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Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources Kody Varahramyan Vice Chancellor for Research April 15, 2009 What is Nanotechnology www.phys.psu.edu www.nasa.gov www.purdue.edu Semiconducting metal junction formed An engineered DNA strand pRNA tiny motor by two carbon nanotubes Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems, through the understanding and control of matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), where new functionalities and properties of matter are observed and harnessed for a broad range of applications History of Nanotechnology • ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair • ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows • 1959 – “There is plenty of room at the bottom” by R. Feynman • 1974 – “Nanotechnology” - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time • 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope • 1985 – “Buckyball” - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60 • 1986 – “Engines of Creation” - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe • 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms • 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima • 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas • 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched What is Nanoscale ww.mathworks.com Fullerenes C60 www.physics.ucr.edu 12,756 Km 22 cm 0.7 nm 1.27 × 107 m 0.22 m 0.7 × 10-9 m 10 millions times 1 billion times smaller smaller Nanoscale Size Effect • Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing more functionality • Attainment of high surface area to volume ratio • Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in: - Physical Properties (e.g. melting point) - Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity) - Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity) - Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength) - Optical Properties (e.g. light emission) Nanotechnology Applications Information Technology Energy • More efficient and cost • Smaller, faster, more effective technologies for energy efficient and energy production powerful computing − Solar cells and other IT-based − Fuel cells systems − Batteries − Bio fuels Medicine Consumer Goods • Cancer treatment • Foods and beverages −Advanced packaging materials, • Bone treatment sensors, and lab-on-chips for • Drug delivery food quality testing • Appetite control • Appliances and textiles • Drug development −Stain proof, water proof and • Medical tools wrinkle free textiles • Diagnostic tests • Household and cosmetics • Imaging − Self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics Nanotechnology Health and Environmental Concerns − Human and the environment come under exposure to nanomaterials at different stages of the product cycle − Nanomaterials have large surface to volume ratio and novel physical as well as chemical properties which may cause them to pose hazards to humans and the environment − Health and the environmental impacts associated with the exposure to many of the engineered nanomaterials are still uncertain − The environmental fate and associated risk Exposure of human and the environment to of waste nanomaterials should be assessed nanomaterials at different stages of product – e.g. toxic transformation, and interactions life cycle – US environmental protection agency, 2007 (epc.gov) with organic and inorganic materials Nanoscale Materials Nanoscale materials have feature size less than 100 nm – utilized in nanoscale structures, devices and systems Nanoparticles and Structures Gold nanoparticles A stadium shaped “quantum A 3-dimensional nanostructure Silver nanoparticles – TU Dresden/ESRF, 2008 – Northwestern Univ., 2002 corral” made by positioning grown by controlled nucleation iron atoms on a copper of Silicon-carbide nanowires surface – IBM Corp., 1993. on Gallium catalyst particles – Univ. of Cambridge, 2007 Nanoscale Materials Nanowires and Nanotubes • Lateral dimension: 1 – 100 nm • Nanowires and nanotubes exhibit novel physical, electronic and optical properties due to – Two dimensional quantum confinement – Structural one dimensionality – High surface to volume ratio • Potential application in wide range of nanodevices and systems – Nanoscale sensors and actuators Nanowire Solar Cell: The – Photovoltaic devices – solar cells nanowires create a surface that is able to absorb more sunlight than a – Transistors, diodes and LASERs flat surface – McMaster Univ., 2008 Nanoscale Materials Protein Bionanomaterials 1) Biological materials utilized in nanotechnology - Proteins, enzymes, DNA, RNA, peptides 1) Synthetic nanomaterials utilized in Cross-linked enzymes used biomedical applications as catalyst – Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs , 2007 - Polymers, porous silicon, carbon nanotubes Enzymes are used as oxidation Bone cell on porous silicon Porous silicon (PSi) catalysts – Univ. of Rochester, 2007 Human cell on PSi Nanoscale Processes and Fabrication Top-down Approaches Bottom-up Approaches Optical and x-ray lithography Layer-by-layer self assembly E-beam and ion-beam lithography Molecular self assembly Scanning probe lithography Direct assembly Atomic force microscopic lithography Coating and growth Material removal and deposition Colloidal aggregation (Chemical, mechanical, or ultrasonic) Printing and imprinting Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Nanochip − Currently available microprocessors use resolutions as small as 32 nm − Houses up to a billion transistors in a single chip − MEMS based nanochips have future capability of 2 nm cell leading to 1TB memory per chip A MEMS based nanochip – Nanochip Inc., 2006 Nanoelectromechanical System (NEMS) Sensors − NEMS technology enables creation of ultra small and highly sensitive sensors for various applications − The NEMS force sensor shown in the figure is applicable in pathogenic bacteria detection A NEMS bacteria sensor – Nano Lett., 2006, DOI: 10.1021/nl060275y Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Nanophotonic Systems − Nanophotonic systems work with light signals vs. electrical signals in electronic systems − Enable parallel processing that means higher A silicon processor featuring on-chip computing capability in a smaller chip nanophotonic network – IBM Corp., 2008 − Enable realization of optical systems on semiconductor chip Fuel Cells − Fuel cells use hydrogen and air as fuels and produce water as by product − The technology uses a nanomaterial 500 W fuel cell Schematic of a fuel cell membrane to produce electricity – Energy solution center Inc. – H2economy.com Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Lab on Chip − A lab on chip integrates one or more laboratory operation on a single chip − Provides fast result and easy operation − Applications: Biochemical analysis (DNA/protein/cell analysis) and bio-defense Lab on chip gene analysis device – IBN Singapore, 2008 Drug Delivery Systems Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery systems: − Targeted drug delivery − Improved delivery of poorly water soluble drugs − Co-delivery of two or more drugs − Imaging of drug delivery sites using imaging modalities Targeted drug delivery – ACS Nano 2009, DOI: 10.1021/nn900002m Medical Nanotechnology or Nanomedicine Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology in medicine, including to cure diseases and repair damaged tissues such as bone, muscle, and nerve Key Goals for Nanomedicine − To develop cure for traditionally incurable diseases (e.g. cancer) through the utilization of nanotechnology − To provide more effective cure with fewer side effects by means of targeted drug delivery systems Nanotechnology in Health Care Video Journey into Nanotechnology National Cancer Institute, Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer – http://nano.cancer.gov/resource_center/video_journey.asp Nanotechnology in Health Care • Thermal ablation of cancer cells − Nanoshells have metallic outer layer and silica core − Selectively attracted to cancer shells either through a phenomena called enhanced permeation retention or due to some molecules coated on the shells Thermal ablation of cancer cells assisted − The nanoshells are heated by nanoshells coated with metallic layer and an external energy source – National Cancer with an external energy Institute source killing the cancer cells Nanotechnology in Health Care Treatment • Targeted drug delivery − Nanoparticles containing drugs are coated with targeting agents (e.g. conjugated antibodies) − The nanoparticles circulate through the blood vessels and reach Targeted drug delivery – Targeted drug delivery using a the target cells multicomponent nanoparticle containing therapeutic as well − Drugs are released as biological surface modifying agents – Mauro Ferrari, Univ. of Cal. Berkley directly into the targeted cells Nanotechnology in Health Care Nanotechnology offers tools and techniques for more effective detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases The microfluidic channel with nanowire sensor can detect the presence of altered genes associated with cancer – J. Heath, Cali. Insti. of Detection and Diagnosis Technology • Lab on chips help detection and diagnosis of diseases more efficiently • Nanowire and cantilever lab on chips help in early detection of The nanoscale cantilever detects the cancer biomarkers presence and concentration of various molecular expressions of a cancer cell – A. Majumdar, Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI • Driving Forces at IUPUI – Growing expertise and resources in nanoscience and engineering – Desire by researchers to develop nanotechnology-based systems for biomedical, energy, and other targeted applications • Participation Open To All Interested Faculty, Centers, Departments & Schools • Current Participating Faculty from: – Biology, Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Physics – Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering – Orthopedic Surgery, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine • Current Partnering Centers: – Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine – Lugar Center for Renewable Energy – Transportation Active Safety Institute – Center for Sensor and Ubiquitous Networking – Nanoscale Imaging Center Integrated Nanosystems Definition: Systems which may consist of integrated micro-, meso-, and/or macro-scale parts, and have their core components realized by nano-scale materials, processes, and devices. Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Vision: To be a world-class resource for the realization of nanotechnology-based miniaturized systems that contribute to the economic growth and social advancement of Indiana and the nation and benefit humanity as a whole. Mission: 1) to enable, through innovative interdisciplinary research and educational programs, the development of nanotechnology-based systems for biomedical, energy, environmental, information technology and other applications, and 2) to provide solutions which, through translation of research into practice and technology transfer, contribute to social well being and economic growth. Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Research Projects: • Magnetic Nanostructured Materials and Devices for Sensing Applications • Spectroscopic Investigation of Quantum Systems • Transport in Graphene for Nanodevice Applications • Quantum Dot Imaging Probes • Bionanomaterials for Biomedical Applications • Polymer Nanocomposites for Orthopedic and Dental Applications • Development of Nano-rod Array for Li-ion Battery • Pt Nanoparticles Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells • Interaction of Pt Nanoparticle and Carbon/Metal Oxide Support • Macro Scale to Micr/Nano Scale Machining • Thermoelectric Materials for Nanodevice Applications • Wireless Sensor Network Systems • Chip-Based Signal Conditioning System for ECG Application • VLSI circuits for 3D Imaging Applications Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Processing and Measurement Resources: • Micro/Nanoelectronics Laboratory • Sputtering systems • Thermal evaporator systems • Solution-based nanocrystal fabrication • Membrane ion transport workstation • Combined atomic force and fluorescence microscope • Fluorescence correlation spectrometer • Wide-field single molecule fluorescence microscopy • Room temperature near-field scanning optical microscope • Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscope • FTIR spectrometer • Spectrofluorometer • Ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope • Small angle X-ray scattering system • Particle sizing instrument • Atomic force microscope • Combined atomic force-scanning tunneling microscope • Transmission electron microscope • Scanning electron microscope • Low vacuum scanning electron microscope with electron dispersion spectrometer • Electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersion capabilities • Two photon absorption microscope • Confocal microscopes Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute – INDI Current Computational Resources: • Access to IU’s Supercomputer systems • Clusters of workstations • Nanostructure Builder and Visualization – Materials Studio – NanoEngineer • Density Functional Theory codes – FLEUR – VASP – Dmol3 – ABINIT • Molecular Dynamics simulators – Materials Studio – DLPOLY – MPSIM – LAMMPS – CHARMM • Electrical Circuit design – Menter Graphics – Synopsis – L-Edit, Layout Editor – CAD – LabView, PSPICE • Code development – Matlab, Mathematica, Maple • In-House codes Nanotechnology – Science, Medical Applications, and IUPUI Resources Thank You!
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