Apartment Management System Dfd - PDF

Document Sample
Apartment Management System Dfd - PDF Powered By Docstoc
					                                                         Develop a Standard 1




Running head: DEVELOP A STANDARD FIRE PREPLAN FOR MULTIPLE




 Executive Analysis of Fire Service Operations in Emergency Management




DEVELOP A STANDARD FIRE PREPLAN FOR MULTIPLE APARTMENT
     BUILDINGS FOR THE DEARBORN FIRE DEPARTMENT

                           Nazih M. Hazime

                       Dearborn Fire Department

                          Dearborn, Michigan




                             October 2006
                                                                      Develop a Standard 2


                                         Abstract



This research project evaluated the barriers and lack of fire preplans with the multiple

apartment buildings in the City of Dearborn that directly affect the Dearborn Fire

Department (DFD) operations. The problem was that the DFD lacks standard fire pre-

incident plans for multiple apartment buildings. The purpose of the research is to

develop standard fire preplan guidelines for apartment buildings to assist the DFD to

overcome their strategic and tactical challenges. Action research method was used to

respond to the following questions:

   1. What standard fire preplan guidelines does building management provide to

       occupants in apartment buildings?

   2. What standard fire preplans do other fire departments have and how are they used

       for their strategic and tactical advantage during apartment building fires?

   3. What strategic and tactical challenges have been experienced by other fire

       departments during apartment building fires?

The procedures included inquiring and evaluating other fire departments and the private

sectors to develop a standard fire preplan guideline for multiple apartment buildings for

the DFD. The results established the need for the development of a fire preplan to

support the DFD strategic and tactical operations during multiple apartment building

fires. The recommendation includes the implementation of a standard fire preplan for

multiple apartment buildings.
                                                                                                        Develop a Standard 3


                                                       Table of Contents

Abstract ............................................................................................................................... 2

Table of Contents................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction......................................................................................................................... 4

Background and Significance ............................................................................................. 5

Literature Review................................................................................................................ 8

Procedure .......................................................................................................................... 19

Results............................................................................................................................... 20

Discussion ......................................................................................................................... 26

Recommendation .............................................................................................................. 31

References......................................................................................................................... 34

Appendix A Sisson Manor................................................................................................ 36

Appendix B Building Survey Form .................................................................................. 37

Appendix C Dearborn Fire Department Multiple Apartment Buildings Fire Pre-Plan

Survey ............................................................................................................................... 38
                                                                        Develop a Standard 4


                                         Introduction



       The Dearborn Fire Department has experienced problems with multiple apartment

building fires. Strategic and tactical operations are challenging to the suppression crews

when working at these types of incidents. The fire crews are challenged with

unidentifiable hazards within the multiple apartment buildings in the City of Dearborn.

When the fire department responds to these multiple apartment buildings, delays with

advancement and safety issues occur when their unfamiliar with the sites. Every building

is different with construction, age, occupancy, and lack of fire suppression systems.

       The lack of fire pre-plan standard guidelines for multiple apartment buildings will

attribute to delays in fire ground operations. In addition, life safety and property

conservation has been compromised because of deficient familiarization of these sites.

Without standard fire preplan guidelines for multiple apartments strategic and tactical

challenges will continue.

       The purpose of this research is to develop a standard fire preplan procedure for

multiple apartment structures. In order for the DFD to have a clear perspective of their

responsibility during multiple apartment building fires, standard fire preplans need to be

developed. The method used for this research will be “action” to develop standard

guidelines. These guidelines should clearly define multiple apartment building hazards

and layouts. In addition, this will support the strategic and tactical operations for all fire

companies on the fire ground. Questions will be answered that will help to develop the

standard fire preplans. The first question is: “What standard fire preplan guidelines does

building management provide to occupants in apartment buildings?” The second
                                                                       Develop a Standard 5


question is: “What standard fire preplans do other fire departments have and how are

they used for their strategic and tactical advantage during apartment building fires? The

third question is: “What strategic and tactical challenges have been experienced by other

fire departments during apartment building fires?” The answers to these questions will

be accomplished by inquiring and evaluating other fire departments and agency fire

preplans for multiple apartment buildings. In addition, gathered information of strategic

and tactical challenges that have occurred will be evaluated. The action research will

provide the necessary information to develop standard guidelines for the strategic and

tactical operations for the DFD.



                               Background and Significance



       In the past, fire fighters were challenged with insufficient information on multiple

apartment building fires. The only thing they new was the buildings exist within their

communities. When a fire incident would occur, it would be the first time the firefighters

walked or crawled into the involved building. Their lack of building familiarization

created a significant risk to them and the occupants. Through time, the only

familiarization of these large and complex buildings would be through false or minor

alarms and medical emergencies. Without proper standard fire preplans for the multiple

apartment buildings, strategic and tactical operations are challenging for all fire

companies on the scene.

       The DFD personnel have experienced several multiple apartment building fires

and have been challenged with many obstacles during fire ground operations. The
                                                                      Develop a Standard 6


obstacles were related to the firefighters inadequate knowledge of the building design

including, building construction, staircases, corridors, elevator shafts, basements,

apartment layouts and locations, and fire suppression systems. The City of Dearborn has

many multiple apartment buildings and several with multiple stories. Many of these

buildings are old, have high occupancy, and without fire suppression systems. Instead of

demolishing and rebuilding them, they are being repaired and refurbished many times

over, as needed.

       Fire preplans and fire fighters “right-to-know” was developed to assist the

firefighters in controlling and managing the strategic and tactical operations on the fire

ground. Fire preplans would assist the operations and result in a quick and safe

mitigation of an incident, in conjunctions with the well- being of the firefighters and

occupants.

       A discussion took place in September 2006 with the DFD Deputy Chief and

Battalion Chief’s of the following divisions: Suppression, Emergency Medical Service,

Training, Apparatus, and the Fire Marshal. The discussion, during this monthly Battalion

Chief’s meeting, was the challenges they have experienced with multiple apartment

building fires. It was concluded that there is no current standard fire preplans for the

multiple apartment buildings. Further discussion with the senior personnel resulted in a

consensus that pre-fire standard guidelines for multiple apartment buildings need to be

developed for the DFD. It was agreed that the guidelines would assist in efficiently

achieving their goals and would greatly reduce the risk to the firefighters and occupants.

       Presently, the DFD does not have a standard fire preplan for multiple apartment

buildings established. The probable future impact without a fire preplan could result in
                                                                       Develop a Standard 7


delays to achieve strategic and tactical goals and compromise the safety of the firefighters

and occupants during a multiple apartment building fire.

       Under the National Fire Academy Fire Officer Program (EFOP) initiative, one of

the specific key concepts and attitudes that lead to the community risk-reduction process

are that the “prevention and response (operations) functions within an organization must

be integrated into one team. In fact, both operations and prevention have the same goal-

prevent or reduce harm to the public from fire, preventable injuries, etc.” Leading

Community Risk Reduction (LCRR), course R (National Fire Academy [NFA], 2004).

The problem of the DFD’s lack of standard fire preplan guidelines for multiple apartment

buildings to minimize the strategic and tactical challenges and the risk of life safety,

relates to this key concept. The fire preplan for multiple apartment buildings could be

employed as a valuable tool to reduce the risk to firefighters and the occupants and allow

for a more proficient fire ground operation. The community benefits from the

efficiencies gained when a fire preplan is utilized when responding to these types of

buildings.

       Under the Executive Fire Officer Program third year course, “Executive Analysis

of Fire Service Operations in Emergency Management,” is “risk assessment and

emergency operations”, an objective that links to this research project. Establishing fire

pre-plan standard guidelines for multiple apartment buildings, to support fire operations

with building familiarization and reduce the risk to life, is a DFD organizational

objective.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 8


                                     Literature Review



       In carrying out the responsibility to protect life and property, firefighters come

across many kinds of buildings throughout their cities. “Each member can combine

his/her experiences and skills with local building knowledge to contribute to pre-fire

planning and training. Walking through an actual building and creating a scenario is

probably the most effective means of reinforcing these ideas.” (Brown, 2004; p. 27)

       Garino (2003) identified the problem in Wayne Township when their Wayne

Township Fire Department responded to a hazardous material incident which affected a

large apartment building. The notification system for evacuation or sheltering in place

failed among the residents.

       Whiteaker (1999) indicated in Bristol, Tennessee that there are unacceptable

percentages of residents that responded to a survey who still do not understand or who

refuse to react positively in a fire emergency.

       Jones (1998) stated the fire crews from Coon Rapids, Minnesota would slide

under each apartment door a copy of an Apartment Fire Safety brochure during building

inspections. The brochure asks residents to inspect their apartments for electrical,

heating, cooking, and other household fire hazards. It also helps residents to become

familiar with their buildings’ fire safety devices and exits.

       The City of Dearborn senior citizens high-rise apartment buildings have a fire

escape map for each apartment. This map is designed for each individual apartment and

kept on the inside of each apartment door.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 9


       Bruckner (2001) indicated Fire Department New York (FDNY) operations are

greatly enhanced when members are familiar with particular buildings within their

response districts. To accomplish this, company’s must use every opportunity, (building

inspections, drills, emergency responses, and other outdoor activities), to familiarize

themselves with the challenging buildings. He referred to common questions: How

many lengths of hose do we need to reach the stairs? Is there a well? How do I get to the

roof? And What types of stairs are present? Bruckner concluded that if firefighters ask

questions routinely they will be better prepared to operate safely and efficiently in these

complex buildings under the more stressful conditions of a structural fire.

       Brown (2004) stated a three-story old law tenement with a three-window front has

only a rear fire escape, indicating one apartment per floor. A similar building with a

commercial occupancy on the first floor may not require a fire escape at all. He stressed

that this information should be noted. The lack of a fire escape is a vital piece of

information for inside and outside teams and must be communicated.

       Dennehy (2002) added that old tenements are from three to seven stories in

height, 20 to 25 feet wide, and of non-fireproof construction. He also found that counting

mailboxes is another method that can help determine the number of fire escapes. In a

five-story tenement, for example, more than 10 mailboxes generally indicate the presence

of two fire escapes. Conversely, if there are 10 or fewer mailboxes, most likely there is

one fire escape, usually found in the rear.

       Dennehy found it useful to drive around your district and see how many multiple

apartment buildings you can identify. Then, think about how you would operate at this
                                                                       Develop a Standard 10


type of buildings during a fire if you were assigned the position of nozzle, roof, outside

vent, etc.

        Potteiger (1999) shared a consensus among the East Naples Fire Control and

Rescue District suppression division to conduct surveys. After several questions and

concerns were voiced within the suppression division, it was determined that the survey

form must be simple and non-lengthy. He also stated the elements of the survey would

include building construction, alarm functions, occupancy and its hazards, the type of

construction and storage practices.

        According to Terpak (2002) the following topics of Garden Apartments and

Townhouses should be considered when fire pre-plans are being developed:

Construction

        The firefighters and fire officer’s primary construction concern when responding

to a fire in a garden apartment and townhouse is the use of truss design supporting

systems, cold form steel, and pre-fabricated or modular designs.

        With the primary focus being on lightweight wood designed trusses, keep in mind

that significant research has shown that a fire attack on lightweight wood trusses will

produce early structural failure.

Occupancy

        When reviewing the occupancy size-up factor, you must consider two areas: the

contents of the building and the number of people in the building. Regarding contents,

expect that materials most common to a residential dwelling unit will be stored within the

structure. These materials may range from ordinary combustibles to propane cylinders

for the BBQ grill to paints and solvents; all will present difficulties if involved in fire.
                                                                     Develop a Standard 11


       Garden apartment complex are considered apartment buildings with many

individual apartments served off a common public hallway, all under one roof.

Apparatus Staffing and Operations

       Preplanning of the streets, building layouts, and accessibility and having

familiarity with the terrain associated with the complex are key to the effectiveness of

apparatus placement. Identify the difficult areas, and plan ahead.

       Preset 2 ½ - or three-inch hose with a gated wye or manifold stretched to the front

door or courtyard allows for the stretching of a number of smaller and mobile hoselines

into the building.

       Efficient and effective ladder company operations for the garden apartment and

townhouse will depend on pre-planning and identifying any difficulties with apparatus

maneuverability and placement.

       You must be able to identify key ventilation options in all operations. Vertical

ventilation considerations for the ladder company in garden apartment and townhouse

complexes vary according to the building’s design and construction. Knowing the design

type and the construction methods used will greatly aid ventilation efforts when the fire is

located on the top floor or extending into the roof space.

       There should also be an overall concern for the apartment or dwelling’s bedroom

areas and under fire conditions how a search and rescue operation would be conducted.

Terrain

       Be aware that garden apartment and town use private fire hydrants, which

typically are not well maintained.
                                                                       Develop a Standard 12


Street Conditions

        We know from some of our previous size-up factors that there is no definite and

easy geometric pattern to the streets in many of these complexes.

        What can add even more confusion is the method used to letter and number the

buildings within the complex.

Exposures

        When looking at the garden apartment complex, it generally presents itself as one

large multiple dwelling with fire extension focused primarily within the building itself.

        Fire walls, when present, are evident by their penetration within the row. In many

cases, there are offset designs and variations in the rooflines to identify their location.

Area

        The garden apartment complex will generally follow a floor layout design of two

to four apartments per floor, all accessible from a single interior stair. This stair will

often be the only means of egress for those apartments. This design in most cases will be

the same for all floors served off the interior stair.

        Flynn (2003) indicated the success of an aggressive interior attack in a structure

fire depends largely on the effectiveness of roof operations. Primary roof operations

consist of size up, roof access and egress, and ventilation of natural (preexisting)

openings and tools needed to accomplish tasks. He referred to roof operation beginning

not only with size-up upon arrival, but also through pre-fire plans before incidents occur.

Pre-fire plan should include height and area of the building and the question should be

considered if the roof is within the reach of the aerial device or a ground ladder.
                                                                     Develop a Standard 13


       Jones (1998) identified key areas of concern for a multiple apartment building in

Coon Rapids, MN:

       •   Three story apartment building

       •   Wood-frame construction

       •   60 by 120 feet in size

       •   Brick veneer and aluminum facial/soffit

       •   Protected by monitored fire-protection devices such as sprinkler system,

           emergency lighting and smoke detectors

       •   Attic area not protected

       Flynn continued to identify the different building types. All buildings can be

classified as one of five different construction types: (1) noncombustible, (2) fire

resistive, (3) ordinary, (4) heavy timber, and (5) wood frame and lightweight. Knowing

the type and characteristics of the building construction on which the roof team members

are operating has a significant impact on determining a course of action. He also refers to

[the National Fire Protection Association 220, Standard on Types of Building

Construction (1995 edition), for a description of building construction types.]

       Brady (2000) recognized the Carriage Hill Apartments were built in the early

1970s, type-4 construction with a combination of high-rise buildings and three-story

garden-apartment style units.

       Murphy (2004) indicated a careful examination of the kitchen and bathroom must

be made to determine if air vents are present. If such vents are found, the entire line and

adjacent lines must be examined for heat and smoke travel.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 14


       According to Dennehy (2002) fires that spread to rooms that are located on air

shafts are a greater hazard than fire located in rooms with no shafts. The shaft acts like a

chimney and draws heat and gases toward it. The size of the shaft has an influence on

how quickly the fire spreads. He concludes it is vital that members who are assigned the

roof position inform their Company Officer and the Incident Commander of the presence

or absence of shafts and the conditions in the shaft.

       Mcknight (1999) recognized when a fire is well-advanced, rapid transmission of

extra alarms is crucial to gain control of the fire. He concluded that unusual problems

often can be overcome by innovative thinking.

       Salka (2003) recognized roof ventilation is critical for search, rescue and

extinguishment. Your first choice for accessing the roof is adjoining buildings. This

should be the safest and most dependable method. Simply enter the front door, ascend

the interior stairway to the roof bulkhead, go out onto the roof, crossover to the fire

building, and begin your duties.

       Kouba’s (1998) size-up tips:

       •   Opening skylights and scuttles and deciding what the options are for egress

           from roof operations.

       •   Identify window for rope-type hose stretches.

       Stroup (2006) indicated the Fairfax County Fire Department uses a “Building

Survey Form.” The individual fire station companies do the walk-through to record

building information and they either obtain a building “blue print” or the fire crew will

draw one by hand.
                                                                     Develop a Standard 15


        Brown (2004) pointed out that small windows on the top floor of some

brownstone buildings create serious access/egress problems. They may also indicate a

difference in height between the front and rear of the top floor.

        According to Bruckner (2001) some of the most challenging building fires

encountered involved H-type apartment houses. These large heavily occupied non-

fireproof buildings can exceed 200 feet in depth and width and vary from four to six

stories; although, buildings on sloping grades may contain nine or more floors. In

addition to the challenges, he indicated that the configuration of these buildings vary, (H,

E, O, U, and triangular).

        According to Potteiger (1999), the Fire Prevention Bureau’s heavy workload did

not allow for the inspections of multi-family dwellings to be made within the East Naples

Fire Control and Rescue District. The lack of information such as locating fire

department connections and addresses and recognizing buildings with sprinkler and

standpipes, created problems for suppression personnel when responding to fire related

incidents.

        Murphy (2004) recommended a pre-fire plan and numerous drills at complexes.

Familiarization will point out access roads that are impassable due to improperly parked

cars.

        Terpak (2002) indicated, depending on the complex, the closest engine company

to the fire building may require 200-300-foot stretch to reach the front door of the

complex, let alone the number of additional lengths needed to cover the entire apartment

or townhouse. He also shared that when positioning a ground ladder and then finding
                                                                      Develop a Standard 16


that you can’t reach the target height will cause a serious delay in achieving the objective.

Pre-incident size-up is the key.

       Salka (2003) stated that an aerial ladder should be raised and extended to the roof

of the fire building for access. This can be dangerous however, due to cornices that slope

toward the roof and high front parapet walls that may have to be negotiated to get onto

the roof from the ladder.

       Kouba (1998) reported on a six-story multiple apartment building fire. Seventy-

five-foot tower ladders were limited in their ability to reach the roof to be effective. In

addition to the strategic and tactical challenges, there were exposures of similar buildings

and a cyclone fence topped with razor wire.

       McKnight (1999) recognized problems facing the FDNY during fire operations at

an 11-floor apartment building:

       •   A large volume of fire rapidly extending vertically and horizontally from the

           shaft.

       •   The need to force entry into all apartments on 11 floors.

       •   The need for multiple hand-lines on each floor to cover exposed apartments

           located on the shaft. (Apartments in the K, L, and M lines were on the shaft

           and were severely exposed.)

       •   Fire extending vertically above the reach of ladders that had cut off the

           secondary means of egress to some of the apartments.

       •   Inability to knock down fire from the exterior due to scaffold and construction

           netting obstructing outside stream access.
                                                                       Develop a Standard 17


       •   An urgent was transmitted for a partial scaffold collapse, and acetylene tanks

           burning on the roof.

       •   People in apartments on the upper floors and in rear apartments were not yet

           aware of the fire problem, had no egress or were cut off from egress.

       •   Windows on the shaft were failing, permitting fire to enter apartments and

           public hallways.

       Brennan (2004) reported on a fire in a multiple dwelling and what are some ways

to handle the problems.

       •   Identify the fire escape balconies which serve two apartments, one on either

           side of the access ladder.

       •   The roof ventilation is vital for control of the public hall and interior stair

           enclosure by the extinguishment teams and search/removal/rescue teams.

       •   Initially, four 1 3/4 hand lines are mandatory, and to be deployed on the fire

           floor and the floors above and below the fire floor.

       •   A tower ladder is the most useful apparatus at the scene, for moving

           personnel, horizontal ventilation, search team entry, and victim removal.

       •   Interior communications on progress on the lower floors is mandatory to

           maintain an interior aggressive strategy for as long as possible.

       Brady (2000) shared an unusual challenge for the Prince George County

Fire/EMS Department while battling a multiple apartment building fire. He indicated

that they were confronted with explosions caused by nearly 30 oxygen cylinders that

were stored in the apartment of origin. The oxygen was for an elderly female suffering

from cancer. Firefighters had no prior knowledge of the presence of those cylinders.
                                                                   Develop a Standard 18


       The Dearborn Fire Department senior officers clearly were concerned with the

lack of multiple apartment building familiarizations by the members. They identified the

challenges with their strategic and tactical operations and recommend a need for fire pre-

plans of the buildings to address the following obstacles:

       •   Building addresses visibility

       •   Fire department connects

       •   Construction

       •   Utilities

       •   Access and egress

       •   Hazardous Materials

       •   Exposures

       •   Stories and dimensions

       •   Hydrant locations

       •   Evacuation plan and accountability

       The research found throughout the Literature Review clearly recognizes the need

for multiple apartment building fire pre-plans. The problems identified were either

during emergency incidents or after the fact. According to the authors, pre-fire plans and

familiarization of the multiple apartment buildings would reduce many of challenges

faced by Fire Company’s while performing their tactical and strategic operations.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 19


                                          Procedure



       The Action Research method was used to approach this Applied Research Project

(ARP) in order to answer the questions presented in the introduction section. The

questions were viewed as a means to provide a base for developing a standard guideline

fire pre-plan for multiple apartment buildings. The information compiled was also

intended to offer a variety of information to identify the strategic and tactical challenges

with multiple apartment building fires.

       The process of obtaining information to develop standard procedures, in part, was

done directly at the National Fire Academy’s Resource Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland.

Research was done with the online card catalogue using the NFA Intranet search engine.

The key words used for searching were: “apartment fire operations, pre-fire plan, and

risk assessment”. Material was also gathered locally upon returning to Dearborn,

Michigan. This was accomplished during a staff meeting and speaking with senior

department members who fill leadership roles on the fire ground. These members

included: Deputy Chief, three shifts Battalion Chief’s, a Battalion Chief of Training, the

Emergency Medical Service Coordinator Battalion Chief, the Fire Marshal, and the

Apparatus Supervisor. Additional information was obtained through an e-mail sent to

Executive Fire Officer Program Alumni’s (2004), Executive Development and Executive

Analysis of Fire Service Operations in Emergency Management (2006). The e-mail

consisted of the following request: “Does anyone have a Fire Pre-plan for multiple

apartment buildings, and who completes the pre-plan?” The responses resulted in only

one fire pre-plan survey for multiple apartment buildings. This survey was from Cheri
                                                                    Develop a Standard 20


Stroup (Captain of Operations) from Fairfax County, Virginia. In addition, contact was

made to the City of Dearborn Housing Director, Floyd Addison, who manages multiple

apartment building high-rises. Mr. Addison provides a fire escape map for each

apartment. The material gathered during this process was reviewed by the mentioned

senior officers. Their point of view for developing a standard fire pre-plan for multiple

apartment buildings was of common interest and taken into consideration.

Assumption and Limitations

       The information gathered from discussion with DFD Deputy Chief, James Gillett,

and Battalion Chief’s: under Suppression, Rich Miller, Paul Spearmen, and Tim Prokop;

Training Officer, Chuck Geno; Emergency Management Coordinator, Dean Creech; Fire

Marshal, Jeff Oldenburg; and Apparatus Supervisor, Bruce Hamilton, are assumed to be

true and accurate assessments of strategic and tactical challenges the DFD faces with

multiple apartment buildings.

       The terms utilized in this ARP are common to the fire industry and a Definition of

Terms section was not utilized under the Procedures section.



                                          Results



       As part of the ARP, information was gathered to answer the three research

question.

       Research Question 1: What Standard fire preplan guidelines does building

management provide to occupants in apartment buildings?
                                                                      Develop a Standard 21


         Wayne Township realized the need to provide a more efficient notification system

to their residents of apartment buildings. This would include evacuation or sheltering in

place. It is important for a fire pre-plan to include how residents of apartment buildings

will react and where they will congregate during an emergency for accountability.

         The city of Bristol utilized a survey to their residents for fire emergencies. The

response was poor and it was determined that the people who did participate did not

understand and did not respond during an emergency. Apartment building management

and the fire department need to work out the barriers and create an effective fire pre-plan

for the residents.

         Coon Rapids, Minesotta fire department created an “Apartment Fire Safety”

brochure during their building inspections. This was a positive approach allowing the

residents to inspect their own apartments for fire hazards. It allowed them to become

familiar with their buildings, fire safety devices, and exits. This approach conveys unity

and an organized pre-fire plan among the apartment building residents and management.

         The City of Dearborn owned apartment buildings provide fire escape maps for

each apartment. (Appendix A) This includes identified staircases which would be used

by the resident. This information would assist in a fire pre-plan for accountability and

operations during a fire.

         Research Question 2: What standard fire preplans do other fire departments have

and how are they used for their strategic and tactical advantage during apartment building

fires?

         Fire Department New York (FDNY) indicated their fire operations in multiple

apartment buildings are greatly enhanced when members are familiar with them. This
                                                                    Develop a Standard 22


appeared to be an informal process and shared some question that should be asked: How

many lengths of hose do we need to reach stairs? How do I get to the roof? What types

of stairs are present? On a positive note, they did indicate questions should be asked

while in these buildings to be better prepared during a fire.

       Fire Department New York also shared their concern of three-story old law

tenement apartment buildings. These types of buildings are lacking fire escapes and this

should be noted. It was determined the number of mailboxes will indicate the number of

fire escapes. These apartments also can vary in height from three to seven stories and are

of non-fireproof construction. It was realized useful and they were advised to drive

around their district to identify multiple apartment buildings then think about assigned

positions of nozzle, roof, outside ventilation, etc.

       East Naples Fire Control and Rescue District received a consensus from their fire

department members and concluded to use a simple and non-lengthy survey. This survey

would be used for building surveys and include: building construction, alarm functions,

occupancy and its hazards, the type of construction, and storage practices.

       Jersey City, New Jersey Fire Department shared topics to be considered when fire

pre-plans are being developed:

       •   Construction

       •   Occupancy

       •   Apparatus staffing and operations

       •   Terrain

       •   Street conditions

       •   Exposures
                                                                     Develop a Standard 23


       •    Area

       Yonkers Fire Department, New York referred to roof operation beginning not

only with size-up upon arrival, but also through fire pre-plans. Included in the fire pre-

plan should be the height and area of the building and to also consider if the roof is within

the reach of the aerial device or a ground ladder. The fire department also classified the

five different construction types: noncombustible, fire resistive, ordinary, heavy timber,

and wood frame and lightweight. This information would impact the course of fire

operations during an incident.

       Coon Rapids, Minesotta identified key areas of concern for a multiple apartment

building:

       •    Three story apartment building

       •    Wood-frame construction

       •    60 by 120 feet in size

       •    Brick veneer and aluminum facial/soffit

       •    Protected by monitored fire-protection devices such as sprinkler system,

            emergency lighting and smoke detectors

       •    Attic area not protected

       Prince George County garden apartments were recognized as type-4 construction

with a combination of high-rises and three story buildings. Building construction

awareness is critical for size-up and for planning fire operations. Heavy building timber

verses light weight timber and the time factors will assist the Incident Commander in

deciding weather to approach offensive or defensive.
                                                                       Develop a Standard 24


       Manhattan, New York indicated common heat and smoke that travel in multiple

apartment buildings are found in kitchen and bathroom air vents. In addition, to size-up,

tips identify skylights and scuttles for roof company’s to egress through. To also support

operations, windows need to be identified for rope-type hose stretches.

       Fire Department New York stated apartment buildings with air shafts create a

chimney effect for heat and gases to travel. They determined, as part of their operations,

to immediately send crews to the roof to size-up the shafts and relay their findings to

operations. They recognized that when a fire is in the advanced stages, additional alarms

must be activated with multiple apartment buildings. They also found it necessary to

identify adjoining buildings which can be utilized for access to the roof of the building

involved.

       Fairfax County Fire Department conducts building surveys utilizing a “Building

Survey Form.” Fire companies do walk through and record building information

including building lay outs. (Appendix B)

       Research Question 3: What strategic and tactical challenges have been

experienced by other fire departments during apartment building fires?

       Fire Department New York recognized access/egress problems with small

windows on the top floors of brownstone buildings. Also was identified were different

heights between the front and rear of the top floors. Access to the roofs can be

challenging due to the cornices that slope toward the roof and high front parapet walls

that may have to be negotiated to get onto the roof from the ladder.

       Some of the other problems facing the FDNY with multiple apartment buildings,

are fire spreading through shafts, forcible entry, hand line deployment, limitation of
                                                                     Develop a Standard 25


ladder operations, egress, exterior obstructions, hazardous materials storage, occupancy,

and structural failure. The FDNY pointed out that one of the most challenging buildings

in the city are the H-type apartment houses. These buildings are heavily occupied, non-

fireproof, exceed 200 feet in depth and width, vary from four to six stories, may contain

nine or more floors, and configurations consist of (H, E, O, U, and triangular).

       In Manhattan, New York fire pre-plans point out access roads that are impassable

due to improperly parked cars. Other strategic and tactical challenges were the ability for

ladder trucks to reach certain areas, exposures of similar buildings, and cyclone fences

topped with razor wire. Identifying these barriers will indicate what tools will be needed

to accomplish tasks.

       East Naples, Florida Fire Control and Rescue District realized their lack of multi-

family dwelling familiarization created challenges such as:

       •   Locating fire department connections

       •   Addresses

       •   Recognizing sprinkler systems

       •   Locating standpipes

       Multiple apartment buildings in Jersey City, New Jersey could require the first-in

Engine Company to stretch a 200-300 foot hose line to reach the front door. There would

be additional lengths needed to advance a pre-connect hose line. Without fire

suppression systems, including stand pipes, advancing hose lines need to be part of the

fire pre-plans. The fire department also shared that committing apparatuses on the fire

ground, and then realizing they can’t be utilized, creates and significantly delays

achieving their objective. Pre-incident size-up is the key.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 26


       Prince Georges County Fire/EMS Department were confronted with explosions

caused by nearly 30 oxygen cylinders that were stored in a apartment of a multiple

apartment building. Firefighters had no prior knowledge of the stored cylinders. Fire

pre-plans would identify these types of hazards which could result in a deadly outcome.

       The Dearborn Fire department senior officers, through their years of experience,

realize their strategic and tactical challenges with multiple apartment buildings and also

understand the need for a fire pre-plan. Familiarization of multiple apartment buildings

prior to an incident is detrimental for strategic and tactical operations. Utilizing a tool

such as fire pre-plan will support the incident for an overall positive outcome. (Appendix

C)



                                         Discussion



       The research conducted for this ARP appears to support the need to develop

multiple apartment building pre-fire plans to reduce the number of strategic and tactical

challenges in the Dearborn Fire Department. The DFD does not utilize a familiarization

process for the multiple apartment buildings in the City of Dearborn. This was supported

by the DFD Deputy Chief and Battalion Chiefs. Based on these findings and the findings

of the research conducted from this ARP, there is a need to develop a standard fire pre-

plan for multiple apartment buildings. By developing a fire pre-plan, the company’s on

the incidents will be able to establish their strategic and tactical plans and deploy their

operations in an efficient and safe manor.
                                                                     Develop a Standard 27


       Occupants of multiple apartment buildings need to be accountable and be

included within a fire pre-plan for accountability. Wayne Township indicated not all

occupants were notified of the need to evacuate or shelter in place during a Hazardous

Material incident. Also in Bristol, Tennessee there were residents who refuse to react

during a fire emergency. Coon Rapids, Minnesota fire crew found it effective to leave an

Apartment Fire Safety brochure during building inspections for the residents. This would

allow the residents to identify any fire hazards within their units and become familiar

with the building and exits. The City of Dearborn also provides a fire escape map for

each apartment and is kept on the inside of each apartment e door. Interacting with the

occupants of multiple apartment buildings is a win-win approach. The Fire Department

points out their concerns and how the occupants play a role in the operations and

accountability during an incident.

       Fire Departments need to formalize their multiple apartment building fire pre-

plans and not just momentary familiarization in passing. Bruckner indicated FDNY

operations are greatly enhanced when members are familiar with particular buildings

within their response districts. This is accomplished during building inspections, drills,

emergency responses, and other outdoor activities.

       Brown (2004) stated that attention to fire escapes should be noted and

communicated for inside and outside teams during an incident. This vital information

should be part of a fire pre-plan.

       Dennehy (2002) found it useful to drive around your district and identify multiple

apartment buildings and how you would operate during an incident. Documenting this
                                                                     Develop a Standard 28


information and reviewing it repeatedly would increase a positive response with fire

operations.

        Potteiger (1999) indicated East Naples Fire Control and Rescue District

suppression division agreed to conduct fire pre-plan surveys and concluded the surveys

need to be simple and non-lengthy.

        Terpak (2002) shared the following topic which should be considered during a

fire pre-plan: Construction, Occupancy, Apparatus Staffing and Operations, Terrain,

Street Conditions, Exposures, and Area. Fire pre-plans will vary with fire departments

and their resources.

        It was also found through the research to identify the different building types and

construction. Flynn (2003) indicated the five types of construction which would directly

relate to the course of action during an incident: noncombustible, fire resistive, ordinary,

heavy timber, and wood frame and lightweight.

        Jones (1998) pointed out the key areas of concern for multiple apartment

buildings in Coon Rapids, MN: how many stories, construction, surface material, and

attic areas.

        There is further evidence that a multiple apartment building fire pre-plan will

discover other pertinent information to assist fire operations. Brady (2004) found that

kitchen and bathroom air vents must be identified for heat and smoke travel.

        Murphy (2004) pointed out in addition, that shafts can create a chimney effect and

support fire spread. This can be identified during a fire-pre-plan or during an incident

with roof operations discovering the shafts and relaying the information to the Incident

Commander. When fire is well advanced upon arrival McKnight (1999) recognized the
                                                                     Develop a Standard 29


need for rapid activation of additional alarms. This can be included in a fire pre-plan for

initial size-up.

        Salka (2003) recognized roof operation is critical for search and rescue, and

extinguishment. It is crucial to identify the options for roof access including adjoining

buildings.

        Kouba (1998) shared size-up tips including egress from roof operations and

identify windows for rope-type hose stretches.

        Stroup (2006) indicated Fairfax County Fire Department uses a “building survey”.

This can be identified as a formal fire pre-plan and a very useful tool.

        There are many strategic and tactical challenges facing fire departments today that

can be identified and included in a fire pre-plan. Brown (2004) pointed out access and

egress problems with small windows. Bruckner (2001) included different apartment

building configurations (H, E, O, U, and triangular). Potteiger (1999) stated lack of

information such as department connections and addresses and recognizing buildings

with sprinkler and standpipes created problem for suppression personnel when

responding to fire related incidents.

        Murphy (2004) expressed the necessity of a pre-fire plan and numerous drills at

apartment complexes. He also stated familiarization will point out access to roads and

any obstacles that may be present.

        Strategic and tactical challenges occur with lack of multiple apartment building

familiarizations. Terpak (2002) indicated that pre-incident size-up is the key. Building

location can affect the reach of the pre-connect hose lines and ground ladder operations.
                                                                      Develop a Standard 30


       Salka (2003) stated that aerial ladder operations can be hampered by dangerous

slopes and parapet walls. Fire pre-plans would identify these hazards and allow crews to

compensate for the obstacles. Kouba (1998) also added fire departments need to identify

their limitation with the reach of their ladder trucks. Exposures are a concern as well

when there are obstructions to delay strategic and tactical operation like a cyclone fence

topped with razor wire.

       A list of recognized problems in New York during multiple apartment building

fires include: rapid extending fire due to vertical and horizontal shafts, force entry into

apartments, the need for multiple hand lines, limitation s to ladder reach, exterior

scaffolding obstructing operation, egress issues for occupants, and with regards to

hazardous materials, acetylene tanks improper storage. Brady (2000) also shared an

unusual challenge in Prince George County when a series of explosions occurred during a

multiple apartment building fire. This was due to an apartment storing nearly 30 oxygen

cylinders. All of these challenges could have been identified during a fire pre-plan before

an incident occued.

       Brennan (2004) expressed some ways of handling problems in a multiple

dwelling. Identify escape balconies, roof layout for ventilation, tactical hand line

deployment, tower ladder operations, and interior communications. Fire pre-plans for

strategic and tactical operations need to identify problems if it were under the worse

conditions.

       The Dearborn Fire Department senior officer’s expressed their concerns and need

in establishing a fire pre-plan for multiple apartment buildings and would include the

following points: building address, fire department connections, construction, utilities,
                                                                     Develop a Standard 31


access and egress, hazardous materials, exposures, stories and dimensions, hydrant

locations, evacuation plan, and accountability.

       The research conducted for this ARP supports the need to develop a multiple

apartment building fire pre-plan. This further supports the obligation for the DFD to

utilize a fire pre-plan for multiple apartment buildings for familiarization. This will help

ensure minimizing the risk to the firefighters and occupants during multiple apartment

building fires. In addition, the plan will also support efficiency during strategic and

tactical operation without delays.



                                     Recommendation



       The research findings clearly support the need for multiple apartment buildings

fire pre-plans for the Dearborn Fire Department. Developing and implementing standard

fire pre-plans are necessary for improving the safety at incidents. The need to become

aware of the challenges at a multiple apartment building incident is pertinent to

preventing injuries and operating a more efficient fire ground. Conveying the fire pre-

plan survey to fire companies through training will be the groundwork for the members.

       Fire departments must have fire pre-plans for the complicated multiple apartment

buildings to support the overall strategic plan. Terpak (2002) indicated pre-incident size-

up is the key to reducing serous delay in achieving objectives.

       Murphy (2004) recommended a fire pre-plan and numerous drills at the multiple

apartment buildings. Familiarization will point out challenges for the Incident

Commander and allow the firefighter to develop strategic and tactical advantages prior to
                                                                      Develop a Standard 32


an incident. If obstacles are overlooked within these buildings and pre-plans are not

completed, challenges and delays of operations will continue and life safety will be

jeopardized.

       Firefighter’s take risks every day. These risks can be managed and reduced by

familiarization of multiple apartment buildings.

       Educating staff of the fire pre-plans is the basis for a clear understanding of the

surveys and the purpose. The majority of the research gathered was statements from

authors after an incident and then they identified their challenges. The proactive

approach will benefit fire operations and support overcoming the strategic and tactical

challenges. The last thing an Incident Commander wants to be concerned with is the lack

of familiarization within a multiple apartment building during a fire. Educating the

firefighters on the Dearborn Fire Department of the multiple apartment buildings in the

City of Dearborn will be the goal. Every apartment building is different and each one has

their own hidden secretes of hazards and challenges. Fire Suppression Company’s

should walk through buildings and utilize the standard survey form as their guideline for

documentation of hazards and challenges.

       The research findings support the need to develop standard multiple apartment

building fire pre-plans to reduce the strategic and tactical challenges and to minimize the

life safety risk to the firefighters and residents. Evaluating the potential hazards in

multiple apartment buildings resulted in the development of a standard Fire Pre-plan

Survey form for the Dearborn Fire Department. (Appendix C)

       Firefighting is a dangerous profession. All challenges cannot be completely

prevented, but can be reduced. Every year there are injuries and deaths related to fire
                                                                    Develop a Standard 33


ground deficiencies and lack of building familiarization. These incidents may be used as

learning tools for preventing future injuries and deaths. It is recommended that multiple

apartment building fires are analyzed and the data utilized to support future research.

Continuously modifying the fire pre-plan for each fire district for improvements is

necessary throughout the country.
                                                                  Develop a Standard 34




                                      References



Brady, M. (2000). On the Job. Firehouse/July 106-109

Brennan, T. (2004). Fire in a Multiple Dwelling. Fire Engineering, 22-23.

Brown, M. (2004). Operations on the Floor Above Size Up for Safety. With New York

       Firefighters, 26-27.

Bruckner, J (2001). H-Type Buildings Revisited. With New York Firefighters, 26-29.

Dennehy, E. (2002). Fire Complications in Old Law Tenements. With New York

Firefighters 16-18

Flynn, J. (2003). Primary Roof Operations at Multiple-Dwelling Fires. Fire Engineer

       81-84

Garino, J. (2003). Evacuation and Shelter Instructions for Residents of Large Apartment

       Buildings. www.usfa.fema.gov/efop/tr_03dg.pdf (311.7kb).

Jones, D. (1998). On the Job. Firehouse/May 83-85

Kouba (1998). Manhattan Fifth Alarm. With New York Firefighters 22-24

McKnight, P. (1999). 11 Floors of Fire. With New York Firefighters 2-5

Murphy, M. (2004) Multiple Rescues in Manhattan. With New York Firefighters 2-5

Potteiger, R. (1999). Developing a Pre-incident Survey for the East Naples Fire Control

       and Rescue District. www.usfa.fema.gov/pdf/efop/efo29409.pdf (382kb).

Salka, J. (2003) You’ve Got the Roof. With New York Firefighters 10-11

Stroup, E. (2006). Pre-plan. Cheri.Stroup@fairfaxcounty.gov
                                                                   Develop a Standard 35


Terpak, M. (2002). Fireground Size-up for Garden Apartments and Townhouses. Fire

       Engineer, 78-83.

Whiteaker, G. (1999). The Effect of Preplanning for Fires in Bristol’s Multi-storied

       Housing Units on Elderly Residents. www.usfa.fema.gov/pdf/efop/efo29341.pdf

       (311kb)
             Develop a Standard 36




Appendix A
             Develop a Standard 37


Appendix B
                                                                        Develop a Standard 38


                                         Appendix C

                                Dearborn Fire Department
                               Multiple Apartment Buildings
                                   Fire Pre-Plan Survey

Address: ___________________________________ Date: _______________________

Bldg. Name: ______________________________________Occupancy #:___________
Emergency Contact: Name, Address, Phone # ________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Sprinkler: (Siamese) Location ____________________________________________________________

Standpipe: (Siamese) Location ____________________________________________________________

Hydrant Location - Primary________________________ Secondary _____________________________

Special Hazards _______________________________________________________________________

Utility Shut Off Locations:

Electric ____________________________Gas _______________________Water __________________

Fire Alarm Panel _____________________________________Agent _____________________________

Structural Information of Building

Height and Number of Floors _____________________________________________________________

Construction – Building ______________________________ Roof ______________________________

Window Type _______________________________ Fire Doors ________________________________

No. of Stairways - N __________ S __________ E ___________W ___________ Center______________

Vertical & Horizontal Openings: Elevators, Shafts, etc. ________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Exposures - N ___________ S ____________ E _____________ W ___________ Center _____________

Best Means of Entry ____________________________________________________________________

Basement Entry Location ________________________________________________________________

Evacuation Plan & Assemble location ______________________________________________________

Addition Information____________________________________________________________________

Signature of Inspection Officer ___________________________________________________________
10/06

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Apartment Management System Dfd document sample