CHAPTER 3 WORKSHEET & READING GUIDE – THE CELL 1. What are the three foundations of cell theory? 2. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What type of cells are human cells? 3. How big are cells? 4. Draw a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol. Label the region that is hydrophobic and the regions that are hydrophilic. Label one side the intracellular fluid/cytoplasm and one side the extracellular fluid. 5. Describe the “fluid mosaic” model in your own words. 6. What are five functions of plasma membranes? 7. Complete the following chart: Type of With/Against Energy Types of Description & Example membrane Concentration Source molecules transport Gradient Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis Active transport Endocytosis Exocytosis 8. What would happen if you placed a cell in a high salt solution? What would happen if you placed a cell in a low salt/pure water solution? 9. Define compartmentalization. 10. Define organelle. Which is LARGER, an organelle or a cell? 11. Identify the following cell parts: ____________________a. External boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling ____________________b. Contains digestive enzymes of many varieties, “suicide sac” of the cell, breaks down proteins ____________________c. Scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP or energy synthesis ____________________d. Membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; modify and packages proteins for export (exocytosis) ____________________e. Control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and life, contains DNA ____________________f. Dense, darkly stained region within the nucleus; packaging site for ribosomes ____________________g. Site of protein synthesis ____________________h. 46 threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material ____________________i. Found in cilia and flagella ____________________j. Extensive network of channels connecting all parts of the cell. Often appear rough due to the presence of ribosomes. 12. Describe cellular respiration –the starting materials, the major events, and final purpose. 13. Describe lactic acid fermentation - the starting materials, the major events, and final purpose.
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