baked much more evenly and to be of a better
          consistency than food that is subjected to the high temperature
          of the oven. Most of the recipes that follow, while they can be
          baked in large baking dishes if desired and then served from the
          dish, are designed particularly to be used in individual baking
          dishes.



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69. BAKED EGGS IN CREAM.—A dish that is particularly
    desirable for breakfast, but that may be served for luncheon, is
    made by baking eggs in cream according to the accompanying
    recipe. Besides being very appetizing, this dish is high in food
    value because of the addition of the cream and fat. Crisp toast
    served with eggs prepared in this way is very delightful.


    BAKED EGGS IN CREAM (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 eggs 1 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper ¾ c. cream
    Grease six individual baking dishes and break an egg into
    each. Put a small piece of butter on top of each egg and season
    with salt and pepper. Pour over each egg two tablespoonfuls of
    cream. Place the baking dishes in a shallow pan of hot water and
    bake until the eggs are as hard as desired. Serve hot.
70. SHIRRED EGGS WITH HAM.—An excellent way in which to
    utilize scraps of ham is to combine them with eggs to make a
    dish that may be served in place of meat. This dish, besides
    being high in food value, is very tasty because of the flavor of
    the ham and the fact that it is quite highly seasoned.


    SHIRRED EGGS WITH HAM (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    ½ tsp. prepared mustard ¼ tsp. pepper 1 c. chopped ham 6 eggs
    ¼ tsp. salt 1 Tb. butter
    Grease six individual baking dishes. Mix the mustard and pepper
    with the ham, and then divide this mixture as evenly as possible
    into the baking dishes. Break an egg on top of the ham in each
    dish, season with salt, and put a small piece of butter on each.
    Place the dishes in a shallow pan of hot water and bake in a
    moderate oven until the eggs are well set or hardened. Remove
    from the oven and serve at once.
71. EGG SOUFFLE.—If a delicate dish for children or invalids is
    desired, egg souffle will answer the purpose very well. This
    dish is light in character, but it is high in protein and to
    most persons is very delightful. It is more attractive if baked in
    individual baking dishes, but it may be baked in a large baking
    dish and served directly from the dish. To improve the flavor of
    egg souffle and make it a more appetizing dish, tomato sauce is
    often served with it.


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          EGG SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Eight)
          1 c. milk 2 Tb. fat 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt 1 Tb. chopped parsley 4
          eggs
          Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add to it the flour,
          salt, and parsley, and mix well. Pour in the hot milk, stir
          constantly until the sauce thickens, and then remove from the
          fire. Separate the eggs and add the well-beaten yolks to the sauce,
          stirring rapidly so that the egg will not curd. Beat the whites stiff
          and fold them carefully into the sauce. Turn into well-greased
          individual baking dishes until they are about two thirds full, place
          in a shallow pan of hot water, and bake until firm when touched
          with the finger. Serve at once in the dishes in which they are
          baked, because they shrink when they are allowed to cool.
      72. The tomato sauce that is often served with egg souffle is made
          as follows:


          TOMATO SAUCE
          1 ½ c. strained stewed tomatoes 2 Tb. fat ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp.
          pepper 2 Tb. flour
          Force enough stewed tomatoes through a sieve to make 1 ½
          cupfuls of strained tomato. Heat the strained tomato and to it
          add the fat, salt, and pepper. Moisten the flour with a little cold
          water and add it to the hot tomato. Cook for 5 minutes. Serve
          over the souffle.
      73. Alpine Eggs.—It is rather unusual to combine cream or cottage
          cheese with eggs, so that when this is done, as in the
          accompanying recipe, a dish that is out of the ordinary is the
          result. If not a sufficient amount of cottage cheese is in supply to
          serve for a meal, it may very well be used for this dish.
          Otherwise, cream cheese serves nicely.


          ALPINE EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 10-cent pkgs. cream cheese or 1 c. cottage cheese 2 Tb. finely
          chopped parsley 1/8 tsp. paprika 6 eggs 1 Tb. butter 1 ½ tsp. salt
          Grease six individual baking dishes. Break up the cheese with a
          fork and sprinkle a layer on the bottom of each dish. Break an


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    egg in each dish over the cheese. Season with salt. Sprinkle a
    layer of cheese on top of the egg, and over that put chopped
    parsley, paprika, and a small piece of butter. Place the baking
    dishes in a shallow pan of hot water and bake in a moderate
    oven until the eggs are set. Remove from the oven and serve at
    once.
74. Clipped Eggs.—The chief value of clipped eggs is their
    appearance, which,, is very attractive. This dish adds much to the
    breakfast tray of an invalid or will tempt the appetite of a child
    who does not feel like eating. But in addition to being
    attractive, this dish is high in food value, for in this respect it is
    exactly equivalent to a poached egg on toast or a plain egg
    served with a piece of toast to which is added a small amount
    of butter.


    CLIPPED EGGS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    6 pieces toast 3 Tb. butter 6 eggs ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper
    Butter the toast with some of the butter. Separate the whites and
    yolks of the eggs without breaking the yolks. Beat the whites
    stiff, and put a mound of the beaten white on top of each piece
    of buttered toast. Make a hole in the center of the mound of
    egg white and drop the unbroken yolk into it. Season each with
    salt and pepper and bits of the remaining butter. Place in a hot
    oven and bake until the yolk is set and the white slightly
    browned. Serve hot.
75. LEFT-OVER EGGS.—It is not a difficult matter to utilize eggs
    in any form in which they may be left over, for they combine
    readily with many other foods. For instance, left-over hard-
    cooked eggs may be sliced or chopped and used to garnish
    dishes of vegetables, meat, fish, or salads. Eggs cooked in this
    way may also be stuffed according to the recipe given in Art.
    63, or they may be crushed and mixed with seasoning for
    sandwiches. If any soft-cooked eggs remain after a meal, they
    should be hard-cooked in order to be used to the best advantage.
    Left-over omelet or scrambled, poached, or fried eggs may be
    chopped and added to soups, sauces, or gravies, or combined
    with small pieces of meat or fish and used with crumbs and white
    sauce to make a scalloped dish.




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          Even uncooked eggs that are taken from the shells, but that
          cannot be used at once, need not be wasted if proper care is given
          to them to prevent the formation of a hard crust over their
          surface. Such eggs should be put into a dish that will allow as little
          of the surface as possible to be exposed and should be covered
          with cold water and kept in a cool place. When they are desired
          for use, the water should be poured off carefully so as to
          prevent the loss of any of the egg.
          BREAKFAST MENU
      76. So that a definite idea may be formed of the student’s progress
          in cookery, there is here presented a breakfast menu that is to be
          prepared and reported on at the same time that the answers to
          the Examination Questions are sent. This menu is practical and
          it may be easily prepared, as all the dishes it contains have already
          been considered.


          MENU
          Sliced Bananas Cream of Wheat Graham Muffins Butter Puff
          Omelet Coffee
          In most homes, breakfast is a meal that is gathered together
          with as little thought and preparation as possible. The reason
          for this is that the housewife feels that she does not wish to
          rise early enough in the morning to prepare an elaborate menu.
          Breakfast, however, should be the most attractive meal in the
          day, because it is one that gives to each member of the family
          the right start for the day and sustains him until luncheon time.
          In most cases, a cup of coffee and a slice or two of toast do not
          start one with a cheerful attitude, nor do they contain sufficient
          food value to nourish the individual properly. With a little
          forethought and planning, certain foods may be partly prepared
          for breakfast the day before. If this is done, the time required
          for the actual preparation of the breakfast need not be greatly
          increased. For example, in the accompanying menu, the cream
          of wheat may be cooked the evening before, the materials for
          the graham muffins measured, and even the pan in which they
          are to be baked greased, and the materials for the omelet
          collected and measured. If all this is done, the preparation
          necessary in the morning will consist merely of slicing the
          bananas, reheating the cream of wheat, preparing the coffee,
          baking the muffins, and making the omelet. While the coffee


312
    and cream of wheat are heating or cooking, the oven will be
    heating, so that when the muffins are mixed it will be ready to
    bake them; and while these are baking the omelet may be
    prepared. When this is done, all will be ready to serve.
    EGGS
    EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
(1) Give a brief description of the physical structure of an egg.
(2) (a) Why are eggs an important article of diet? (b) For what foods
    may they be substituted?
(3) (a) Mention the food substances that are found in an egg, and
    give the percentage of each one. (b) What food substance is
    lacking in eggs, and how may it be supplied?
(4) What is the chief food substance in: (a) an egg white? (b) an
    egg yolk?
(5) Discuss briefly the digestibility of eggs.
(6) (a) Of what value is the grading of eggs? (b) What points are
    considered when eggs are graded?
(7) (a) What conditions affect the quality of eggs? (6) Mention the
    agencies that render the quality of eggs inferior and explain
    how they work.
(8) How can the quality of eggs be determined: (a) in the market? (b)
    in the home?
(9) (a) What is the common commercial means of preserving eggs?
    (b) How is it beneficial to the housewife?
(10) (a) Mention the various ways by which eggs may be preserved
     in the home. (b) Explain the preservation of eggs with water
     glass.
(11) When may the shells of eggs be washed?
(12) (a) What is the preferable method of breaking an egg? (b) Explain
     how the yolk and the white of an egg may be separated.
(13) (a) For what purposes are eggs beaten? (b) With what kind of
     egg beater should egg yolks or whole eggs be beaten?
(14) (a) With what kind of utensil should egg whites be beaten? (b)
     Why should egg whites not be allowed to stand after beating?
(15) (a) What is the effect of heat upon an egg? (b) Why are eggs
     cooked in the shell better if they are cooked at a temperature

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          lower than boiling point? (c) Cook an egg by boiling it rapidly for
          20 minutes. Cook another egg according to the directions given
          in Art. 52. Remove the shells while the eggs are warm, compare
          the texture, and report the differences.
      (16) (a) When eggs are used in a mixture that is to be cooked for a
           long time, when should they be added? (b) What can be
           substituted for some of the eggs in a mixture that requires eggs
           for thickening?
      (17) (a) What point should never be overlooked in the serving of eggs
           that are intended to be served hot? (b) Why should spongy egg
           dishes be served immediately after cooking?
      (18) (a) How should dishes that have contained eggs be washed? (b)
           Why is such care necessary?
      (19) (a) What precautions should be taken in the making of a puff
           omelet? (b) Mention some of the things that may be used to
           give variety to omelets.
      (20) (a) What are the advantages of individual baking dishes? (b)
           State how these should be put in the oven and explain the object
           of this plan.



REPORT ON MENU
After trying out the menu given in the text, send with your answers to the Examination
Questions a written report of your success in making it. On your report simply write the
name of the food and describe its condition by means of the terms specified in the
following list:
Cream of Wheat: thin? thick? properly seasoned? smooth? lumpy?
Graham Muffins: light? heavy? texture coarse? texture fine? even brown color on crust?
well flavored?
Puff Omelet: light? heavy? underdone? overdone? even brown on bottom? tough?
tender? properly seasoned?


      *     *     *      *      *



VEGETABLES (PART 1)




314
   *     *    *     *     *


IMPORTANCE OF VEGETABLES AS FOOD
VARIETY IN VEGETABLES
   1. As understood in cookery, VEGETABLES refer to plants or
      parts of plants that are used as food. Vegetables may consist of
      the entire plant, as, for example, the beet; the stem, as asparagus
      and celery; the root, as carrot and turnip; the underground stem,
      or tuber, as the white potato and onion; the foliage, as cabbage
      and spinach; the flower of the plant, as cauliflower; the pods,
      which hold the seeds of the plant or the seeds themselves, as
      peas and beans; or that which in reality is fruit, although for table
      use always considered a vegetable, as the tomato and eggplant.
   2. Because of this large assortment, vegetables afford the
      greatest possible variety in flavor, appearance, texture, quality,
      and food value. They therefore assume a place of very great
      importance in the diet of individuals and in the plans of the
      housewife who has all the meals to prepare for her family. In
      fact, there is scarcely a meal, except breakfast, at which
      vegetables are not served. For dinner, they form a part or all of
      each course in the meal, except, perhaps, the dessert, and
      occasionally they may be used for this.


       Although two or more vegetables are nearly always served in even
       a simple meal, the use of vegetables in most households is
       limited to those few varieties which are especially preferred by
       the family. As a rule, there are a number of other vegetables that
       would be very acceptable if prepared in certain appetizing ways.
       An effort should therefore be made to include all such
       vegetables in the dietary, for they may be used to decided
       advantage and at the same time they afford variety in the
       meals. The constant demand for variety in this food makes
       acceptable new recipes for the preparation of the vegetables
       already known and information for the use of the unfamiliar
       kinds.
   3. Great variety also exists in the flavor of vegetables, which they
      derive from their volatile oils; that is, the oils that evaporate
      rapidly on exposure to the air. In some cases, the flavor is
      disagreeably strong and must be dissipated, or driven away, in
      order to make the vegetables agreeable to the taste and to

                                                                       315
          prevent them from disagreeing with those who eat them. In
          others, the flavor is very mild, so that unless the vegetables
          are properly prepared the flavor may be almost lost. When the
          principles relating to the cooking of vegetables are
          thoroughly understood, little difficulty will be experienced in
          preparing them so that the flavor is dissipated or retained as the
          case may require.
      4. The food value of vegetables varies as much as do their form
         and flavor, some of them having almost no food value, others
         having a great deal, and the remainder varying between these two
         extremes. The housewife who wishes to provide economically
         for her family and at the same time give them food that is best
         suited to their needs, should learn as much of the composition
         and food value of the various kinds of vegetables as possible.
         If, besides acquiring this knowledge, she learns a variety of ways
         in which to prepare each kind, she will find that it is possible to
         substitute vegetable dishes for the more expensive foods. For
         instance, it is often possible to substitute a vegetable dish for a
         meat dish several times a week, but the composition of the
         vegetable dish must be such that it will really take the place of
         the meat dish.
      5. That it is possible for adults to live on vegetables alone has
         been proved by vegetarians; that is, persons who exclude meat
         from the diet. They have shown that all the elements necessary to
         build and maintain the human body are contained in vegetables,
         fruits, and cereals, and also that these elements are in such
         quantity that it is not necessary to supply them in any other
         way. Even if it is not desired to use such foods exclusively, as
         much use should be made of them as possible, for they average
         a lower cost than the high-protein foods, such as eggs, meat, and
         milk. The use of vegetables, however, need not be restricted to
         adults, for when properly prepared they may be included to
         advantage in the diet of very young children. In fact, children
         should be trained to eat vegetables of all kinds, for such
         training not only will enable each one to grow up with a correct
         appreciation for all edible things, but will make the preparation
         of meals easier for the housewife.
      6. Vegetables should receive great care in their preparation, whether
         the method involved is simple or complicated. Any of the
         methods of cookery that call for the application of heat may be
         applied to them, and in many cases they are served without
         cooking, merely dressing or seasoning being added. Good

316
    vegetables may be ruined by improper preparation, while those
    which are in excellent condition may be improved by the
    application of the correct methods in their preparation.
    Vegetables that are inexpensive but highly nutritious should be
    used when it is necessary to practice economy, because, when
    they are properly prepared, they form a valuable addition to a
    meal.
7. All varieties of vegetables are grown almost universally. This
   fact, together with the facts that they mature at different times
   during the season, according to the climate in which they are
   grown, and that most varieties can be conveniently shipped,
   makes the season in which certain fresh vegetables can be
   obtained much longer than it formerly was. For instance, very
   early in the season, long before it is possible to have beans,
   peas, and other vegetables in the North, they are shipped from
   the extreme South, and as the season advances, they mature
   farther and farther north. Therefore, they may be constantly
   supplied to the northern markets until the time when they
   mature in that locality.
8. In order not to waste vegetables and to have them in the best
   possible condition when they are desired for preparation, every
   housewife should realize that the selection and care of
   vegetables are also important matters to consider. The selection
   must be learned by familiarity with them, as well as practice in
   buying, and the housewife must be guided by the suitability of
   the vegetables and the money she has to spend for them. The
   care that must be given to them is determined by the kinds that
   are purchased, some requiring one kind of care in storage and
   others entirely different attention.


    STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION, AND FOOD VALUE
9. STRUCTURE OF VEGETABLES.—Although vegetables
   vary greatly in composition and consequently in food value,
   they are similar so far as physical structure is concerned. In
   general, they consist of a skeleton framework that is made up of
   cellulose. Their digestible part is composed of tiny cells having
   thin walls that confine the actual food material in the form of a
   liquid or semiliquid. As the vegetables grow old, the cellulose
   material and the cell walls gradually toughen, with the result that
   old vegetables are less easily made tender than young ones and
   are not so agreeable to the taste as those which have not

                                                                  317
          grown hard. The total food value of vegetables, as well as of
          cereals, meats, and, in fact, all foods, varies with the quantity of
          water and cellulose they contain. Therefore, the vegetables that
          contain the least coarse material are the ones that have the
          highest food value.
      10. The green color that characterizes many vegetables is due to
          a substance called chlorophyl. This substance is essential to the
          normal growth of plants and is present in the correct amount in
          only those which are properly exposed to the sunlight. Sufficient
          proof of this is seen in the case of vegetables that form heads, as,
          for instance, cabbage and head lettuce. As is well known, the
          outside leaves are green, while the inside ones are practically
          white. Since it is exposure to the light that produces the green
          color, a vegetable or plant of any kind can be bleached by merely
          covering it in order to keep out the sunlight. This procedure
          also enables the plants to remain more tender than those which
          have been allowed to grow in the normal way and become
          green. For instance, the inside leaves of a head of lettuce are
          always very much more tender than the green outside leaves. In
          fact, the center of any kind of plant, that is, the leaves and the
          stem that appear last, are more tender, possess a lighter color,
          and have a more delicate flavor than the older ones.
      11. PROTEIN IN VEGETABLES.—Taken as a whole, vegetables
          are not high in protein. Some of them contain practically none of
          this food substance and others contain a comparatively large
          amount, but the average is rather low. Vegetables that are high
          in water, such as lettuce, celery, tomatoes, and cucumbers,
          contain so little protein that the quantity is not appreciable.
          Such vegetables as potatoes, beets, carrots, etc. contain slightly
          larger quantities. Dried vegetables, such as beans, peas, and
          lentils, contain comparatively large amounts of this substance,
          and for this reason may be substituted for such high-protein
          foods as meat and fish.
      12. The composition of vegetable protein is only slightly different
          from that of animal protein. In fact, the experiments of scientists
          show that animal protein may be readily replaced by vegetable
          protein. One of these proteins is sometimes called vegetable
          albumin, but the chief protein of vegetables containing the
          largest amount of this substance, namely, beans, peas, and lentils,
          is called legumin, from the term legumes, the name of this class
          of vegetables. It is generally agreed that vegetable protein is not
          so digestible as animal protein, but this disadvantage is offset by

318
    the fact that it does not bring about so much intestinal trouble
    as does the protein of animal foods and is less likely to cause
    disturbances that are usually attributed to foods high in this
    substance. Vegetable protein is affected by heat in much the
    same way as other protein.


    When any of the dry vegetables high in protein are served at a
    meal, meat should be eliminated, or the result will be an
    oversupply of protein. As this condition is not only harmful but
    wasteful, it is one that should receive proper consideration from
    the housewife.
13. FAT IN VEGETABLES.—As vegetables as a class are low in
    protein, so are they low in fat. In the case of some vegetables,
    the quantity of fat they contain is so small that it is never
    considered in discussing the food value of these vegetables, while
    in others slightly larger quantities are to be found. However, on
    the whole, vegetables are so nearly lacking in this food
    substance that it is necessary to supply fat in their preparation
    and in the serving of meals in which they are included. This is
    done in a variety of ways, depending on the nature of the
    vegetable. For instance, in order that baked beans may take
    the place of meat entirely, fat in the form of salt pork is
    usually added when they are prepared. The pork, of course,
    also supplies a very small amount of protein, but it is not used
    with the beans for this purpose. Practically all cooked vegetables
    are served with butter or with a sauce that contains fat. Green
    vegetables that require no cooking but are served as a salad, are
    supplied with fat by the salad dressing that is used with them.
    The fat varies greatly, depending on the kind of dressing used.
14. CARBOHYDRATES                IN VEGETABLES.—When                 the
    composition of vegetables is considered chemically, the most
    striking thing about them is the carbohydrates they contain.
    It is this that distinguishes this class of foods from animal foods.
    The carbohydrate of vegetables is found in both its forms,
    starch and sugar. It is in the form of sugar in many of the
    vegetables when they are young or immature, but it turns into
    starch as they mature. This change can be easily observed in the
    case of peas. As is well known, young green peas are rather sweet
    because of the sugar they contain, while mature or dried peas
    have lost their sweetness and are starchy. The sugar that is
    found in large quantities in such vegetables as peas, carrots,


                                                                    319
          turnips, etc. is largely cane sugar. The starch that vegetables
          contain occurs in tiny granules, just as it is found in cereals,
          and is affected by cooking in the same way. The mature
          vegetables in which the starch has developed, although less
          tender and less sweet than young ones, have a higher food value.
          In fact, the carbohydrate that vegetables contain constitutes a
          large proportion of their food value.


          One of the chief sources of starch among vegetables is the
          potato, in which the starch grains are large and, if properly
          cooked, easily digested. Irish, or white, potatoes contain very
          little carbohydrate in the form of sugar, but in the sweet potato
          much of the carbohydrate is sugar. In either of these two
          forms—starch and          sugar—vegetable carbohydrate is easily
          digested.
      15. MINERAL MATTER, OR ASH, IN VEGETABLES.—The
          mineral matter in vegetables is found in comparatively large
          quantities, the average amount being slightly over 1 per cent. The
          presence of this substance is of great value, because the mineral
          salts of both fruits and vegetables are essential in the diet of
          adults in order to keep their health in a normal condition. The
          mineral salts of vegetables render the blood more alkaline instead
          of more acid, as do those contained in cereals and meat. A large
          number of vegetables, particularly those low in food value,
          such as greens, celery, etc., are very valuable for their mineral
          salts. In reality, this substance and the cellulose they contain are
          the things that recommend the use of these vegetables in the
          diet. Minerals of all kinds are found in solution in the water
          contained in vegetables, but chief among them are calcium,
          sodium, iron, phosphorus, and sulphur. Greens and salad
          vegetables are particularly high in iron, the element that assists
          in keeping the blood in good condition. These minerals are easily
          lost if the method of cookery is not planned to retain them.
      16. CELLULOSE IN VEGETABLES.—The special use of
          cellulose, as has already been learned, is to serve as bulk in
          the food containing it. In vegetables, the cellulose varies
          greatly as to quantity, as well as to texture and the amount that
          can be digested. In young vegetables, it is very soft and perhaps
          digestible to a certain extent, but as they grow older it hardens
          and they become tough. This fact is clearly demonstrated in the
          case of beets. Those which are pulled from the garden in the


320
    summer and cooked are tender and soft, but those which are
    allowed to mature in the ground and are then put away for
    winter are, when cooked in the late winter or early spring, so
    hard and tough that it is almost impossible to make them soft.
    The quantity of cellulose that vegetables contain therefore
    depends largely on their age and condition. Those low in total
    food value contain, as a rule, larger quantities of it than those
    high in food value. This is due to the fact that both water and
    cellulose, which are usually found together in large quantities,
    help to detract from the fuel, or food, value of foods.


    Very young persons or those who are ill sometimes find it
    impossible to take in its original form a vegetable that contains
    a large amount of bulk, or cellulose. In such a case, the
    vegetable may be put through a colander or a sieve in order to
    break up the cellulose and make it easier to digest. Under
    ordinary conditions, cellulose should not be avoided, but should
    be included in large quantities in the diet through the vegetables
    that are consumed daily.
17. WATER IN VEGETABLES.—The majority of vegetables
    contain a large quantity of water. Such vegetables as lettuce,
    cucumbers, tomatoes, etc., which are low in total food value,
    contain the most water, the average percentage being about 95.
    The dry vegetables, which are high in food value, average only
    about 10 per cent. of water. The water that is found in
    vegetables, whether it is much or little, is contained in cell-like
    structures surrounded by cellulose, and it holds in solution the
    mineral salts and much of the nutriment of the vegetables. In
    addition, the water holds in solution to a certain extent the
    material that gives vegetables their distinctive flavor. When
    any of this water is lost in the preparation of vegetables, the
    substances that it contains are also lost. It is therefore essential
    that correct methods of preparation be chosen for the cooking
    of this food, so as to prevent the waste of valuable food
    materials.
18. DIGESTIBILITY OF VEGETABLES.—The digestibility of
    vegetables is largely an individual matter; that is, a vegetable that
    agrees with one person may not agree with another. The fact
    that there appears to be no apparent reason for such a condition
    would lead to the conclusion that it is due to the peculiarities of
    the person. Because of this, it is not fair to make the general


                                                                     321
          statement that a particular vegetable is easy to digest and
          another one is hard to digest.


          The chief cause for difficulty in the digestion of vegetables lies
          in their volatile oils, which give them their flavor, but which
          are irritating to many persons. Vegetables having a strong
          flavor, such as radishes, onions, cucumbers, cabbage, and
          cauliflower, are the ones that disagree most frequently with
          persons who eat them; but sometimes the way in which some
          of them are cooked has more to do with this than the
          vegetables themselves.
          Vegetables containing considerable cellulose and water do
          not of themselves give trouble in digestion, because they
          contain practically nothing to digest; but they are sometimes
          responsible for interfering with the digestion of other foods.
          Vegetables that are extremely high in starch, such as potatoes,
          are easily digested by most persons, provided they are properly
          cooked. For instance, a plain baked potato is easily digested,
          but the same potato sauted in fat is more difficult of
          digestion.
      19. TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE
          OF VEGETABLES.—As vegetables vary considerably in the
          amount of the food substances they contain, so do they differ
          greatly in their food value. This is clearly shown in Table I, which
          gives the percentage of the food substances of vegetables, as
          well as the food value per pound, in calories, that these
          vegetables contain. The figures in this table are taken from
          Atwater’s Table of American Food Materials, and refer to the
          edible portion of the material. In the case of several vegetables,
          no figures are given by this authority, but in the table here
          presented the percentages and the calories for the vegetables
          most similar are used. For example, the figures for lettuce are
          used for endive, as the composition and food value of this
          vegetable are not included and it resembles lettuce very closely.
          Constant reference should be made to Table I as progress is
          make with the study of vegetables and their preparation. Noting
          the difference in the composition of the different vegetables,
          as well as the variation in their food value, will be not only
          interesting but instructive. For instance, when the housewife
          realizes that lettuce and celery furnish only 85 to 90 calories to
          the pound, while dried beans and peas average more than 1,700


322
         calories to the pound, she will understand better the place that
         these foods occupy in the dietary.


         TABLE I
         COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF VEGETABLES
                                  Food          Value                 Vegetable
Water Protein Fat                                               Carbo- Ash
per                                                 Pound                 hydrate
Calories ----------                                        -------------------
-------------------                                                   ------------
Asparagus ..........                                    94.0 1.8                .2
3.3 .7              105                               Beans                 Dried
............ 12.6                                     22.5 1.8 59.6
3.5 1,750 Lima                                                 ............. 68.5
7.1          .7 22.0                                  1.7          570 Shelled
..........       58.9                                   9.4          .6 29.1
2.0           740 String                                     ........... 89.2
2.3          .3     7.4                                .8          195 Beets
.............. 87.5                                     1.6            .1      9.7
1.1                 215                               Brussels sprouts ...
88.2 4.7 1.1                                            4.3 1.7               215
Cabbage ............                                    91.5 1.6                .3
5.6 1.0              145                                    Carrots ............
88.2 1.1               .4                               9.3 1.0               210
Cauliflower ........                                    92.3 1.8                .5
4.7 .7               140                                     Celery .............
94.5 1.1               .1                               3.3 1.0                85
Corn ...............                                   75.4 3.1 1.1
19.7 .7              470                               Cucumbers ..........
95.4           .8     .2                                 3.1 .5                80
Eggplant ...........                                    92.9 1.2                .3
5.1 .5              130                              French artichokes ..
92.5           .8     .2                                5.0 1.5               110
Greens Dandelion                                            ........ 81.4 2.4
1.0 10.6 4.6                                          285                 Endive
...........      94.7                                   1.2           .3       2.9
.9          90 Spinach                                       ..........      92.3
2.1          .3     3.2                               2.1            110 Swiss
chard ...... 92.3                                        2.1           .3     3.2
2.1          110 Lettuce                                     ..........      94.7
1.2           .3     2.9                                  .9                   90


                                                                             323
Watercress .......                                       94.7 1.2             .3
2.9 .9              90                              Jerusalem artichokes
79.5 2.6 2.0                                            16.7 1.0           365
Kohlrabi ...........                                     91.1 2.0             .1
5.5 1.3             145                                   Lentils, dried .....
8.4 25.7            1.0                                59.2 5.7 1,620
Mushrooms ..........                                     88.1 3.5             .4
6.8 1.2              210                                    Okra ...............
90.2 1.6              .2                                 7.4 .6            175
Onions .............                                     87.6 1.6             .3
9.9 .6              225                                    Parsnips ...........
83.0 1.6              .5                                13.5 1.4           300
Peas               Dried                                     ............ 9.5
24.6 1.0 62.0                                        2.9 1,655 Green
............ 74.6                                       7.0         .5 16.9
1.0          465 Peppers                                     ............ 92.9
1.2          .3    5.1                                .5       130 Potatoes
Irish ............                                      78.3         2.2      .1
18.4 1.0             385                                    Sweet ............
69.0 1.8              .7                                27.4 1.1           570
Radishes ...........                                     91.8 1.3             .1
5.8 1.0              135                                     Salsify ............
88.2 1.1              .4                                9.3 1.0            210
Squash            Summer                                     ........... 95.4
.8          .2     3.1                                 .5          80 Winter
...........     88.3                                     1.4         .5     9.0
.8         215 Tomatoes                                      ........... 94.3
.9          .4     3.9                                .5       105 Turnips
............ 89.6                                        1.3         .2     8.1
.8          185 -------                                    -------------------
-------------------                             ----------------




      *    *     *         *   *


PURCHASE AND CARE OF VEGETABLES
PURCHASE OF VEGETABLES
      20. As in the case of other foods, the purchase of vegetables in
          the market requires special knowledge and attention in order


324
    that the best value may be obtained for the money expended.
    The housewife who has a limited amount of money to spend
    for food does not buy wisely when she purchases vegetables
    out of season or those which must be shipped long distances.
    On the other hand, it will be found that vegetables bought in
    season as well as those which are plentiful in the particular
    locality in which they are sold, especially if they are perishable
    vegetables, are lowest in price and are in the best condition for
    food. Therefore, whether the income is limited or not, it is
    wisdom on the part of the housewife to buy vegetables that grow
    in the neighboring region and to purchase them when they are
    in season.
21. A very important point for the housewife to keep in mind
    regarding the purchase of vegetables is that their price is
    determined not by their value as food, but by their scarcity and
    the demand for them. Take, for example, the case of
    mushrooms. As shown in Table I, this vegetable is low in food
    value, containing only 210 calories to the pound, but, if
    purchased, they are always an expensive food. The high price
    asked for mushrooms is entirely dependent on their scarcity. If
    there is much demand in a certain community for a food that is
    not plentiful in the market, the price of that food always goes
    up. As in the case of mushrooms, many expensive foods add
    practically nothing in the way of nourishment, their only value
    being in the variety of flavor they supply.
22. Furthermore, in order to provide wisely, the person who
    purchases vegetables for the family should be able to judge
    whether she is getting full value in food for the money she
    invests. She cannot always do this with each particular vegetable
    purchased, but she can buy in such a way that what she
    purchases will average correctly in this respect. The perishable
    vegetables should be bought as fresh as possible. No difficulty
    will be experienced in determining this, for they will soon wither
    or rot if they are not fresh, but the point is to find out their
    condition before they are bought. The housewife should be
    ever on the alert and should examine carefully the vegetables
    she buys before they are accepted from the grocer or taken from
    the market. In the case of certain vegetables, it is possible to
    conceal the fact that they are stale. For instance, the outside
    leaves of a head of lettuce or endive are sometimes removed
    and only the bleached center is offered for sale; but this always



                                                                  325
          indicates that the outside leaves were either withered or spoiled or
          they would not have been taken off.
      23. Much of the spoiling of vegetables can be avoided if proper
          attention is given to them in the market. Food of this kind
          should be so displayed that it is not exposed to the dirt and dust
          of the street, nor to flies and other destructive vermin. The
          practice of displaying vegetables on a stand in front of a store is
          gradually losing favor with the housewife who understands the
          sanitary precautions that should be taken with foods. On the
          other hand, housewives owe it to the merchant not to handle the
          foods they are going to buy, for the handling of them not only
          injures them so that they will not keep well, but renders them
          unfit to be accepted by the next purchaser.
      24. The manner in which vegetables are sold should also
          receive consideration. It has been the custom to sell them by
          measure, but both housewives and merchants have come to
          realize that it is fairer to sell them by weight. Experience has
          shown that a pound is much more likely to be always uniform
          than is a quart or a peck. This is due to the fact that no two
          dealers are likely to measure in exactly the same way, even
          though the measures they use are up to the standard in size.
          Then, too, especially in the case of vegetables that are of various
          sizes and shapes, it is impossible to fill a measure properly
          because of the shape of the vegetables, and so either the
          housewife often receives short measure or the merchant gives
          more than the measure requires. All difficulty of this kind is
          entirely overcome when vegetables are weighed.


          CARE OF VEGETABLES
      25. PERISHABLE VEGETABLES, that is, those which spoil
          quickly, are usually bought in small quantities, and so are used up
          quickly. However, if they are kept on hand for only a day or so,
          they require a definite amount of care in order to insure the
          most satisfactory results in their use. To prevent them from
          spoiling or withering, they should be kept in a cool, damp place
          until they are needed. The most effective and convenient way in
          which to accomplish this is to store them in a refrigerator or
          other similar device. If ice cannot be obtained, the cellar should
          be utilized. Before vegetables of this kind are put away after
          being delivered from the market, they should be looked over
          carefully, and any that are spoiled should be discarded in order to

326
    prevent others that they might touch from becoming tainted.
    As little handling as possible, however, is advantageous,
    because when such foods become bruised and are then allowed
    to stand they are likely to spoil very quickly.
26. The less perishable vegetables, commonly called WINTER
    VEGETABLES because they may be kept through the winter,
    may be bought in quantity, provided proper storage facilities to
    prevent them from spoiling are available. Potatoes, in particular,
    are usually purchased in this way, for, as a rule, they may be
    obtained at a better price than when bought in small quantities,
    and then, too, they are a vegetable that most families use nearly
    every day. If they are bought in quantity, they should first be
    thoroughly tested, for often a potato looks very well on the
    outside while its texture and flavor may not be at all in
    accordance with its appearance. Great care should also be
    exercised to see that this vegetable, as well as carrots, turnips,
    parsnips, etc., has not been frosted, for frost ruins them as to
    texture and keeping qualities.


    All such vegetables as these, provided they must be stored for any
    length of time, keep best in a cold, fairly dry atmosphere. To
    prevent them from sprouting, the storage room should, if
    possible, be kept dark, but in case they do sprout, the sprouts
    should be removed as soon as they are discovered. The best
    receptacles for the storage of these winter vegetables are
    bins, a convenient type of which is shown in Essentials of
    Cookery, Part 2, and the most satisfactory place in which to put
    such bins is a cellar that has a dirt floor rather than a board or a
    cement floor.
    CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES
27. Because of their difference in physical structure, both as plants
    or parts of plants, and their variation in chemical composition,
    it is a rather difficult matter to classify vegetables. The
    vegetables that are discussed throughout these Sections are
    therefore not included in any classes, but are arranged
    alphabetically, a plan that the housewife will find very
    convenient. However, there are a few general classes whose
    names and characteristics should be known by the housewife, for
    an understanding of them will enable her to make a more
    intelligent use of this food. These classes, together with a brief
    description of the features that characterize them and the

                                                                    327
          names by which the principal varieties are known, are here
          given.
      28. SUCCULENT VEGETABLES are those which are generally
          eaten for their appetizing effect and their value as a source of
          mineral salts and bulk. These vegetables, which get their name
          from the fact that they are juicy in texture, include the greens,
          such as spinach, Swiss chard, dandelion, lettuce, etc., also celery,
          asparagus, cabbage, and all other plants whose green leaves and
          stems are edible. Succulent vegetables may be cooked, but they
          are often used as cold relishes or in the making of salads.
      29. ROOT, TUBER, and BULB VEGETABLES form another
          class. Examples of several well-known roots are shown in Fig. 1,
          which from left to right are salsify, carrots, turnips, and parsnips.
          The varieties included in this class are closely related as to food
          value, and on the whole average much higher in this
          characteristic than do the succulent vegetables. Irish potatoes
          and Jerusalem artichokes are examples of tubers; sweet potatoes,
          beets, radishes, etc., belong to the roots; and onions and all
          the vegetables related to the onion, such as garlic, shallots, and
          leeks, are illustrations of bulbs or enlarged underground stems.
      30. FRUIT and FLOWER VEGETABLES form a third class.
          They present great variety in appearance, structure, and
          composition. To this class belong cucumbers, eggplant, winter
          and summer squash, vegetable marrow, tomatoes, peppers, and
          okra, which are in reality fruits but are used as vegetables. Flower
          vegetables include California, or French, artichokes, and
          cauliflower, all of which are in reality the buds of flowers or
          plants and are eaten for food.
      31. LEGUMES form a fourth class of vegetables, and they include
          all the varieties of beans, peas, and lentils. When these foods
          are mature and dried, they have the highest food value of all the
          vegetables. Among the beans are Lima beans, kidney beans,
          navy, or soup, beans, soy beans, and many others. The peas
          include the various garden varieties that have been allowed to
          mature, cow-peas, and many others, some of which are not
          suitable for human consumption. The lentils occur in numerous
          varieties, too, but those commonly used are the red, yellow,
          and black ones. To legumes also belong peanuts, but as they are
          seldom used as vegetables in cookery, no further mention is
          made of them in this Section.



328
   *     *     *    *     *


VARIETIES OF VEGETABLES AND THEIR PREPARATION
GENERAL METHODS OF PREPARATION AND COOKING
   32. PREPARING VEGETABLES FOR COOKING.—Before
       many vegetables can be cooked, they require a certain amount
       of preparation, such as washing, soaking, peeling, cutting up into
       suitable sizes, etc. When they must be peeled, great care should
       be taken not to remove too much of the vegetable with the skin.
       Whenever it is possible to do so, vegetables should be cooked
       in their skins, as there is much less waste of edible material if the
       skins are removed after cooking. Potatoes that are to be fried,
       hashed brown, or used for salad and other similar dishes may be
       boiled in their skins and peeled afterwards just as conveniently as
       to be peeled first and then boiled. Indeed, this plan is strongly
       recommended, for it not only saves material that is removed in
       the peeling but also conserves the mineral salts and the soluble
       food material, much of which is lost in the water during the
       cooking.
   33. If it is desired to remove the peeling before cooking, it will be
       found more economical to put the vegetables in water and then
       scrape off the skins than to cut them off with a knife. This
       method is especially satisfactory with new potatoes and with
       such vegetables as carrots, parsnips, salsify, and turnips. The
       scraping can be accomplished more easily if the vegetables are
       first plunged into boiling water for a few minutes and then
       dipped into cold water.


       When entire heads of such vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower,
       Brussels sprouts, etc. are to be cooked, they should be soaked,
       head down, for at least ½ hour in salted water made by adding 1
       teaspoon-full of salt to 1 quart of water. This is done in order to
       remove any bugs or worms that may be lodged in the head. The
       correct proportion of salt is an important detail of this process,
       for if salt water that is too strong is used, it will kill the bugs or
       worms and they will remain in the head. 34. METHODS OF
       COOKING APPLIED TO VEGETABLES.—The usual
       methods of cooking applied to vegetables are boiling, steaming,
       baking, stewing, frying, sauteing, broiling, and roasting. Which
       one of these to select depends, of course, on the particular kind
       of vegetable that is to be cooked and the result that is desired,

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          but, if possible, an effort should be made to select an
          economical method. Starchy vegetables, such as Irish and sweet
          potatoes, beans, etc., develop a more delicious flavor when they
          are baked than when they are cooked by any other method of
          preparation. Steaming is an excellent means of preparing
          vegetables that must be cooked by moist heat, especially when it
          is desired that no soluble material be lost, as is often the case
          in boiling. Frying and sauteing, when applied to vegetables,
          usually produce a delicious flavor, but often render the
          vegetables decidedly indigestible. For this reason, vegetables so
          prepared should seldom if ever be served to children and to
          persons whose digestion is not good.
      35. EFFECT OF COOKING ON VEGETABLES.—The various
          ways in which cooking affects vegetables should be thoroughly
          understood by the housewife. In the first place, some methods
          conserve the food material whereas others waste it. For
          instance, boiling in water, which is probably one of the most
          common ways of cooking vegetables, is decidedly advantageous
          in some respects, but the water dissolves much of the soluble
          material, such as mineral salts, sugar, etc., found in the
          vegetables, so that unless some use is made of this water in the
          cooking of other foods, considerable waste results. On the other
          hand, steaming and baking permit no loss of food material, and
          so they should be applied to vegetables whenever it is desired to
          conserve food substances.
      36. The flavors of vegetables are greatly changed during the
          process of cooking, being increased in some cases and
          decreased in others. In the case of such strongly flavored
          vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower, onions, etc., it is advisable to
          dissipate part of the flavor. Therefore such vegetables should
          be cooked in an open vessel in order that the flavor may be
          decreased by evaporation. Vegetables mild in flavor, however,
          are improved by being cooked in a closed vessel, for all their
          flavor should be retained. The overcooking of vegetables is
          sometimes responsible for an increase of a disagreeable flavor.
          37. Another feature of vegetables often changed by cooking is
          their color. For instance, green vegetables do not, upon cooking,
          always remain green. In many cases, the color may be improved
          by adding a very small quantity of soda to the water in which the
          vegetables are cooked. Attention should also be given to the
          length of time vegetables are subjected to heat, for the
          overboiling of some vegetables is liable to develop an


330
    unattractive color in them. This is particularly the case with
    cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, which develop not
    only a strong, disagreeable flavor but also a reddish color when
    cooked too long.
38. The application of heat to vegetables also has a definite effect
    on them. By sufficient cooking, the cellulose of vegetables is
    softened to the extent that it is less irritating and much more
    likely to be partly digested than that of raw vegetables. The
    acids of fruits increase upon cooking, and so the acidity of
    vegetables is increased to a certain extent. Vegetables that
    contain starch are rendered digestible in no other way than by
    cooking. On the other hand, the protein material of this food is
    coagulated by the application of heat, just as the white of an egg
    or the tissue of meat is coagulated and hardened. However,
    cooking is the only means of softening the cellulose that
    surrounds this material.


    Still, high-protein foods, such as beans, peas, and lentils, can be
    much improved if they are cooked in water that is not very hard.
    The lime in hard water has a tendency to harden them to the
    extent that they require a much longer time to cook than when
    soft water is used. These vegetables may be still further softened
    by the addition of a small quantity of soda to the water in which
    they are cooked, but care should be taken not to use too much
    soda, as it will injure the flavor. When soda is used, the
    vegetable should be parboiled for 10 or 15 minutes in the soda
    water and then drained and cooked in fresh water. This method,
    of course, does not apply to vegetables that are cooked in soda
    water to retain their color.
39. Salt is always added in the cooking of vegetables to season them.
    In the use of salt, two important points must be borne in mind:
    first, that it has the effect of hardening the tissues of the
    vegetable in much the same manner as it hardens the tissues of
    meat; and, secondly, that it helps to draw out the flavor of the
    vegetables. These two facts determine largely the time for adding
    the salt. If an old, tough, winter vegetable is to be prepared, it
    should be cooked until nearly soft in water that contains no salt,
    and the salt should be added just before the cooking is finished.
    When it is desired to draw out the flavor, as, for instance,
    when vegetables are cooked for soup or stews, the salt should be
    supplied when the vegetables are put on to cook. Young tender


                                                                   331
          vegetables may be cooked in salt water, but as such water
          extracts a certain amount of flavor, an effort should be made to
          use it in the preparation of stews, sauces, and soups.



          SAUCES FOR VEGETABLES
      40. Vegetables may, of course, be served plain, but they are greatly
          improved in flavor, nutritive value, and often in appearance
          by the addition of a well-seasoned sauce. Numerous sauces are
          used for this purpose, the one to select depending somewhat on
          the vegetable, the method of cooking employed, and the flavor
          that is desired. Recipes for the sauces found to be most
          satisfactory are here given. It will be well to practice the making
          of these, so as to become familiar with them and thus know just
          what sauce is meant when reference is made to a particular sauce
          in the recipes for vegetables. The quantities given in the recipes
          for sauces will make sufficient sauce to dress the vegetables
          required for four to six persons. White sauce, which is probably
          the one that is used oftenest, may be made in various
          thicknesses, as has been explained previously. However, the
          medium white sauce has been found to be the one most nearly
          correct for vegetables and consequently the one most
          preferred.


          MEDIUM WHITE SAUCE
          2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper 1 c. milk
          Melt the butter and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into
          this the milk, which has been previously heated, and cook
          together until the flour thickens completely. Pour over the
          vegetable, from which the water has been previously drained,
          and serve.
          VEGETABLE SAUCE
          2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper ½ c. milk ½
          c. water in which vegetable was cooked
          Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and pour into
          this the heated liquids. Cook until the mixture thickens. Pour
          over the drained vegetable and serve hot.
          DRAWN-BUTTER SAUCE

332
¼ c. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper 1 c. hot water
Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and pour into
this the hot water. Boil for a few minutes and serve.
HOLLANDAISE SAUCE
1/3 c. butter 1 Tb. flour ¼ tsp. salt ½ c. boiling water 1 egg yolk
2 Tb. vinegar or lemon juice
Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and water, and cook until
the mixture thickens. While still hot, pour over the slightly beaten
egg yolk, beating constantly to prevent curding. Add the vinegar
or lemon juice. Serve with vegetables that have been boiled in salt
water.
SOUR-CREAM DRESSING
2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper ¾ c. milk or
sweet cream ¼ c. vinegar
Melt the butter and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into
this the heated milk or cream, and allow the sauce to thicken.
Then add the vinegar, stirring rapidly, and serve hot.
TOMATO SAUCE
1-1/2 c. stewed tomatoes 1 slice onion 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour
½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper
Heat the tomatoes with the onion and force through a sieve.
Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, pepper, and the strained
tomatoes. Cook together until thick, remove, and serve hot with a
vegetable.
MAITRE D’HOTEL SAUCE
1/3 c. butter 1 Tb. chopped parsley 2 Tb. lemon juice ¼ tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
Melt the butter and add the chopped parsley, lemon juice, salt,
and pepper. Mix well, and allow the whole to boil, but not to
brown. Pour over the vegetable and serve.
PARSLEY-BUTTER SAUCE
½ c. butter 1 Tb. chopped parsley ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper
Heat the butter in a saucepan until it is well browned, and then
add the parsley, salt, and pepper. Allow the sauce to become hot,



                                                                333
          but not to boil. This is an excellent sauce to use over new
          potatoes or diced vegetables, such as turnips or carrots.


          ASPARAGUS AND ITS PREPARATION
      41. ASPARAGUS is a vegetable that consists of the shoots of the
          plant, which are eaten before the blossoms develop. It grows
          quickly and is very tender if the shoots are clipped at just the
          right time after they appear above the ground. It comes early in
          the spring, being about the first green vegetable that gets into
          the local market, but its season is comparatively short. It does
          not keep long after it is purchased and is better when it is used
          at once. If asparagus must be kept for any length of time, it
          should be stored in a cool, damp place.
      42. In selecting asparagus, it should be remembered that there are
          two varieties, one of which is green and the other white. The
          stems of the green asparagus should be green to the bottom, and
          should not be hard nor woody where they are cut from the
          plant. However, if a part of the stems is found to be woody,
          the hard ends should not be rejected, for the outside may be
          peeled off and the center used, or the hard ends may be cooked
          with other vegetables for the making of soup. The white
          asparagus will have slightly green tips, while the rest of the stem
          will be white.


          Asparagus is one of the succulent vegetables comparatively low
          in food value. It contains, as Table I shows, only one-fourth as
          many calories to the pound as potatoes. Its food value,
          however, may be increased by dressing it with butter after the
          vegetable has been cooked or by serving with it a sauce made
          with milk, butter, flour, etc. Then, too, asparagus is sometimes
          served on toast, which is another means of making a more
          nutritious dish out of this vegetable.
          In its composition, asparagus contains a diuretic, that is, a
          substance that has an effect upon the kidneys, and that is
          known as asparagine. Because of the presence of this substance,
          asparagus is thought to be injurious to those who have kidney
          trouble, but it need not be avoided except in some forms of this
          disease. 43. PREPARATION FOR COOKING.—To prepare
          asparagus for cooking, strip the tiny scales from the sides of the
          stems by means of a small paring knife. These hold sand

334
    and are responsible for the presence of the grit that is
    sometimes found in a cooked dish of asparagus even when the
    housewife feels certain that she has washed it as clean as
    possible. Then wash the stems thoroughly in several cold
    waters, lifting them out of the water after each washing instead
    of pouring the water off of them. If the water is poured off the
    stems, the sand that has been washed from them is likely to
    remain in the bottom of the pan and mix with the vegetable
    again.
    When the asparagus has been sufficiently washed, it may be
    used in the full lengths or cut into pieces of any desired length,
    1 inch being the size that is usually preferred. If stems are to be
    cooked whole, it is a good plan to form them into a bunch as
    when purchased and tie the bunch with a tape or a string. When
    this is done, the string should, of course, be cut and removed
    before the asparagus is served. A point to remember about the
    preparation of this vegetable is that it should always be cooked in
    boiling, salted water.
44. ASPARAGUS WITH BUTTER DRESSING.—Perhaps the
    simplest way in which to prepare asparagus is to cook it in salted
    water and then serve it with a butter dressing. When prepared in
    this way, it may be served plain, but it becomes more attractive,
    as well as more nutritious, if it is placed on squares of toast.


    For this dish, secure a bunch of fresh, tender asparagus,
    wash it thoroughly, and then, as desired, cut it into inch lengths
    or allow it to remain whole. Pour enough boiling water over it to
    cover well, add salt in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each
    quart of water, and allow it to cook until the stems may be
    easily pierced with a fork, which in most cases will require not
    more than from 10 to 15 minutes. The length of the cooking is
    an important factor with this vegetable, for when it is
    overcooked its flavor is not so agreeable as when it has had just
    enough cooking. When the asparagus is done, drain off the
    water, season with a little more salt and a dash of pepper, and, if
    it is to be served without toast, add 1 tablespoonful of butter for
    each bunch cooked, allowing the butter to melt. In case it is to
    be served on toast, allow a small amount of the liquid in which it
    was cooked to remain on it, add the butter to this, and, after
    placing several of the stems or a number of the pieces on the
    squares of toast, dip a little of the liquid over all.          45.


                                                                   335
          CREAMED ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.—A still more
          nutritious dish can be prepared from asparagus by combining it
          with a cream sauce and serving it on toast. The sauce supplies
          protein and fat and the toast furnishes carbohydrate,
          substances in which this vegetable is low. Numerous ways of
          serving this combination may be resorted to, but one of the most
          attractive methods is illustrated in Fig. 2. As here shown, a
          small bunch of the stems is slipped through a ring of toast cut
          by means of round cutters of two sizes. If it is not desired to
          use toast for this, a ring of lemon rind or pimiento may be
          substituted, or the ring may be omitted altogether and the stems
          merely laid in an orderly manner on a square of toast. Also,
          with this dish, as with the previous one, the asparagus may be
          cut into inch lengths instead of being cooked whole.
          To prepare creamed asparagus, clean it in the manner explained
          in Art. 43. Then either cut it into inch lengths or allow the stems
          to remain whole, and cook it in enough boiling salted water to
          cover it well. While the asparagus is cooking, prepare a
          medium white sauce. As soon as the asparagus has cooked
          enough to be pierced with a fork, pour off the water and serve
          with the sauce in any of the ways already suggested. If the
          asparagus is left whole, the sauce is poured over it after it is
          placed on the toast, but when it is cut into small pieces, it is
          usually combined with the sauce and the creamed vegetable then
          poured over the toast.
      46. SCALLOPED ASPARAGUS.—Another nutritious dish with
          asparagus as its base is scalloped asparagus. This involves all the
          ingredients used in creamed asparagus, but to give it still more
          food value, cheese is also added.


          SCALLOPED ASPARAGUS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 bunch asparagus 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 c. asparagus stock
          ½ c. milk ¼ tsp. salt 1 c. buttered cracker crumbs ½ c. grated
          cheese
          Clean the asparagus according to the directions given in Art. 43.
          Cut it into inch lengths and cook in boiling salted water until
          it is tender enough to be pierced with a fork, and then drain.
          Prepare a sauce by melting the butter, adding the flour, and
          pouring into this mixture the heated stock and milk seasoned
          with the salt. Put a layer of the buttered crumbs in the bottom


336
       of a baking dish, and pour half the asparagus over them.
       Sprinkle the asparagus with one-third the cheese and add
       another layer of crumbs. Sprinkle this with one-third the
       cheese. Add the remainder of the asparagus and the crumbs
       and sprinkle the rest of the cheese on top. Pour the sauce over
       the entire mixture, place in the oven, and bake until heated
       thoroughly and the top is slightly browned. Serve from the
       baking dish.


   *    *     *     *    *

BEANS AND THEIR PREPARATION
VARIETIES OF BEANS
   47. Of all the vegetables commonly used for food, BEANS
       afford the greatest variety. However, there are two principal
       classes into which all varieties of this vegetable can be placed,
       namely, string beans and shell beans. String beans include both
       the pods and the seeds, and are used when the beans are very
       young. Shell beans consist of the seeds, which are allowed to
       mature either partly or entirely and are taken from the shells
       before cooking. Those which are partly developed are cooked
       when they are fresh, but the ones that are allowed to mature
       completely are dried and then stored for use at any time during
       the year. In some cases, the same variety of beans may be used in
       the three ways mentioned, while in others certain kinds are raised
       expressly for one of these purposes.
   48. The food value of beans increases as they mature, as will be
       observed upon reference to Table I. The very young beans,
       that is, the string beans, which include the pods and all, are
       comparatively low in food value, being only a little higher than
       asparagus. To increase the food value of these, fat meat, butter,
       or other fat is supplied in their cooking, or milk or a cream
       sauce is added before they are served. Fresh shell beans have
       much more nutriment than string beans, whereas dried beans
       are very high in food value. It is this characteristic of dried
       shell beans that makes them a very good meat substitute.


       STRING BEANS



                                                                     337
      49. VARIETIES OF STRING BEANS.—There are two general
          varieties of string beans: the yellow ones, which are commonly
          known as wax beans, and the green ones, which are the ones
          usually meant when the term string beans is used. Numerous
          varieties exist among these classes, and some are very much
          better than others. Many of them have strings, but others are
          stringless and consequently are easier to prepare. Whatever kind
          is used should be picked from the vines before the beans are
          old enough for the pods to develop woody fibers. Otherwise
          they will not be palatable, for when they have reached this stage
          it will be impossible to cook them soft.
      50. SELECTION AND CARE.—Small, round, rusty-looking spots
          are common to both string and wax beans; but when such
          spots are present they must be removed before cooking. As there
          is considerable waste in the preparation of such beans for the
          table, it is wise in buying string beans to select those whose
          surface is not marred with such blemishes. In addition, the
          beans should be as fresh as can be obtained and crisp and tender
          enough to snap when the pods are bent in half. Proper attention
          should be given to them after they are purchased, too. If
          possible, they should be cooked immediately, but if this cannot
          be done they should be kept in a cool, damp place to prevent
          them from becoming limp. However, if they wilt before they
          can be cooked, they may be freshened by allowing them to stand
          in cold water for a short time.
      51. PREPARATION AND COOKING.—To prepare beans for
          cooking, wash them thoroughly in cold water. If the beans are of
          the stringless variety, cut off the stem and blossom ends; but, in
          case they have strings, break the ends and strip off the strings
          together with the ends, as shown in Fig. 3. The beans may then
          be cooked whole or cut into inch lengths before cooking. If it
          is desired to cut them, the most convenient way is to place them
          in an orderly heap on a cutting board and then cut a handful at
          a time, drawing a sharp knife across them as they are held on the
          board. Any imperfect portions should be removed before cutting.
      52. The cooking of string beans is similar to that of asparagus,
          except that they require longer cooking. Put them, either whole
          or cut into a kettle, cover them with boiling water to which
          has been added 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water,
          and cook them with the cover on the kettle until they can be
          easily pierced with a fork. The length of time required to cook
          them depends on the age of the beans, but usually from 30

338
    minutes to 1 hour will be sufficient. When they are done, drain
    the water from them, but save it to make sauce for them or to
    add to soup stock.
53. STRING BEANS IN BUTTER.—String beans, which, of
    course, include wax beans, may be served with a sauce of
    some kind, but they are very appetizing when merely drained
    after cooking and served with melted butter.


    To prepare beans in this manner, wash the desired amount,
    remove the ends and strings, if necessary, and cut into inch
    lengths. Cook until they are tender and then pour off the water.
    Add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be
    served, a dash of pepper, and, if they are not salty enough, a
    little more salt. Allow the butter to melt and serve the beans hot.
54. STRING BEANS WITH SALT PORK.—Those who like the
    flavor of salt pork will find string beans cooked with a small
    piece of this meat very appetizing. Besides improving the
    flavor, salt pork supplies the beans with fat, a food substance in
    which they are very low.


    After washing the beans that are to be cooked in this way,
    remove the ends and strings, but do not cut into inch lengths. Put
    the whole beans to cook in boiling water and add ¼ pound of
    pork for a sufficient amount of beans for four persons. Cook
    until the beans are tender, and serve with the pork without
    removing from the liquid.
55. CREAMED STRING BEANS.—Perhaps the most popular
    way in which to prepare string or wax beans is to cream them.
    Not only an appetizing dish, but one whose food value is
    increased, is the result. The cream sauce served with the beans
    may be made entirely of milk, but a very satisfactory sauce
    can be made by using half milk or cream and half liquid in which
    the beans were cooked. To prepare creamed beans, clean the
    beans in the usual way and cut them into inch lengths. Put
    them to cook in boiling salted water and cook until they may
    be easily pierced with a fork. Pour off the water, but keep it to
    use in the dressing. To dress a sufficient quantity of beans for
    four persons, a sauce should be made as follows:




                                                                   339
          SAUCE FOR CREAMED STRING BEANS
          1 Tb. butter 1 Tb. flour ¼ tsp. salt Pinch of pepper 1/3 c. rich
          milk or cream 1/3 c. liquid from beans
          Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, salt, and pepper.
          Pour in the heated liquids and stir until the mixture is smooth
          and thoroughly cooked. Add the sauce to the beans, heat
          together, and serve.
      56. STRING BEANS WITH SOUR DRESSING.—A dish having
          an entirely different flavor from those already explained is
          produced when beans are served with a sour dressing.


          To prepare beans in this way, clean a sufficient number
          according to the directions already given and cut them into
          inch lengths. Cook them in boiling salted water until they are
          tender. Pour off the water, but retain ½ cupful for the dressing.
          Make the following sauce, which will dress a sufficient quantity
          of beans for four persons:
          SOUR DRESSING
          2 Tb. ham or bacon fat 1 Tb. flour ¼ c. vinegar ½ c. liquid from
          beans
          Melt the fat in a double boiler, add the flour, and into this stir
          the vinegar and the liquid from the beans. Cook until the mixture
          thickens and pour over the beans. Reheat and serve.


          SHELL BEANS
      57. VARIETIES AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL BEANS.—
          When beans have matured on the vines to such an extent that
          the pods are no longer tender enough for human consumption,
          they are picked and the seeds then used for food. Some are
          picked before the seeds have entirely matured, and these, which
          must be young enough to contain considerable moisture, are
          cooked fresh; others are allowed to mature entirely and are then
          dried before they are cooked. After being dried, beans keep
          indefinitely and require no care in storage except that they must
          not become moist. Numerous varieties of both fresh and dried
          shell beans are in use, including navy, marrowfat, pinto, and
          Lima beans.


340
58. Fresh shell beans average about three times as much food
    value as string or wax beans. Most of this is carbohydrate in the
    form of starch, but they also contain considerable protein. Dried
    shell beans, which are entirely different in flavor and texture
    from fresh ones, contain still more nutriment, their food value
    being more than twice that of fresh shell beans and over four
    times that of potatoes. In the entirely matured bean, which, as
    has already been mentioned, belongs to the class of vegetables
    called legumes, the high food value is due to the high
    percentage of starch and the large amount of protein in the form
    of legumin, a substance that is an important substitute for other
    more expensive protein foods. This composition reveals at once
    the fact that dried shell beans make an excellent food, provided
    some fat is added to them in their preparation.
59. PREPARATION AND COOKING OF FRESH SHELL
    BEANS.—With the exception of Lima beans, most of the
    varieties of fresh shell beans are placed on the market in the
    pods and must be shelled after they are purchased. Green Lima
    beans, however, are usually sold shelled. If the beans are
    purchased in the pods, wash them in cold water before
    shelling, but if they are bought shelled, wash the shelled
    beans. Then put them to cook in sufficient boiling water to
    which has been added 1 teaspoonful of salt for each quart. Allow
    the beans to cook until they may be easily pierced with a fork.
    The cooking will probably require from 45 minutes to 1-1/2
    hours, depending on the age and variety of the beans.
60. SHELL BEANS DRESSED WITH BUTTER.—Any variety of
    fresh shell beans may be     prepared according     to the
    accompanying recipe, but Lima beans are especially delicious
    when cooked in this way.


    Prepare and cook the beans as directed in Art. 59. When
    they are sufficiently cooked, pour off the water, season with
    additional salt, if necessary, and a dash of pepper, and add 1
    tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served.
    Allow the butter to melt and serve the beans hot. 61. SHELL
    BEANS IN CREAM.—Fresh shell beans are especially
    appetizing when they are dressed with cream. Besides improving
    the flavor, cream also adds considerable food value, an item
    that should not be overlooked.



                                                                 341
          For this dish, prepare and cook the beans in the manner
          explained in Art. 59. When they are tender, pour off the water
          and season with additional salt and pepper. Then for each
          four persons to be served, add 1 tablespoonful of butter and
          ½ cupful of thin cream. Heat the beans well in the cream and
          serve.
      62. BEAN PUREE.—Persons with whom the coarse skins that must
          necessarily be eaten with beans disagree, find bean puree very
          satisfactory. To prepare it, clean and cook the beans in boiling
          salted water according to the directions given in Art. 59. Then
          pour off the water and force the beans through a ricer or a sieve.
          Add sufficient butter, salt, and pepper to season well and serve
          hot.
      63. COOKING OF DRIED SHELL BEANS.—Before dried shell
          beans of any variety are cooked, look them over very carefully,
          reject any that are unfit for use, and wash the rest in cold
          water. They may then be cooked without further preparation,
          but in order to hasten their cooking and save fuel in their
          preparation, it is a good plan to moisten them by soaking them
          in water before cooking. If they are to be soaked, place them in
          cold water and allow them to remain there for 8 to 12 hours.
          Then put them on to cook in water to which has been added a
          small pinch of soda. Parboil the beans in this water until the
          outside skin begins to crack and then pour off the water. While it
          is true that a certain amount of mineral salts and perhaps a small
          percentage of food value are lost in this procedure, because the
          water that is poured off is too strong to be used for any other
          purpose, the improvement in the flavor warrants any loss that
          might occur. After pouring off the water, wash the beans in cold
          water, add fresh water to continue the cooking, and allow the
          beans to simmer slowly until they are cooked soft enough to
          crush between the fingers, but still retain their original shape.
          Nothing is gained by cooking them rapidly on a hot fire, and
          considerable fuel is wasted by this practice.


          The fireless cooker and the double boiler are excellent utensils
          for the cooking of dried beans, because they cook the beans at a
          temperature below boiling point. They therefore cook the beans
          soft with little difficulty and prevent the protein from becoming
          hard. The theory of the cooking of protein—that is, the higher
          the temperature, the harder the coagulation- applies in the


342
    cooking of dried beans, just as it does in the cooking of eggs or
    milk.
64. STEWED NAVY BEANS.—The common small white beans are
    called navy beans from the fact that they are much used in the
    navy. These may be prepared in various ways, but the
    simplest method is to stew them. In the preparation of this
    dish, as well as any other made from dried beans, it will be well
    to remember that ½ cupful of beans is usually sufficient to serve
    four persons when they are cooked.


    Look over the required amount of beans, reject any that are
    imperfect, wash thoroughly, and put to soak overnight in cold
    water. Pour off any water that remains, cover well with boiling
    water, and add a pinch of soda. Cook slowly until the skins
    begin to burst. Pour off the water, add fresh hot water and 1
    teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water, and allow to simmer
    until the beans may be easily crushed between the fingers. During
    this process, the water should cook down until just a sufficient
    amount to serve with the beans remains. When this is
    accomplished, add 1 ½ tablespoonfuls of butter, a dash of
    pepper, and, if necessary, additional salt. Instead of the butter,
    ham or bacon fat may be used for seasoning, or a small piece of
    ham or salt pork may be cooked with the beans and the fat
    omitted. Serve the beans hot.
65. LIMA BEANS IN CREAM.—Dried Lima beans, when
    combined with thin cream, make a very appetizing dish. To
    prepare them in this way, clean, soak, and cook them as
    explained in Art. 63. When they are soft enough to crush easily
    between the fingers and the water has boiled down so that
    practically none remains, add ½ cupful of thin cream to a
    sufficient quantity for four persons. Allow the beans to simmer
    for a short time in the cream, add additional salt and a dash of
    pepper for flavoring, and serve.
66. LIMA BEANS EN CASSEROLE.—While the small varieties of
    dried beans are more commonly baked than the larger ones,
    Lima beans will be found especially delicious when prepared in
    a casserole.


    LIMA BEANS EN CASSEROLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)



                                                                  343
          1 c. dried Lima beans ¼ c. ham or bacon fat 2 c. milk 2 tsp. salt
          ¼ tsp. pepper
          Soak the beans overnight and then parboil them in soda water.
          Drain off the water and turn the beans into a baking dish. Add
          the fat, milk, salt, and pepper. Cover the dish and bake until the
          beans are soft. Serve hot from the casserole.
      67. LIMA-BEAN LOAF.—If a dish that is not only appetizing, but
          sufficient in food value to be used as a meat substitute, is desired,
          Lima-bean loaf, should be selected. This is very good when
          served alone, but it becomes more attractive and at the same
          time more palatable when a sauce or gravy is added.


          LIMA-BEAN LOAF (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 c. dried Lima beans 2 c. bread crumbs Milk to moisten crumbs
          2 eggs 1 tsp. salt ¼ tsp. pepper ½ tsp. celery salt 2 Tb. butter
          Soak the beans overnight and parboil them in soda water. Pour
          off this water, cook until tender in boiling salted water, and then
          drain. Moisten the bread crumbs slightly with milk, mix them
          with the beans, and add the beaten eggs and seasoning. When
          the entire mixture is well blended, place in a loaf pan, dot the
          top with the butter, and bake in the oven until nicely browned
          and quite firm. Turn out on a platter, garnish with parsley,
          and serve by cutting it into slices.
      68. BEAN SOUFFLE.—Probably the daintiest dish that can be
          made from dried beans is bean souffle. This is equally suitable as
          the main dish for a luncheon or a home dinner. One point to
          remember about it is that it should be served immediately, for
          souffle usually settles when taken from the oven.


          BEAN SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 c. bean pulp 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper ¼ tsp. celery salt 1
          Tb. onion juice 2 eggs
          Make the bean pulp by forcing well-cooked beans through a
          colander or a press. Add all the seasoning and the beaten egg
          yolks. Beat the egg whites stiff and fold them into the mixture.
          When well blended, pour into a greased baking dish, or
          individual dishes, place in a pan containing hot water, and bake
          in a moderate oven until the souffle is set, which will require

344
    from 30 to 45 minutes. Test by tapping slightly with the finger.
    If the dent thus made in the souffle springs back, it is
    sufficiently baked. Remove from the oven and serve at once.
69. BAKED BEANS.—Almost any kind of dried beans may be
    used for baking. Some persons prefer the small navy beans,
    which are mentioned in this recipe, whereas others like the
    larger marrowfat beans or Lima beans. Pinto beans have for
    some time been taking the place of navy beans, and are found to
    be a very good substitute. To bake beans successfully, a dish with
    a tight-fitting cover is required. This is made of heavy glass, but
    if such a utensil is not available, very satisfactory results can
    be obtained by using a heavy earthen bowl, crock, or baking dish.
    To produce the delicious flavor that is agreeable to most
    persons, beans should be baked a long time. Therefore, as
    considerable heat is consumed in their cooking, it is a wise plan
    to prepare more than enough for one meal. They may be served
    the second time as baked beans, or, if this is not desired, they
    may be used for various other purposes.


    BAKED BEANS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 pt. navy beans 2 Tb. molasses 2 tsp. salt ½ lb. bacon or salt
    pork
    Soak the beans overnight, parboil in soda water, and drain.
    Add a sufficient amount of water to cover the beans well, cook
    until they break open, and then pour with the liquid into a
    baking dish. If this liquid does not almost cover the beans, add
    more until it comes nearly to the top. Add the molasses and
    salt, cut the salt pork into pieces, and distribute these well
    through the beans, placing a piece or two over the top. The
    beans should then appear as shown in Fig. 5. Place the cover on
    the dish and bake in a slow oven for 4 or 5 hours. Remove
    the cover occasionally, stir the beans carefully so as not to crush
    nor break them, and add enough water from time to time to
    keep the beans well moistened. When done, the beans should be
    light brown in color, but the top should be well browned.
    Sometimes it will be found necessary to remove the cover in
    order to brown the beans sufficiently.
70. BEAN CROQUETTES.—Left-over baked beans need never
    be wasted, for there are numerous uses to which they can be put.
    If it is not desired to reheat them and serve them again as baked


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          beans, they may be utilized in soup, salads, and sandwiches, or
          they may be made into souffle, as explained in Art. 68, or into
          croquettes according      to the accompanying recipe. Bean
          croquettes may be served plain, but they are much improved by
          the addition of tomato sauce.


          BEAN CROQUETTES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 c. cold baked beans 1-1/2 c. bread crumbs Milk to moisten
          crumbs 1 egg 1 tsp. salt Pinch of pepper
          To the beans add the bread crumbs slightly moistened with
          milk. Stir in the egg, beaten, and the salt and pepper. Blend the
          entire mixture, form into croquettes, and roll in dry crumbs.
          Bake in the oven until brown, saute in shallow fat, or fry in deep
          fat. Place on a platter, garnish with parsley, and serve plain or
          with tomato sauce.
          BEETS AND THEIR PREPARATION
      71. BEETS are a root vegetable that comes in two varieties, red and
          white. The red beets are more popular for cooking than the
          white ones, and of these the ones that retain their dark-red
          color after cooking are preferable to any other. The root,
          however, is not the only part of this plant that is eaten, for the
          tops are also much used for food. When the tops are to be
          cooked, the plants are usually not allowed to mature to the extent
          that the root parts can be used; still, early in the summer, when
          very small beets are to be had with the tops on, both the tops
          and the beets may be used. At this age, the beets are very
          tender and do not require long cooking. If the beets are not
          eaten when they are young, they are allowed to mature in the
          ground and are then pulled in the fall and stored for a winter
          vegetable.


          Like other root vegetables, beets contain very little protein and
          fat, but in their composition is included a fairly large percentage
          of carbohydrate in the form of sugar. Their total food value is
          greater than that of string beans, but is considerably less than
          that of potatoes.
      72. SELECTION AND CARE OF BEETS.—When beets are
          selected as a summer vegetable with the idea of using both the
          tops and the roots, the tops should be fresh, that is, not

346
    withered nor rotted. When the roots are to be used, either as a
    summer or a winter vegetable, they should have a smooth skin,
    should contain no blemishes, and, as nearly as possible, should
    be uniform in size.


    Summer beets require about the same care as any other vegetable;
    that is, they should be kept in a cool, damp place until they
    are ready to be cooked. If they are at all wilted at that time, they
    may be freshened by allowing them to stand in a pan of cold
    water for several hours. Winter beets, however, should be stored
    in a cool, dark place where they will not freeze. A portion of the
    cellar that has a dirt floor is a very good place to put the bins
    containing such vegetables. The woody tissue of beets that are
    stored increases as the winter advances, so that any beets that
    remain until spring are rather hard and extremely difficult to
    cook. In fact, at times it is almost impossible to make them soft
    enough to serve, but they can be greatly improved by soaking
    them in cold water for a few hours before cooking them. 73.
    PREPARATION AND COOKING OF BEETS.—In
    preparing young beets for cooking, allow an inch or two of the
    stems to remain on the beets in order to prevent them from
    bleeding. Of course, from winter beets, the entire stem should
    be removed, as it will be dried up. Scrub beets of either variety
    carefully with a vegetable brush until entirely free from dirt.
    Then, whether they are old or young, put them to cook in
    boiling water without removing their skins. Allow them to cook
    until they are soft enough to be pierced with a fork. This is the
    best way in which to determine when the beets are done, for as
    the length of time required to cook them depends entirely on
    their age, no definite time can be stated. As soon as they are
    sufficiently cooked, pour off the water, allow them to cool
    enough to handle, and then remove the skins, which will slip off
    easily.
74. BUTTERED BEETS.—Butter added to beets increases both
    their nutriment and their flavor. In order to prepare buttered
    beets, first clean and cook them in the manner just explained. To
    remove the skins, scrape the beets as thinly as possible, so as not
    to waste any more than is necessary. Then slice them thin or cut
    them into ½-inch cubes, season well with salt and pepper, and
    add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be
    served. Allow the beets to heat thoroughly in the butter, and
    serve hot.

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      75. BEETS WITH CREAM DRESSING.—If a creamed vegetable
          is desired, beets to which cream has been added will be very
          satisfactory. Clean and cook the beets in the manner explained in
          Art. 73. Then peel, cut into slices, place in a saucepan, and nearly
          cover with thin cream. Allow them to cook in the cream for a
          few minutes, season with salt and pepper, and serve.
      76. BEETS WITH SOUR DRESSING.—To give variety, beets are
          sometimes served with a sour dressing. Probably no other
          vegetable lends itself so well to this sort of preparation as beets,
          with the result that a very appetizing dish is provided.


          BEETS WITH SOUR DRESSING (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          6 medium-sized beets 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp.
          pepper ¼ c. vinegar 1-1/4 c. hot water
          Prepare and cook the beets as explained in Art. 73. When
          tender, drain them, remove the skins, and dice the beets. Make
          a sauce by melting the butter in a double boiler and adding the
          flour, salt, pepper, vinegar, and hot water. Cook until the flour
          thickens the sauce and then pour over the beets. Heat together
          and serve.
      77. BAKED BEETS.—If something entirely different in the
          way of a vegetable dish is wanted, baked beets will meet with
          favor. Beets may be baked in a covered baking dish or on the
          open grate of an oven. A slow fire produces the best results, and
          as a rule it will take 4 or 5 hours to bake good-sized beets.


          Wash thoroughly and dry the desired number of beets. Place
          them in a baking dish and set in a slow oven or place them on
          the open grate. Bake until they may be pierced with a fork.
          Remove from the skins and serve with a sour sauce or merely
          with salt, pepper, and butter.
      78. PICKLED BEETS.—When beets are cooked for any of the
          recipes that have been given, it will be economy to boil more
          than will be needed for one meal, for a large number can be
          cooked with practically the same quantity of fuel as a few. Then
          the remainder may be pickled by peeling them, cutting them
          into slices, and pouring over them hot vinegar sweetened
          slightly and flavored with spice. Pickled beets make an excellent
          relish and they will keep for an indefinite period.

348
    BRUSSELS SPROUTS AND THEIR PREPARATION
79. BRUSSELS SPROUTS look just like tiny green heads of
    cabbage. These heads grow along a stem that protrudes above the
    surface of the ground in much the same way as does the stem to
    which a head of cabbage is attached. The heads are cut from the
    stem and then usually packed in quart boxes. It is in such boxes
    as these that they are found in the markets, where they can be
    purchased from December           until early spring. They are
    considered a great delicacy because of the fineness of their flavor,
    which rivals that of cauliflower and, while closely resembling
    that of cabbage, is much superior to it. In food value, they are
    somewhat higher than cauliflower, but about equal to beets.
80. COOKING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS.—To prepare Brussels
    sprouts for the table, break off the outside leaves from the
    heads, and then in order to remove any bugs that may be lodged
    in the heads, allow them to stand in cold salted water for 1
    hour or so before cooking. After removing the sprouts from
    the salted water, pour enough boiling water over them to cover
    them well, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and
    boil without any cover on the kettle until they can be easily
    pierced with a fork. Care should be taken not to overcook the
    sprouts, for when they are cooked too long they become red in
    color and develop a strong flavor.
81. BUTTERED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.—When Brussels sprouts
    are properly cooked and then seasoned with salt and pepper
    and flavored with butter, an appetizing dish is the result. To
    make such a dish for about six persons, prepare and cook 1 quart
    of Brussels sprouts in the manner just explained. When they are
    tender, pour off the water, season with additional salt and a dash
    of pepper, and add 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Allow the butter
    to melt over the sprouts and then serve hot.


    If a more attractive dish is desired, the Brussels sprouts
    prepared in this way may be combined with French lamb
    chops. Pile up the buttered sprouts in the center of a platter, and
    then place broiled or sauted lamb chops, whose ends are
    trimmed with paper frills, around the sprouts in the manner
    shown.


                                                                    349
      82. CREAMED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.—A very satisfactory way in
          which to prepare Brussels sprouts is to serve a cream sauce
          over them. This sauce, of course, adds food value, and at the
          same time greatly improves the flavor of the vegetable.


          CREAMED BRUSSELS SPROUTS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 qt. Brussels sprouts 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1-1/2 c. milk 1 tsp.
          salt Dash of pepper
          Prepare and cook the sprouts as explained in Art. 80. When
          they are tender, drain the water from them. Make a white sauce
          of the butter, flour, milk, salt, and pepper. Pour this over the
          sprouts, heat together, and serve.
      83. SCALLOPED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.—Undoubtedly the
          most palatable way of preparing Brussels sprouts is to scallop
          them. The ingredients used in the preparation of this dish add
          food value, as well as flavor.


          SCALLOPED BRUSSELS SPROUTS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 qt. Brussels sprouts 3 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt 2 c. milk
          1 c. buttered crumbs
          Prepare the sprouts as explained in Art. 80. Cook them in boiling
          salted water until they are tender, and then drain. Make a
          white sauce of 2 tablespoonfuls of the butter, flour, salt, and
          milk. Butter the crumbs by pouring 1 tablespoonful of melted
          butter over them, stirring until well blended. Place one-fourth of
          the crumbs in the bottom of a baking dish, add about half of the
          sprouts, and place another fourth of the crumbs over the sprouts.
          Add the remaining half of the sprouts and pour the sauce over
          these. Sprinkle the rest of the crumbs over the top, place in the
          oven, and bake until the crumbs are brown and the ingredients
          thoroughly heated.


          CABBAGE AND ITS PREPARATION
      84. CABBAGE consists of the foliage of the cabbage plant. It is
          a succulent vegetable with a high flavor; in fact, its flavor is so
          strong that in many cases it disagrees with persons. However,
          if cabbage is properly cooked, no apprehension need be felt
          about eating it, for it can be digested by most persons. The food

350
    value of cabbage is not high, being even less than that of string
    beans. The greater part of this food value is carbohydrate in the
    form of sugar, but in order to prepare cabbage so that it has
    any importance in the meal, considerable quantities of protein,
    fat, and carbohydrate must be added. In itself, it is valuable for
    its mineral salts and bulk.


    Numerous varieties of cabbage can be procured, but only three
    are commonly used. These include white cabbage, which is used
    the most; purple cabbage, which is very dark in color and
    contains varying shades of red and blue; and Savoy cabbage,
    which has a large number of green crinkled leaves and is
    commonly cooked by boiling.
85. SELECTION AND CARE OF CABBAGE.—Heads of
    cabbage that feel firm and solid to the touch and are rather
    heavy for their size are the best to select for cooking purposes.
    This vegetable comes into the market early in the summer and
    may be had until late in the fall. As it has excellent keeping
    qualities, it may be stored for use as a winter vegetable. When
    this is done, the stem and the roots should be allowed to
    remain on the head, for then the cabbage is less apt to wither. If
    this precaution is taken and the cabbage is stored in a cool place,
    no great care is required to keep it in good condition until it is to
    be cooked unless, of course, it is kept for an abnormal length of
    time.
86. PREPARATION AND COOKING OF CABBAGE.—To
    prepare cabbage for cooking, remove the outside leaves and then
    cut the head that remains into pieces of any desirable size.
    Whether the cabbage should be left in large pieces or cut very
    fine depends on the dish that is to be prepared. For the first
    cutting, be sure to cut the head down through the heart and the
    stem, so that the part not used will remain intact. This may then
    be used another time if it is kept cool and moist. In case the
    cabbage becomes at all wilted, it may be freshened by placing it
    in cold water a short time before it is to be cooked.
87. Cabbage is a vegetable that has many uses and is eaten both raw
    and cooked. Numerous opinions exist about the difference in
    digestibility between raw and cooked cabbage, as well as the best
    ways in which to cook this vegetable. It may be true that in
    some cases raw cabbage does not cause the disagreeable effect
    that cooked cabbage often does, but the reason for this is that

                                                                     351
          cabbage when raw has a milder flavor than when cooked,
          cabbage generally developing during the cooking a strong flavor
          that causes trouble. The flavor of cabbage, however, may be
          dissipated if attention is given to the cooking, so that, when
          properly prepared, cabbage can be eaten with little fear of
          indigestion.
      88. When cabbage is cooked, it is usually boiled like other
          vegetables; that is, it is covered well with boiling water to which
          1 teaspoonful of salt is added for each quart, and then allowed
          to boil until it can be easily pierced with a fork. Its cooking
          differs, however, from that of many vegetables, string beans, for
          instance, in that it is carried on with the cover removed from the
          kettle. This plan permits of the evaporation of much of the
          strong flavor, which arises in the steam and which would
          otherwise be reabsorbed by the cabbage. Since it is the retention
          of this flavor, together with long cooking, that causes this
          vegetable to disagree with persons who eat it, both of these
          points should be carefully watched. If it is cooked in an open
          vessel and it is boiled just long enough to be tender, so that
          when done it is white and fresh-looking and not in any way
          discolored, an easily digested dish will be the result. Usually
          cabbage will cook sufficiently in ½ hour and often in less time.
      89. BOILED        CABBAGE.—Although             cabbage permits      of
          numerous methods of preparation, plain boiled cabbage finds
          favor with many persons. Generally, cabbage prepared in this
          way is merely seasoned with butter and served in a part of the
          liquid in which it is cooked, but it has a more appetizing flavor if
          bacon or ham fat is used for seasoning or if a small quantity of
          ham or salt pork is cooked with it.


          To prepare boiled cabbage, remove the outside leaves from a
          head of cabbage, cut it in half down through the heart, and
          then cut each half into coarse pieces. Unless it is very fresh,
          allow it to stand in cold water for at least 1 hour before
          cooking. Put it into a kettle or a saucepan, cover well with
          boiling water, and add 1 teaspoonful of salt for each quart of
          water. If ham or salt pork is to be cooked with the cabbage, put a
          small piece in the kettle with the cabbage. Allow the cabbage to
          cook with the cover removed until it is sufficiently tender to be
          pierced with a fork. Pour off all or a part of the liquid, depending
          on whether it is to be served dry or in its own liquid, and then,
          in case it has been cooked alone, add butter or ham or

352
    bacon fat for flavor. If not sufficiently seasoned, add pepper
    and more salt.
90. CREAMED CABBAGE.—When cabbage is to be creamed, it
    is cut up into fairly fine pieces with a sharp knife. The cream
    sauce that is added to it provides considerable food value and
    greatly improves its flavor.


    CREAMED CABBAGE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    4 c. finely cut cabbage 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash
    of pepper ½ c. milk or thin cream ½ c. liquid from cabbage
    Cook the cabbage according to the directions given in Art. 89
    until it is tender and then drain the water from it. While it is
    cooking, melt the butter in a double boiler, add the flour, and
    stir until smooth. Pour in the heated liquid and season with the
    salt and pepper. Stir until the flour is thickened and the sauce is
    smooth. Pour this over the cabbage, heat together for a few
    minutes, and serve hot.
91. SCALLOPED CABBAGE.—Scalloped cabbage is a particularly
    appetizing vegetable dish, and, on account of the ingredients
    used in its preparation, it is more nutritious than some of the
    other dishes in which cabbage is used.


    SCALLOPED CABBAGE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    4 c. cabbage 1 c. buttered crumbs 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 tsp.
    salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1 c. milk ½ c. liquid from cabbage
    Cut the cabbage into very small pieces with a sharp knife or a
    cabbage chopper. Cook according to the directions given in Art.
    89 until nearly tender, and then drain. Spread ¼ cupful of the
    buttered crumbs in the bottom of a baking dish, put one-half of
    the cabbage over this, and then add another ¼ cupful of the
    crumbs and the remaining cabbage. Over this pour a white sauce
    made from the butter, flour, salt, pepper, milk, and liquid from
    the cabbage. Sprinkle the rest of the crumbs over the top. Bake
    in a slow oven until the cabbage is thoroughly heated through
    and the crumbs are browned on top. This baking will complete
    the cooking of the cabbage. Serve hot. 92. HOT SLAW.—If a
    slightly sour flavor is desired in a vegetable dish, hot slaw will
    undoubtedly appeal to the taste.


                                                                   353
          HOT SLAW (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          4 c. cabbage 1 c. water 2 Tb. butter 1 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt 1/3
          c. vinegar 1 egg
          Slice the cabbage very fine with a sharp knife or a cabbage cutter.
          Put it in a saucepan, add the water, and allow it to cook until
          the water is about half evaporated. Melt the butter in a pan and
          to it add the flour, salt, and vinegar. Then stir the beaten egg in
          quickly and pour this sauce over the cabbage at once. Allow the
          mixture to cook until the sauce has thickened, stirring constantly
          to prevent the curding of the egg. Serve hot.
      93. MAKING SAUERKRAUT.—As is well known, sauerkraut
          is a cabbage preparation that is made by salting finely cut
          cabbage, packing it tightly, and allowing it to ferment under
          pressure. This food is made and sold commercially, so that the
          housewife can usually purchase it in any quantity she desires.
          However, as it is not at all difficult to make sauerkraut, and as
          a supply of cabbage in this form provides a valuable article of
          food during the winter months in households where it is
          relished, the housewife will do well to prepare enough of this
          kind of cabbage to vary her meals during the winter. That she
          may understand how to proceed with the making of sauerkraut
          and the proper cooking of it, the accompanying directions and
          recipes are given.
      94. For every 10 medium-sized heads of cabbage, measure 2 cupfuls
          of salt. Cut the heads of cabbage into quarters and shred on a
          cabbage slicer, or cutter. Place several inches of the shredded
          cabbage in the bottom of a large crock, and over it sprinkle a
          layer of salt. Stamp this down with a wooden potato masher or
          some other similar utensil. Then add another layer of cabbage
          and salt and stamp this down in the same way. Proceed in this
          manner until the crock is nearly full. Then place a clean cloth
          over the cabbage in the crock. On this cloth place a clean board
          as near the size of the crock as possible, and on the board place
          a large clean stone or some other weight. When thus filled and
          weighted down, place the crock in a cool place. The cabbage
          will then begin to ferment, and it is this fermentation that
          changes the cabbage into sauerkraut. After a time, juice will form
          and gradually rise over the top of the board, and on top of this
          juice will form a scum. Remove this scum at once, and do not
          allow any to collect at any time after the fermentation of the
          cabbage ceases. Occasionally, when a supply of sauerkraut is


354
    taken from the crock for cooking, replace the cloth by a clean
    one, but always be sure to put the board and the weight back in
    place.
95. SAUERKRAUT WITH SPARERIBS.—Persons who are fond
    of sauerkraut find the combination of sauerkraut and spareribs
    very appetizing. The spareribs give the cabbage a very pleasing
    flavor and at the same time supply nourishment to the dish.


    SAUERKRAUT WITH SPARERIBS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 qt. sauerkraut 2 lb. spareribs 1 tsp. salt 3 c. water
    Put the sauerkraut and the spareribs into a kettle and add the
    salt and water. Allow to simmer slowly for 2 or more hours. If
    additional water is necessary, add it from time to time. Just
    before removing from the heat, allow the water to boil down so
    that what remains may be served with the hot sauerkraut.
96. BAKED SAUERKRAUT.—In the cooking of sauerkraut for the
    table, pork in one form or another is generally added; in fact,
    one rarely thinks of sauerkraut except in combination with pork.
    While boiling is the method that is usually applied to this
    vegetable, many housewives prefer to bake it, for then the odor
    does not escape so easily and a flavor that most persons prefer
    is developed.


    BAKED SAUERKRAUT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 lb. fresh pork 1 qt. sauerkraut 1 Tb. salt 3 c. water
    Cut the pork into several large chunks, and put it with the
    sauerkraut into a baking dish that has a cover. Add the salt and
    water, cover the dish and place in the oven. Bake slowly for 2 or
    3 hours. Serve hot.
97. SAUTED SAUERKRAUT.—If an entirely different way of
    cooking sauerkraut is desired, it may be sauted. When nicely
    browned and served with boiled frankfurters, it is very
    appetizing.


    SAUTED SAUERKRAUT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 qt. sauerkraut 4 Tb. bacon or ham fat 2 tsp. salt


                                                                 355
          Steam the sauerkraut over boiling water for about 1 hour. Then
          melt the fat in an iron frying pan, add the sauerkraut and sprinkle
          with the salt. Place a cover over the pan and allow the
          sauerkraut to saute until it is slightly browned on the bottom. Stir
          and continue to cook until the entire amount is slightly browned.
          Serve hot.


          CARROTS AND THEIR PREPARATION
      98. CARROTS are one of the root vegetables. They are similar
          in composition to beets, having practically the same total food
          value, which is for the most part carbohydrate in the form of
          sugar. Besides being valuable in the diet for their mineral salts and
          bulk, they add variety to the menu, especially in the winter, for
          upon maturing they can be kept for a long time if they are
          properly stored. As tiny young carrots, they are also much used
          as a summer vegetable, and when cooked whole and served in an
          attractive way they make a delicious vegetable dish.
      99. SELECTION AND PREPARATION.—The selection of
          carrots is a simple matter, because they keep well and are not
          likely to be found in a spoiled condition in the market. When
          small summer carrots are purchased, they should be fresh and
          should have their tops on. Winter carrots should be as nearly
          uniform in size as possible and should not be extremely large.
          Those which are too large in circumference are likely to have a
          hollow in the center and are not nearly so desirable as thin, solid
          ones. Carrots of any kind should be uniform in color, and
          should be without the green portion that is sometimes found
          on the top near the stem and that is caused by exposure to the
          light in growing.
      100.In preparing carrots for cooking, they should be scraped rather
          than peeled, in order to avoid wasting any of the vegetable. They
          are always cooked in boiling salted water, after which they can be
          treated in various ways. The water in which carrots are cooked
          should not be thrown away, as it may be used to flavor soup
          stock. If any carrots remain after a meal, they may be utilized in
          vegetable salad or soup.
      101.BUTTERED CARROTS.—If small, tender carrots can be
          obtained, they will be found to be delicious upon being boiled
          and then dressed with butter. Winter carrots may be prepared
          in this way too, but they will probably require a little more
          cooking to make them tender.

356
    BUTTERED CARROTS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 c. diced carrots 2 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper
    Wash and scrape the carrots and cut into half-inch pieces. Put to
    cook in enough boiling water to cover the carrots well, and add
    1 teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water. Cook in a covered
    kettle until they can be easily pierced with a fork and then drain
    off the water. Add the butter, salt, and pepper, heat until the
    butter melts, and serve.
102.CARROTS WITH PARSLEY.—The addition of parsley to
    carrots gives a flavor that improves them very much. This should
    be chopped fine and added after the carrots have cooked
    sufficiently.


    CARROTS WITH PARSLEY (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    3 c. sliced carrots 3 Tb. parsley finely chopped 2 Tb. butter ½
    tsp. salt Dash of pepper
    Wash and scrape the carrots, slice in very thin slices, and cook
    until tender in boiling salted water. Drain and add the chopped
    parsley, butter, salt, and pepper. Mix carefully so as not to break
    the slices of carrot. Serve hot.
103.BROWNED CARROTS.—A very appetizing way in which to
    prepare carrots is to cut them in slices lengthwise, boil them
    until tender, and then brown them in fat. Wash and scrape the
    desired number of carrots, cut into slices lengthwise, and if
    large-sized carrots are used, cut the slices into halves. Cook in
    boiling salted water until tender and then drain. Melt some fat in
    a frying pan, place the carrots in the hot fat, and brown first on
    one side and then on the other, turning the slices carefully so as
    not to break them. A few minutes before removing the carrots
    from the frying pan, sprinkle sugar over them and allow the
    sugar to melt. In removing them to a vegetable dish, pour over
    them the sirup that forms. Serve hot.


    CAULIFLOWER AND ITS PREPARATION
104.CAULIFLOWER grows in heads as does cabbage, but only the
    flower or blossom of the plant is eaten. In flavor and
    composition this vegetable is similar to cabbage, but its flavor is

                                                                   357
          a little more delicate. Still, cauliflower should always be cooked in
          an uncovered vessel, as are cabbage and Brussels sprouts, if a
          strong disagreeable flavor would be avoided.
      105.SELECTION AND COOKING.—Very solid heads of
          cauliflower that are creamy white in color and free from the
          black specks or blemishes so common to this vegetable should
          be selected for cooking. The only care that cauliflower requires
          before cooking is to keep it in a cool place, for it does not wilt
          nor decay quickly.


          To prepare this vegetable for cooking, the white head should be
          cut from the leaves, which are discarded. Then the head
          should be placed upside down in a pan of salt water and allowed
          to soak for an hour in order to drive out the small bugs or
          worms that are so frequently found in this vegetable. The
          cauliflower may then be cooked whole or broken apart, but in
          either case it should be cooked until tender in boiling salted
          water with the cover removed from the kettle.
      106.CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE.—Variety can
          be secured in the preparation of cauliflower by serving it with
          a tomato sauce. Besides being very palatable, this is an extremely
          attractive dish because of the contrast in colors. Chicken gravy
          may be used instead of tomato sauce, and a most delightful dish
          is the result.


          CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE (Sufficient to Serve
          Six)
          1 head cauliflower 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of
          pepper 2 c. strained tomato
          Soak the cauliflower in cold salted water, and then tie it carefully
          in a piece of cheesecloth and put it to cook in boiling salted
          water. Cook until tender, but not so long that it will fall to pieces.
          Take from the water, remove the cheesecloth carefully, and
          place the cauliflower in a vegetable dish. While the cauliflower
          is cooking, prepare the sauce by melting the butter in a double
          boiler, adding the flour, salt, and pepper, and stirring into this the
          heated strained tomato made by forcing canned or stewed
          tomatoes through a sieve. Cook until the sauce has thickened and
          then pour over the cauliflower in the vegetable dish. Serve hot.


358
107.SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER.—Another opportunity                     to
    make a delicious scalloped dish is afforded by cauliflower.    In
    fact, many persons prefer scalloped cauliflower to any of     the
    dishes made from this vegetable. The ingredients used with    the
    cauliflower increase its food value, which is somewhat low.


    SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 head cauliflower 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 c. milk 1 c. water
    from cauliflower ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper 1 c. buttered crumbs
    Prepare and cook the cauliflower according to the directions
    given in Art. 105, breaking it into flowerets before pouring the
    boiling water on it. When it has cooked tender, drain the water
    from it. Prepare a sauce with the butter, flour, milk, water from
    the cauliflower, salt, and pepper. Butter the crumbs by pouring 1
    tablespoonful of melted butter over them. Put ¼ cupful of the
    crumbs on the bottom of a baking dish, add one-half of the
    cauliflower, and over this place another ¼ cupful of crumbs.
    Then add the remainder of the cauliflower, and pour the white
    sauce over all. Sprinkle the remainder of the crumbs over the
    top. Place in a hot oven and bake until well heated through and
    brown on top. Serve from the dish.
108.CREAMED CAULIFLOWER.—A very attractive vegetable
    dish can be prepared from cauliflower by cooking the head
    whole and then serving a cream sauce over it, as shown in Fig. 9.
    In serving, a portion of the head should be broken off for each
    person and served with a little of the cream sauce.


    CREAMED CAULIFLOWER (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 head cauliflower 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour 1 c. milk ½ c. water
    in which cauliflower was cooked ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper
    Soak a solid head of cauliflower in cold salted water for about 1
    hour. Then wash thoroughly, wrap carefully in cheesecloth, and
    cook in boiling salted water until tender. When sufficiently
    cooked, drain, and make a sauce of the other ingredients. Place
    the cauliflower in a vegetable dish, pour the white sauce over it,
    and serve hot.


    CELERY AND ITS PREPARATION

                                                                  359
      109.CELERY is the stem of a plant that grows in stalks, as shown in
          Fig. 10. When the stalks are large, they are sold singly, but if they
          are very small, several of them are tied together and sold in a
          bunch. The season for celery begins in the fall and lasts until
          early spring. It may be obtained in the summer, but as the price
          is usually high and the quality not good, very little use should be
          made of it during that time.


          The chief use of celery is as a relish, when it is eaten raw, but it
          is also valuable for flavoring soups and making salads, pickles,
          and various other dishes. It is probably used less frequently as
          a cooked vegetable than in any other way, but when it is in season
          and can be purchased at a reasonable price, it should be cooked
          to give variety to the diet.
          The food value of celery is extremely low, being less than 100
          calories to the pound or about equal to that of 1 ounce of meat.
          However, in spite of this fact, celery is valuable for its mineral
          salts and bulk, as well as for the appetizing quality that it lends to
          various foods and to the meals at which it is served. 110. CARE
          AND PREPARATION.—Well-bleached, firm stalks of celery
          should be selected for use. After it comes into the house, it
          may be kept in good condition for a long time if it is wrapped in
          a damp cloth and put where it will keep cool. A good plan is to
          serve the hearts and tender inside stems raw, as explained in
          Soup, and then to use the coarse outside stems for cooking,
          flavoring soups, or making salads. Celery must be cleaned
          carefully for dirt often clings to the ridges. After being scrubbed
          thoroughly, it will become crisp and tender if it is allowed to
          stand in cold water for some time before serving. When it is to be
          served as a cooked vegetable, it should be cooked in boiling
          salted water, as are other vegetables, and then seasoned or
          dressed in any desirable way. The water in which it is cooked
          should be utilized in the making of sauce or soup.
      111.CREAMED CELERY.—The usual way of preparing celery
          when it is to be served as a cooked vegetable is to cream it. The
          cream sauce that is added to the celery increases its food value
          considerably and greatly improves its flavor. This sauce may be
          made entirely of milk or of half milk and half liquid from the
          celery.


          CREAMED CELERY (Sufficient to Serve Six)

360
    3 c. diced celery 3 Tb. butter 3 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt Dash of
    pepper 1 c. milk ½ c. water in which celery was cooked
    Cook the celery in boiling salted water until tender, and then
    drain. When the celery has cooked, make a white sauce of the
    other ingredients. Pour this sauce over the cooked celery, heat
    together, and serve.
112.CELERY AU GRATIN.—The food value of celery may be
    still further increased by combining it with cheese and bread
    crumbs in addition to a cream sauce. Such a dish, which is
    known as celery au gratin, is prepared according to the
    accompanying recipe.


    CELERY AU GRATIN (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    4 c. diced celery 2-1/2 Tb. butter 2-1/2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt
    Dash of pepper 1 c. milk 1 c. water in which celery was
    cooked 1 c. buttered crumbs ½ c. grated cheese
    Cook the celery in boiling salted water until tender and then
    drain. Prepare the cream sauce in the usual manner. Butter the
    crumbs by stirring them into 1 tablespoonful of melted butter.
    Put ¼ cupful of the crumbs in the bottom of a baking dish and
    put one-half of the celery over them. Place another ¼ cupful of
    the crumbs over the celery, and on top of this sprinkle ¼ cupful
    of the grated cheese. Add the remainder of the celery and pour
    the sauce over this. Finally, add the other ¼ cupful of cheese and
    the remainder of the crumbs. Place in a hot oven, and bake until
    well heated through and the crumbs are browned. Serve hot.


    CORN AND ITS PREPARATION
113.The seeds of the maize plant, or Indian corn, especially the
    variety known as sweet corn, are eaten as a vegetable when they
    are immature. They grow on a woody cob, and when they are
    green they are soft and milky; but when they become ripe they
    are hard and are then ground as grain. Many varieties of sweet
    corn are used, but some are better in quality than others. In
    some varieties, the kernels, or seeds, are yellow, while in others
    they are white; also, some of them are suitable for use early in
    the summer, while others come later in the season. However, in
    spite of this difference in quality, color, and season, all kinds of


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          corn used as a vegetable are called green corn and may be
          prepared in exactly the same ways.
      114.The food value of corn, which is very high, even exceeding that
          of Irish potatoes, is due principally to the carbohydrate it
          contains. This food substance is in the form of sugar in the
          green kernels, but as they mature it changes to starch. The food
          value of the dry grain is therefore higher, and the carbohydrate is
          in a different form.


          When the contents of the kernels is still in the liquid form, the
          corn is said to be at the milk stage, and is generally considered to
          be too young for table use. On the other hand, when the
          liquid in the kernels has become thickened, the corn, which is
          then at the dough stage, is thought to be too old for use as a
          vegetable. To be ideal for culinary purposes, it should be just
          between the milk and dough stages. Then, if it is in good
          condition, a most satisfactory vegetable is the result.
      115.The ear on which the corn kernels grow is entirely encased in
          several layers of husks. These are not removed until just before
          the corn is to be cooked; so when this vegetable is in the market
          the husks are allowed to remain on the ears. The condition of
          the ears can be determined by stripping the husks down a little
          and examining the kernels. If they are well filled, they may be
          considered to be in proper condition; otherwise, they will not be
          suitable for cooking. No special care need be given to green
          corn, provided it is not husked. However, when it has been
          husked, it should be cooked at once. In the husking of corn, all
          corn silk that is found inside of the husks should be carefully
          removed, for this is very annoying in the cooked vegetable and
          its presence indicates carelessness.
      116.CORN ON THE COB.—The simplest way in which to prepare
          green corn is to cook it on the cob. When corn first comes
          into the market, it is usually very tender and makes a most
          satisfactory dish when prepared in this way.


          To cook corn on the cob, husk the corn, remove the silk from
          the ears, and place them in a kettle. Pour enough boiling water
          over them to cover them well, and add 1 teaspoonful of salt
          for each quart of water. Boil 5 minutes, remove from the water,



362
    and serve at once. In eating corn on the cob, most persons dress
    it with butter, pepper, and salt.
117.CORN COOKED IN MILK.—Often it is not desired to eat
    corn on the cob. When this is the case, it may be cut off the ear
    and cooked in various ways. A simple way to prepare it is to
    cook it with milk and season it with salt, pepper, and butter, as
    explained in the accompanying recipe.


    Select the desired number of ears of green corn, husk them, and
    remove the silk. Then, cut the corn from the cob with a sharp
    knife, grasping the ear by the larger end and cutting upwards.
    After cutting off the kernels, scrape the ears so that nothing
    edible will be wasted, drawing the knife downwards. Put the corn
    into a saucepan, add milk until the corn is nearly covered, and
    season with salt, pepper, and a little butter. Allow the corn to
    simmer for about 10 minutes, stirring frequently to prevent the
    milk from sticking to the bottom of the pan and scorching. No
    difficulty will be experienced in the preparation of this dish if a
    double boiler is used, but longer cooking will be required. When
    the corn is sufficiently cooked, remove from the fire and serve
    hot.
118.CORN PULP.—Some persons are unable to digest the coarse
    hulls of green corn, but can eat the corn if the hulls are
    removed. Such persons need not be deprived of the delights of
    this vegetable, for it may be prepared in the form of pulp, which
    will not disagree with them.


    To prepare corn pulp, first cut a slit down each row of kernels
    with a sharp knife ; then, scrape out the contents of the kernels
    with the dull edge of the knife, drawing the knife downwards.
    When all the pulp has been removed, season it with salt, pepper,
    and butter, and heat it thoroughly in a double boiler. Serve hot.
    If it is not desirable to serve the corn pulp in this manner, it may
    be used in various ways, as the following recipes indicate. A good
    substitute for corn pulp is canned corn, but this must be
    chopped in order to break up the hulls.
119.CORN SOUFFLE.—No more delightful corn dish can be
    prepared than corn souffle, for in addition to its being
    appetizing and nutritious, it is extremely dainty. It may be
    cooked in a baking dish, but it is more attractive when baked

                                                                    363
          in individual baking dishes. A point to remember about its
          preparation is that it should be served immediately upon being
          taken from the oven, for souffle always shrinks as it cools.


          CORN SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 c. green corn pulp 1 tsp. salt Dash of pepper 2 Tb. melted
          butter 2 Tb. flour ¼ c. milk 2 eggs
          Mix the corn pulp, salt, pepper, and melted butter, stir in the
          flour, and add the milk. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and
          add them to the mixture. Then beat the whites stiff and fold
          them in. Pour into a buttered baking dish or into individual
          baking dishes, set in a pan of hot water, and bake until brown.
          Serve at once.
      120.CORN OYSTERS.—Variety can be secured in the use of corn
          by making corn oysters. These get their name from the fact
          that they resemble oysters in both size and shape. They may be
          served as a garnish for a meat dish or as a vegetable dish.


          CORN OYSTERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1 c. corn pulp 1 egg ¼ c. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper ½
          tsp. baking powder
          Prepare the corn pulp according to the directions given in Art.
          118. To this add the beaten egg, flour, salt, pepper, and baking
          powder. Drop in tablespoonfuls on a well-greased griddle. When
          brown on one side, turn and brown on the other side. Then fold
          through the center, doubling one side over the other. Serve hot.



      121.CORN FRITTERS.—The popularity of corn fritters, which have
          corn pulp as their foundation, is undoubtedly due both to their
          flavor and to the variety they afford in the diet. They may be
          served plain, but most persons prefer them with a sauce of some
          kind or with maple sirup.


          CORN FRITTERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 c. corn pulp, or 1 can corn, chopped 1 c. flour 1 tsp. baking
          powder 1 tsp. salt 2 eggs

364
    If canned corn is used, drain off the liquid before using it. To the
    corn, add the flour, baking powder, and salt. Separate the eggs
    and stir in the beaten yolks. Beat the whites stiff and fold them
    into the mixture. Drop with a spoon into deep fat, fry until
    brown, remove from the fat, and drain on paper. Serve plain,
    with a desired sauce, or with maple sirup.


    CUCUMBERS AND THEIR PREPARATION
122.The hard-rinded fruit of the cucumber plant has been used from
    time immemorial as a vegetable. In food value, cucumbers
    are very low, comparing closely with celery in this respect;
    however, as they contain a large amount of cellulose, or bulk,
    and mineral salts, they should not be disregarded in the diet.
    They have a rather strong flavor due to their volatile oils, which
    so frequently disagree with persons and which give cucumbers a
    reputation for being difficult to digest. However, when they are
    properly prepared, they can be eaten by most persons without
    harm.
123.Formerly it was the custom to soak slices of cucumber in salt
    water before serving them. This procedure, however, has been
    found to be poor policy, for nothing is gained by it and the salt
    toughens the cellulose and makes the cucumbers limp and
    rubbery in texture. A much more satisfactory way to prepare
    cucumbers is to slice them and then soak them for some time
    before serving in ice water or water as cold as can be obtained.
    They will then become crisp and delicious, and, besides being
    more appetizing and agreeable, they will be no less digestible.
    After being sliced and chilled, cucumbers are often combined
    with sliced onions and eaten with vinegar, salt, and pepper, or
    they are eaten alone or on lettuce, dressed with mayonnaise
    dressing.
124.STUFFED CUCUMBERS.—Possibly the only recipe for
    cooked       cucumbers that is used to any extent is the
    accompanying one for stuffed cucumbers. Cucumbers prepared
    in this way are very palatable, and because of the ingredients
    used are much higher in food value than when eaten alone. Such
    a dish is attractive, too.


    STUFFED CUCUMBERS (Sufficient to Serve Six)



                                                                    365
          3 cucumbers 2 Tb. butter 1 small onion, chopped 1 tsp. salt Dash
          of pepper 1-1/2 c. steamed rice 1 c. stewed tomatoes Bread
          crumbs
          Select medium-sized cucumbers, wash and peel them, and cut
          them in half lengthwise. Hollow out the center so that the
          cucumbers will have the shape of boats. Then melt the butter
          in a frying pan, add the chopped onion, salt, and pepper, and
          heat together for a few minutes. Next add the rice, tomatoes, and
          sufficient bread crumbs to take up any excess of moisture. Fill
          the cucumbers with this mixture and bake until they are soft
          enough to be easily pierced with a fork. During the first part of
          the cooking, pour a small amount of hot water into the pan in
          which the cucumbers are baked. Serve hot.


          EGGPLANT AND ITS PREPARATION
      125.EGGPLANT belongs to the class of fruit vegetables, and is
          closely related to the tomato in structure and composition. It
          grows rather large in size, is covered with a smooth brownish-
          purple skin, and is made up of material that is close and firm in
          texture and creamy white in color. Because of the nature of its
          structure, eggplant would seem to be high in food value, but, on
          the contrary, this vegetable has very little. In this respect, it is
          about equal to cabbage and cauliflower and slightly less than
          string beans.
      126.Eggplant is found in the market from early summer until the
          beginning of winter. Because it is protected by a heavy skin, it
          keeps well and needs no special care in storage. The strong
          flavor of the pulp is disagreeable to many persons. However, it
          has been found that much of this flavor may be removed by
          soaking the eggplant in strong salt water or by sprinkling it with
          salt after it has been sliced and then allowing it to stand for
          some time. It may be prepared in a variety of ways; so, if the
          members of the family care for it, the housewife will find it of
          great assistance in planning and preparing meals.
      127.SAUTED EGGPLANT.—The usual way of preparing eggplant
          is to cut it into slices and then saute it. As the slices are dipped
          into beaten egg and then into crumbs before sauteing, the food
          value of this vegetable is increased and its flavor improved.




366
    Peel the eggplant and then cut it into ¼-inch slices. Sprinkle salt
    over the slices and let them stand for 1 hour or more; then pour
    off the juice that has collected. Beat an egg slightly, and to
    it add a few tablespoonfuls of milk or water. Dip the slices of
    eggplant first into the beaten egg and then into crumbs. When
    sufficiently coated, saute in shallow fat, browning first on one
    side and then on the other. Serve hot.
128.BAKED EGGPLANT.—An attractive dish can be made by
    removing the contents from an eggplant, filling the cavity
    with a well-seasoned stuffing, and then baking the stuffed
    eggplant.


    BAKED EGGPLANT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 medium-sized eggplant 2 c. dried bread crumbs ½ c. milk 2
    tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1 small onion, chopped 1 Tb. parsley 2
    Tb. butter
    Wash the eggplant and cook in boiling water for about 10
    minutes. Remove from the water, cut off the top, scoop out the
    contents, and chop it into small pieces. With this finely chopped
    pulp, mix the bread crumbs, milk, salt, pepper, onion, parsley,
    and melted butter. When the whole is thoroughly blended,
    pack it into the shell of the eggplant and place in the oven. Bake
    for about 30 minutes or until the stuffing is thoroughly cooked
    and the top is brown. Serve hot.
129.SCALLOPED EGGPLANT.—If it is desired to increase the
    food value of eggplant and improve its flavor too, this vegetable
    should be scalloped. The accompanying recipe carefully followed
    will produce a most appetizing dish.


    SCALLOPED EGGPLANT (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    1 medium-sized eggplant 1 c. dried crumbs 2 Tb. butter 2 tsp.
    salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1-1/2 c. milk
    Peel the eggplant and cut it into ½-inch pieces. Put into a
    saucepan, cover with boiling salted water, cook until tender, and
    then drain. Grease a baking dish, spread ¼ cupful of crumbs on
    the bottom, and add one-half of the eggplant. Dot with butter
    and then sprinkle with salt and pepper. Add another ¼ cupful
    of crumbs and the remaining eggplant, dot again with butter,
    and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pour the milk over the

                                                                   367
          whole and sprinkle the remaining ½ cupful of crumbs on the top.
          Place in the oven and bake for ½ hour or more. Serve hot.


          FRENCH ARTICHOKES AND THEIR PREPARATION
      130.FRENCH ARTICHOKES, sometimes known as globe
          artichokes, California artichokes, and cardoons, are related to the
          family of thistles. They are grown for the sake of their large
          flower-heads, or buds, which are shown in Fig. 17 and which are
          much used as a food. These plants stand storage and shipment
          very well and may be kept for long periods of time without
          spoiling. It is therefore possible to transport them
          considerable distances, a very gratifying fact, since most persons
          consider artichokes a great delicacy.
      131.Not all of the artichoke plant is eaten. The portions of the
          flower that develop in the center of the base are removed
          before the base is eaten. After the artichokes are cooked, the
          scales, or leaves, are pulled from the cooked head with the
          fingers and the lower part of each one is dipped into sauce and
          eaten. The inner scales are much more tender and edible than
          the coarse outside ones. Although artichokes find favor with
          many and are considered somewhat of a delicacy, they are low
          in food value, being about equal to asparagus in this respect.
          To add food material, a dressing, such as drawn-butter sauce or
          mayonnaise dressing, is usually served.
      132.ARTICHOKES WITH HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.—The usual
          method of preparing artichokes is to boil them and then serve
          them with melted butter or a sauce. Boiled artichokes may also
          be cooled and then served with a salad dressing.


          Secure the desired number of artichokes and prepare them for
          boiling by pulling off the coarse outside leaves, cutting off the top
          of the bud, and removing the stem close to the bud. Cover well
          with boiling water, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart, and
          boil until tender, or for about 45 minutes. Remove from the
          water and serve hot with melted butter or Hollandaise sauce.
          If it is desired to use them for a salad, allow them to cool before
          adding the salad dressing.


VEGETABLES (PART 1)


368
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
   (1) (a) To what is the flavor of vegetables largely due? (b) How
       does cookery affect this?
   (2) Describe the structure of vegetables.
   (3) What food substances do vegetables as a class supply to the diet?
   (4) (a) What are the legumes? (b) What food substance do they
       supply in quantity to the diet?
   (5) Name the classes of vegetables and give examples of each class.
   (6) (a) When is soaking vegetables in salt water necessary? (b)
       What proportions of salt and water are used?
   (7) What effect has the application of heat on vegetables?
   (8) Give an example of a method of cooking vegetables that: (a)
       wastes food material; (b) conserves food material.
   (9) Give the reason for the use of soda in cooking vegetables.
   (10) How should salt be used in the cooking of: (a) tender vegetables?
        (b) tough vegetables?
   (11) Why should care be taken not to overcook                 cabbage,
        cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts?
   (12) What is a good general rule to follow for the length of time
        necessary for cooking vegetables?
   (13) Of what value are the sauces used to dress vegetables?
   (14) Mention some methods of preparing vegetables that greatly
        increase their food value.
   (15) What value has the addition of salt pork or bacon in the
        preparation of dried beans?
   (16) (a) Why should the cover be left off the kettle during the cooking
        of cabbage? (b) What other vegetables are cooked in this way?
   (17) Explain why old carrots and beets require longer cooking than
        young ones.
   (18) (a) At what stage is green corn best for table use? (b) How may
        this be recognized?
   (19) What value have corn pulp and bean puree?
   (20) (a) How should cucumbers be prepared before serving raw? (b)
        How may the strong flavor of eggplant be improved?



                                                                      369
      *     *    *     *     *




VEGETABLES (PART 2) *        *   *    *    *
PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES AS FOOD (Continued)
GREENS AND THEIR PREPARATION
VARIETIES AND FOOD VALUE
      1. Varieties of Greens.—The leaves and stems of many young
         plants in either their wild or their cultivated form are used for
         food. All of them are similar in composition, but many of
         them differ in flavor and appearance. The cultivated ones
         include beet tops, endive, spinach, and kale, as well as lettuce,
         collards, Swiss chard, sorrel, mustard greens, turnip tops, parsley,
         and cultivated cress and dandelion. The four greens mentioned
         first are illustrated in Fig. 1, beet tops being shown in the lower
         right corner; endive, in the upper right corner; spinach, in the
         lower left corner; and kale, in the upper left corner. Commonest
         among the wild greens are dandelion, cress, wild mustard, dock,
         pokeweed sprouts, milkweed sprouts, and lamb’s-quarters. Most
         of these wild varieties are excellent in the spring when they are
         young and tender, but it is not advisable to use them for food
         unless one is perfectly familiar with their appearance.
      2. Food Value of Greens.—The food value of all greens with the
         exception of dandelion is very low, being just about equal to
         that of celery and cucumbers. This may be increased in their
         preparation by the addition of other food materials. However,
         the chief use of greens in the diet is not to supply food value, but
         mineral salts, the most important one being iron in a form that is
         necessary for building up the blood.


          GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING GREENS
      3. The cooking of greens, both wild and cultivated, is not only
         simple but practically the same for all varieties. When they are not
         used as a salad vegetable, they are merely boiled until tender
         and then dressed in any desired way. Some kinds admit of special
         preparation, and wherever this is the case specific directions are
         given under the particular variety, but even in such an event the
         preliminary preparation is the same.

370
    To prepare greens, look them over carefully, remove any
    decayed or withered parts, cut off the leaves, and wash in fresh
    cold water. Remove from the water and wash again, and do
    this as many times as seems necessary to remove all the sand
    and grit that the stalks contain. An important point to remember
    is that the greens should not be cleansed by pouring the water
    off, as the sand will then remain in the pan and is likely to mix
    with the greens again. When they are thoroughly washed, put
    them on to cook in a saucepan or a similar utensil. If they are
    young and tender, they should be cooked as much as possible
    in their own juice in order to retain all the valuable mineral salts
    they contain, only enough water being added to start the
    cooking without burning. In the case of greens that are very
    strong in flavor, it will be necessary to cook them in a larger
    quantity of water and then pour off what remains after
    cooking. When they have cooked until they are tender, season
    them if necessary, and add butter to give them flavor and
    increase their food value. Vinegar or a slice of lemon adds much
    to the flavor of greens.
    BEET TOPS
4. The tops of beets include the leaves and the stems of this
   vegetable, They are at their best when the beets are very young
   or before the beets themselves have developed. Beet tops are
   not used so extensively as some greens, but they will be found
   to have a more agreeable flavor than many greens that are
   more popular. Beets are raised for the purpose of supplying
   greens by planting the seeds closely enough together to form a
   thick bed of leaves and then thinning them out before the
   beets have developed. A few may be allowed to remain and
   develop for use as beets. Young beets that are purchased with
   the tops on also furnish a source of beet tops as well as beets.


    When beet tops are to be cooked, cut the stems into inch lengths
    and use them with the leaves. Proceed to clean and cook the
    greens according to the directions given in Art. 3. Season with
    salt and pepper and flavor with butter. Serve with something
    tart, such as vinegar or lemon.


    DANDELION

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      5. Dandelion, both wild and cultivated, is a plant whose leaves are
         much used for a vegetable green before the blossoms develop.
         The wild ones have the advantage of being cheap, so they
         should be used if they can be secured; the cultivated ones, on
         the other hand, cost as much as spinach and other greens. The
         season for dandelions is comparatively short, lasting only a few
         weeks in the early spring. Use should therefore be made of them
         when they can be procured in order to secure variety for the
         menu. When they are desired as cooked greens, prepare them
         in the manner explained in Art. 3.
      6. Dandelion With Sour Sauce.—If a change in the cooking of
         dandelion is desired, it should be prepared with a sour
         sauce. This method of preparation is very popular, for besides
         increasing the food value of this variety of greens, it improves the
         flavor very much.


          DANDELION WITH SOUR SAUCE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          ½ pk. dandelion ½ c. vinegar 4 thin slices bacon ½ c. water 2
          Tb. flour 1 egg 1 tsp. salt
          Clean and wash the dandelion. Cut the slices of bacon into small
          pieces and saute until crisp. Stir the flour and salt into the bacon
          fat, add the vinegar and water, and stir until the flour thickens.
          Add the beaten egg last, and remove from the fire. Put the
          dandelion into the pan and mix well with the hot sauce. If the
          dandelion is preferred well wilted, set the pan over the flame,
          and stir until the dandelion appears as desired. Serve hot.


          ENDIVE
      7. ENDIVE is an herb that is used as a salad plant or is cooked and
         served with a hot dressing or as greens. The three common
         varieties of this green are escarole, chicory, and French endive,
         all of which have a slightly bitter taste and may be found in the
         market from late summer until early winter. Escarole is a broad-
         leaved variety that is grown more or less in a head. Chicory,
         which is shown in Fig. 1, has a small feathery-edged leaf, and is
         often bleached by tying the leaves together at the top, so that the
         inside ones are very tender. Both of these varieties may be
         cooked, but they are also much used for salads. French endive
         bears very little resemblance to the other kinds, having straight,
         creamy-white leaves that are closely pressed together. It looks

372
    very much like sprouts of some kind, and is entirely bleached in
    the process of growth by banking the earth around it. It is
    never used for anything except salads and garnishes.
8. Endive is very low in food value, comparing very closely with
   celery and cucumbers in this respect. Still, as a salad vegetable, it
   is worthy of much more extensive use than is generally made of
   it. As a rule, its price is about the same as that of lettuce, so it
   should be substituted frequently for lettuce to give variety to
   the diet. To be most satisfactory, endive should be bought
   when it is fresh and unwithered and kept until used in a cool,
   damp place. A good plan is to wrap such vegetables in a damp
   cloth. If, upon using, endive appears to be withered, it may be
   freshened by placing it in a pan of cold water and allowing it to
   remain there for a short time.


    When endive is used as a salad, it may be served merely with a
    salad dressing of some kind or it may be combined with other
    vegetables before applying the dressing. Escarole and chicory,
    which are much used as greens, should be prepared and cooked
    according to the directions given in Art. 3.
    LETTUCES
9. Lettuce is a well-known herb that is much used as a salad
   vegetable. There are numerous varieties of lettuce, but these may
   be reduced to the two kinds shown in Fig. 2, leaf lettuce on the
   right and head lettuce on the left. Leaf lettuce, which is more
   often used for garnishing than for any other purpose, has firm,
   crisp, green, upright leaves; on the other hand, head lettuce has
   round leaves forming a compact head, like cabbage. The outside
   leaves of head lettuce are green, but the inside ones are usually
   bleached by the exclusion of light, as are those of cabbage and
   endive. These inside leaves are more tender than the others,
   and hence more to be desired as a salad vegetable than the
   unbleached variety. In food value, lettuce compares closely with
   other varieties of greens and is high in the same mineral salts that
   they are. The bleached leaves do not contain so much iron as the
   green ones. [Illustration: FIG. 2]
10. As has already been implied, lettuce finds its principal use in
    garnishing salads. When used for this purpose, it should be
    eaten along with the salad, for it is too valuable to be wasted.
    Since the coarse outside leaves of a stalk or a head of lettuce do
    not look so well as the tender bleached ones, they are often

                                                                    373
          rejected, but this should not be done, for use can also be made
          of them. For instance, such leaves may be shredded into narrow
          strips and used as a foundation for salads that will be just as
          attractive as those having a single lettuce leaf for a garnish. When
          it is realized that the outside leaves are purchased at the same
          price as the more delicate parts of the lettuce, it can readily
          be understood why they also should be utilized as food. Most of
          the garden varieties of lettuce, especially when they have grown
          very large, are frequently cooked as greens. When used in this
          way, lettuce is prepared, as are other greens, according to the
          directions given in Art. 3. This vegetable also makes an
          appetizing dish when it is prepared with a sauce and served hot
          in the same way as dandelion.



          SPINACH
      11. SPINACH, which is shown in Fig. 1, consists of the large,
          fleshy, deep-green leaves of a garden herb much used as a green
          for food. In fact, this is one of the most popular varieties of
          greens and is used more extensively than any other. Many
          varieties of spinach are grown, but all of them are used in just the
          same way. It is slightly higher in food value than lettuce and
          endive, but lower than dandelion. However, it is a valuable
          food in the diet because of the large quantity of iron it
          contains, and many persons eat it not so much because they like
          it but because they believe it is good for them.
      12. Some kinds of spinach do not keep for long periods of time.
          Therefore, in order to avoid any waste, spinach should always
          be very fresh when purchased and should be used as soon as
          possible after it is obtained. It may be prepared in a greater
          number of ways than most of the other greens except, perhaps,
          those used for salads. For instance, it is served with entrees of
          various kinds, is combined with meat, ham and spinach being a
          much used combination, or is made into a puree by forcing it
          through a sieve and then used in the making of soup or souffle.
          Then, again, spinach is often boiled and pressed into small cups
          to form molds. Such a mold may be used to garnish a dish of
          some sort or, as here shown, may be garnished with a slice of
          hard-cooked egg. When spinach is used in any of these ways, it
          should first be cooked according to the directions given for the
          preparation of greens in Art. 3.

374
13. SPINACH SOUFFLE.—The puree that is made by forcing
    boiled spinach through a sieve may be used in a variety of ways,
    but none of these is more satisfactory than spinach souffle.
    When made according to the accompanying recipe, spinach
    souffle will be found to be appetizing as well as nourishing.


    SPINACH SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 Tb. butter ½ c. hot milk 2 Tb. flour 1 c. spinach puree 1 tsp.
    salt 2 egg whites Dash of pepper
    Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, pepper, and hot milk, and
    stir in the spinach puree. Beat the egg whites stiff and fold
    them into the mixture. Grease individual baking dishes or a large
    baking dish and fill two-thirds full with the mixture. Place in a
    pan of hot water and bake in a slow oven until firm, or for about
    20 or 30 minutes.
14. SPINACH ROYAL.—A very attractive dish can be made by
    combining spinach with toast, hard-cooked egg, and lemon.
    This dish is known as spinach royal, and because of the
    additional ingredients it is nutritious as well as palatable.


    SPINACH ROYAL (Sufficient to Serve Four)
    ½ pk. spinach 1/3 c. water 1-1/2 tsp. salt 3 Tb. bacon fat or
    butter 3 Tb. flour 1/8 tsp. pepper Triangular pieces of toast 2
    hard-cooked eggs 1 lemon
    Look the spinach over carefully and remove all roots and dead
    leaves. Cut the stalks apart and wash them thoroughly several
    times in fresh, clean water to remove the sand and dirt, lifting
    the spinach out of the water each time instead of pouring the
    water off. Put the spinach into a saucepan with the water. Stir
    frequently until the spinach is wilted and there is sufficient water
    to boil it. Add 1 teaspoonful of the salt and cook until the
    leaves are very tender, or for about 15 or 20 minutes. Drain off
    all but about ½ cupful of the liquid. Melt the fat in a frying pan,
    stir the flour into it, brown to a golden brown, and then add
    the spinach, pepper, and remaining salt. Stir and cook until the
    flour has thickened and mixed well with the spinach. Turn out
    in a mound on a platter and place the pieces of toast around the
    spinach as shown. Slice the hard-cooked eggs, cut the lemon
    into any desirable shape, and use these to garnish the platter. In

                                                                    375
          serving this dish, put a spoonful of spinach on a piece of toast
          and serve a slice or two of egg and lemon with each portion.
      15. CREAMED SPINACH.—After spinach has been boiled until it
          is tender, it may be made more appetizing by combining it with
          a well-flavored cream sauce, according to the accompanying
          directions.


          CREAMED SPINACH (Sufficient to Serve Four)
          ½ pk. spinach ½ tsp. salt 2 Tb. ham or bacon fat Dash of pepper
          2 Tb. flour 2/3 c. milk
          Boil the spinach according to the directions given in Art. 3. Melt
          the fat in a frying pan, add the flour, salt, pepper, and milk, and
          stir until the flour thickens. Chop the cooked spinach and add it
          to the hot dressing. Stir and cook until the two are well blended.
          Serve hot.


          WATERCRESS AND PARSLEY
      16. WATERCRESS and PARSLEY are two herbs, or greens, that
          are used considerably for garnishing and flavoring other dishes.
          These greens are shown in Fig. 5, that at the left being
          watercress and that at the right parsley.
      17. Watercress, which is commonly known as peppercress, usually
          grows wild in beds along the banks of springs or clear, cool
          streams. A few varieties, however, are cultivated, and these are
          grown in dry soil and known as upland cress. It is a very prolific
          herb, and may be obtained from early spring until late in the
          fall; in fact, it does not freeze easily and is sometimes found in
          early winter along the swiftly flowing streams that are not frozen
          over. Watercress may be used whenever it can be procured, but
          it is not very desirable when in blossom. Its chief use is to
          garnish salads and other dishes, but it may also be cooked and
          served hot as a green. In such an event, its cooking is
          accomplished in the same way as that of other greens.
      18. Parsley, while classified as a green vegetable, is perhaps not in the
          true sense of the word a real vegetable, since it is used for only
          two purposes, and in neither of these is it served cooked or
          raw as an exclusive article of diet. The most important use of
          parsley is perhaps that of flavoring. It is added to soups,
          sauces, and various kinds of cooked vegetables in order to impart

376
    additional flavor. In such cases, it should be chopped very fine
    in order that all possible flavor may be extracted from it.
    Parsley may also be dried before it is used for this purpose,
    provided it must be kept for any length of time. The other use of
    parsley is that of garnishing. It is often used in small sprays to
    garnish a roast of meat, a steak, chops, fish, or some baked,
    fried, or sauted vegetable. Sometimes it is chopped very fine and
    placed around the edge of a patty shell, a croustade, a timbale
    case, or a piece of toast upon which food is served. Parsley may
    be eaten when it is served as a garnish if its flavor is found to be
    agreeable to the taste.


    JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES AND THEIR PREPARATION
19. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES are tubers belonging to the
    sunflower family. In appearance they resemble potatoes to some
    extent, but, as a rule, they are neither so large nor so smooth.
    The inside texture of this vegetable is more moist and not so
    mealy as that of the Irish potato. Jerusalem artichokes are easy
    to grow and are very prolific, so that if any one is fond of them
    they will be found to be a profitable crop. For table use, they
    are prepared in much the same way as potatoes.
20. CREAMED ARTICHOKES.—A common method of preparing
    Jerusalem artichokes is to cream them. Wash and peel the
    desired number of artichokes and cut them into ½-inch dice.
    Put these to cook in boiling salted water and cook until tender
    enough to be pierced with a fork. Drain off the water and dress
    with hot medium white sauce. Serve hot.
21. BUTTERED ARTICHOKES.—Another satisfactory way in
    which to prepare Jerusalem artichokes is to dress them with
    butter. Wash and peel the required number of artichokes and
    cut them into slices. Put these to cook in boiling salted water and
    cook until tender enough to be pierced with a fork. Drain off the
    water and dress with melted butter to which has been added a
    little chopped parsley. Serve hot.



    KOHLRABI AND ITS PREPARATION
22. KOHLRABI is a variety of cabbage having a turnip-shaped
    stem. On account of its shape it is often called turnip cabbage.


                                                                    377
          The edible part of kohlrabi is the enlarged stem, which has the
          flavor of both turnip and cabbage. The stems of the leaves are
          attached to the enlarged portion that is used for food, and these
          must be removed in the preparation of the vegetable. Kohlrabi
          is not a perishable vegetable and therefore stands storage very
          well. For market, it is usually placed in bunches and tied as are
          beets and carrots. In food value, this vegetable, like cabbage, is
          somewhat low. The food value it does have is carbohydrate in
          the form of sugar.
      23. After the stems of the leaves have been cut off, the kohlrabi
          should be washed and then pared to remove the outer skin. It is
          usually diced or sliced thin, and then cooked and dressed in
          any desirable way. This vegetable, like cabbage, cauliflower,
          etc., should be cooked with the cover removed from the kettle,
          in order to allow some of the flavor to escape in the steam.
          Kohlrabi that is old or that has been in storage for some time
          develops woody portions as do turnips, beets, and other winter
          vegetables, and must therefore be cooked sufficiently long to
          make it palatable.
      24. BOILED KOHLRABI.—Persons fond of kohlrabi as a
          vegetable will undoubtedly prefer it merely boiled and flavored
          with butter, pepper, and salt. When it is to be cooked in this
          way, prepare it in the manner just explained. Then put it on to
          cook in sufficient boiling salted water to cover it well, and allow
          it to cook with the cover removed until it can be easily pierced
          with a fork. When sufficiently cooked, pour off the water, season
          to taste with salt and pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter
          for each pint of kohlrabi cooked. Serve hot.
      25. MASHED KOHLRABI.—As turnips and potatoes are often
          boiled and then mashed, so kohlrabi makes a very appetizing
          dish when prepared in this way. Prepare the kohlrabi and cook it
          by boiling. When it has cooked soft, drain off the water and mash
          with a wooden or a wire potato masher. Season with salt and
          pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each pint of
          cooked vegetable. Serve hot.
      26. CREAMED KOHLRABI.—The preparation of kohlrabi can
          be varied by serving it with a cream sauce. Such a sauce also
          increases the food value of this vegetable by supplying the
          substances in which it is low.


          CREAMED KOHLRABI (Sufficient to Serve Six)

378
    4 c. diced kohlrabi 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of
    pepper 1 c. milk
    Cook the kohlrabi in boiling salted water until tender and then
    drain the water from it. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the
    flour, salt, and pepper, and into this stir the hot milk. Cook
    until the sauce has thickened. Then pour it over the kohlrabi
    and reheat. Serve hot.
    LENTILS AND THEIR PREPARATION
27. LENTILS are the flattish, circular, dried seeds of an annual
    vine grown chiefly in Europe and Asia. They belong to the class
    of vegetables known as legumes, and are therefore high in
    protein in the form of legumin. They also contain a large
    amount of carbohydrate in the form of starch and are high in
    mineral salts. Because of their high food value, which is
    somewhat over 1,600 calories to the pound, they are a valuable
    food in the diet, particularly as a meat substitute. Consequently,
    when lentils can be obtained at a reasonable price, it is wise
    to make considerable use of them.


    There are three varieties of lentils, yellow, red, and black, and
    they resemble split peas in appearance, as will be observed from
    Fig. 6, which shows a panful of dried lentils. They have a
    distinctive flavor that is agreeable to most persons. However, like
    other dried legumes, long cooking is required to make them
    tender and palatable.
28. COOKING OF LENTILS.—In general, the preparation of
    lentils is similar to that of dried beans, the cooking of which is
    now thoroughly understood. They may be put on to cook
    immediately after they are washed, but, as in the case of dried
    beans, their cooking may be hastened if they are first softened
    by soaking them in cold water for 8 to 12 hours. At the end of
    this time, it is advisable to parboil the lentils for about 10 or
    15 minutes, or until their outer skins begin to crack, in water to
    which a pinch of soda has been added. This water being poured
    off, the lentils should be washed and then put to cook in
    fresh water to which 1 teaspoonful of salt is added for each
    quart of water used. Like beans, the lentils should be cooked
    slowly until they are soft enough to crush between the fingers.
    With these principles for the cooking of lentils well in mind, the
    housewife will have no difficulty in preparing this vegetable,


                                                                   379
          for almost any of the recipes given for dried beans may be used
          with lentils substituted for the beans.
      29. LENTIL PUFF.—A decided change from the usual ways of
          preparing lentils can be had by making lentil puff. Black lentils are
          used for this preparation, and they are made into a puree before
          being used in the puff. If the accompanying recipe is carefully
          followed, a most appetizing, as well as nutritious, dish will be the
          result.


          LENTIL PUFF (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1-1/4 c. lentil puree 1-1/2 c. riced potatoes 2 Tb. butter ½ c.
          milk 1 ½ tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 2 eggs
          Soak the lentils overnight in water that contains a pinch of soda,
          parboil them for about 10 minutes, and pour off the water. Put
          them to cook in cold water and cook until they are tender,
          allowing the water to evaporate completely, if possible, so that
          the puree made from them will be dry. However, if any water
          remains when the lentils are done, pour it off and use it for
          soup or sauce. Make the puree by forcing the cooked lentils
          through a colander. If it is found to be too wet, less milk can be
          used than the recipe calls for. Cook several potatoes and rice
          them by forcing them through a colander or a ricer. Combine the
          lentils and potatoes, and to this mixture add the butter, milk, salt,
          and pepper. Separate the eggs, and beat the yolks slightly and
          the whites until stiff. Stir the yolks into the mixture and, just
          before putting the puff into the oven, fold in the whites. Pour
          into a buttered baking dish, set in the oven, and bake until the
          puff is set and the surface is brown. Serve hot.


          MUSHROOMS AND THEIR PREPARATION
      30. Mushrooms are not a vegetable; still they are included in this
          Section because they are used like a vegetable. In reality, they
          are a fungus growth containing no chlorophyl, or green coloring
          matter, consisting of an erect stalk that supports a cap-like
          expansion. They occur in many varieties, both poisonous and
          non-poisonous. The non-poisonous, or edible, mushrooms are
          found on rich, moist pastures all over the world and they are
          also very frequently cultivated. They may be collected in almost
          any locality, but no person who is not perfectly familiar
          with their characteristics and therefore able to judge the non-

380
    poisonous kinds from the poisonous should attempt to gather
    them. Fresh mushrooms can usually be found in the markets,
    but as they are expensive, they should be considered a luxury
    and used only occasionally. Instead, some of the small canned
    varieties, which are usually satisfactory for most purposes, should
    be used when mushrooms are desired and the wild ones cannot
    be secured.
31. In food value, mushrooms are not very high, being about equal to
    beets or carrots in this respect; but they have a higher percentage
    of protein than these vegetables and they contain extractives
    similar to those found in meat. To increase their food value,
    mushrooms are often combined with other foods, such as peas,
    chestnuts, diced meats, and fowl, and made into dishes of various
    sorts. Then, again, they are served as a garnish with steaks and
    other meat dishes. In short, if they can be secured from the
    surrounding neighborhood or the price is not prohibitive, they
    should be used in the many excellent ways that are devised for
    their preparation.
32. PREPARATION FOR COOKING.—To prepare mushrooms
    for cooking, clean them by brushing them carefully with a soft
    brush, by scraping the surface, and, in some cases, by removing
    the stems. Do not, however, throw the stems away, for they may
    be used as well as the caps. If the mushrooms are found to be
    tough, the skin should be peeled off. After being thus
    prepared, mushrooms may be cooked in various ways, as is
    explained in the accompanying recipes. [Illustration: FIG. 7]
33. BROILED MUSHROOMS.—One of the simplest methods of
    cooking mushrooms is to broil them. This may be done either by
    exposing them directly to the heat or by pan-broiling them. In
    this recipe, only the caps are used.


    Clean the mushrooms that are to be broiled and remove the
    stems. Place the caps in a broiler that has been greased or in a
    slightly greased frying pan. Brown them on one side, then turn
    them and brown them on the other side. Remove to a platter,
    dot with butter, season with salt and pepper, and serve.
34. STEWED MUSHROOMS.—Another very simple way in which
    to cook mushrooms is to stew them and then serve them on
    toast. When prepared by this method, both the stems and the
    caps are utilized.


                                                                   381
          Clean the mushrooms and cut both the caps and the stems into
          small pieces. Cook until tender in sufficient water, stock, or milk
          to cover them well, and then season with salt and pepper. To
          the liquid that remains, add enough flour to thicken it slightly.
          Serve on toast.
      35. SAUTED MUSHROOMS.—When mushrooms are sauted, they
          are often used with other dishes, particularly broiled steak, to
          improve the flavor and give variety. In fact, steak smothered
          with mushrooms is considered a luxury. However, sauted
          mushrooms are very frequently served alone or, together with a
          sauce made from the fat in which they are cooked, they are
          served on toast.


          Clean the mushrooms, remove the stems, and dredge both stems
          and caps with flour. Melt fat in the frying pan and place the
          dredged mushrooms in it. Saute until brown on both sides and
          season with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley. Serve in any
          desired manner. If sauce is desired, add water or stock to the
          flour and fat that remain in the frying pan, and allow this to
          cook for a few minutes.
      36. CREAMED MUSHROOMS AND CHESTNUTS.—No more
          delightful combination can be imagined than mushrooms and
          chestnuts. When combined with a cream sauce and served in
          patty shells or timbale cases, a dish suitable for the daintiest
          meal is the result. Another very attractive way in which to
          serve this combination is to place it in a baking dish, or, as
          shown in Fig. 8, in individual baking dishes, cover it with a layer
          of biscuit or pastry crust, bake, and serve it as a pie.


          CREAMED MUSHROOMS AND CHESTNUTS (Sufficient to
          Serve Eight)
          1-1/2 c. stewed chestnuts 1-1/2 c. stewed mushrooms 3 Tb.
          butter 3 Tb. flour 1-1/2 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1-1/2 c. milk
          Remove the shells from the required number of Italian chestnuts
          and cook the nut meats in boiling water until tender. Peel off the
          skins and break the chestnuts into pieces. If fresh mushrooms
          are used, stew them in boiling water until tender. Cut the stewed
          or canned mushrooms into pieces of the same size as the

382
    chestnuts, and mix the two together. Make a cream sauce by
    melting the butter, adding the flour, salt, and pepper, and
    stirring in the hot milk. Cook until the mixture thickens, pour it
    over the chestnuts and mushrooms, and serve in any of the ways
    suggested.


    OKRA AND ITS PREPARATION


37. OKRA is a fruit vegetable consisting of a green pod that is
    several inches long, pointed at one end, and filled with seeds.
    Although okra originated in Africa, it is for the most part
    grown in the southern section of the United States. However,
    canned okra may be obtained almost anywhere. Okra is low in
    food value, being only slightly higher than cabbage and most of
    the greens; nevertheless, it is liked by many persons. It is of a
    mucilaginous, or gummy, consistency, and if it is not properly
    cooked it becomes very slimy and is then decidedly unpleasant.
    Because of its gummy nature, it helps to thicken any dish to
    which it is added. Probably its chief use is as an ingredient in
    soups, when it is known as gumbo. Chicken gumbo soup is one
    of the most popular dishes of this kind. The preliminary
    preparation of okra is the same as that of most other
    vegetables; that is, the pods should be washed, the stems
    removed, and the cleaned pods then cooked in sufficient boiling
    salted water to cover them well.
38. STEWED OKRA.—The simplest way in which to prepare okra
    is to stew it. When seasoned well with salt, pepper, and butter,
    stewed okra finds much favor with those who care for this
    vegetable.


    Select the required number of okra pods and put them on to
    cook in enough boiling salted water to cover them well. Cook
    until the pods are soft enough to be easily pierced with a fork.
    Season with pepper and, if necessary, additional salt, and add 1
    tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served.
39. OKRA WITH TOMATOES.—If one does not desire a dish
    made entirely of okra, it may be combined with tomatoes. Such a
    combination, seasoned well and flavored with ham or bacon fat,
    makes a very tasty dish.


                                                                  383
          OKRA WITH TOMATOES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          1-1/2 c. stewed or canned okra 1-1/2 c. stewed or canned
          tomatoes 1-1/2 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 2 Tb. ham or bacon fat
          Heat the okra and tomatoes together in a saucepan and add
          the salt, pepper, and ham or bacon fat. Cook for 5 or 10
          minutes or until well blended. Serve hot.


          ONIONS AND THEIR PREPARATION
          VARIETIES OF THE ONION FAMILY
      40. ONIONS are the chief commercial vegetable of the bulb crops.
          They have been cultivated from the earliest times, their native
          country being Central Asia. Closely allied to the onion are
          several other bulb vegetables, including garlic, shallots, leeks,
          and chives, all of which are used more extensively for flavoring
          dishes than for any other purpose. Fig. 10 shows several varieties
          of this family, the group of three in the upper right corner being
          garlic; the bunch in the lower right corner, leeks; the bunch in
          the lower left corner, green onions; and the remainder of those
          shown in the illustration, different varieties of dried onions, that
          is, onions that have been allowed to mature.
      41. This entire class of food is characterized by a typical, volatile oil,
          which in most cases is so strong as to be somewhat irritating
          and which causes the vegetable to disagree with many persons.
          This flavor, however, can be almost entirely dissipated by
          cooking, so that many persons who cannot eat the various
          members of the onion family raw can tolerate them cooked. In
          food value, which is found principally as carbohydrate in the
          form of sugar, this class of foods is not very high, being about the
          same as carrots, beets, and other root vegetables. Some persons
          believe that onions have wonderful medicinal value in curing
          colds and preventing them, but there is really no foundation for
          such a belief.
      42. ONIONS.—As has been pointed out, onions are of two general
          varieties, dried and green. Dried onions, as shown in Fig. 10, are
          those which have been allowed to grow to maturity and have
          then been cured, or dried, to a certain extent. Such onions are in
          demand at all seasons. Green onions are those which are pulled,
          or taken out of the ground, before they have matured and are

384
    eaten while fresh. They are especially popular in the spring,
    although they have a rather long season. Each of these classes has
    many varieties, which vary in flavor and in color, some of the
    dried ones being yellow, some red, and others white. All dried
    onions have excellent keeping qualities, so, after purchasing, no
    special care need be given to them except to store them in a
    comparatively cool, dry place. Deterioration is due chiefly to
    sprouting, for as soon as the new plant begins to grow from the
    center of the onion, the remainder becomes soft and loses much
    of its flavor. The green, immature onions, however, will not
    keep for any length of time, and in order to keep them fresh
    until they are used, they must be stored in a cool, damp place.
43. GARLIC.—The variety of onion known as garlic is very much
    desired by the people of southern Europe, where it originated. It
    resembles the onion in appearance, but it consists of several
    parts, or small bulbs, called cloves, which are encased in a
    covering of thin white skin. Garlic has a very strong penetrating
    odor and a biting taste that resemble the odor and taste of onion,
    but that are much ranker. It is little used by Americans except as
    a flavoring for salads and various kinds of highly seasoned
    meats. In reality, a very small amount of garlic is sufficient to
    lend enough flavor, and so the bowl in which a salad is served is
    often merely rubbed with garlic before the salad is put into it. No
    difficulty will be experienced in recognizing garlic in the markets,
    for here it is found in long strings that are made by braiding the
    dry stems together.
44. SHALLOTS.—Closely allied to garlic are shallots, which are
    native to Syria, where they still grow wild. They are said to have
    been brought into Europe by the Crusaders. The bulbs of this
    vegetable are similar to those of garlic, being compound in form,
    but instead of being enclosed in a thin covering, they are separate
    when mature. Shallots have a strong flavor, but it is not so rank
    as that of garlic, nor does the odor remain in the mouth so long
    as that of onion. Many persons like shallots for flavoring stews,
    soups, salads, and pickles.
45. LEEKS.—Another member of the onion family that is more
    highly prized and more extensively raised in Europe than in the
    United States is leeks. Leeks do not produce a bulb as do
    onions. In this vegetable, the lower parts of the leaves grow
    close together and form a bulb-like stem, or neck, which is
    fairly solid and which constitutes the edible part. The odor and
    flavor of leeks are similar to those of onions, but they are

                                                                    385
          somewhat weaker. The fleshy stem may be bleached by banking it
          with earth, and when this is done, the flavor becomes more mild
          and the texture more tender than in the onion bulb. Like
          shallots, leeks are used to flavor stews, soups, and similar foods.
      46. CHIVES.—The member of the onion family known as chives
          is a small plant whose roots remain in the ground for many
          years and produce year after year dense tufts of slender, hollow
          leaves. These leaves grow to a height of about 6 or 8 inches and
          resemble the tops of onions except that they are much smaller.
          Chives, which have a more delicate flavor than onions, are
          much used for flavoring soup, stews, salads, meats, and other
          vegetables and as a garnish for salads. When used for any of
          these purposes, they are cut into tiny pieces.



          PREPARATION OF ONIONS
      47. ONIONS FOR FLAVORING.—When only the flavor of
          onions is desired in a salad or a cooked dish of some sort, such
          as a dressing for fowl, hash, or any similar combination of food
          ingredients, the onion should be added in the form of juice and
          pulp rather than in pieces. Then it will not be possible to
          observe the onion when it is mixed with the food nor to come
          across small pieces of it when the food is eaten. To prepare an
          onion in this way, peel it, cut off a crosswise slice, and then grate
          the onion on a grater over a shallow dish. Add the juice and pulp
          thus obtained to any food that calls for onion as a flavoring.
      48. ONIONS FOR THE TABLE.—When onions are to be used as
          a vegetable for the table, they require cooking, but first of all
          they must be peeled. This is at best a rather unpleasant task,
          because the fumes from the strong volatile oil are irritating to
          both the eyes and the nostrils. However, it may be done more
          comfortably by keeping the onions immersed in cold water
          during the peeling. Remove only the dry outside shells, and, if the
          onions are large, cut them in halves or quarters. However, as
          the various layers are likely to fall apart when the onion is cut,
          it is advisable to select medium-sized or small onions, for these
          may be cooked whole. After the onions have been peeled, they
          may be cooked in a variety of ways.
      49. BOILED ONIONS.—Perhaps the simplest method of cooking
          onions is to boil them. To allow the strong volatile oil to


386
   escape instead of being reabsorbed by the onions, and thus
   improve the flavor of the onions, the cover should be kept off
   the vessel while they are cooking. The water in which this
   vegetable is cooked has not a very agreeable flavor, so no use
   should be made of it.


   Peel the desired number of onions and if necessary cut them into
   halves or quarters. Place them in sufficient boiling water to cover
   well. Cook in an uncovered vessel until tender enough to be easily
   pierced with a fork, but not so soft as to fall apart. Then pour
   off the water, season with more salt, if necessary, and a little
   pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four persons
   to be served. Serve hot.
50. CREAMED ONIONS.—A cream sauce added to onions makes
    a very appetizing dish. In fact, most persons prefer creamed
    onions to any other method of preparation.


   CREAMED ONIONS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
   1 pt. stewed onions 3 Tb. butter 3 Tb. flour 1 tsp. salt Dash of
   pepper 1 ½ c. hot milk
   Prepare the onions according to the directions given in Art. 49.
   When they are tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork,
   drain. Melt the butter, and add the flour, salt, pepper, and hot
   milk. Cook until the sauce thickens, pour over the stewed
   onions, heat together for a few minutes, and serve.
51. BAKED ONIONS.—If variety in the preparation of onions is
    desired, baked onions should be tried. Select medium-sized
    onions, peel them, and then boil them whole in boiling salted
    water until they are almost tender. Drain off the water, place
    the onions in a shallow dish, brush with butter, and sprinkle
    with salt and pepper. Place in a hot oven and bake until brown
    on one side; then turn them and brown on the other side. Serve
    hot.
52. STUFFED ONIONS.—When large onions can be secured, a
    very appetizing as well as attractive dish can be prepared by
    stuffing them and then baking them brown.


   STUFFED ONIONS (Sufficient to Serve Six)


                                                                  387
          6 large onions 1 c. dried bread crumbs 2 Tb. butter ½ tsp. salt
          1/8 tsp. pepper ½ tsp. celery salt ¼ c. milk
          Peel the onions and cook them in boiling salted water until
          almost tender. Remove from the water and take out the inner
          portions of the onions, leaving the outside layers in the shape of
          a cup. Chop the portions of the onions which have been
          removed and mix with the bread crumbs. Melt the butter, add
          to it the chopped onion, bread crumbs, salt, pepper, and celery
          salt, and stir all together for a few minutes over the flame. Add
          the milk, and if the ¼ cupful is not sufficient to make the
          stuffing moist, add more. Fill the onion shells with the stuffing,
          place in a hot oven, and bake until brown. Serve immediately.


          PARSNIPS AND THEIR PREPARATION
      53. Parsnips are an important root vegetable, being closely allied
          to carrots. They are used to a certain extent during the summer
          when they are immature, but generally they are allowed to
          mature so that they may be stored for use as a winter vegetable.
          Parsnips have an advantage over many vegetables in that they
          have excellent keeping qualities and are particularly hardy,
          being able to withstand considerable freezing and thawing when
          they are left in the ground during the winter. However, as they
          grow older, they develop a woody texture, as do beets and
          turnips, and so at the end of the winter require longer cooking
          than at the beginning.
      54. In food value, parsnips are somewhat higher than other
          root vegetables, containing a large amount of carbohydrate,
          which occurs in the form of sugar. Although they are
          wholesome and nourishing, they have a peculiar, sweetish flavor
          that is due to the volatile oil they contain and is objectionable to
          some persons. Still, those who are fond of this flavor find that
          parsnips afford an excellent opportunity to give variety to the
          diet, for they may be prepared in a number of ways, most of
          which are similar to the ways in which carrots are cooked.
      55. In preparing parsnips for cooking, scrape them, if possible,
          instead of peeling them, so as not to waste any of the edible
          material. Then, too, try to obtain medium-sized parsnips, for
          they will be of much better quality than the larger ones. If
          uneven sizes must be used, the larger ones should be cut before



388
    being cooked, so that they will be similar in size to the smaller
    ones and therefore cook in the same length of time.
56. MASHED PARSNIPS.—A very simple way in which to prepare
    parsnips is to mash them. Clean and scrape the desired number
    of parsnips and put them to cook in sufficient boiling salted
    water to cover. Cook until tender enough to be pierced with a
    fork, the length of time required to do this depending entirely
    on the age of the parsnips. When tender, drain off the water and
    force the parsnips through a colander or a sieve. Season with
    butter, salt, and pepper, and serve hot.
57. CREAMED PARSNIPS.—Parsnips are sometimes cut into
    dice and then served with a cream, sauce. When it is desired to
    prepare them in this way, the accompanying directions should be
    carefully followed.


    CREAMED PARSNIPS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. diced parsnips 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash of
    pepper 1 c. milk
    Clean and scrape the parsnips and cut them into dice ½ inch in
    size. Put these to cook in sufficient boiling salted water to cover,
    cook until they may be easily pierced with a fork, and then drain.
    Melt the butter in a double boiler, and add the flour, salt, and
    pepper. Stir in the hot milk, and cook until the mixture thickens.
    Pour this sauce over the parsnips, heat together for a few
    minutes, and serve.
58. BROWNED PARSNIPS.—Parsnips that are browned and
    sweetened with sugar seem to meet with greater favor than
    those prepared by other methods. To prepare them in this way,
    clean and scrape the desired number of parsnips, and slice them
    in thick slices, or, if they are small, cut them in halves lengthwise.
    Put them to cook in boiling salted water and cook until they
    may be easily pierced with a fork, but are not tender enough to
    fall to pieces. Melt some fat in a frying pan, and place the
    slices of cooked parsnips in it. Brown on one side, turn, and
    then brown on the other. Sprinkle with a little sugar and, if
    necessary, additional salt. Serve.



    PEAS AND THEIR PREPARATION

                                                                      389
      59. In addition to beans and lentils, the class of vegetables called
          legumes includes PEAS, which, both green and dried, are used
          for food. In composition, there is a decided difference between
          the two varieties of peas, the green ones being about equal to
          green corn in food value, and the dried ones having a food
          value nearly four times as great. In each case, the food
          substance in the greatest amount is in the form of
          carbohydrate. In green peas, this is in the form of sugar, while in
          dried ones it is changed into starch. Peas also contain protein in
          the form of legumin, there being three times as much of this
          substance in dried peas as in green ones. The amount found in
          green peas is sufficient to be of importance in the diet, but the
          percentage of this substance is so great in dried peas that they
          may be used very satisfactorily as a meat substitute.
      60. GREEN PEAS.—Numerous varieties of green peas are found
          on the market. A few of them are cooked in the pods, especially
          when the peas are very young, and are eaten pods and all, just as
          are string beans. Most of them, however, are allowed to mature
          further and only the peas are eaten, the shell being discarded.


          When green peas are purchased, they are always found in the
          pods. For the peas to be most satisfactory, the pods should be
          fresh and green and should appear to be well filled. Flat-looking
          pods mean that the peas have not matured sufficiently. After
          being purchased, the peas should not be removed from the
          pods until they are to be cooked. However, if it is necessary
          that they stand for any length of time after they are shelled, they
          should be kept in a cool place in order to prevent them from
          shriveling. Their cooking is similar to that of any other fresh
          vegetable; that is, they should be cooked in boiling salted water in
          a covered vessel until they are tender enough to be easily crushed
          between the fingers or pierced with a fork. With this
          preliminary preparation, they may be dressed in any desirable
          manner.
      61. DRIED PEAS.—Dried peas, because of their nature, require a
          different kind of preparation from green peas. In fact, their
          cooking is similar to that of dried beans. They require long slow
          cooking and are improved if they are first parboiled in water to
          which a pinch of soda has been added. They are not used
          extensively except in the making of soups or occasionally for
          a puree or a souffle, but as they are very high in food value and


390
    can be used as a meat substitute, they should have a prominent
    place in the dietary of most families. Many of the ways in
    which dried beans and lentils are prepared are fully as
    applicable in the case of dried peas.
62. GREEN PEAS WITH BUTTER.—When peas are young and
    tender, no more appetizing way to prepare them can be found
    than to boil them and then serve them with butter.


    Select fresh green peas with full pods, wash in cold water, and
    remove the peas from the shells. Put to cook in enough boiling
    salted water to cover well, and cook until tender. Pour off all but
    a small amount of the water, using the part poured off for making
    soup or sauce. Add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four
    persons to be served, and season with additional salt if necessary
    and a dash of pepper. Serve hot.
63. GREEN PEAS ENGLISH STYLE.—If the flavor of mint is
    agreeable, green peas prepared English style will undoubtedly find
    favor. Cook them as for green peas with butter, but, at the
    time the butter is added, add 1 tablespoonful of finely chopped
    fresh mint. Season with additional salt, if necessary, and pepper,
    allow all to simmer together for a few minutes, and serve.
64. CREAMED PEAS.—A cream sauce adds considerable food
    value and flavor to green peas. Peas prepared in this way may be
    served plain, but they can be made very attractive by serving them
    in croustades. As already learned, croustades are cases made
    from large pieces of bread that are cut any desired shape,
    hollowed out, and then toasted in a hot oven or on a broiler
    or fried in deep fat until crisp.


    CREAMED PEAS (Sufficient to Serve Six)
    2 c. shelled green peas 2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ tsp. salt Dash
    of pepper ½ c. water from peas ½ c. milk
    Cook the peas in boiling salted water until tender,         and then
    drain the water from them, retaining ½ cupful for          the sauce.
    Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and      stir in the
    hot liquids. Cook until the flour has thickened and        then pour
    over the peas. Serve hot, either plain or in croustades.
65. PEAS IN TURNIP CUPS.—A somewhat unusual dish can be
    prepared by making cups out of turnips, filling them with peas,

                                                                      391
          and then pouring a cream sauce over the peas. Besides being
          attractive, this combination makes a very palatable vegetable
          dish.


          Select a sufficient number of medium-sized white turnips.
          Wash them thoroughly, and then hollow out the inside of
          each, leaving cup-shaped shells about ¼ inch thick. Cook these
          shells in boiling salted water until tender, but not tender enough
          to break into pieces, and remove from the water. Then,
          according to the directions given in Art. 60, cook enough green
          peas to fill the cups. When tender, fill the cups with the peas and
          over them pour a medium white sauce. Serve hot. 66. PEAS
          PUREE.—Many persons who cannot eat peas because of the
          coarse outside skins are able to digest them in the form of a
          puree. To prepare them in this way, boil fresh peas in the
          manner explained in Art. 60. When they are tender, force them
          through a puree sieve or a fine-mesh wire sieve. The pulp will
          pass through the sieve, but the coarse skins will remain. The
          puree thus made may be used for soup or in the making of a
          souffle.
      67. PEAS SOUFFLE.—Nothing in the way of peas is more
          appetizing and at the same time more easily digested than peas
          souffle. This may be baked in a large baking dish, or it may be
          divided and baked in individual baking dishes.


          PEAS SOUFFLE (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 Tb. butter 2 Tb. flour ½ c. milk 1 c. peas puree ½ tsp. salt Dash
          of pepper 2 eggs
          Melt the butter, stir in the flour, and add the heated milk. Cook
          until the mixture thickens and then add the peas puree, salt,
          and pepper. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks and add them to
          the mixture, and then fold in the stiffly beaten whites. Pour into
          a well-greased baking dish or individual baking dishes, place in a
          pan of hot water, and bake in a slow oven until set, or for 30 or
          40 minutes. Serve at once.


          PEPPERS AND THEIR PREPARATION
      68. PEPPERS are one of the fruit vegetables. Some varieties of
          them are dried and used as a condiment, that is, to season or give

392
    relish to food, but as they are never used as a vegetable, they are
    not included here. It is the sweet varieties of peppers which are
    used as vegetables and to which reference is made in these
    discussions. They are valuable chiefly for two reasons: to flavor
    various kinds of dishes, such as entrees, salads, etc., and to
    make a dish more attractive in appearance because of the
    contrast in color they afford. In food value, they are about equal
    to the various greens, but as a rule such small quantities of them
    are eaten that they cannot be regarded as a food.
69. STUFFED PEPPERS.—The usual way of preparing peppers as a
    vegetable is to stuff them and then bake them, when they will
    appear as in Fig. 14. The stuffing may be made of various kinds
    of material, such as pieces of meat, vegetables, cereals, etc., and
    so affords an excellent way to utilize left-overs of any of these
    foods. Two recipes for stuffing are here given, and either one
    may be used with equally good results.


    To prepare peppers for stuffing, wash them in cold water and
    remove the tops by cutting around the peppers a short distance
    from the stem. Remove the pulp and seeds from the inside, and
    wash the peppers thoroughly to make sure that no loose seeds
    remain. Fill with the desired stuffing, place in a shallow pan
    with a small amount of water, and bake until the peppers are
    soft enough to be pierced with a fork. The water permits the
    peppers to steam during the first part of the cooking. Serve hot.
    STUFFING NO. 1 (Sufficient for Six Peppers)
    2 Tb. ham fat 1 small chopped onion ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper
    1-1/2 c. steamed rice ½ c. bread crumbs ½ c. finely chopped
    boiled ham Milk
    Melt the fat in a frying pan, add the onion, salt, and pepper, and
    heat together for several minutes. Add the rice, bread crumbs,
    and ham, and moisten with milk until the mixture is of the right
    consistency. Use to fill the peppers.
    STUFFING NO. 2 (Sufficient for Six Peppers)
    2 Tb. butter 1 onion, chopped ½ tsp. salt Dash of pepper 2 c.
    stale bread crumbs 2 Tb. chopped parsley 1 tsp. celery salt Milk
    Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the chopped onion, salt, and
    pepper, and heat together. To this add the bread crumbs,
    chopped parsley, and celery salt, and moisten with enough milk

                                                                   393
          to make the stuffing of the right consistency. Use to stuff
          peppers.


          POTATOES AND THEIR PREPARATION
          WHITE POTATOES
      70. WHITE POTATOES, popularly called Irish potatoes because
          they are a staple food in Ireland, belong to the class of tuber
          vegetables. They form such an extensive part of the diets of the
          majority of people that they are generally considered the most
          important vegetable used by civilized man. They are usually
          roundish or oblong in shape and have a whitish interior and a
          darker colored skin.
      71. FOOD VALUE OF POTATOES.—In food value, Irish
          potatoes are comparatively high, being in this respect about two
          and one-half times as great as an equal weight of cabbage, but
          not quite twice as great as the various root vegetables, such as
          carrots, parsnips, etc. The largest amount of this food value
          occurs as carbohydrate in the form of starch, there being almost
          no fat and very little protein in potatoes. The starch granules of
          potatoes are larger than the starch granules of any of the
          cereals, the class of foods highest in this food substance, and it is
          the proper cooking of this starch that makes potatoes dry and
          mealy. Potatoes also contain a large amount of mineral salts,
          much of which lies directly under the skin. Therefore, the most
          economical way in which to prepare potatoes is to cook them
          with the skins on, for then all of the mineral salts are retained
          and none of the material is wasted.
      72. SELECTION OF POTATOES.—The new potato crop begins
          to come into the market during the summer, when potatoes
          are especially appetizing. However, as potatoes can be easily
          stored and kept very well for a considerable time, they form a
          large part of the winter food supply. If there is sufficient storage
          space, it is a wise plan to buy a large enough supply of potatoes
          in the fall to last for several months and then to store them for
          the winter. However, when this is done, care should be taken
          in the selection.


          In the first place, the outside skin should be smooth and not
          scaly. Then, if possible, potatoes of medium size should be
          selected, rather than small ones or large ones. The small ones are

394
    not so satisfactory, because of the greater proportion of waste in
    peeling, while the very large ones are apt to have a hollow space
    in the center. To judge the quality of potatoes, a few of those to
    be purchased should be secured and cooked before a large
    number of them are bought. The soil and climatic conditions
    affect the quality of potatoes to such an extent that a particular
    kind of potato which may have been excellent last year may be
    entirely different in quality this year. A housewife cannot,
    therefore, be guided entirely by her previous knowledge of a
    certain kind of potato.
73. CARE OF POTATOES.—Potatoes bought in quantity should
    be kept in a cool place and should be excluded from the light.
    Such care will usually prevent them from discoloring and
    sprouting. In case they should sprout, the sprouts should be
    removed at once, for the potatoes will deteriorate rapidly with
    such a growth. If the potatoes freeze, they may be thawed by
    putting them in cold water. Such potatoes, which are
    characterized by a peculiar sweetish taste, should be used as
    soon as possible after being thawed.
74. PREPARATION OF POTATOES.—As has already been
    explained, the most economical way in which to cook potatoes
    is with the skins on. However, when it is desired to remove the
    skins, they should be taken off as thinly as possible. New
    potatoes may be scraped, but completely matured potatoes that
    have been out of the ground for some time do not scrape easily
    and so should be pared thinly.


    Potatoes lend themselves to various methods of cookery, and this
    is well, for although this is a food of which most persons do
    not tire easily, variety in the preparation of a vegetable so
    commonly used as the Irish potato is very much to be desired.
    When cooked in the skins, potatoes may be boiled, baked, or
    steamed. When the skins are removed, potatoes may be cooked
    in these ways, as well as fried, sauted, scalloped, creamed, etc.
75. BOILED POTATOES.—Without doubt, potatoes are cooked
    more often by boiling than by any other method, for besides
    being eaten in this way a great deal, they must first be boiled
    for many of the more elaborate methods of preparation. If the
    skins are removed before boiling, the water in which the potatoes
    are cooked contains a quantity of starch and a great deal of
    soluble mineral matter that are lost from the potatoes. Use should

                                                                  395
          therefore be made of this liquid, it being very satisfactory for
          soups, sauces, and the liquid required in bread making.


          When potatoes are to be boiled, select the desired number of
          medium-sized potatoes, and wash them in cold water. If
          desired, remove the peelings with a sharp paring knife, but if the
          potatoes are to be cooked with the skins on, scrub them
          thoroughly with a vegetable brush in order to remove all dirt. Put
          to cook in a sufficient amount of boiling salted water to cover
          well, and cook until the potatoes are tender enough to be easily
          pierced with a fork. Usually the kettle in which potatoes are
          cooked is covered, but if desired they may be cooked in an
          uncovered vessel. When done, drain the water from the potatoes
          and serve at once or use for some of the other methods of
          preparation.
      76. MASHED POTATOES.—If mashed potatoes are prepared
          properly, they are much relished by the majority of persons.
          However, to be most satisfactory, they should be cooked long
          enough not to be lumpy and then, after being mashed and
          softened with milk, they should be beaten until they are light
          and creamy.


          Peel the desired number of potatoes and boil them according
          to the directions given in Art. 75. When they are tender, remove
          them from the fire and drain off the water. Mash the potatoes
          with a wooden or a wire potato masher, being careful to reduce
          all the particles to a pulpy mass in order to prevent lumps.
          However, the preferable way to mash them is to force them
          through a ricer, when they will appear as shown in Fig. 15, for
          then, if they are thoroughly cooked, there will be no danger of
          lumps. When they are sufficiently mashed, season with additional
          salt, a dash of pepper, and a small piece of butter, and add hot
          milk until they are thinned to a mushy consistency, but not too
          soft to stand up well when dropped from a spoon. Then beat
          the potatoes vigorously with a large spoon until they become light
          and fluffy. Serve at once.
      77. BAKED POTATOES.—A very nutritious vegetable dish
          results when potatoes are baked. For this method of cooking
          potatoes, those of medium size are better than large ones; also,
          if the potatoes are uniform in size, all of them will bake in the
          same length of time. It is well to choose for baking, potatoes

396
    that are smooth and unblemished, in order that they may be
    prepared without cutting the skins. As the starchy particles of
    the potato are cooked by the heated water inside the potato,
    the cooking cannot be done so successfully when the skin is cut
    or marred, for then the water will evaporate.


    Prepare the potatoes by scrubbing them thoroughly; then place
    them on a shallow pan and set them in the oven or place them
    directly on the oven grate. The temperature of the oven is
    important in baking potatoes. If it is too hot, the skins of the
    potatoes will become charred, and if it is not hot enough, too
    long a time will be required for the baking. The temperature
    found to produce the best results is about 400 degrees
    Fahrenheit, or the same as that for the baking of bread. Turn the
    potatoes once or twice during the baking, so that they will bake
    evenly. Allow them to bake until it is possible to pierce them to
    the center with a fork or they are soft enough to dent easily
    when pinched with the tips of the fingers. The latter is the
    preferable test, for when the potato is pierced, so much of the
    moisture is lost that it is not likely to be of the best quality when
    served. Upon removing from the oven, serve at once. Baked
    potatoes become soggy upon standing. If desired, they may be
    rolled to soften the contents of the shell and then cut open on
    one side, and pepper, salt, and paprika put into the potato.
    The length of time required for baking potatoes is usually 10
    to 15 minutes longer than is necessary to cook potatoes of the
    same size in water. However, the time for baking may be
    decreased by boiling the potatoes for about 5 minutes before
    they are put in the oven. In such an event, the boiling and the
    baking should be accomplished in about 35 minutes.
78. STUFFED POTATOES.—An attractive way in which to serve
    baked potatoes is stuffed. After the potatoes are thoroughly
    baked, the contents are removed, treated as mashed potatoes,
    and then stuffed into the shells and set in the oven to brown for
    a few minutes. When something different in the way of potatoes
    is desired, stuffed potatoes should be tried.


    Bake the desired number of potatoes until tender. Remove
    from the oven, cut through the skin of each from end to end
    with a sharp knife, and scrape out the contents of the shell.
    Mash the pulp according to the directions given in Art. 76.

                                                                     397
          Then fill the shells with the mashed potatoes, allowing the
          surface to stand up roughly, as shown, instead of smoothing it
          down. Dot each with butter, sprinkle a little paprika over the
          tops, and replace in the oven. Bake until the surface is nicely
          browned and then serve at once.
      79. BROWNED POTATOES.—While not so easy to digest as
          boiled or baked potatoes, browned potatoes offer an
          opportunity for a change from the usual ways of preparing this
          vegetable. They may be prepared on the stove or in the oven, but
          when browned in the oven the surface is more likely to be tough.


          Boil the desired number of potatoes, and when they are
          sufficiently tender, drain off the water. If they are to be sauted on
          the stove, melt a small amount of fat in a frying pan, and place
          the cooked potatoes in it. Saute until brown on one side, then
          turn and brown on the other. Season with additional salt, if
          necessary, and serve.
          In case it is desired to brown them in the oven, put the boiled
          potatoes in a shallow pan and brush them over with butter. Set
          them in a hot oven, allow them to brown on one side, then turn
          and brown them on the other. Season with salt, if necessary, and
          serve at once upon removing from the oven.
      80. RAW SAUTED POTATOES.—If a potato dish suitable for
          supper or luncheon is desired, raw potatoes may be sliced thin,
          and then sauted. For this purpose, small potatoes that are not
          suitable for other methods of preparation may be used.


          Peel the potatoes and slice them into thin slices. Melt a small
          amount of fat in a frying pan, place the potatoes in the hot fat,
          and cover the pan. Allow them to steam in this way for 10 to 15
          minutes and then remove the cover. Brown on one side; then
          turn and brown on the other. Season with salt and pepper.
      81. HASH-BROWNED POTATOES.—A very good way in
          which to use up boiled potatoes is to hash-brown them in the
          oven.


          HASH-BROWNED POTATOES (Sufficient to Serve Six)



398
   6 medium-sized cooked potatoes 1-1/2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. butter 3
   Tb. milk ¼ tsp. pepper
   Slice or chop the cold potatoes, place in a buttered pan, add the
   salt and pepper, melt the butter, and pour it over them. Place in a
   hot oven until nicely browned. Stir, add the milk, and brown
   again. Stir again, brown the third time, and serve.
82. POTATO PATTIES.—Mashed potatoes, whether left over or
    boiled and mashed especially for the purpose, may be made up
    into patties and then sauted until brown on both sides.


   POTATO PATTIES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
   2 c. mashed potato 1 egg Fine bread crumbs
   To the mashed potatoes that have been well seasoned, add the
   egg and mix thoroughly. Shape into flat, round patties and roll
   in the bread crumbs. Melt fat in a frying pan, place the patties in
   it, saute on one side until brown, and then turn and brown on the
   other side. Serve hot.
83. FRENCH FRIED POTATOES.—Many families are deprived
    of French fried potatoes because the majority of housewives
    think they are difficult to prepare. This, however, is not the
    case, for when the procedure is understood nothing is easier.


   Peel the required number of potatoes and cut them into the
   desired shape. Great variety exists in the method of cutting
   potatoes for this purpose. However, the form that is usually
   thought of when French fried potatoes are mentioned is the one
   obtained by cutting the potatoes into pieces like the sections of
   an orange and then cutting these sections lengthwise into smaller
   pieces, like those shown at b, Fig. 17. Pieces like those shown at
   c, called shoestring potatoes, are also popular. As soon as cut,
   in no matter what shape, drop the pieces into cold water, but
   when ready to fry, remove them from the water and dry on a
   clean dry towel. Place in a wire basket and lower the basket into
   a pan of hot fat. Fry until the potatoes are nicely browned,
   remove from the fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
   Serve at once.
84. POTATOES AU GRATIN.—Something a little unusual in the
    way of a potato dish is produced when potatoes are combined
    with cheese, bread crumbs, and a cream sauce to make potatoes

                                                                  399
          au gratin. In addition to supplying flavor, these ingredients
          increase the food value of the potatoes so that a highly nutritious
          dish is the result.


          POTATOES AU GRATIN (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          3 c. diced cooked potatoes ½ c. grated cheese ½ c. bread crumbs
          1-1/2 c. thin white sauce
          Grease a baking dish, place ½ of the potatoes in the bottom of
          the dish, and sprinkle over them ½ of the crumbs and then ½ of
          the cheese. Put the remainder of the potatoes in the dish,
          sprinkle with the rest of the cheese, pour the hot white sauce
          over all, and place the remaining crumbs on top. Set the dish in a
          hot oven and bake until well heated through and brown on top.
      85. LYONNAISE POTATOES.—When sauted potatoes are
          flavored with onion and parsley, they are known as Lyonnaise
          potatoes. As they are very appetizing, potatoes prepared in
          this way are relished by most persons.


          LYONNAISE POTATOES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 Tb. butter or ham or bacon fat ½ tsp. salt 1 medium-sized
          onion, chopped Dash of pepper 2 Tb. parsley 3 c. diced cooked
          potatoes
          Melt the fat in a frying pan, and add the onion, parsley, salt,
          and pepper. When the fat is hot, add the potatoes, which should
          be diced, like those shown at d, Fig. 17, and allow them to saute
          until slightly brown. Stir frequently to avoid burning. Serve hot.
      86. SCALLOPED          POTATOES.—Many vegetables            may be
          scalloped, but potatoes seem to lend themselves to this form of
          preparation to good advantage. Potatoes prepared in this way are
          suitable for luncheon, supper, or a home dinner.


          Wash and peel the desired number of potatoes and slice them
          thin. Place a layer in the bottom of a well-greased baking dish,
          sprinkle lightly with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot with
          butter. Add another layer of potatoes, sprinkle again with
          flour, salt, and pepper, and dot with butter. Continue in this
          way until the dish is filled. Pour a sufficient quantity of milk
          over the whole to cover well. Place a cover over the dish, set

400
    in a hot oven, and bake for about ½ hour. Then remove the
    cover and allow the potatoes to continue baking until they can be
    easily pierced with a fork and the surface is slightly brown. Serve
    hot from the baking dish.
87. CREAMED POTATOES.—A very good way in which to
    utilize left-over boiled potatoes is to dice them and then serve
    them with a cream sauce. If no cooked potatoes are on hand and
    creamed potatoes are desired, potatoes may, of course, be boiled
    especially for this purpose. When this is done, it is well to cook
    the potatoes in the skins, for they remain intact better and have
    a better flavor.


    Cut up potatoes that are to be creamed into half-inch dice. Make
    a thin white sauce, pour it over the potatoes until they are well
    moistened, and allow the potatoes to simmer in this sauce for a
    few minutes. If desired, chopped parsley may be added to the
    sauce to improve the flavor. Serve hot.
88. POTATO BALLS.—If a potato dish is desired for a meal that
    is to be dainty in every respect, potato balls should be tried.
    These are small balls of uniform size, cut from raw potatoes by
    means of a French cutter, cooked until tender, and then dressed
    with a cream sauce or in any other way. As will be observed,
    much of the potato remains after all the balls that can be cut
    from it are obtained. This should not be wasted, but should be
    boiled and then mashed or prepared in any other desirable way.


    Wash and peel the potatoes that are to be used, and then from
    each potato cut with a French cutter all the balls possible. When
    a sufficient number have been obtained, boil them until tender
    in boiling salted water and then drain. Make a thin cream sauce,
    add the potatoes to this, and heat together thoroughly. Serve
    hot.
89. POTATO CROQUETTES.—Left-over mashed potatoes can
    be utilized in no better way than to make croquettes. Of course,
    if potato croquettes are desired and no potatoes are on hand, it
    will be necessary to cook potatoes and mash them especially for
    this purpose. Croquettes made according to the accompanying
    recipe will be found a delightful addition to the menu. They are
    often served plain, but are much improved by a medium white
    sauce or a gravy.

                                                                   401
          POTATO CROQUETTES (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 c. mashed potatoes 2 Tb. chopped parsley 1 Tb. onion juice 1
          tsp. celery salt 2 eggs Dry bread crumbs
          To the mashed potatoes, add the parsley, onion juice, and celery
          salt and mix thoroughly. Beat the eggs slightly, reserve a small
          amount to be diluted with water or milk for dipping the
          croquettes, and add the rest to the potatoes. Shape the mixture
          into oblong croquettes of uniform size and shape. Roll each in
          the crumbs, then in the diluted egg, and again in the crumbs. Fry
          in deep hot fat until an even brown in color. Remove from the
          fat, drain, and serve. 90. POTATO PUFF.—Mashed potato
          combined with egg, seasoned well, and baked in the oven makes a
          very appetizing dish known as potato puff. This is suitable for
          any meal at which potatoes would be served.
          POTATO PUFF (Sufficient to Serve Six)
          2 c. mashed potato ½ tsp. celery salt 1 egg
          To the mashed potato, add the celery salt. Separate the egg,
          beat the yolk, and mix it with the potato. Beat the white stiff and
          fold it into the potato last. Pile into a buttered baking dish, set in
          a hot oven, and bake until the potato is thoroughly heated
          through and the surface is brown. Serve at once.


          SWEET POTATOES
      91. SWEET POTATOES are used for practically the same
          purposes as white potatoes, and while these vegetables resemble
          each other in many respects they are not related botanically,
          sweet potatoes being root rather than tuber vegetables. Sweet
          potatoes are of a tropical nature and have been cultivated for
          hundreds of years in the West Indies and Central America. They
          form a staple article of diet in the southern part of the United
          States, where, on account of the warm climate, they are raised
          abundantly. They are not raised in the North; still they are
          consumed there in large quantities. After maturing, sweet
          potatoes are collected and dried in kilns before shipping.
          While this makes it possible for them to keep longer than if
          they were not dried, they do not keep so well as white potatoes
          and therefore cannot be stored in such large numbers. If they are


402
    to be kept for a considerable period of time, they should be
    wrapped separately in paper and stored in a cool, dry place.
92. Sweet potatoes vary considerably in size, shape, and quality. Some
    are short and blunt at the tips, others are long and cylindrical,
    either crooked or straight, while others are medium in size and
    spindle-shaped. Some varieties, which are known as yams, cook
    moist and sugary, while others, which are simply called sweet
    potatoes, cook dry and mealy. The kind to select depends
    entirely on the individual taste, for in composition and food
    value all the varieties are similar. In composition, sweet potatoes
    resemble white ones, except that a part of                     their
    carbohydrate is in the form of sugar, which gives them
    their characteristic sweet taste, but in food value they are
    almost twice as great as white potatoes.
93. The preparation of sweet potatoes is similar to that of white
    potatoes, for they may be boiled, steamed, baked, mashed,
    creamed, fried, etc. In fact, they may be used at any time to
    take the place of white potatoes in the diet. A few recipes are
    here given for this vegetable, but any of those given under
    White Potatoes may also be used by merely substituting sweet
    potatoes for the white potatoes specified.
94. BOILED SWEET POTATOES.—It is a very simple procedure
    to boil sweet potatoes. When they are to be prepared in this
    way, select potatoes of uniform size and either remove their
    skins or cook them with the skins on. If they are not peeled,
    scrub them perfectly clean. Put them to cook in boiling salted
    water and allow them to boil until they may be easily pierced
    with a fork. Drain the water from them, peel if cooked with their
    skins on, and serve hot with butter or gravy.
95. BAKED SWEET POTATOES.—Persons who are fond of
    sweet potatoes prefer them baked to any other method of
    preparation. Select medium-sized potatoes for this purpose,
    scrub thoroughly, and put in a hot oven to bake. Bake until
    they are soft enough to dent when pinched between the fingers.
    Remove from the oven and serve at once.
96. GLAZED SWEET POTATOES.—To increase the sweet taste
    characteristic of sweet potatoes and favored by many persons,
    a sweet sirup is sometimes added. When this is done, the
    potatoes are first boiled and then cut in half lengthwise and
    sauted. Sweet potatoes so prepared afford a pleasing variety in
    the diet.

                                                                    403
          Clean and peel the desired number of potatoes and boil them as
          already explained. Cut them in half lengthwise, so that each
          piece has a flat side. Melt fat in a frying pan, add the halves of
          sweet potato, and fry until slightly brown. Then turn and fry on
          the reverse side. About 10 or 15 minutes before removing from
          the pan, pour a small quantity of molasses or a mixture of sugar
          and water over the potatoes, and allow them to cook in this sirup
          until they are well covered with the sweet substance. Remove
          from the pan and serve at once. 97. MASHED SWEET
          POTATOES.—Used alone without further preparation, mashed
          sweet potatoes make a very palatable dish. However, as in the
          case of mashed white potatoes, numerous appetizing dishes,
          such as croquettes, patties, etc., can be made of mashed sweet
          potatoes, whether left from a previous meal or cooked for this
          purpose. In the preparation of all such dishes, the recipes given
          under White Potatoes may be followed.
          Peel the desired number of potatoes and cook them in boiling
          salted water until they may be readily pierced with a fork.
          Drain, force through a sieve or a ricer, and season with salt,
          pepper, and a small amount of butter. Thin the mixture with
          sufficient hot milk to make it of a stiff, mush-like consistency.
          Then beat vigorously until the potato is light and creamy. Serve
          hot.


          RADISHES AND THEIR PREPARATION
      98. RADISHES are a root vegetable used almost exclusively as a
          relish or to lend flavor to a vegetable-salad mixture. They
          are easily and successfully grown and are plentiful and cheap,
          except when they are out of season and must be raised in
          hothouses. Numerous varieties of radishes differing from one
          another in size, shape, and color are raised. The red ones are
          generally preferred, because they lend color to a dish or a meal,
          but the white and brown varieties are just as desirable so far as
          flavor is concerned.
      99. Radishes contain very little food value, being about equal to
          celery and cucumbers in this respect. They do not supply
          anything valuable to a meal except mineral salts. Although
          some persons consider radishes difficult to digest, they contain
          almost nothing that has to be digested, for they are composed


404
    largely of cellulose, which does not digest, and water. Radishes
    disagree with some persons because, like onions and cabbage,
    they contain a strong volatile oil that gives them their flavor.
100.Since radishes are always eaten raw, they require very little in the
    way of preparation. The principal thing is to see that they are
    perfectly clean and as crisp as possible. To make them crisp,
    allow them to stand in cold water for some time before using
    them. Then remove the tops and the roots and scrub thoroughly
    with a vegetable brush. The small red radishes can be made very
    attractive by cutting the skin in sections to resemble the petals
    of a rose. When prepared in this way, a small portion of the
    green top is allowed to remain.



    SALSIFY AND ITS PREPARATION
101.SALSIFY is a root vegetable resembling in food value such other
    root vegetables as carrots and parsnips. Because it has a flavor
    similar to that of oysters, especially when it is used for soup, it
    has received the name of vegetable oyster. It consists of long
    slender roots that are covered with tiny roots. It is somewhat
    difficult to clean and prepare, but as it may be stored through
    the entire winter and is particularly desirable for the making of
    soup, it is a valuable vegetable.

102.In preparing salsify for cooking, scrape the roots rather than
    peel them. Then put them in a solution of cold salt water
    made by using 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water and
    keep them there until ready to cook them. This precaution will,
    to a certain extent, prevent the discoloration that always takes
    place in salsify as soon as the skin is removed. When thus
    prepared, salsify lends itself to the same forms of preparation as
    do the other root vegetables.
103.BUTTERED SALSIFY.—The simplest way in which to cook
    salsify is to cut it in thin slices, boil it until tender, and then
    serve it with butter.


    Wash and scrape the desired quantity of salsify and slice in thin
    slices. Put to cook in boiling salted water, and cook until it can
    be easily pierced with a fork. Drain off the water, season with


                                                                    405
          pepper and, if necessary, additional salt, and add 1
          tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served.
          Allow the butter to melt and serve the salsify hot.
      104.CREAMED           VEGETABLE           OYSTERS.—If           creamed
          vegetables are favored, vegetable oysters served with a cream
          sauce will be very much relished. Clean and scrape the salsify and
          cut it into ¼-inch slices. Put to cook in boiling salted water, cook
          until tender, and then drain. Make a medium white sauce and
          pour this over the cooked vegetable. Heat together and serve.
          105. SCALLOPED VEGETABLE OYSTERS.—A very
          appetizing scalloped dish can be made of salsify by following
          the directions given in the accompanying recipe.


          SCALLOPED VEGETABLE OYSTERS (Sufficient to Serve
          Six)
          2 c. cooked vegetable oysters 1 c. bread crumbs Salt and pepper
          1-1/2 c. thin white sauce
          Cook the vegetable oysters as explained in Art. 103. Sprinkle a
          layer of crumbs in the bottom of a well-greased baking dish,
          place a layer of the cooked vegetable oysters on top of this, and
          season with salt and pepper. Place a second layer of crumbs and
          the remainder of the vegetable oysters in the dish, and sprinkle
          again with salt and pepper. Pour the white sauce over this, and
          put the remainder of the crumbs on top. Place in a hot oven and
          bake until well heated through and the top is brown. Serve
          from the baking dish.


          SQUASH AND ITS PREPARATION
          SUMMER SQUASH
      106.SUMMER SQUASH is a fruit vegetable belonging to the same
          class as eggplant, peppers, etc. and occurring in many varieties.
          The different kinds of this vegetable vary greatly in size, shape,
          and color, but all of them may be prepared in practically the
          same way and used for the same purposes. They get their name
          from the fact that they are grown and used during the summer
          season; in fact, they must be used at this time, for they do not
          permit of storage.




406
   Summer squash contains a great deal of water, and for this reason
   its food value is very low, being about equal to that of lettuce,
   celery, etc. Because of the large percentage of water in its
   composition, as little water as possible should be added in its
   cooking, or the result will be a vegetable so watery as to be
   unattractive and unpalatable. Another precaution that should be
   taken in its preparation is to remove the seeds and the skins.
   Many housewives think it unnecessary to do this, for both the
   skins and the seeds can be eaten after cooking; but most
   persons prefer to have them removed, as the dish appears
   more appetizing. Vegetable marrow is a type of summer squash
   and may be prepared for the table by any of the recipes for
   summer squash.
107.STEWED SUMMER SQUASH.—The usual way in which to
    cook summer squash is to stew it. If properly cooked and well
    seasoned, stewed squash makes a very tasty dish.


   Wash and peel the desired number of summer squashes, remove
   the seeds, and cut into small pieces. Put over the flame in just
   enough water to start the cooking and add sufficient salt to
   season well. Cook until tender enough to be pierced with a
   fork and most of the water is boiled away, being careful not to
   scorch. Remove from the fire, season with pepper, and add 1
   tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served.
   Mash until the squash is as fine as desired and serve at once.
108.SAUTED SUMMER SQUASH.—For variety, summer
    squash is sometimes sliced, coated with egg and crumbs, and
    then sauted until well browned.


   To prepare it in this way, wash and peel the squash and cut it into
   slices about ¼ inch thick. Roll first in beaten egg diluted with
   milk or water and then in fine crumbs. Saute in a small amount
   of fat in a frying pan until well browned, and then turn and
   brown on the other side. Serve hot.


   WINTER SQUASH
109.WINTER SQUASH is the kind of squash that may be removed
    from the vine in the fall and stored for winter use. Although
    both summer and winter squashes are closely related, they

                                                                  407
          differ considerably     in appearance, flavor, texture, and
          composition. The different varieties of winter squash are usually
          larger than summer squashes and have a very hard outside
          covering; also, they contain less water and more
          carbohydrate and, consequently, have a higher food value. Winter
          squashes are usually taken from the vines in the fall before the
          frost sets in, and before they are placed in storage they are
          allowed to lie in the sunshine for a few days until the skin
          hardens and becomes flinty. If the outside covering is
          unmarred when the squashes are stored, they will remain in good
          condition almost the entire winter season, provided the storage
          place is cool and dry.
      110.To prepare winter squash for cooking, cut it open, remove the
          seeds, and peel off the outside skin. Because of the hardness of
          the covering, a cleaver or a hatchet is generally required to open
          the squash and cut it into pieces. With this done, scrape out the
          seeds and, with a very sharp large knife, peel off the skin. The
          squash may then be cooked in any suitable manner.
      111.MASHED SQUASH.—If winter squash is desired as a
          vegetable, it is very often boiled and then mashed. Squash
          prepared in this way, with the exception of the seasoning, is
          also used for pie that is similar to pumpkin; in fact, many
          persons prefer the flavor of squash pie to that of pumpkin pie.


          Cut pieces of peeled winter squash into cubes about 1 inch in
          size. Put these to cook in a small amount of boiling water, add
          enough salt to season, and cook until tender and quite dry.
          Season the cooked squash with pepper, add 1 tablespoonful of
          butter for each four persons to be served, and, if desired to
          increase the sweet taste, add a small amount of sugar. Mash until
          smooth and serve hot.
      112.BAKED SQUASH.—Winter squash, because of its hard
          covering, is very satisfactory when baked in the shell. If it is not
          desired to cook it in a whole piece, the squash may be cut into
          pieces about 3 inches square or into triangular pieces.


          Remove the seeds from the squash, sprinkle each with salt and
          pepper, and dot with butter, as shown. Place in a hot oven
          directly on the grate or in a shallow pan, and bake until the
          contents of the shells are tender. Remove from the oven, and


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    serve from the shells. If desired, the squash may be scooped
    from the shells after baking, seasoned at that time instead of
    when put in the oven, and then served in a vegetable dish.
    TOMATOES AND THEIR PREPARATION
113.TOMATOES are a fruit vegetable that may be either cooked or
    prepared raw in many different ways. They are usually red when
    ripe, and because of this color they are particularly attractive on
    the table. Green or partly ripe tomatoes are also used in the
    preparation of many dishes. Tomatoes are composed largely of
    water, and for this reason their food value is low, being about
    the same as that of greens. This large proportion of water is
    also responsible for the fact that they do not keep for a great
    length of time. Tomatoes, however, have a long season. They
    begin to appear in the market early in the spring and they may
    be obtained from this time until the frost kills the vines in the
    fall.
114.While tomatoes appeal to the majority of persons, they disagree
    with some on account of the acid they contain. This acid is
    similar to that found in some fruits, and it is present in greater
    quantity in cooked tomatoes than in raw ones, the heating of
    the vegetable apparently increasing the acidity. This acidity of
    tomatoes may be reduced by the addition of soda, and while
    soda produces a marked change in the flavor, it is necessary in
    the preparation of some dishes. For instance, in the case of
    cream-of-tomato soup, soda must be added to reduce the acidity
    and thus keep the milk or cream used in preparing this dish from
    curdling.
115.The skin of tomatoes, whether they are to be eaten raw or
    cooked, is usually undesirable. Therefore, in preparing tomatoes
    for the table, the skins are generally removed. In order to do
    this, first dip the tomatoes into boiling water for several
    seconds and then immediately into cold water. This will loosen
    the skins, which may then be peeled off very thinly, and very
    little of the tomato will be wasted.
116.STEWED TOMATOES.—The usual way of preparing
    tomatoes is to stew them. Stewed tomatoes may be served
    plain, but they can be improved very decidedly by toasting cubes
    of bread and adding these to the tomatoes just before serving.




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         Remove the skins and stem ends from the desired number of
         tomatoes, and either cut the tomatoes into pieces or allow them
         to remain whole. Put to cook with little or no water, as the
         tomatoes themselves usually provide sufficient water. Season
         with salt, and cook until the tomatoes are reduced to a mushy
         consistency. Just before removing from the stove, add a dash of
         pepper and a small amount of butte