Industrial hygiene

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					OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY and HEALTH
          BMM2011




              INDUSTRIAL
                HYGIENE
                                 1
                INTRODUCTION
 Many of hazards are elusive which it’s impossible to
  sense especially on chemical, physical, biological &
  ergonomic hazards
 Therefore, organisation depends on industrial hygiene
  monitoring programs managed by industrial hygienist
 Scope of practice is more specific compare to safety
  officer in which concentration more on the conditions
  related to workplace injury and illness
 These analysis require a systematic sampling with
  complex equipment and performing higher
  mathematical computations
 Also need to create awareness among employers and
  workers on the importance of OH practices in industry
  to preserve and protect the health of workers from
  being affected by hazards in the working environment.
                                                      2
             BASIC TERMINOLOGY
 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
 Science devoted to the anticipation, recognition,
  evaluation, and control of those environmental factors
  or stresses, arising in or from the workplace, that may
  cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or
  significant discomfort and inefficiency among workers
                                                     ACGIH
                            OR
 The      science     devoted     to   recognition    (or
  identification), evaluation and control of hazards
  arising in or from the workplace, which could impair
  the health and well being of people at work, while
  also taking into account the possible impacts on the
  general environment
                                                   BIOH
                                                        3
             INDUSTRIAL HYGIENIST
The goal of the industrial hygienist is to keep workers,
 their families, and the community healthy and safe
Concentrate on protection against route of entry
An industrial hygienist (IH) might well be
 described as part medical scientist, part
 detective, part engineer where;
  •Extensive training gives an IH the
   knowledge to look & make educated
   guesses about what hazards might exist
  •The IH is a detective, seeking
   information about workplace hazards,
   monitoring & analytical methods are
   used to detect the exposure
  •IH recommends engineering & work-
   practice to control potential health
   hazards                                                  4
Anticipation
                          ACTIVITIES
•   Expectation of hazard existence
•   Design of process, equipment
•   Future legislation/regulations
•   Research

Recognition
   Presence of workplace exposure
   Materials, process and operations
   Records of accidents and diseases
   Walk around – inspection, senses, talk to workers, etc
Evaluation
 Magnitude exposure
 Instrumentation (Real time & non real time)
 Standard, regulations etc
Control
 Reduction to acceptable levels
 Principle & hierarchy of control measures             5
          INSPECTION & ANALYSIS
 Develop controls and procedures using scientific
  methods and the latest research to prevent future
  injury or illness
 Identify dangers in the work-place and community by
  testing and monitoring potentially harmful situations
  and hazardous work practices




Cascade impactor

                       Spore Traps
                                                          6
i. Environment sampling &   vii. Health Risk Analysis &
     Instrumentation              Hazard Comm.
ii. Analytical Chemistry    viii. Noise and Vibration
iii. Basic Sciences         ix. Radiation Toxicology
iv. Biostatistics &         x. Work Environment
     Epidemiology           xi. Indoor Air Quality
i. Ventilation
ii. Ergonomics




                                                      7
                       DEMAND
 Industrial hygienist is a specialty in great demand
   because;
  i. The IH has a unique ability to provide specific
       recommendations to reduce exposures or eliminate
       problems altogether.
  ii. Employers need to comply with OSHA
       requirements.
  iii. Management needs to verify their work
       environments are “non-hazardous” with
       measurable, objective data.
  iv. Public Relations…the public’s right to know;
       demand is increasing to know and understand the
       potential hazards of industrial and manufacturing
       facilities within or near their communities in order
       to anticipate potential problems.
                                                         8
                    MAIN HAZARDS
• Factors Include:
  i.Chemical hazards
     • gases, vapors, dusts, fumes, mists, and smoke
  ii.Physical hazards
     • radiation, noise, vibration, temp. & pressures
  iii.Ergonomic hazards
     • workstation, repetitive motion, improper lifting / reaching, lighting
  iv.Biological hazards
     • insects, mold, yeast, fungi, bacteria, and viruses

Types of Exposure
Acute : Short term period between exposure & onset of
 symptoms
Chronic :Long time period between exposure to an
 agent & the onset of symptoms
                                                                        9
 Routes of entry;
                        CHEMICAL
   •Inhalation - airborne contaminants
   •Absorption - penetration through the skin
   •Ingestion – eating, drinking, smoking etc
i-Inhalation
•Particulates
  –non respirable particles : > f10 m
  – respirable particles : < f 10 m in
•Types;
  –Fumes
    solids condenses in cool air
    hot vapor + air = oxide
  –Mists
    a condensation vapors to liquid
  –Fibers
    solid, & elongated structures
                                                10
Exposure limits
Enforced on all factories an mineral processing
FMA regulations, 1989 (Mineral dusts) on permissible
 exposure limit (PEL) cover on respirable dust only
 • No exposure on free silica dust at
   concentration > 5mg/m3
 • No exposure on dust containing
   crystalline silica at concentration
     0.05mg/m3 of respirable
      cristobalite
     0.1mg/m3 of respirable quarzt
     0.05mg/m3 of respirable tridymite

Program
   PPE
   Employee training
                                                        11
ii-Absorption
 The skin is the largest organ of the
  body and a common exposure site for
  liquid and airborne chemicals.
 It is a multilayered organ which has
  good protective features. Chemicals
  that contact the skin can cause either
  local or systemic damage, or both.
 i. Local effects occur at the site of contact, like an
     acid burn.
 ii. Systemic effects occur when compounds penetrate
     the skin, enter the bloodstream, and cause damage
     to other organs of the body distant from the site of
     entry.


                                                        12
13
Protection
 Eg : Wearing suitable glove




                                14
iii-Digestion
Toxic materials can also be swallowed
 and enter the body through the
 gastrointestinal tract.
Opportunities for accidental ingestion
 of chemicals through eating or
 smoking under certain conditions.
Good practices
Drink clean, potable water
Wash your hands and the exposed parts of the body
 regularly and take daily baths
Never eat in locker rooms, washrooms or where
 dangerous materials are used
Do not mix up working & street clothes
For contaminated working clothes, clean with the
 special laundry                                     15
                          HEARING
• Commonly workers experience 8-hours noise
  exposures > 90 bBA
• Legally enforceable
    – FMA regulations, 1989 (Noise exposure)
    i. Continuous sound
       •   Permissible exposure limits (PEL) : 90 dBA or > the limits
           specified in 1st schedule
       •   At any time, noise level <115 dBA
    ii. Impulsive noise
       •   employee’s exposure impulsive noise shall not exceed a
           peak sound pressure level of 140 dB
Program
   Mandatory at an 8-hour TWA > 85 dBA
   Exposure monitoring
   Audiometric testing
   Hearing protection
   Employee training
   Recordkeeping
                                                                  16
          POSITIVE SAFETY CULTURE
Good Housekeeping
Personal hygiene
Employee training/education
Proper job procedures
Proper job instruction
Rule compliance
Protective equipment compliance
Proper labeling & storage of hazardous materials
Group communications
Workplace inspections

         BENEFITS OF IH PROGRAM
   Improve health and hygiene
   Reduce compensation
   Improve job satisfaction & Reduce absenteeism
   Improve workers’ attitude towards management    17
                  NIOSH SERVICES
 NIOSH provide consultation & laboratory services for
  industrial hygiene assessment
 For consultation : specialty is in Chemical Health Risk
  Assessment, monitoring of airborne contaminant,
  inspection & testing of engineering control equipments
  (LEV) and noise level measurement at workplace
 Analytical Equipment in the NIOSH’s laboratory
   i. Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS)
   ii. Ion chromatograph (IC)
   iii. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS)
   iv. High performance liquid chromatography
   v. Fourier transformation infra-red
   vi. Phase contrast microscope
   vii. Uv-vis spectrophotometer
   viii.Portable gas chromatograph
   ix. Portable infrared analyser                         18
THE END



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posted:12/16/2010
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