Best Management Practices Guide by NPS

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									                                                                                          Defining What a Green Park Looks Like
      ACTIVITY                                       BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                        (BMP)                                    * REFERENCE                                   SUCCESS
                                                  SIMPLE                                              ADVANCED                               MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                           DATE

GREEN PROCUREMENT (GENERAL)                                                                                                                                                  PWR Solid Waste Coordinator:
Federal, NPS, and PWR   EO 13101 Greening the Government Through Waste                                                                                                       PWR Directive 51 – Environmentally Preferable
Guidance                Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, 1998; Section                                                                                        Purchasing Policy
                        6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 1976.                                                                                            WASO Environmental Purchasing Handbook:
                        Environmental Purchasing in the National Park Service: A How-                                                                              
                        to Guide May 2006.                                                                                                                                   EPP.cfm
Green Procurement       Develop a Green Procurement Plan or Affirmative Procurement       Encourage employees to take                  Develop a preferred list of green     PWR Environmental Purchasing Handbook:                  Cabrillo NM, Lassen
Plan                    Plan using the PWR or WASO model plan addressing                  OFEE’s online green purchasing               products for purchase card holders.   Volcanic NP, & Lava Beds
                        preference for purchasing CPG and biobased products.              training.                                                                          OFEE’s Online Green Purchasing Training for the         NM created Green
                                                                                                                                                                             Federal Community – - “What         Purchasing Plans.
                                                                                                                                                                             is Green Purchasing, Anyway?”                           Cape Cod NS developed an
                                                                                                                                                                             EPA’s Buying Green with a Government Credit             “Authorized List” of products
                                                                                                                                                                             Card:         with environmental
Before You Make a       Is it really needed? Can the existing item be fixed? Can it be    Is the product produced and sold             Adapt a list of pre-purchase
Purchase, Ask:          donated? Are renewable resources used in its production? Is it    locally?                                     questions for your park.
                        biodegradable? Biobased? Durable/reusable? Is it non-toxic?
                        Does it have simple maintenance? Is it recyclable? Is it made
                        from recycled content? Is it a CPG item?
CPG – Comprehensive     Know the CPG* categories. When making a purchase, check to        Use values higher than RMAN.                 Go beyond recycled content as an      40 CFR 247 Comprehensive Procurement Guideline
Procurement Guideline   see if recycled content is available. Use RMAN (Recommended                                                    environmental attribute. Other        for Products Containing Recovered Materials
                        Materials Advisory Notice) for the % recovered content                                                         attributes may be more important
                        required.                                                                                                      (such as zero VOC paint for
                                                                                                                                       interiors, or certified wood over
                        * federal purchasing requirements                                                                              plastic lumber).
Biobased Products       Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Farm Bill of                                                                               
                        2002) creates a procurement program that will require federal
                        agencies to purchase biobased products, unless those products
                        are not reasonably available; fail to meet performance
                        standards; or are available only at an unreasonable price.
FAR                     Become familiar with FAR part 23 “Environmental                                                                                            
                        Requirements.” Specifically, see part 1.101 through 1.102-4,
                        part 23.4 “Use of Recovered Materials,” part 23.7 “Contracting
                        for Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient Products
                        and Services,” part 23.8 “Ozone-Depleting Substances,” and
                        part 52.223-9 “Certification of Percentage of Recovered
                        Material Content for EPA Designated Items Used in
                        Performance of the Contract.”
Contract Language       Incorporate environmental considerations into all aspects of      Set up local standards to meet your                                                PWRO Team Lead, Contracting:
                        solicitation package: construction waste recycling, sustainable   goals. Use electronic solicitation for                                     
                        products, and energy/water efficiency standards. Specify green    bids.
                        products in specs. Require all bid documents to be printed on
                        double-sided, recycled-content paper.
Paper Purchasing        30% PC content for printing and writing paper (mandatory).        100% post-consumer (PC) content,             Processed-Chlorine Free paper.        New Life DP (Cascade Fine Paper): 80% PC                PWRO Oakland & Seattle
(CPG Item)                                                                                processed chlorine-free (PCF) copy           Consider alternative fibers (i.e.,    Aspen 100 (Boise-Cascade): 100% PC                      offices use Boise Cascade
                                                                                          paper.                                       non-wood) and water-based or          Harbor 100 (Grays Harbor): 100% PC                      Aspen 100 paper.
                                                                                                                                       vegetable-based ink. Target paper     Federal Network for Sustainability Paper Initiative:
Packaging               Avoid products with excess or wasteful packaging. Is the          Is it reusable/refillable?                   Let vendors know your packaging
 (Styrofoam is under    packaging made of post-consumer (PC) recycled content? Is it                                                   preference.
  Waste Reduction)      recyclable? Reduced? DO NOT shrink wrap publications.
Computers and           Must be Energy Star qualified. Purchase remanufactured toner      Consider less toxic                          Reduce the printer-to-employee
FAX/Printers            cartridges. Purchase LCD monitors instead of CRT, which use       materials/components, recycled               ratio by maximizing shared network
                        less toxic substances.                                            content, and recyclability.                  printers.

      ACTIVITY                                           BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                         (BMP)                                 REFERENCE                                   SUCCESS
                                                      SIMPLE                                               ADVANCED                                MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                    DATE


Resources                 Purchase the Green Spec Binder. Review the manual Greening            Implement PWR Directive PW-048                                                  Environmental Building News Archives and Green
                          Federal Facilities (May 2001), GSA Green Lease Standards,             Sustainable Design and                                                          Spec Directory:
                          Whole Building Design Guide specifications, and Alemeda               Construction Practices.                                               
                          County Waste Management Authority Green Building Guides                                                                                               &rgn=PWR&id=661 -PWR Directive 48
                          and Remodeler’s Checklist.                                                                                                                  
Energy Efficiency         Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires new Federal buildings to be                                                                              
Standards                 designed 30% below ASHRAE standards. In addition,                                                                                                     on.html
                          sustainable design principles are to be applied to new and                                                                                  
                          replacement buildings. See ASHRAE publication “Advanced                                                                                               _05.html
                          Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings.”                                                                                            
Lifecycle Assessment      Consider the cost of a product over its entire life, which includes                                                Use tools such as BEES to          Building for Environmental & Economic               Parks' use of plastic lumber
                          the environmental impacts of resource extraction, processing,                                                      evaluate lifecycle costs.          Sustainability lifecycle assessment tool:           requires less long-term
                          manufacturing, use, disposal, and transportation.                                                                                                       maintenance.
                                                                                                                                                                                Athena Institute (LCA tool)
Job Site                  Protect native vegetation during construction. Minimize runoff,                                                                                                                                           Point Reyes Restroom was
                          use mulches, and minimize heat island effect. Build on                                                                                                                                                    built on existing foundation.
                          previously disturbed sites only. Do not bury construction debris.
Building Sizing           Design efficient floor plans that maximize daylighting, energy
                          efficiency, and effective site orientation.
Structural Systems        If wood, optimize dimensions to match standard lumber sizes.          Utilize central cutting area to reduce       Make efficient framing part of a                                    Rocky Mountains
and Framing               Design on 2’ modules to reduce waste. Place window and door           waste and use smaller lengths.               waste management plan for large
                          openings on framing module. Less is more: use advanced                Install vapor-permeable house wrap.          construction projects.
                          framing (optimal value engineering, e.g., use 24” OC framing
                          module, 2x sandwich headers instead of solid 4x or 6x beams,
                          more insulation, and open corners and T-walls). Use shallow
                          frost-protected footings. Use metal trusses, finger-jointed wood
                          trusses, or I-joists for floors and roofs. Use engineered lumber
                          products or steel for beams or headers. Use finger-jointed studs
                          or engineered stud materials. Use recycled-content
                          underlayment (50%), sheathing, or OSB. Use gypsum board
                          made from recycled paper, or recycled cellulose fiber. Use
                          structural insulated panel (SIP) walls or roof. Use insulated
                          concrete form (ICF) walls or roof, or solid foam block system.
LEED - Leadership in      Incorporate feasible LEED standards into design. DAB projects         Meet Certified or Silver LEED                Meet Gold or Platinum LEED                                       Mount Rainier Visitor Center
Energy and                must be assessed using LEED criteria.                                 standards.                                   standards.                                                                             (Silver)
Environmental Design                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zion Visitor Center (Silver)
                                                                                                                                                                                Environmental Building News & Green Spec binder:
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS                                                                                                                                        
Product Selection         Buy locally produced materials (to save energy and reduce                                                                                                                                                 Assateague Island, The
                          emissions from transportation). Choose products that are                                                                                                                                                  Presidio, Rocky Mountains,
                          durable and can be reused or recycled. Avoid products with                                                                                                                                                Yosemite, Zion
                          PVC, radon, molds, pesticides, HCFC foam insulation, and off-
                          gassing. Choose materials that conserve resources (e.g., use
                          by-products of other manufacturing processes; use smaller,
                          faster-growing species of wood), and are energy efficient. Use
                          salvaged timbers and decking. Use FSC certified wood.
Low-Embodied Energy       Use products that last longer and require less maintenance.           Use concrete containing fly ash.                                      
 (Relative Energy         Consider products with low-embodied energy values: Lumber 1,          Use concrete that uses soybean oil.
 Intensity of Materials   brick 2, cement 2, glass 3, fiberglass 7, steel 8, plastic 30,
 by Weight)               aluminum 80.
Composite/Plastic         Determine best product for application (e.g., docks, picnic           Consider certified wood products or                                             ChoiceDek:                        Fort Vancouver, Haleakala,
Lumber                    tables, benches, boardwalks, decks, signs). Some options are          reclaimed lumber over plastic                                                   Trimax:                     Lake Mead, Lake Roosevelt,
                          ChoiceDek (wood fiber/plastic PET), Trimax (fiberglass/plastic        lumber where appropriate (aesthetic                                             Nexwood:                            Mount Rainier, Olympic,
                          PET), Durawood (plastic PET), Nexwood (plastic/rice hulls).           concerns/structural needs).                                                                                                         Redwood, Whitman Mission

      ACTIVITY                                         BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                         (BMP)                                   REFERENCE                                   SUCCESS
                                                    SIMPLE                                               ADVANCED                               MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                       DATE
Certified Wood          Specify CWP certified by the Forest Stewardship Council              Choose formaldehyde-free products.                                       – database of certified wood    North Cascades- Hozomeen
Products (CWP)          (FSC). Use FSC standards when selecting wood products.                                                                                                 SmartWood                           The Presidio
Engineered Wood         Choose gluelam, OSB, wood I-joists, laminated-veneer lumber,                                                                                           Green Seal Report: Particleboard and Medium-          The Presidio
Products                parallel strand lumber, and laminated strand lumber. Use OSB                                                                                           Density Fiberboard, Oct. 2001
                        with lower or non-formaldehyde adhesives to replace plywood                                                                                  
                        for subfloors. Binders: urea releases the most formaldehyde;
                        pheno is less and PMDI none, but PMDI is toxic at the point of
                        manufacture. Particleboard: no more than 0.2 ppm
                        formaldehyde, and plywood: no more than 0.3 ppm.
Old Growth Wood         DON’T USE. Is clear, narrow-grained cedar or redwood siding          Use reclaimed wood.                                                                                          The Presidio
Products                really needed? Use laminated wood timbers instead of old
                        growth. Don’t buy tropical hardwoods unless reliably
                        documented that the wood is from well-managed forests.
Pressure-Treated Wood   Don’t use wood with hazardous chemicals, particularly arsenic        Use environmentally safer treatment                                               ACQ Preserve products:                                The Presidio created a
                        (CCA, ACC, ACA, CZC, ACZA). Most pressure-treated woods              (i.e., arsenic- and chromium-free,                                                       policy banning the use of
                        are restricted by environmental concerns. Prevent soil contact       such as ACQ, copper naphthenate                                                                        CCA.
                        and rot. Protect workers from handling, don’t cut or clean over      or copper boron azole), or plastic
                        water, and NEVER burn scraps.                                        lumber instead.
Paint                   1. Latex – Exteriors: Use minimum 20% PC recycled content            For recycled content, look for a                                                  Kelly Moore E-Cote Paint           Fort Vancouver, North
(CPG Item)                    or low-VOC (under 100 g/L flat, 200 g/L non-flat)              higher PC content and the lowest                                                  AFM Safecoat                      Cascades, The Presidio,
                        2. Latex – Interiors: use no- or low-odor, non-toxic, low-VOC        VOC emission available. For latex,                                                Miller Paint                      Yosemite
                              (under 50 g/L flat, 100 g/L non-flat)                          look for no VOC’s. Use light colors                                               NPS Environmentally Responsible Paint Options,
                        3. Oil-based: use ONLY where essential (e.g., ships). Keep           indoors to increase light reflection                                              Nov 2002              Channel Islands uses a non-
                              looking for alternatives.                                      and reduce the amount of light that                                               Green Seal Report: Architectural Paints, Dec. 1999.   toxic bottom paint for their
                        Avoid paint containing heavy metals and toxic organic                must be produced for the space.                                                   Green Seal sets green labeling standards for paints   boats.
                        substances listed in the Green Seal standards.                                                                                                         (GS-11) and anticorrosive paints (GS-03)
                        Ventilate while painting and air out before occupying.                                                                                       
Exterior Wall Finish    Use locally produced block or brick. Use recycled-content
                        fascia, soffit or trim, OSB, or w.p. gypsum board. Use
                        engineered wood sub-fascia, soffit or trim, or OSB. Use
                        recycled-content siding or fiber cement siding material.
Doors and Windows       Use recycled-content doors with the least toxic binders. Use                                                                                 
                        Energy Star-qualified windows and doors. Exterior doors and
                        windows should have an NFRC U-Factor of 0.35 or lower, and
                        Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of 0.45 or lower. Windows should
                        be low-e (emittance). Use exterior shading devices and interior
                        window treatments.
Roofing                 Choose and Energy Star qualified roof – Use reflective roofing       Consider integrating roofing                 Specify recycling of old roofing     “Low-Slope Roofing: Prospects Looking Up,”
                        or light colors to reduce cooling needs. Use recycled content        insulation, cooling load avoidance,          (e.g., Armstrong Tiles). Integrate   Environmental Building News, Vol. 7, No. 10,
                        roofing when applicable and a minimum 30-year lifespan. Use          and moisture-control detailing for all       rainwater harvesting into roof       November 1998.
                        roofing material weighing less than 350 lbs./100 sq. ft. to reduce   jobs. Specify non-halogenated and            design. Consider a green roof.
                        roof mass. Use recyclable roofing materials (e.g., metal, or         reflective roof membranes,                   Consider using the roof for          Energy Star Roofing Products
                        wood fiber and concrete, or plastic).                                recyclable roofing (TPO), and non-           photovoltaics.
                                                                                             ozone-depleting roof insulation.
Insulation              Use insulation with the high R-values appropriate for the            Take CFC-based foam insulation to                                                 Energy Star Recommended Levels of Insulation
(CPG Item)              location (see Energy Star link to the right). Use insulation with    a recycler who can capture CFC's.                                                 See for Recommended Recycled
                        a minimum CPG recycled content for each material. Consider                                                                                             Content % for various insulation materials.
                        cellulose insulation with UL-rated fire retardant. Use CFC- and
                        HCFC-free rigid foam or spray plastic foam insulation.
Cabinetry and Trim      Use formaldehyde-free adhesives in cabinetry and trim. Make          Use alternative materials (e.g.,                                                  Neil Kelly Signature Cabinets:
                        sure exposed particleboard containing formaldehyde is sealed         biobased), recycled wood, medium                                        
                        with water-based blocking finish. Cabinet finishes should have       density fiberboard, domestic wood.                                       – database of certified wood
                        50 g/L or fewer VOC’s. Use finger-jointed or engineered wood                                                                                 
                        trim. Any tropical hardwood trim or casework should be FSC.                                                                                  
Floor Coverings:        Use natural linoleum with low-toxic adhesive or backing,             Use adhesives specifically                                                                                   Joshua Tree uses
  Non-Carpet            ceramic tile with low-toxic mastic and grout, rubber with high       formulated for each material.                                                     See NPS Sustainable Flooring Options, March 2003      TerraGreen tiles.
  (CPG Item)            recycled content, finished concrete (colored, stained, textured,                                                                                                            The Presidio uses reclaimed
                        scored), or cork or FSC bamboo, depending on level of use.                                                                                                                          wood, bamboo, and finished

     ACTIVITY                                            BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                          (BMP)                                          REFERENCE                                 SUCCESS
                                                      SIMPLE                                               ADVANCED                                MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                            DATE
Floor Coverings:         Residential – Consider recycled PET.                                  Recycle existing carpet. Select               Use a flooring material other than      See NPS Environmentally Responsible Carpet              Lake Roosevelt, Lassen
  Carpet                 Commercial – Use nylon face fiber with some PC content and            products with binders and adhesives           carpet! (e.g., linoleum, recycled-      Choices, Oct. 2005.                                     Volcanic, North Cascades,
  (CPG Item)             reclaimed backing, or no backing (Mohawk). Use carpet tiles for       with no-/low-VOC emissions. Look              content rubber, and wood                EPA Greening Your Purchase of Carpet, 2006:             Olympic, The Presidio, USS
                         some applications. Let carpet air out before and after                for 100% recycled content cushion             products)                                Arizona
                         installation. Use recycled-content carpet pad. Look for PVC-          or backing. Look for biobased                                                         Green Seal Standards
                         free backing. Look for Carpet & Rug Institute’s IAQ “Green            adhesives using polyurethane or                                             
                         Label.” Regularly clean and maintain. Use mats at entrances.          polyol derived from soybean oil.                                             Cool Carpet Program
Finishes and             Control moisture and leaks to avoid molds and mildew. Keep            Reduce unplanned air flows.                                                           Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners
Adhesives/Indoor         the building dry. Interior paints, finishes, sealants, and            Provide exhaust ventilation for                                                       and Facility Managers, EPA 402-F-91-102,
Air Quality (IAQ)        adhesives should contain no more than 20 g/L VOC. Use only            stationary pollution (copiers,                                              
                         low-toxic mastics, sealants, and solvent-free adhesives. Use          printers, restrooms, etc.). Educate
                         adhesives and sealants with no formaldehyde or heavy metals.          designers, builders, and building                                                     ASHRAE Standards 62-1989 and 55-94 for
                         Use water-based urethane finishes on floors and water-based           occupants.                                                                            ventilation, temperature, and humidity.
                         lacquer finishes on woodwork. Use carpeting and pad tacked or         Use soy-based adhesives.                                                    
                         taped, not glued, or use water-based adhesives. Avoid
                         products that offgass such as particleboard, carpet, paint, and                                                                                   
                         adhesives. If use is necessary, air out before occupancy.                                                                                         
Furnishings              Use salvaged or reconditioned furnishings. If new, choose high        Choose those that have future                                                         Ecowork by Studio eg:
                         recycled content, no/low VOC’s, and/or certified wood. Allow          adaptability.                                                               
                         daylight to penetrate space. Modular units come in reclaimed
                         units, composite woods, natural fibers, and low-VOC levels.
                                                                                                                                                                                     PWR Solid Waste Coordinator:
Construction Waste       First practice source reduction. Then reuse on-site, reuse            Require a Construction Waste                  Grind drywall (use as soil                  Mount Rainier, The Presidio,
Management/Plan and      elsewhere, or sell for recycling materials of value including         Management or Recycling Plan;                 amendment), wood (chips for                     Rocky Mountains, Yosemite
Job Site Recycling       lumber/wood, drywall, metal, rubble, cardboard, fixtures,             track quantities of recyclables. Make         erosion control), concrete, and
                         hardware, and wiring. Require drywall contractors to recycle          sure contract language addresses              masonry on-site for reuse. Make
                         waste. Test for lead and asbestos where needed. Don’t reuse           waste plan/recycling. Check on                efficient framing part of a             Construction Waste Management Database:
                         old fixtures, windows, toilets, etc. that are not energy efficient,   “take-back” policies (e.g., ceiling           construction waste management 
                         unless there is historic value. Work with haulers to prevent          tiles, cardboard, carpet, drywall).           plan.                                   PWR Construction Waste Specifications:
                         contamination of waste sorting. Ensure no illegal dumping                                                                                         
                         occurs off job site.
Deconstruction           Building materials should be reduced, reused, and salvaged in         Specify materials recovery (reuse             Provide a time benefit to offset time   “Deconstruction: Back to the Future for Buildings?”     The Presidio, Rocky
                         that order. Don’t salvage inefficient materials or components.        and recycling of materials and                or cost penalty to deconstruct.         Environmental Building News, Vol. 9, No. 5, May         Mountains, Yosemite
                         Make sure reuse of vintage items represents an environmental          components) in both building-                 Design for deconstruction: reuse,       2000.
                         gain.                                                                 removal bidding and in property-              recycling, and reprocessing of          Building Materials Inventory Form
                                                                                               redevelopment process.                        components.                             Used Building Materials Association
ISWAP-Integrated Solid   Develop a written recycling plan for employees and visitors.                                                                                                Servicewide Solid Waste Management Handbook,            Intermountain Parks
Waste Alternatives       Look at the Servicewide Solid Waste Management Handbook                                                                                                     1996.                                                   Pacific West Parks
Plan                     to see whether you need an ISWAP. Submit for funds under the                                                                                                PWR Environmental Management Program:
                         Environmental Management Program budget call.                                                                                                     
Correspondence,          Establish standards for double-sided printing and copying,            Incorporate source reduction into             Institute paperless office practices.   PWR Green Office Practices Guide, May 2003:
Paper Use,               office supply reuse, electronic correspondence procedures,            every practice. Eliminate reading                                           
File Management          electronic file storage, elimination of colored paper, etc.           and central files.
Computers and            Donate old equipment to schools, senior centers, etc. Recycle         Reduce the overall number of                  Practice cradle-to-grave recycling      Computers for Learning            Yosemite, Joshua Tree,
Electronics              unusable computers and electronics. Do not landfill.                  printers and faxes – maximize                 to ensure toxic components are          NPS/Dell Take-Back Agreement:                           Lake Roosevelt, and North
                                                                                               network printers.                             properly managed. Purchase                              Cascades have recycled
                                                                                                                                             electronics with less toxic             PWR Electronics Disposal Guidance:                      electronics through Dell.
Waste Materials:         Recycle cardboard, aluminum, scrap metal, glass, white paper,         Add mixed paper, tin, other plastics          Look into cooperative waste                                                                     All PWR parks recycle at
 General                 and no. 1 PET and 2 HDPE plastics. Monitor to prevent                 (including film), and pallets, if local       disposal or recycling to increase                                                               least one material.
                         contamination (small amounts of one plastic can damage                market permits. Find reuse                    volume and reduce costs/traffic.                                                                Yellowstone partners with
                         equipment used to recycle other plastics).                            opportunity or donate unwanted                Investigate composting to increase                                                              cooperative county
                                                                                               items.                                        diversion rate.                                                                                 recycling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NOCA composts plant and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tree waste, food scraps.
Waste Materials:         Oregon, California, and Hawaii have bottle bills in the PWR –         Sell only beverage containers that                                          
 Beverage Containers     Consider collecting bottles with deposits to get the deposit          can be recycled locally. Work with
                         refund.                                                               concessionaire.

      ACTIVITY                                          BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                     (BMP)                                       REFERENCE                                    SUCCESS
                                                     SIMPLE                                            ADVANCED                              MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                            DATE
Styrofoam/Food          Eliminate use of styrofoam. Use biodegradable cornstarch                                                                                               EPA Greening Your Purchase of Food Serviceware,         Statue of Liberty
Serviceware             utensils (Earthshell) and biodegradable foam “peanuts.” Some                                                                                           Dec. 2001.                         concessions sort, clean, and
                        styrofoam can be taken in for reuse at UPS Stores, or local                                                                                                                        recycle styrofoam.
                        businesses who ship items.                                                                                                                   
Green Hotel Standards   Develop waste reduction standards for hotels. Ensure that all      Provide staff training.                                                             Green Seal Report: Rigid Quick Serve Food               Grand Tetons, Mount
                        lodges use water savings information cards about washing                                                                                               Packaging, May-June 1999.                               Rainier, Olympic,
                        sheets and towels. Choose non-rigid recycled-content or                                                                                                The Chinet Company                 Yellowstone.
                        biodegradable food packaging.                                                                                                                          EarthShell Corp                      Yosemite’s Concessioner
                                                                                                                                                                               Insulair Inc.                          created “The Green Path.”
Hand Dryers             Choose air hand dryers over paper towels.                                                                                                              Xlerator Dryer uses 80% less energy than other          Craters of the Moon, Point
                                                                                                                                                                               hand dryers                          Reyes, Olympic
“Special” Wastes        Look for a place to recycle pallets, scrap metals, tires, etc.
Composting              Establish simple green yard waste recycling.                       Investigate food composting with            Investigate biosolid or septage         Earth Tub:                          Lake Mead composts fish
                        Provide small-scale worm bins for residential                      residents or concessionaire.                composting.                                                    waste with local utility.
                        food waste.                                                                                                                                                                        Yellowstone composts
                                                                                                                                                                                                    through a cooperative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       county operation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       North Cascades composts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       horse manure and plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PWRO Seattle composts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       food waste in a worm bin.
Trash and Recycling     Purchase containers with recycled content. Place trash and         Centralize containers (remove from          Institute pack-in/pack-out trash        McClintock
Containers              recycling containers next to each other. Evaluate your signage;    individual sites). Determine if you         policy.
                        use graphics. Make sure containers fit environment (e.g.,          need multi-lingual signs.
                        animal-proof, rust-proof/salt air -resistant/moisture resistant,
                        and proper size).
Education Programs      Develop a Junior Ranger program for recycling and habitat          Work with local businesses,                                                                                                                 City of Rocks created a
                        preservation. Include waste prevention messages in talks.          schools, and community to prevent                                                                                                           Traveling Trunk on waste.
                        Provide recycling messages in brochures, trail guides, maps,       waste before it enters park, and to                                                                                                         Lake Mead has community
                        and posters. Use at waysides, campground display boards, and       reduce litter.                                                                                                                              outreach on littering.
                        kiosks. For concessions, include waste reduction tips with hotel                                                                                                                                               North Cascades and
                        reservation forms. Use soy-based or water-based inks.                                                                                                                                                          Olympic created children’s
                        Describe environmental successes on your home page.                                                                                                                                                            recycling guides and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       weatherproof bulletin board
                                                                                                                                                                               EO 13123 Greening the Government Through
                                                                                                                                                                               Efficient Energy Management, 1999.
                                                                                                                                                                               PWR Directive 47 – Energy Management and Water
                                                                                                                                                                               PWR Energy Coordinator:
Light Pollution         Develop plans to minimize or eliminate light                       Enforce light limits. Shield light          Work with those who generate light      Lighting Retrofit Workbook:                             New Mexico Parks helped
Sources:                pollution in the Statement of Park Management,                     sources with directional devices to         pollution outside park boundaries   develop state regulations
  NPS, Concession,      the GMP, and RMP. Eliminate unnecessary                            prevent light pollution. Add controls       to modify/re-engineer intrusive light   PWR Dark Night Sky Program:                             regarding dark night skies.
  Visitor, External     lights. Carefully match outdoor lighting levels                    to turn lights off/on with motion           sources. Help develop local      Pinnacles and Ebey’s
                        with application. Educate staff and visitors/partners              sensors.                                    ordinances to control intrusive light   International Dark Sky Association:                     Landing have local light
                        to change practices causing light pollution.                                                                   pollution impacting parks and                                          ordinances.
                        Sensitize them to the benefits of dark night skies.                                                            visitors.                               Yellowstone Lighting Guidelines:                        Sequoia Kings Canyon,
                                                                                                                                                                        Grand Canyon use shielded
Building Siting         Orient buildings to maximize passive solar energy and natural      Use LEED standards.                                                       
                        ventilation. Use north wall design that minimizes heat loss.                                                                                           Low-energy building design workshops:

     ACTIVITY                                          BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                       (BMP)                                      REFERENCE                                     SUCCESS
                                                    SIMPLE                                             ADVANCED                               MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                             DATE
Building Design/Solar   Use light-colored roofs and pavement to minimize heat island        Use air movement techniques and             Heat and cool by non-fossil fuel                                PV Systems: Channel
Energy                  effect. Maximize insulation and minimize infiltration of building   desiccant dehumidification (latent          sources (100% renewable power).                                      Islands, Joshua Tree, Point
                        envelope. Use appropriate window glazing. Choose glazing            heat removal is preferred). Use             Use photovoltaic or hydrogen-                  Reyes, Santa Monica
                        with low solar heat gain in southern climates. Use wall shading.    active solar system (e.g., water            source fuel cells. Consider            BPA’s NPS Solar Power Metering Website:                 Mountains, Redwood,
                        Seal and insulate ductwork. Incorporate natural cooling in          heating and photovoltaic power).            removing power lines and               Yosemite, Whitman Mission,
                        design.                                                             When reroofing, switch to a                 substations.                           al/Federal.cfm?Group=Federal_NPS                        Mount Rainier, San Juan
                                                                                            protected-membrane system.                                                                      Island, Whiskeytown, John
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Day Fossil Beds, Cabrillo.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       See BPA Website.
Daylighting             Use natural daylight strategies to reduce lighting energy use       Bring daylight in high, bounce off          Assess light pipes, light shelves,
                        and cooling requirements. Use dimming electronic ballasts and       surfaces, filter with vegetation and        fiber optics, tracking daylight
                        control banks of luminaries along window walls that are             architectural components, and               apertures, and other advanced
                        separate from interior lights.                                      integrate with electric lighting and        techniques.
                                                                                            HVAC systems.
Fixtures:               Install LED EXIT signs. Use high intensity discharge (HID)          Lower the ratio to one watt/square          Upgrade lighting system when           Green Seal Reports: Compact Flourescent Lighting,
  Lighting              lamps and/or fluorescent lights (T-8’s or T5’s with electronic      foot or less in general office space.       HVAC is upgraded.                      Nov.-Dec. 1998. Occupancy Sensors, Feb. 1997.
                        ballasts) in all fixtures used for more than 3 hours a day.         A combination of motion and heat-                                        
                        Replace incandescent lightbulbs with Compact Fluorescent            detecting sensors may work best.                                         
                        Lightbulbs (CFLs) where appropriate. (Do not use CFL in                                                                                      
                        outdoor cold areas.) Install occupancy sensors. Promptly                                                                                               Residential Lighting Guide and Lighting Retrofit
                        replace fluorescent lamps that strobe or have blackened ends.                                                                                          Workbook:
                        Buy low-mercury products. Always transport and store                                                                                         
                        fluorescent lamps horizontally.                                                                                                                                                                                        Whiskeytown
Fixtures:               Use ceiling fans. Set thermostats at reasonable temperatures.       Consider paddle fans in high                                                       EO 12902 Energy Efficiency and Water                    Whitman Mission uses a
  Heating and Cooling   Install programmable electronic thermostats and timers.             ceilings.                                                                          Conservation at Federal Facilities, 1994.               blend (B20) of biodiesel and
                                                                                                                                                                               Green Seal Report: Room Air Conditioning, Summer        heating oil to heat the park’s
                                                                                                                                                                               1999.                                 maintenance shop and
Woodstoves and          Replace old stoves with new ones meeting EPA New Source                                                                                                EPA’s New Source Performance Standards:                 Yosemite
Fireplaces              Performance Standards (NSPS); must have catalytic                                                                                            
Electric Motors and     Check loads, install electronic motor controls. Ensure HVAC         Downsize HVAC equipment as a                Consider air over evaporative water                                Joshua Tree Cottonwood
Heating/Cooling         systems are in “setback” mode during unoccupied periods.            result of reduced heating or cooling        tower cooling systems for air                                         Zion visitor center
Systems                 Check for moisture or indoor air quality problems. Install heat     loads. Optimize for part-load               conditioning systems. Use    
                        pumps, and heat recovery and tankless water heaters. Insulate       conditions. Replace systems with            recycling systems if cooling towers
                        hot water pipes to R-4 or better. Provide proper maintenance!       photovoltaic-battery system.                used. Replace systems with fuel        Energy Efficient Products Model Contract Language:
                                                                                            Ventilate according to ASHRAE Std.          cell or biomass-fired (boilers). Use
                                                                                            62. Consider rooftop solar water-           ground source heating systems.         lang.cfm
                                                                                            heating when re-roofing, and heat-
                                                                                            recovery (e.g., ventilators) when
                                                                                            rehabilitating. Replace with more
                                                                                            efficient, ozone-safe systems.
Appliances              Reduce hot water temperature to 120° F (reducing below 120°         Replace conventional garbage                                                                                   Olympic installed “Instant-
                        F may allow bacteria to grow inside hot water tanks). Buy an        disposals with pulpers.                                                                         Flow” on-demand water
                        Energy Star-qualified front-loading clothes washer. Choose          Install an on-demand water heater                                                  Energy Efficient Products Model Contract Language:      heaters and replaced 40
                        electronic ignition for gas dryer and range. Choose an              or a 4-6 gallon heater for facilities                                              gallon water heaters with 6
                        appropriately-sized Energy Star-qualified refrigerator and          without the need for large water                                                   lang.cfm                                                gallon water heaters.
                        dishwasher.                                                         heaters.
Office Equipment        Must be Energy Star qualified. Laptops use less energy.             Ink-jet and bubble-jet printers use         Reduce the number of printers at       EPA Greening Your Purchase of Electronics, Dec.
                        Activate energy management features. Screen savers DO NOT           less energy than laser. Use direct          each desk – Maximize the use of        2001, and EPA Greening Your Purchase of Copiers,
                        save energy (Activate sleep/hibernate settings or manually turn     computer faxing or e-mail (copiers          network/shared printers and fax        Dec. 2001.
                        off). Turn-off equipment when not in use. Use LCD monitors          use more energy than any other              machines.                    
                        instead of CRTs.                                                    office equipment).
Financing               Inquire about Energy Savings Performance Contracts, Utility                                                                                            Check with:                   Lewis & Clark, John Day
                        Incentive Programs, and Green Power Purchasing through the                                                                                                                     Fossil Beds
                        Regional Energy Program Coordinator, Steve Butterworth.                                                                                      

       ACTIVITY                                               BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                        (BMP)                                    REFERENCE                              SUCCESS
                                                           SIMPLE                                             ADVANCED                                MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                    DATE
Education on Simple            Educate employees on turning off lights; closing windows and        Assess employee transportation                                                                           Lake Mead
Practices                      doors; weather stripping; turning off computers, etc.; washing      patterns; encourage carpooling or
                               and drying full loads of laundry; and using soaps that perform at   provide incentives.
                               lower temperatures.

                                                                                                                                                                                       PWR Air/Noise Coordinator:
Noise Sources:                 Minimize noise. Turn off motors when not using; no idling.          Assess practices, equipment, and             Develop plans to minimize or           DO-47 Soundscape Preservation and Noise         Joshua Tree replaced
  NPS/Concessions              Shield sources with noise attenuation devices. Review               times and seasons of use to see              eliminate noise generation in the      Management                                      generators with PV systems
    -Maintenance               maintenance plans.                                                  where noise can be eliminated.               Statement of Park Management,                            – at Cottonwood, Lost Horse
     equipment & practices                                                                         Educate park staff/concessionaires           and in the GMP and RMP.                36CFR 1.6 “Regulation on Permit Requirements”   Ranger Station, the
    -Leaf blowers,                                                                                 to change behavior or practices              Generate permit requirements to        36CFR Ch.1, Sec. 2.5.1 “Snowmobiles”            amphitheater, the water
     hedge trimmers,
                                                                                                   causing noise. Sensitize them to             prevent/limit/regulate noise-          36CFR Ch.1, Sec. 3.7 “Boats”                    pump, etc.)
     weed whackers
    -Lawnmowers                                                                                    natural sounds.                              generating activities under            Green Seal Report: Lawn Care Equipment, June-   Lake Mead uses quiet
    -Chainsaws, etc.                                                                                                                            36CFR1.6.                              July 1998.                    planes.
    -Vehicles (cars, trucks,                                                                                                                                                                                                           Yellowstone converted their
     buses, snowmobiles,                                                                                                                                                                                                               snowmobiles to 4-stroke.
     aircraft, watercraft,                                                                                                                                                                                                             Olympic replaced the
     motorcycles)                                                                                                                                                                                                                      generator at Staircase with a
    -Air conditioners,                                                                                                                                                                                                                 micro-hydro unit.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mojave replaced two
    -Loudspeakers (music              4-stroke engine
     or voice)                                                                                                                                                                                                                         generators at Hole-in-the-
    -Sirens                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wall and Zzyzx with PV.
    -Generators                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mt Rainier replaced White
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       River’s generator with PV.
Noise Sources:                 Educate visitors to change behavior and/or practices causing        Move noise generation or affected            Enforce noise limits of 36 CFR 2.12    DO-47 Soundscape Preservation and Noise         Zion reduced visitor vehicle
  Visitor                      noise. Sensitize them to natural sounds.                            resources/people geographically.             or other relevant NPS noise            Management                                      traffic by providing propane-
    -Vehicles                                                                                                                                   regulations. Generate closures         36 CFR Ch.1, Sec. 2.12 “Audio disturbances”     powered shuttle buses.
    -Generators                                                                                                                                 under 36 CFR 1.5.                      36 CFR Ch.1, Sec. 2.5.1 “Snowmobiles”
    -Radios/Music                                                                                                                                                                      36 CFR Ch.1, Sec.3.7 “Boats”
    -Loud voices, etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                       36 CFR 1.5 “Closures and public use limits”
Noise Sources:                 Educate external partners to change their behavior and/or           Work with those who generate noise           Help to develop local ordinances to    DO-47 Soundscape Preservation and Noise         Grand Canyon Aircraft
  External Operations          practices causing noise.                                            to modify or re-engineer the intrusive       control intrusive noise generation     Management                                      Overflights Rule.
    -Aircraft overflights                                                                          noise source to reduce decibel               impacting parks.                       Check local noise ordinances.                   Rocky Mountain Air Tour
    -Traffic                                                                                       levels and impacts on park                                                                                                          Overflights Ban.
    -Other urban noises                                                                            resources and visitors.
    -Land development
Equipment                      Convert gasoline-powered lawnmowers, hedge trimmers, leaf           Use biobased lubricants and fluids.          Design and maintain natural            California Air Resources Board   PWR policy to convert from
                               blowers, weed whackers, etc., to electric. Use push mowers                                                       plantings/vegetation that do not                           2-stroke to 4-stroke engines
                               and hand tools on small projects. Convert 2-stroke engines to                                                    need pruning, etc.                                           as equipment is replaced.
                                                                                                                                                                                       PWR Water Conservation Coordinator:
                                                                                                                                                                                       PWR EMP Coordinator:
General                        Conduct a water audit. Educate employees on simple water-           Perform annual leak detection                Install leak detection devices.
                               conserving practices. Set up a leak reporting system. Wash          surveys.                                                                  
                               vehicles at commercial location; if can’t, set up recycling wash                                                                              
                               stations in the park to recycle the water and reduce pollution.
Grounds Maintenance            Use drought-tolerant grass and native plantings. Grasscycle         Mow less grass. Maximize                     Xeriscape: Install native and/or                Fort Vancouver, The
                               (leave mowed clippings in place to fertilize). Don’t water during   permeability of surfaces to allow site       drought-tolerant plants that require                          Presidio
(see also Grounds and          the hottest time of day. Don’t use fine spray sprinklers. Don’t     to absorb water. Use rain catchment          no watering other than what occurs
Landscaping)                   overwater.                                                          techniques.                                  naturally.                   
                                                                                                                                                                              – Water Warden Drought-
                                                                                                                                                                                       Tolerant Grass Seed

      ACTIVITY                                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                          (BMP)                                      REFERENCE                                 SUCCESS
                                                   SIMPLE                                              ADVANCED                                 MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                         DATE
Plumbing/Fixtures      Maximum flow rates: 1.6 gal flush for toilets, 2.0 gal/minute for    Install individual facility water                                                    EO 12902 Energy Efficiency and Water                Channel Islands, Joshua
                       lavatories and showers. Buy water-conserving showerheads (1-         meters. Install electronic controls for                                              Conservation at Federal Facilities, 1994.           Tree, Craters of the Moon,
                       2.5 gpm), faucets, faucet aerators, toilets, and urinals. Insulate   faucets, toilets, and urinals. Choose                                                         Olympic, Whitman Mission
                       piping. Fix leaks! Adjust the flush valves in gravity toilets and    self-contained drinking fountains and                                                Waterless Company                 use waterless urinals.
                       install refill diverters. Use dual-flush adapters. Choose            adjust the temperature to 70° F vs.                                                                    Kaloko-Honokohau,
                       waterless urinals, but first check sewer system flow needs.          65° F. Consider composting toilets.                                                                     Redwood, Yosemite use
                                                                                                                                                                                                             composting toilets.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Solar Powered Sensor Faucet      Sequoia Kings Canyon uses
                                                                                                                                                                          low-flow toilets.
Point Source           Inventory maintenance wastewater sources and discharge               Clean vehicles and equipment off-             Where legal, separate and reuse        National Pollution Discharge Elimination System     Haleakala reuses
Wastewater             routes. Practice good housekeeping! Use non-chlorinated              site where appropriate. If on-site, pre       graywater (water from bath sinks,      (NPDES) permitting program:                         wastewater for non-potable
                       chemicals, bleach-free, non-phosphate, non-toxic, and                wipe components, use closed-loop              showers, tubs, and laundry) for                                toilet flushing.
                       biodegradable dishwashing and laundry detergent and                  systems. Recycle and reuse water              irrigation. Make sure filters are
                       cleaners. Never discharge unknown liquids down the drain             through vehicle wash systems.                 cleaned and system properly
                       (e.g., low/high pH, oily and solvent wastes, fuels, antifreeze).                                                   maintained. Harvest rainwater for
                       Plug floor drains. Label all storm drains and catch basins.                                                        irrigation but do not connect roof
                       Check state requirements.                                                                                          drains, downspouts, or patio runoff
                                                                                                                                          to graywater system. Collect roof
                                                                                                                                          runoff for other uses. Treat
                                                                                                                                          blackwater with on-site system.
Non-Point              Prevent pollution and use green products. Keep storm drains          Use watershed approach: EPA                                                          Clean Water Act, Section 319
Wastewater             clean. Clean up spills but do not hose into streets. Dispose of      Index of Watershed Indicators to                                                     EPA Index of Watershed Indicators
                       pesticides and tank rinsate properly. Check state and local          rate water quality.                                                        
Storm and              Lay out surface parking lots to allow for sheet-like drainage to     Use bioengineering for treatment of           Conduct a stormwater                                           Assateague Island uses a
Groundwater            infiltration and bioremediation strips/swales. Minimize changes      runoff and sediment control. Comply           analysis/plan and quantify                    crushed shell parking
Management             to topography. Provide warning labels on drains and catch            with National Pollutant Discharge             pollutants. Consider green                                                                 surface.
                       basins. Maintain and clean grease traps and oil and water            Elimination System. Use permeable             (vegetated) roofs.                                                                         Joshua Tree uses a non-
                       separators.                                                          paving.                                                                                                                                  toxic trail soil stabilizer
                       Use permeable paving materials and permeable vegetated                                                                                                                                                        called “Stabilizer Solutions.”
                       materials for roads and walks, curbless design, and porous
                       gutters. Drain surface runoff into soil.
                                                                                                                                                                                               green roof

                                                                                                                                                                                 Executive Memorandum: “Environmentally and
GROUNDS AND LANDSCAPING                                                                                                                                                          Economically Beneficial Practices on Federal
                                                                                                                                                                                 Landscaped Ground,” 1994.
Groundcovers and       Choose a groundcover/grass that uses less water and mowing.          Xeriscape: Install native and/or              Conduct water audits. Make all
Plantings              Grasscycle (leave clippings in place). Use less fertilizer and       drought-tolerant plants that require          surfaces permeable for rainwater       Contact your local Agricultural Extension Office.
                       pesticide. Use non-toxic termite treatments. Plant trees on east     no watering other than what occurs            absorption. Restore habitat on site.   Contact your IPM Coordinator.
(Mulch is CPG Item)    and west sides of building to reduce cooling loads. Hedgerows,       naturally. Compost green waste.                                            
                       windrows, and shrubbery can block winter winds, channel cool         Use organic fertilizers. Use                                               
                       summer breezes into buildings, and lessen microclimatic impact       integrated pest management (IPM)                                           
                       of solar radiation absorption of dark surfaces. Use mulches and      techniques.                                                                
                       drip irrigation.                                                                                                                                 – Water Warden Drought-
                                                                                                                                                                                 Tolerant Grass Seed
Materials              Use hoses, mulch, edging, timbers, posts, and compost with                                                                                                                           The Presidio
(CPG Items)            recycled content.
                                                                                                                                                                                 PWR HazMat Coordinator:
HAZARDOUS WASTE/POLLUTION PREVENTION                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                 Regional Model P2 Plan.
Ozone-Depleting        Eliminate the use of products that use CFC’s and HCFC’s as           Ensure appropriate handling,                  Verify contractors’ and                EO 12843 Procurement Requirements and Policies
Substances (ODS) and   blowing agents, and HVAC systems that use CFC’s and                  servicing, and tracking of equipment          concessions’ appropriate               for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting
PCB’s                  HCFC’s as heat transfer agents. Check with state on ODS              containing such substances. Look              management. Develop capital            Substances, 1993.
                       requirements.                                                        for non-halon fire suppression                equipment plans to eliminate ODS.

       ACTIVITY                                           BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                         (BMP)                                     REFERENCE                                   SUCCESS
                                                         SIMPLE                                           ADVANCED                                 MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                        DATE
Oil and Coolant          Use laundering service for oil rags. Use plastic spill containment   Recycled used oil and purchase                                                                                Yosemite
                         pallets for storage of oil product containers. Use buckets at        rerefined oil in a closed loop system.                                     
(see also Vehicles)      diesel receiving station to prevent drips and leaks during
                         unloading from fuel trucks. Properly label and store. Recycle all
                         used oil. Check state requirements.
Solvents                 Practice source reduction first! Avoid solvent-based finishes,       Reduce, reuse, recycle, substitute,           .                                      Solvent Alternatives Guide
                         adhesives, particleboard, carpet, and other VOC-releasing            or eliminate solvent use. Provide                                          
(see also Air Quality)   products. Seek out non-toxic, water-based products (e.g., non-       add-on controls such as ventilation,                                       
                         solvent, citric-based products). DO NOT use halogenated              covers, and refrigeration freeboard
                         solvents. Characterize spent solvents and wastewater. Provide        coils to existing vapor degreasers.
                         proper storage, labeling, and containers. Check state
Paints                   Store paints and solvents in airtight containers. Use                Lighter-colored paints tend to have                                        
                         paintbrushes rather than sprayers. Do not buy aerosol paints.        lower VOC content. Avoid paint                                             
(see also Paints in      Do not use oil-based paint unless essential (e.g., some boats).      containing heavy metals and toxic                                                    PWR Environmental Paint Choices Report – EMP
Sustainable Building     Characterize paint waste before disposal. Buy only what is           organic substances listed in the                                                     Library
Materials)               needed, but recycle leftover paint. Choose low-VOC paint.            Green Seal standards.
Fluorescent/HID Bulbs    Manage all mercury-containing lamps as universal waste. Mail         Use lights with lower levels of                                                      Ballast disposal info.              Redwood
and PCB Ballasts         in pre-purchased packages for recycling.                             mercury and which are less                                                           Association Of Lighting and Mercury Recyclers:
                                                                                              hazardous (T8 or T5).                                                      
Batteries                Manage Ni-Cads and small, sealed lead-acid as universal              Recycle all battery types.                                                           Radio Shack, Wal-Mart, Target and other retail         Redwood
                         waste. Dispose of alkaline batteries in one’s and two’s in the       Use rechargeable batteries,                                                          stores have collection sites for batteries.
                         trash. Store in dry, moderate temperature. Do not stockpile.         preferably solar powered.                                                            Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation:
                         Switch off battery-powered equipment when not in use.                                                                                                     800-822-8837 (recycle Ni-Cads)
                         Determine state and local regulatory requirements.                                                                                              
Disposal                 Find ways to reduce your use of hazardous materials. Do not                                                                                     
                         mix hazardous waste with used oil. Seek out recycling over
                                                                                                                                                                                   EO 13149 Greening the Government Through
FLEET MANAGEMENT AND ROADS                                                                                                                                                         Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency, April
                                                                                                                                                                                   21, 2000.
Park and                 Reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by encouraging                   Purchase alternative-fueled (natural          Convert 75% of fleet to alternative-   EO 12844 Federal Use of Alternative Fueled             Sequoia Kings Canyon, &
Concessionaire Vehicle   carpooling, walking, or bicycling. Promote telecommuting.            gas, EPS), electric, or hybrid                fueled vehicles (AFV).                 Vehicles, 1993.                                        Olympic successfully
and Fleet Use            Match vehicle size to needs and use (e.g., do you really need        vehicles, or vehicles with the best           Offer bicycles for employees for       EO 13031 Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle            downsized their fleet.
                         an SUV?) Convert 2-stroke to 4-stroke engines for boats and          fuel economy.                                 short in-park trips.                   Leadership, 1996.                                      Point Reyes, North
                         snowmobiles.                                                         Conduct a fleet study in the park to                                                               Cascades, Hagerman Fossil
                                                                                              identify ways to downsize fleet.                                                                                                            Beds purchased hybrids.
                         Institute a no idling policy.                                                                                                                                                                                    Hawaii Volcanoes has bikes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          for staff.
Visitor and Tour         Reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by encouraging                   Provide shuttle buses. Provide                Work with local transit to provide     Transportation & Sustainable Communities:              Grand Canyon, Yosemite,
Operator Vehicle Use     carpooling, walking, or bicycling. Investigate and encourage the     incentives for use of alternative-            regional transit alternatives to the sustran/sustran.html   Zion, Santa Monica
                         use of alternative-fueled vehicles for tour operators.               fueled vehicles, like reduced                 park, and provide park shuttle                                                                Mountains, Point Reyes
                                                                                              entrance fees.                                buses.                                                                                        have park shuttles.
Off-Road Vehicle Use     Reduce particulate matter using dust control (e.g., water) and       When purchasing new, buy low                  Replace 2-stroke engines with
                         speed limits.                                                        emission equipment. Use biobased              4-stroke.
                                                                                              and synthetic lubricants.
Roads and Paving         Designs should maximize permeable                                    Pulverize existing pavement for                                                      Asphalt Recycling & Reclaiming Association:            Assateague Island uses
                         area and minimize runoff. Reuse on-site                              aggregate base, cold in-place                                                                                         indigenous crushed shells
                         materials. Use pervious paving. Use low                              recycling of existing pavement, use                                                  Green Roads        for road base & parking.
                         VOC, water-based road striping paint.                                hot mix asphalt with recycled                                                          Mount Rainier, Yellowstone,
                                                                                              content (asphalt, glass, rubber tires).                                                                         Olympic uses water-based
                                                                                              Specify road base aggregate from                                                                               road striping paint.
                                                                                              recycled concrete, asphalt, and                                                                                                             Yosemite uses recycled
                                                                                              brick.                                                                                                                                      asphalt product (US Cold
Retread Tires            Purchase retreads on park-owned vehicles. When leasing a                                                                                                                                                         Cape Cod
(CPG Item)               vehicle, work with GSA to get retreads.
Fleet Maintenance        Keep vehicles in top mechanical condition: rotate tires every
                         5000-miles, check tire pressure, don’t top off tank, get regular

      ACTIVITY                                              BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                         (BMP)                                       REFERENCE                                    SUCCESS
                                                         SIMPLE                                             ADVANCED                                  MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                        DATE
Antifreeze/Coolant           Use reclaimed (recycled) engine coolant and recycle used            Explore potential for recycling on-                                                   Sierra                         Redwood uses Sierra
(CPG Item)                   coolant. Determine state hazardous waste requirements. Switch       site.                                                                                 Safety-Kleen                       antifreeze.
                             to polyethylene glycol but evaluate hazardous waste                                                                                                       National Automotive Repair Compliance Assistance
                             characteristics. See if available reclaimed.                                                                                                              Center
Engine Oil                   Use re-refined oil with a minimum 25% PC content. Recycle           Look for oil with 100% non-virgin             Test motor oil before changing to       Safety Kleen
(CPG Item)                   used oil. Consider a closed loop system to recycled and             stock. Consider soy-based motor oil.          determine if service is required. Do    Defense Logistics:
                             purchase rerefined oil in the same contract.                        Explore the need for an oil filter            not use oil additives. Use oil filter
(see also Hazardous Waste)
                                                                                                 crusher.                                      “extenders.” Hot drain used filters.
Biodiesel                    Use B20 biodiesel (20% biodiesel) in diesel fuel applications.      Use B50 biodiesel. (50%)                      Use B100 biodiesel. (100%)                                           Channel Islands, Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                                                       Biodiesel Technical Reference Guide:                    Volcanoes, Mount Rainier,
                                                                                                                                                                                              Yosemite, Whitman Mission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               use blends of biodiesel.
Biobased Lubricants          Use biobased lubricants and greases (hydraulic fluid, total loss,   Use biobased without added                                                            EO 13134 Developing and Promoting Biobased              Channel Islands, Golden
and Greases                  metalworking, crankcase oil, chainsaw oil, etc.) Recycle used       petroleum synthetics.                                                                 Products and Bioenergy, August 12, 1999.                Gate, Mount Rainier,
                             oil.                                                                                                                                                                           Olympic, Yosemite use
                                                                                                                                                                                       Biobased Best Products Practices Guide:                 biobased lubricants.

Inventory and                Eliminate use of hazardous chemicals (carcinogenic and other        Evaluate cleaning practices to                                                        PWR Green Janitorial Products and Practices             Fort Vancouver, Redwood,
Substitution                 hazardous chemicals are listed at                                   reduce and consolidate the number                                                     Guide, June 2003.                                       Olympic, Mount Rainier
                                                  of products used. Use antibacterial                                                   EPA Greening Your Purchase of Cleaning Products:
                             Conduct an inventory and review of all cleaning supplies.           or disinfectant only where                                                  
                             Substitute products containing hazardous/toxic chemicals with       necessary.                                                                            Green Seal Report: Industrial and Institutional
                             non-toxic products. Select from PWR Green Janitorial Products                                                                                             Cleaners, Sept.-Oct. 1999.
                             and Practices Guide, June 2003. Some products available from                                                                                    
Paper Products               Buy chlorine-free toilet paper and paper towels with high post-     Buy chlorine-free or unbleached                                                       Green Seal Report: Paper Towels, Feb. 1998.
(CPG Item)                   consumer recycled content.                                          products.                                                                   
Plastic Bags                 Purchase bags with recycled content.                                Purchase bags with 100% recycled              Purchase biodegradable cornstarch
(CPG Item)                                                                                       content.                                      bags.                                   Biodegradable Bags
                                                                                                                                                                                       PWR Air Quality Coordinator:
BURN ACTIVITIES (AIR QUALITY)                                                                                                                                                   
Prescribed Burning           Notify public to reduce human exposure.                             Notify public and limit amount of fuel        Evaluate preventative fuel removal      Title 17 California Smoke Management Plan:              Yosemite
                                                                                                 consumed.                                     methods and choose the one with
                                                                                                                                               the least environmental impact.
Campfires                    Prohibit collection of wood in the park and provide clean, dry      Limit number of campfires per                 Restrict campfires when air quality     Park Resource Management Plan, “Air Resources”          Yosemite
                             wood through concessions.                                           campground and/or designate                   conditions are bad.                     section.
                                                                                                 campfire-free campgrounds.


Concessions Contracts        Include waste, water, and energy reduction in contract              Concessionaires must develop                  Implement BMPs for Operations &         Environmental Programs Manager, NPS                     Acadia, Crater Lake,
                             performance evaluation.                                             EMP's for new contracts.                      Maintenance Plans.                      Concessions:                      Yosemite
Employee Performance         Establish a sustainability, energy, and/or recycling coordinator.   Do the same for the Superintendent.
Standards                    Identify and include employee environmental standards in            Add environmental or sustainability
                             biannual performance appraisals.                                    language into park GPRA goals.
Green Office Practices       Reduce purchases where possible. Avoid duplicate purchases.         Reuse office supplies when                                                            PWR Green Office Practices Guide, 2003:
(CPG Item)                   Purchase CPG office supplies with maximum recycled content.         possible.                                                                   
                             Avoid PVC supplies. Purchase durable, reusable supplies.
                             Always print double sided.
Meetings and                 Establish guidelines for waste minimization: use durable,           Provide in-house education, e.g.,                                                     EPA Greening Your Meetings and Conferences:
Employee Functions           reusable utensils and mugs, buy in bulk, use items with reduced     brown bag lunches on                                                        
                             packaging, and provide recycling receptacles.                       environmental topics.                                                       

     ACTIVITY                                         BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE                                                                        (BMP)                                     REFERENCE                                    SUCCESS
                                                   SIMPLE                                            ADVANCED                                 MORE ADVANCED                                                                                                         DATE
Employee and Park      Recognize employees for initiative, creativity, and achievement   Prepare nominations for the NPS                                                      Closing the Circle Award:                  Channel Islands, The
Recognition            in sustainable practices. Encourage suggestions on how to         and DOI Environmental                                                                                                                        Presidio, Yosemite, Joshua
                       institute new ideas.                                              Achievement Award, DOE awards,                                                       NPS Environmental Achievement Awards:                   Tree
                                                                                         and the White House Closing the                                            
                                                                                         Circle Award.

Training               Include information on park sustainability, green procurement,    Incorporate sustainability into all           Invite specialists to present to all
                       energy conservation, and recycling policy in new employee         training opportunities.                       employee meetings. Send
                       orientations.                                                                                                   employees to NPS and external
General Planning       Incorporate greening strategies into GMP’s, EA’s, etc. Include    Look at transportation issues.                Promote regional ecotourism.                                                                   Assateague Island created a
Documents              community neighbors in regional planning.                                                                                                                                                                      Sustainable Design Flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Denali, Grand Canyon, Zion,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      North Cascades
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      incorporated sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      standards in their GMP.
Environmental Plans    Assess the need for these plans, surveys, or inventories:                                                                                              EO 13148 Greening the Government Through
                           a. Air Emissions Inventory                                                                                                                         Leadership in Environmental Management, April 21,
                           b. Pollution Prevention Plan                                                                                                                       2000.
                           c. Hazardous Waste Analysis                                                                                                                        PW-051 Environmentally Preferable Purchasing
                           d. HAZCOM Plan                                                                                                                                     Policy.
                           e. PCB Inventory                                                                                                                                   PW-048 Sustainable Design and Construction
                           f. ODS Inventory                                                                                                                                   Practices.
                           g. Asbestos Operations/Plan                                                                                                                        Contact the Regional Program Coordinator for each
                           h. Radon Survey                                                                                                                                    environmental plan.
                           i. Emergency Response
                           j. SPCC Plan
                           k. Solid Waste (ISWAP)
                           l. Alternative Energy
Environmental          Ensure you have a working, functional EMS in place. Once                                                                                               PWR EMS Website:
Management Systems     fully established, expand it to incorporate more challenging                                                                                 
(EMS)                  goals, specific communication strategies, training programs
Project Review         Add an environmental or sustainability component on the same
                       level as Section 106, ADA, and NEPA.
Funding Sources        Learn about potential funding sources under DOE, NPS EMP                                                        Create base-funded support.                                                                    Whiskeytown was awarded
                       Funding, EPA, state grants, etc.                                                                                                                                                                               a Unilever Plastic Lumber
Permits for Group      Incorporate waste reduction or litter message.                    Require clean-up fees to be returned
Events                                                                                   if area left clean.
Education:                                                                                                                                                                    PWR Sustainability Tip of the Month:
  Event Celebration    Plan activities for environmental events: Earth Day (April 22),   Use PWR’s Sustainability Tip of the                                        
                       America Recycles Day (November 15).                               Month to promote sustainable                                               
  News Sharing         Contribute to the PWR Green Voice newsletter, and the             Contribute to external publications.                                       
                       Servicewide newsletter, Sustainability News.                      Present innovative park projects at                                        
                                                                                         conferences.                                                                         Editor, Sustainability News:
  Park Web Page,       Add information about what and where to recycle, and any          Use PCF, and soy- or water-based                                                     Green Voice Newsletter:
  Park Brochure,       successes in sustainable projects. Print on recycled-content      ink.                                                                       
  and Newsletter       paper.
Park and Individual    Develop your own park BMP list and environmental leadership       Let your kids teach you. Seek out             Become an environmental                                                                        Joshua Tree, Point Reyes,
Responsibility         goals. Become a CEI park (Center of Innovation). Practice         training opportunities.                       advocate.                                                                                      Santa Monica Mountains.
                       environmental stewardship at home. Teach your kids.                                                                                                                                                            Channel Islands has goal to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      become petroleum-free.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lake Mead created the War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On Litter campaign.

    * The product references provided in this document are not intended to endorse one product over another,                         and represent only a limited selection of available products.

     Defining What a Green Park Looks Like

            Printed on post-consumer recycled-content paper.

                               May 2006


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