Tired Drivers by TPenney

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									 Tired Drivers
 Dead Safety

 Are you wide a sleep or just dead
to right you are not going to cause
      a incident investigation
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                        Canada
     What is Fatigue?


• A state of physical or mental weariness
  that results in reduced alertness
• The result of a lack of adequate sleep
• A sleep debt that accumulates until
  paid off with adequate sleep



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                        Canada
        The Purpose of Sleep
Everyone needs sleep. People, animals, even insects.
The purpose of sleep remains elusive. Its importance
being defined more by the consequences of an
inadequate amount of sleep rather than by any defined
rejuvenating properties.
The earliest consequence of sleep deprivation is
excessive drowsiness. As we are deprived of sleep, the
pressure to fall asleep increases, and continues to
increase until we pay back this “sleep debt”. Sleep
deprivation causes decreases in our ability to react and
concentrate. In addition, sleep begins to intrude
involuntarily, causing brief “micro-sleeps”, often of only
a few seconds in duration. These can have disastrous
consequences for those operating motor vehicles.

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                                 Canada
            The Alertness Cycle
The tendency to fall asleep can be determined by
measuring the time it takes to fall asleep in a quiet, relaxed
situation. This sleep latency was measured across the
twenty four hour cycle in healthy subjects by Richardson et
al who found two nadirs of alertness, one from about 2AM
to 6AM and another from 2PM to 6PM.
These natural nadirs of alertness correspond to peaks in
the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents during the day.




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                                   Canada
                  Sleep

• Most people need between 7 and
  9 hours per day.
• It’s not true that you need less sleep
  as you get older.
• When you sleep makes a difference
  in how much you get.
• Sleep is best obtained in a single block.

           P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
                        Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
             Canada
Napping
Pros: Naps temporarily improve alertness.
Types: preventative (pre-call)
        operational (on the job)
Length:
     short naps: no longer than 30
        minutes to avoid the grogginess
        (“sleep inertia”) that occurs when
        you’re awakened from deep sleep
     long naps: 2 hours (range 30 to 180
        minutes)
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
                              Canada
            Did You Know?
A majority of police officers surveyed report
having stopped a driver that they thought
was under the influence of alcohol only to
find that the driver was simply sleepy.




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                             Canada
             Warning Signs
•   Trouble keeping your eyes open
•   Trouble keeping your head up
•   Daydream or wandering thoughts
•   Drifting across lanes
•   Missed signs or exits




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                             Canada
             Warning Signs
• Frequent yawning or rubbing your eyes
• Irritability or restlessness
• Drifting off the road or hitting rumble strips




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                              Canada
          Counter Measures
• Ineffective
  – Rolling down the window
  – Loud music
  – Caffeine – takes 30 minutes to work, can still
    get micro sleeps
• Effective
  – Sleep – pull over and take a 15 – 30 minute
    nap

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                              Canada
             Aims of the training


• To raise your awareness of the dangers
  of driver tiredness

• To challenge some of the myths we
  have about driver tiredness

• To provide effective countermeasures to
  enable you to cope with the problem
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                           Canada
               Facts and figures
•   Causes more than 20% of
    motorway accidents

• Most frequent cause of
    accidental death of truck drivers

•   Accidents worse - high speed,
    no avoidance

•   3 times more likely to result in
    death or serious injury

• Those with sleep problems are
  twice as likely to have an
  accident at work
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                                       Canada
             Who is most at risk?
• Shift workers
  - especially on the first night shift
• Driving home after a night shift

• Truck drivers

• Company car drivers

• Men
  - particularly aged 18-24 and 40+
• Skilled manual workers
             Sleep is vital
• We cannot live without sleep
• We need about 7-8 hours of sleep every day
• Not enough sleep leads to:
  •   attention difficulties
  •   slower reaction times
  •   slower, muddled thinking
  •   erratic speed control
  •   sloppy steering

• Effects of sleep loss build up
• Recovery usually takes 2 full nights of sleep
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                                 Canada
            Alcohol, drugs & sleep

Alcohol
• causes early morning awakening and disturbed sleep
• worsens existing sleepiness

Sleeping pills
• Designed for “short-term” use
• effects can last too long and make you sleepy at work
• can have side effects
• smallest dose, shortest time, supervised by your doctor


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
                                 Canada
         Over-the-counter medicines

• Bought without prescription, but many can
  cause significant daytime sleepiness
• Remedies for:
  - Colds and flu
  - Allergies (e.g. Hay fever)
  - Travel sickness

• Often contain medicine used to aid sleep

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                                 Canada
                             These will not
                            keep you awake

• Sucking lemons

• Sticking pins in your wrist

• Holding money out of the window

• Recounting past romances

• Shaking your head violently

• Putting your hair up in the sun roof

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                                     Canada
                Shared responsibilities
  Organisational                                             Individual


Health and safety                                             Fitness to work
 workload & breaks                                           sleep not just rest
 shift duration                                              medical condition
 type of work                                                medication


Work organisation                                            Life outside work
 shift scheduling                                            family responsibilities
 work predictability                                         commuting
 pay system                                                  lifestyle


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                                     Canada
                        A healthy lifestyle


• Eat a balanced diet

• Don‟t go to bed too full or too hungry

• Avoid caffeine/alcohol before bed

• To relax, have a warm bath or shower before bed

• Exercise regularly, but not just before bedtime
          The ideal sleep environment


 Dark room      - mask/heavy curtains

 Quiet room     - turn off the phone
                 - „Do not disturb‟ sign on front door
                 - ear plugs
                 - white noise machines (e.g. fan)


 Cool temperature – c. 18 degrees centigrade

 Comfortable bed – firm, supporting, check condition

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                                   Canada
               On the road
Plan your journey and take a break every 2 hours
   •   If you are feeling tired STOP DRIVING
   •   Park somewhere safe
   •   Call your scheduler if necessary
   •   Have a couple of cups of strong coffee / caffeine
       drink
   •   Followed by a 15-20 minute nap


Remember that this is an emergency measure
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                              Canada
                Minutes from home?

• The journey home is a high risk time for falling
  asleep at the wheel
• Many accidents occur close to destinations
• We naturally relax and unwind after a long day and
  as we get close to home
• Gives the body a signal that it is safe to sleep

• Don‟t be tempted to push on - STOP. Take a break.

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                                 Canada
Crashes related to driver fatigue
 • Between 5 and 15% of all personal injury
   crashes are related to fatigue (estimates vary
   considerably)
 • High average severity
   – Rural roads, low traffic and/or night-time
 • Most fatigue-related crashes occur during
   daytime
   – Higher risk during the night, but less traffic
   – Night-time crashes are more severe
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                                Canada
       Fatigue management in
        occupational settings
• Educational programmes for
  companies
• Include fatigue management in
  company policy
  – Work organisation:
    • Adequate shiftwork schedules
    • Trip planning


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                            Canada
                Policy implications
• Base countermeasures on the fact that many drivers are
  not motivated to stop driving when fatigued
• Warn drivers:
   – Further research on in-car systems
   – Increased use of profiled edgelines and centrelines
     (”rumble strips”)
• Implement fatigue management in Occupational Health
  and Safety legislation
• Stimulate research on optimal rest-work schedules, as a
  basis for improved Hours-of-Service Regulations
• Inform the general public about sleep disorders and other
  risk factors
• Prevent serious consequences
   – Forgiving road system
   – Car occupant protection systems
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                                     Canada
A Serious Safety Hazard
When you’re fatigued:
   • your reaction time is slower
   • you have trouble concentrating
     or remembering things
   • you may have difficulty communicating clearly
     with co-workers
   • you may fall asleep on the job
   • there’s a greater risk you’ll make a safety-critical
     mistake

Being fatigued can make you a risk to
yourself, your co-workers, and the public!
            P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
                         Canada
Your safety is
  our goal

   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta
                Canada

								
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