Answers to Come Together Chemical Bonding Worksheet - Excel by jnk14020

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									1.1 Explanations, argument and                       YEAR 7                                   YEAR 8                                  YEAR 9                                 YEAR 10                                  YEAR 11                           YEAR 11 EXTENSION
decisions
1.1a1 Scientific Thinking -           Use an existing model/analogy to          Describe more than one model to         Describe the strengths and             Justify the selection of a particular    Evaluate the effectiveness of using      Recognise that it is possible to have
developing explanations using         explain a phenomenon. Recognise           explain the same phenomenon and         weaknesses of a range of available     model as the most appropriate.           models and analogies in their            and to use different, and sometimes
ideas and models                      and explain the value of using            discuss the strengths and               models and select the most             Devise own simple models or              explanations. Evaluate the strengths     conflicting, models in their
                                      models and analogies to clarify           weaknesses of the model. Describe       appropriate. Explain why the           analogies to explain observations,       and weaknesses of their own              explanation. Explain how the
                                      explanations                              how the use of a particular model or    manipulation of a model or analogy     data or scientific ideas                 models and analogies                     devising and using of alternative
                                                                                analogy supports an explanation         might be needed to clarify                                                                                               models could help to make a
                                                                                                                        explanations                                                                                                             ‘creative leap’ in an explanation


1.1a2 Scientific thinking challenge Recognise that scientists of all            Recognise that science is a             Explain how bias, a lack of evidence   Describe the process of validating       Explain why it is important for the      Explain and justify why a 'scientific
and collaboration in developing     disciplines and nationalities often         communal, and therefore fallible,       or misconceptions can give rise to     the work of other scientists and         scientific community to have a           claim' should be accepted or
explanations                        work together to develop                    human activity and that different       inappropriate theories and the role    explain how this influences on the       process for validating the work of       rejected by the application of the key
                                    explanations. Recognise that                expanations can arise from              of scientists in questioning these.    acceptance or rejection of a theory.     other scientists and how this has        components of validation to the
                                    sciecne cannot yet explain                  individaul bias. Recognise questions    Identify some questions that the       Identify some questions that the         influenced the acceptance of current     evidence. Explore the implications of
                                    everything.                                 that the scientific process cannot      scientific process cannot yet          scientific process cannot yet            theories. Explain why scientific proof   the provisional nature of scientific
                                                                                answer.                                 completely answer but can              completely answer but can                is only ever provisional.                proof.
                                                                                                                        contribute to.                         contribute to, and explain the
                                                                                                                                                               reasons for this.


1.1a3 Scientific thinking-            Identify a range of scientific data and   Identify a range of scientific data     Use criteria to select relevant        Explain how the use of criteria          Devise criteria to select relevant       Devise criteria to select relevant
developing argument                   other evidence to back an argument        and other evidence to back an           scientific data and other sources of   improves the effectiveness of            scientific data and other sources of     scientific data and other sources of
                                      and the counterclaim in less              argument and the counterclaim in        evidence to support or negate an       selecting scientific data and other      evidence to support or negate an         evidence to support or negate an
                                      complex and /or familiar contexts         more complex and /or less familiar      argument. Explain how scientific       sources of evidence to support or        argument in familiar contexts.           argument in less familiar contexts.
                                      e.g. establishing a wind farm.            contexts e.g. use of antibiotics.       evidence from a range of sources       negate an argument. Describe             Explain how scientific theories,         Explain how scientific theories,
                                      Recognise that scientific evidence        Describe how scientific evidence        can be used to support or disprove     examples where scientific theories,      applications and models have been        applications and models have been
                                      can be used to support or disprove        from different sources carries          theories.                              applications and models have been        modified by scientists as a result of    changed by the strength of new
                                      theories.                                 different weight in supporting or                                              changed by new evidence or               new evidence.                            evidence, changes in societal norms
                                                                                disproving theories.                                                           societal norms.                                                                   or values.


1.1b Applications, implications       Describe some benefits and                Explain some issues, benefits and       Evaluate the issues, benefits and      Evaluate the relevant issues,            Describe and evaluate examples of        Evaluate and analyse the potential
and cultural understanding            drawbacks of scientific                   drawbacks of scientific                 drawbacks of scientific                benefits and drawbacks of scientific     perceived and actual risk arising        impact of the application of new
                                      developments with which they are          developments with which they are        developments with which they are       developments with which they are         from the application of scientific or    scientific and technological
                                      familiar. Recognise that decisions        familiar. Recognise that decisions      familiar . Recognise that different    familiar and draw conclusions about      technological developments.              developments . Explain how
                                      about the use and application of          about the use and application of        decisions on the use and application   which would be more appropriate.         Describe the power and limitations of    scientific evidence can be shaped by
                                      science and technology are                science and technology are              of scientific and technological        Recognise that scientific evidence       science in addressing a range of         bias, scientific status, political or
                                      influenced by society and individuals     influenced by society and               developments may be made in            can be shaped by a number of             moral/ ethical issues and how this       economic factors and how this could
                                                                                individuals, and how these could        different economic, cultural and       factors (bias, scientific status,        could influence the impact of            influence the impact of decisions
                                                                                impact on people and the                social contexts.                       political or economic factors) and       decisions taken on the application of    taken on the application of scientific
                                                                                environment.                                                                   how this could influence the             scientific and technological             and technological developments
                                                                                                                                                               decisions taken on the application of    developments
                                                                                                                                                               scientific and technological
                                                                                                                                                               developments


1.1c Communication for audience Use key scientific vocabulary and               Use a range of scientific vocabulary    Communicate effectively and use        Communicate effectively using a          Communicate qualitative and              Use a wide range of technical
and with purpose                terminology in discussions and                  and terminology consistently in         appropriate scientific temrinology     wide range of scientific terminology     quantitative evidence effectively        vocabulary and techniques with
                                written work. Identify and use the              discussions and written work. Adapt     and conventions in discussions and     and conventions in discussions and       using scientific terminology and         fluency, demonstrating
                                conventions of various genres for               the stylistic conventions of a range    written work. Adapt the stylistic      written work. Use simple criteria to     conventions and drawing on abstract      communication and numerical skills
                                different audiences and purposes in             of genres for different audiences and   conventions of a wider range of        judge the appropriateness of a piece     ideas and models as appropriate to       for a range of audiences and
                                scientific writing.                             purposes in scientific writing.         genres for different audiences and     of scientific writing for a particular   the audience and purpose. Devise         purposes. Critically evaluate criteria
                                                                                                                        purposes in scientific writing.        audience.                                criteria to judge the appropriateness    udes to judge the appropriateness of
                                                                                                                                                                                                        of a piece of scientific writing for a   a piece of scientific writing for a
                                                                                                                                                                                                        particular audience.                     particular audience.




1.2 Practical and enquiry skills                     YEAR 7                                   YEAR 8                                  YEAR 9                                 YEAR 10                                  YEAR 11                           YEAR 11 EXTENSION
1.2a Planning an approach         Describe an appropriate approach to     Describe an appropriate approach to    Explain how the planned approach         Explain how the planned approach        Explain how to plan appropriate        Explain why different approaches
                                  answer a scientific question using a    answer a scientific question using     to answer a scientific question was      was informed by a range of scientific   approaches to investigatory work by    are required to investigate different
                                  limited range of information and        sources of evidence and where          informed by scientific knowledge,        knowledge, understanding and            synthesising information from a        kinds of scientific questions and how
                                  making relevant observations or         appropriate making relevant            understanding or other sources of        evidenceand, where appropriate,         range of sources in complex            scientific knowledge, understanding
                                  measurements.                           observations or measurements           evidence.                                how this influenced the method of       contexts and where variables are       and sources of evidence are used in
                                                                          using appropriate apparatus.                                                    data collection.                        less easily controlled.                the different approaches




1.2b Selecting and managing       Recognise the range of variables        Describe and identify key variables    Use and apply independent and            Identify key factors in complex         Use and apply key variables in         Identify and manage a range of
variables                         involved in an investigation and        in an investigation and assign         dependent variables in an                contexts where variables are less       complex contexts including ones in     variables in complex contexts
                                  decide which to control                 appropriate values to these            investigation by choosing an             easily controlled                       which variables are less easily        including ones in which variables are
                                                                                                                 appropriate range, number and                                                    controlled                             less easily controlled.
                                                                                                                 value for each one.




1.2c Assessing risk and working   Explain how action has been taken       Explain how to take action to control Explain how approaches to practical Use and apply risk assessment in              Explain why the chosen approach to Explain how hazards are identified
safely                            to control obvious risk and how         the risks to themselves and others    work were adapted to control risk   carrying out practical procedures             practical work needed to be adapted and risks managed to collect data in
                                  methods are adequate for the task       and demonstrate competence in                                                                                           to control risk                     a safe and skilful manner
                                                                          their practical technique




1.2d Obtaining and presenting     Describe and record observations        Explain how the observation and        Use and apply qualitative and            Explain how inherent variation e.g.     Use and apply systematic               Use and apply systematic
primary evidence                  and evidence systematically.            recording methods are appropriate      quantitative methods to obtain and       from human error, sensitivity and       observation, precise measuring with    observation and precise measuring
                                  Recognise that the presentation of      to the task. Describe ways in which    record sufficient data systematically.   accuracy of instrument needs to be      a range of apparatus whilst taking     with a range of apparatus whilst
                                  experimental results through the        the presentation of experimental       Explain how the presentation of          considered when collecting data.        account of inherent variation to       taking account of inherent variation
                                  routine use of tables, bar charts and   results through the routine use of     experimental results through the         Apply and use appropriate ways of       obtain and record reliable data .      to obtain and record reliable data in
                                  simple graphs makes it easier to see    tables, charts and line graphs makes   routine use of tables, charts and line   recording relevant observations and     Explain how the chosen presentation    a more demanding context. Explain
                                  patterns and trends                     it easier to see patterns and trends   graphs makes it easier to see            comparisons, clearly identifying        of data has been used to support a     how the chosen presentation of data
                                                                                                                 patterns and trends                      points of particular significance       valid conclusion                       takes account of uncertainty or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         alternative conclusions.



1.2e Working critically with      Describe patterns and trends in         Describe how the patterns and          Explain how patterns and trends in       Explain how the numerical data has      Synthesise and manipulate data,        Synthesise and manipulate data,
primary evidence                  results and link this evidence to any   trends in results link to the          results can be manipulated to be         been manipulated to make valid          analyse findings and draw valid and    analyse findings and draw valid and
                                  prediction made. Describe and           conclusions drawn and whether the      consistent with the evidence             comparisons and conclusions linked      reliable conclusions consistent with   reliable conclusions consistent with
                                  suggest how planning and                evidence is sufficient. Describe and   gathered and the predictions made.       to the original scientific question.    the evidence and linked to the         the evidence and explain how
                                  implementation could be improved        suggest, with reasons, how planning    Explain how improvements to the          Evaluate the planning and               original scientific question.          strongly the evidence relates to the
                                                                          and implementation could be            planning and implementation would        implementation and explain how this     Recognise that correlation does not    original scientific question. Explain
                                                                          improved                               have led to the collection of more       could account for errors and            always imply causation. Evaluate the   why correlation does not always
                                                                                                                 valid and reliable evidence and a        anomalies and how inadequacies          planning and implementation and        imply causation. Evaluate the
                                                                                                                 more secure conclusion.                  could be remedied                       explain how this could account for     planning and implementation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  errors and anomalies and the           explain how this could account for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  subsequent impact on the               errors and anomalies and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                  conclusion - in simple contexts        subsequent impact on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         conclusion - in more complex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         contexts
1.2f Working critically with   Describe patterns and trends in     Describe what needs to be             Explain whether the collection and         Explain, using scientific knowledge     Evaluate the conclusions drawn by     Evaluate the conclusions drawn by
secondary evidence             secondary evidence and link these   considered in the collection and      manipulation of secondary evidence         and understanding, how some of          others, including scientists, in      others, including scientists, in less
                               to the prediction or conclusion     manipulation of simple secondary      is sufficient or insufficient to support   the limitations in the secondary        familiar or less complex contexts     familiar or more complex contexts
                               drawn. Recognise that different     evidence to evaluate the conclusion   the conclusion or interpretation           evidence can distort the conclusion     and consider how strongly the         and consider how strongly the
                               conclusions may be drawn from       or interpretation made. Recognise     made. Explain how secondary                drawn. Recognise that scientific        evidence supports these               evidence supports these
                               secondary data.                     that the selection, ordering or       numerical data have been                   controversies can arise from            conclusions or claims. Describe a     conclusions or claims. Explain how
                                                                   rejection of secondary data could     manipulated to support a particular        different interpretations of the same   range of issues that can affect the   scientific controversies can arise
                                                                   lead to different conclusions.        conclusion or viewpoint.                   evidence.                               credibility of data.                  from different ways of interpreting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  evidence.
2. Organisms, behaviour and               YEAR 7                              YEAR 8                                YEAR 9                              YEAR 10                              YEAR 11                       YEAR 11 EXTENSION
health
2.1 Life Processes            Describe the role of organ         Explain how the organs and            Explain how the specialisation of    Explain how individual               Explain how the different            Use and apply their
                              systems in plants and animals      tissues in plants and animals         cells in plants and animals          intracellular & extracellular        intracellular and extracellular      understanding of how life
                              that can contribute to the seven   function to support the seven life    support the seven life processes     processes and structures in          processes work together to           processes in organisms work
                              life processes.                    processes in a healthy organism.      in a healthy organism. Explain       plants and animals support the       support life in familiar contexts    together in unfamiliar contexts.
                                                                                                       how chemical, physical and           seven life processes Explain why     Evaluate the impact of chemical,     Critically evaluate the relative
                                                                                                       biological factors can disrupt the   certain chemical, physical and       physical and biological factors      impact of chemical, physical and
                                                                                                       seven life processes e.g.            biological factors can disrupt the   and explain their effects on the     biological factors and their effect
                                                                                                       smoking, environment, climate        seven life processes.                life processes e.g. drugs, foods,    on life processes in unfamiliar
                                                                                                       and microbes.                                                             hormones.                            contexts.


2.2 Variation and             Describe how organisms can         Explain how variation has             Explain how variation in             Explain how the combined effects     Apply and use their knowledge of     Apply and use their extensive
interdependence               vary and how this may lead to      benefits and limitations to the       organisms can be artificially        of changes to genes,                 variation and interdependence to     knowledge of variation and
                              their survival in changing         survival of organisms in specific     induced (through the use of          environmental change and             explain: Natural selection; The      interdependence to critically
                              environments. Describe how the     habitats. Describe some               chemicals, radiation, genetic        natural selection can lead to        applications and implications of     evaluate the impact of human
                              major taxonomic groups are         examples of variation arising         engineering) and the effect of       variation in species. Explain the    artifical selection eg cloning and   activity on evolutionary and
                              classified. Use a combination of   from inherited and environmental      these organisms on the               fluctuations in distribution and     genetic engineering; Evolutionary    ecological relationships.
                              food chains within a habitat to    factors. Explain energy transfer in   environment. Explain how internal    population size using: Energy        and ecological relationships.
                              produce food webs.                 food chains and webs and relate       and external factors can affect      Flow, Pyramids of Number and
                                                                 this to the abundance of              energy transfer in food chains       Biomass, Predator/Prey
                                                                 organisms.                            and webs.                            Relationships


2.3 Behaviour                 Describe simple learned and        Explain how changes in learned        Make links between observed          Note: No statement in KS4 PoS        Explain the effects of natural and   Evaluate evidence from different
                              innate behaviours in response to   behaviour due to internal &           social behaviours and the benefit    re social behaviour Pupils can       artificial substances on chemical    sources about the impact of
                              internal & external stimuli and    external stimuli are of benefit to    to the survival of the species.      explain how chemical and             and electrical signals within the    natural and artificial substances
                              how these aid survival.            the organism.                         (Note: Links to specialised cells    electrical signals enable body       body, and possible effects on        on behaviour.
                                                                                                       and response to stimuli)             systems to respond to internal &     behaviour.
                                                                                                                                            external changes and the effect
                                                                                                                                            of this on behaviour.



3. Chemical and material                  YEAR 7                              YEAR 8                                YEAR 9                              YEAR 10                              YEAR 11                       YEAR 11 EXTENSION
behaviour
3.1 Particle models           Describe matter using a simple     Apply and use the particle model      Evaluate and refine the particle     Apply particle models in             Use the particle model and ideas     Use the particle model and ideas
                              model and use it to explain        to describe a range of physical       model to explain a range of          unfamiliar contexts, and begin to    from science and across              from science and across
                              changes of state. Recognise the    observations. Apply and use this      physical observations. Evaluate      evaluate the strengths and           disciplines to explain               disciplines to explain complex
                              link between heating and cooling   model to describe a range of          and refine the particle model to     weaknesses of the model. Refine      phenomenon and evaluate the          phenomena and make critical
                              and changes of state Use the       separation techniques.                explain a range of separation        the particle model to explore the    use of the model.                    evaluations to justify the use of a
                              simple particle model to explain                                         techniques.                          structure of atoms, including                                             'good enough' model.
                              the physical characteristics of                                                                               protons, neutrons and electrons
                              solids, liquids and gases.
3.2 Chemical reactions       Sort some reactions into              Recognise that materials can be      Use a particle model to construct    Use a particle model to construct     Use a particle model to predict     Use a particle model to predict
                             reversible and irreversible           made up of one or more kinds of      predictions for simple chemical      predictions for chemical              the outcome of chemical             the outcome of complex chemical
                             Recognise that new materials are      particles. Describe the type and     reactions and to produce word        reactions and to produce symbol       reactions and to produce            reactions and to produce
                             made during chemical reactions        arrangement of atoms in              equations.                           equations Explain the evidence        balanced symbol equations.          balanced symbol equations and
                                                                   elements, compounds and                                                   that a chemical reaction has          Explain the evidence that a         ionic half equations when
                                                                   mixtures. Describe and develop a                                          taken place in terms of energy        chemical reaction has taken         appropriate. Explain the evidence
                                                                   particle model to explain the                                             transfer and rearrangements of        place in terms of rearrangements    that a chemical reaction has
                                                                   differences between the terms                                             bonds between atoms.                  of bonds between atoms, using       taken place (in a system at
                                                                   atoms, elements, compounds                                                                                      the model of the differences of     equilibrium) in terms of energy
                                                                   and mixtures.                                                                                                   electron structure between          transfer and rearrangements of
                                                                                                                                                                                   elements.                           bonds between atoms.


3.3 Patterns in chemical     Describe, record and group            Describe patterns in a range of      Link experimental and numerical      Explain properties and patterns in Apply knowledge of patterns of         Apply knowledge of patterns of
reactions                    observations from chemical            chemical reactions                   data to Illustrate a range of        reactivity in terms of particle    reactivity in the periodic table to    reactivity in the periodic table to
                             reactions                                                                  patterns in chemical reactions       model for atomic structure.        predict the outcomes of reactions      critically evaluate a range of
                                                                                                                                                                                from a range of familiar contexts      domestic and industrial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       processes including systems at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       equilibrium


4. Energy, electricity and                YEAR 7                                YEAR 8                              YEAR 9                               YEAR 10                               YEAR 11                      YEAR 11 EXTENSION
forces
4.1 Energy                   Describe how energy can be            Use a simple model of energy         Develop more complex models of       Apply the concept of                  Use quantitative measures and       Apply broader or deeper
                             stored eg. food, fuels & electrical   transfer (eg. A flow diagram) to     energy transfer mechanisms           conservation of energy to energy      the concept of energy               knowledge and understanding of
                             cells Describe how energy is          describe common observations         (incorporating ideas about           efficiency calculations in living     conservation to evaluate a range    energy in explanations of
                             transferred in simple contexts        (such as the way sound is            particles or waves) to explain       and non-living systems. Develop       of strategies to conserve limited   observations and phenomena.
                             such as heating and cooling, food     produced, transmitted and            conduction, convection, radiation,   the idea of energy dissipation in a   energy resources. Use and apply     Use valid and rational argument
                             chains and simple circuits.           detected, how objects are seen,      reflection, refraction and           variety of contexts. Evaluate the     complex models of energy            to offer solutions to problems
                             Recognize that quantitative           how heating transfers energy by      dispersion of light, the             economic costs and                    transfer to a wide range of         arising from the aplications and
                             measures of energy transfer are       conduction, convection and           transmission of sound, the flow of   environmental effects of energy       phenomena. Explain a wide           implications of energy.
                             needed to inform decisions e.g.       radiation, how an electric current   electric current, communication      use through the measurement of        range of complex phenomena
                             about lifestyles. Describe how        transfers energy in a circuit, how   systems. Use energy accounting       energy transfers and efficiency       using the principle of
                             energy stored in a range of           energy is transferred in             system such as Sankey                calculations. Describe the effects    conservation of energy and
                             energy resources such as food,        ecosystems). Explain why             diagrams to track energy             of energy transfer to living          appropriate wave or particle
                             biomass, oil, gas, wind and           quantitative measures of energy      transfers. Use quantitative          systems by electromagnetic and        models.
                             waves can be usefully transferred     transfer should also be              measures of energy transfer to       nuclear radiations.
                                                                   considered when making               support informed decision
                                                                   informed decisions e.g. building     making e.g. comparing different
                                                                   wind farms. Explain how              transport systems when
                                                                   electricity is generated using a     considering how to travel. Apply
                                                                   variety of energy resources          the idea of energy conservation
                                                                                                        and dissipation to simple
                                                                                                        biological, chemical and physical
                                                                                                        systems.
4.2 Forces                     Recognise the forces acting on       Apply ideas about balanced and         Recognise how simple                  Use simple quantitative                Use relationships involving         Apply knowledge and
                               an object in different situations.   unbalanced forces to explain the       quantitative relationships can be     relationships to make predictions      more complex quantities (eg         understanding of forces in
                               Distinguish between situations       way objects move. Investigate          applied to the way objects move       in more complex situations Use         acceleration, momentum ) to         explanations of observations and
                               involving balanced/unbalanced        situations where forces are            (including balanced and               simple relationships involving         make quantitative predictions in    phenomena to complex and
                               forces. Recognise that forces        applied over large or small areas      unbalanced forces). Recognise         more complex quantities (eg            more complex and unfamiliar         unfamiliar contexts. Use valid and
                               can combine or wholly/partly         or have a turning effect               how simple quantitative               acceleration) to make                  situations eg impulse, force and    rational argument to offer
                               cancel each other out and their      Recognise that forces at a             relationships can be applied to       quantitative predictions in familiar   time, Acceleration of an object     solutions to problems arising
                               size&direction can be                distance get weaker as the             situations where forces are           situations                             on a circular path                  from the applications and
                               represented using arrows.            distance increases.                    applied over large and small                                                                                     implications of forces.
                               Recognise that there are Contact                                            areas or have a turning effect.
                               & Act-At-A-Distance forces.




5. Environment, earth and                   YEAR 7                               YEAR 8                                 YEAR 9                                YEAR 10                               YEAR 11                      YEAR 11 EXTENSION
universe
5.1 Changing Environment and   Describe how natural and human Explain some of the changes that             Use one or more models, such          Use primary and secondary              Evaluate the accuracy and           Link and synthesise data and
Sustainability                 processes have changed the     have led to the composition of               as the carbon cycle or food webs,     forms of evidence to describe          validity of primary and secondary   evidence from a range of sources
                               atmosphere over time           the current atmosphere.                      to explain some of the                and explain the impact of human        evidence in relation to human       to explain human impact on the
                                                              Recognise simple ideas of                    consequences of changes in the        actions at a local, regional and       impact on the biosphere.            biosphere. Describe how
                                                              sustainable development                      environment                           global level                           Describe and analyse how            evidence and arguments from
                                                                                                                                                                                        complex data could be               different political and economic
                                                                                                                                                                                        represented or misrepresented to    perspectives have been used to
                                                                                                                                                                                        justify decisions taken to manage   justify decisions taken to manage
                                                                                                                                                                                        sustainability                      sustainability.


5.2 Changing Earth             Recognise the processes             Describe the processes involved         Use the rock cycle as a model to      Use the theory of plate tectonics Link plate tectonic theory to its        Apply and use the theory of plate
                               involved in the formation of rocks. in the formation of sedimentary,        explain the cyclical nature of rock   to explain some of the major slow supporting geological evidence.          tectonics to explain related
                                                                   igneous and metamorphic rocks           forming processes and the             (long term) changes and the                                                geological phenomena.
                                                                   and use the characteristics of the      timescales over which they            distribution and nature of active
                                                                   rocks to explain how they formed        operate.                              zones on the surface of the Earth



5.3 Earth, Space and Beyond    Describe the apparent movement       Describe the position of the Earth     Apply models and use scientific       Explain some methods used to           Evaluate the available evidence     Explain using available evidence
                               of the Sun across the sky and the    in relation to the position of other   data to explain the relative          explore the solar system and           and explain why it favours an       and models of the universe, why
                               pattern in the changing              bodies in the solar system and         movement of the celestial bodies      galaxy (both from the Earth and        expanding universe as the           the ultimate fate of the universe
                               appearance of the Moon               use this to explain some               in the solar system. Describe         from space) Explain how the            current consensus model             is difficult to predict.
                                                                    phenomena. Recognise that              how astronomy and space               electromagnetic spectrum can
                                                                    astronomy and space science            science provide evidence of the       inform the study of the stars in
                                                                    provide evidence about the solar       solar system and galaxy.              our galaxy (and Universe)
                                                                    system.
                                                                                     PLTS [Personal Learning and Thin
   Independent Enquirers                           Creative Thinkers                          Reflective Learners
Young people process and                    Young people think creatively by            Young people evaluate their
evaluate information in their               generating and exploring ideas,             strengths and limitations, setting
investigations, planning what to do         making original connections. They           themselves realistic goals with
and how to go about it. They take           try different ways to tackle a              criteria for success. They monitor
informed and well-reasoned                  problem, working with others to             their own performance and
decisions, recognising that others          find imaginative solutions and              progress, inviting feedback from
have different beliefs and                  outcomes that are of value.                 others and making changes to
attitudes.                                                                              further their learning.



their investigations, planning what to do   generate ideas and explore possibilities    assess themselves and others, identifying
and how to                                                                              opportunities and achievements


go about it. They take informed and well-   ask questions to extend their thinking      set goals with success criteria for their
reasoned                                                                                development and work

decisions, recognising that others have     connect their own and others’ ideas and     review progress, acting on the outcomes
different                                   experiences in inventive ways


beliefs and attitudes.                      question their own and others’              invite feedback and deal positively with
                                            assumptions                                 praise, setbacks and criticism

consider the influence of circumstances,    try out alternatives or new solutions and   evaluate experiences and learning to
beliefs and feelings on decisions and       follow ideas through                        inform future progress
events

support conclusions, using reasoned         adapt ideas as circumstances change.        communicate their learning in relevant
arguments and evidence.                                                                 ways for different audiences.
al Learning and Thinking Skills]
                  Team Workers                                  Self Managers                        Effective Participators
        Young people work confidently                 Young people organise                       Young people actively engage with
        with others, adapting to different            themselves, showing personal                issues that affect them and those
        contexts and taking responsibility            responsibility, initiative, creativity      around them. They play a full part
        for their own part. They listen to            and enterprise with a commitment            in the life of their school, college,
        and take account of different                 to learning and self-improvement.           workplace or wider community by
        views. They form collaborative                They actively embrace change,               taking responsible action to bring
        relationships, resolving issues to            responding positively to new                improvements for others as well
        reach agreed outcomes.                        priorities, coping with challenges          as themselves.
                                                      and looking for opportunities.


        collaborate with others to work towards       seek out challenges or new responsibilities discuss issues of concern, seeking
        common goals                                  and show flexibility when priorities change resolution where needed


        reach agreements, managing discussions        work towards goals, showing initiative,     present a persuasive case for action
        to achieve results                            commitment and perseverance

        adapt behaviour to suit different roles and   organise time and resources, prioritising   propose practical ways forward, breaking
        situations, including leadership roles        actions                                     these down into manageable steps


        show fairness and consideration to others     anticipate, take and manage risks           identify improvements that would benefit
                                                                                                  others as well as themselves

        take responsibility, showing confidence in    deal with competing pressures, including    try to influence others, negotiating and
        themselves and their contribution             personal and work-related demands           balancing diverse views to reach workable
                                                                                                  solutions

        provide constructive support and feedback respond positively to change, seeking           act as an advocate for views and beliefs
        to others.                                advice and support when needed                  that may differ from their own.


                                                      manage their emotions, and build and
                                                      maintain relationships
                                                                                SEAL [Social and Emotional Aspect
                    Self-Awareness                                              Social Skills and Empathy
 problem-solve – decide, choose, evaluate, gain confidence in       work with others, e.g. to investigate, experiment, solve problems,
                                                                    discuss strategy;
using a range of problemsolving strategies in scientific enquiry,
gain a sense of mastery;




seek help, give and receive feedback, review their own progress     communicate with others, e.g. present a reasoned argument,
– as individuals, class, or group;                                  review and justify their choices, explain and justify inferences and
                                                                    deductions using mathematical reasoning;




build a sense of coherence, order and predictability in the world   explore how scientific enquiry and the development of scientific
by understanding the principles of scientific enquiry, exploring    thinking is not a straightforward progression from ignorance to
how things work, and discovering repeating patterns and laws of     truth, but is a set of theories or ‘paradigms’ which are socially
science;                                                            constructed – explore the role of interest groups, scientific
                                                                    communities, sponsorship and patronage, social and cultural
                                                                    change;

explore changing self at puberty, the effect of the changes of      explore issues of social responsibility in science and how they
adolescence, the influence of hormones and their effect on the      are applied in the world, develop their viewpoint and
mind, body and relationships;                                       communicate with others, e.g. on issues such as the
                                                                    environment, cloning, medical ethics, GM food, stem cell
                                                                    research, space exploration;


express and discuss personal feelings and opinions about issues appreciate how people’s perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, values
in science. Present a reasoned argument, review, justify and    and attitudes, including their own, impact on contemporary
improve their choices, explain and justify inferences and       scientific issues, e.g. energy conservation, animal testing;
deductions using scientific reasoning and theory


                                                                    explore human and animal variation, and how biological and
                                                                    genetic differences interplay with social and cultural differences
                                                                    to generate a wide range of social and emotional issues and
                                                                    outcomes;


                                                                    explore the social and emotional issues associated with human
                                                                    reproduction, e.g. effect of the changes of puberty/hormones on
                                                                    the mind, sexual relationships, responsibility, communication,
                                                                    need to look after oneself;


                                                                    study animal social behaviour, e.g. survival, self-preservation,
                                                                    reproduction, hunting, social bonding, rearing young and examine
                                                                    the similarities and differences between animals and humans;
learn autonomy by working independently when the opportunity
presents itself, expressing their own opinions and conclusions.
d Emotional Aspects of Learning]
                                Motivation                                                    Managing Feelings
       develop persistence, resilience and optimism in the course of       experience, explore and manage a wide range of both positive
       learning science, and solving scientific problems, e.g. challenge   and difficult emotions in the course of learning science and
       themselves, overcome fears, deal with uncertainty and anxiety,      solving scientific problems (e.g. fear of getting it wrong, anxiety
       handle disappointment and frustration, cope with unexpected         when uncertain about the right process to use, pleasure when it
       results;                                                            is going well, satisfaction if you solve it/get it right, sense of order
                                                                           when you see the pattern emerge,
                                                                           disappointment/anger/frustration if it does not turn out right);


       experience satisfaction and mastery;                                explore how scientific enquiry and the development of scientific
                                                                           thinking has not been a rational, cumulative linear progress but
                                                                           has been shaped by social forces and in particular the emotions
                                                                           and needs of individuals, groups and cultures, e.g. search for
                                                                           order and truth, repression through dogma and traditionalism,
                                                                           drive to explore and seek the new, wish to dominate nature, wish
                                                                           to cheat death, drive for status, power, money, sponsorship and
                                                                           patronage, interest groups, etc.;


       develop a range of problem-solving approaches, e.g. systematic      appreciate how people’s values and attitudes, including their own,
       trial and improvement, logical deduction;                           affect contemporary scientific issues, and clarify and develop
                                                                           their own values and attitudes about such issues;




       review their progress as they work, check and evaluate solutions, understand the brain/mind and how it works, how it developed
       modify their approach if necessary;                               through evolution, and the central role emotion plays. Explore the
                                                                         role of emotion in thinking and reacting, and key biological
                                                                         concepts such as the ‘three-part brain’, ‘emotional hijack’,
                                                                         impulsivity, and the centrality of emotion to rational decision-
                                                                         making;

       build a sense of coherence, order and predictability in the world   understand what emotions do to the body – learning to recognise
       by understanding the principles of scientific enquiry, exploring    their own emotions, such as anger, fear, joy and stress, through
       how things work, and discovering repeating patterns and laws of     their bodily reactions such as raised heartbeat, flushing,
       science.                                                            sweating, and churning stomach;


                                                                           explore the relationship between the body and the mind –
                                                                           examine the effect of the changes of puberty/hormones, the
                                                                           growth of sexual feelings, and lifestyle (exercise, diet, stress,
                                                                           sleep, drug use and abuse) on emotions, mood, motivation and
                                                                           behaviour;

                                                                           study animal behaviour and the central role of emotion in the
                                                                           natural world, e.g. in survival, in self-preservation, in
                                                                           reproduction, and in social bonding and the examination of the
                                                                           similarities and differences between animals and humans.
                                            Jump to Objective Counter at foot of page.                                                                                                                                                         Audit Keys                        Y7   Y7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Y8   Y8
Topic




                 Lesson Title/Big                                                                                                                        HSW 2 - Practical and Inestigative
        No,                                             Range and Content                               HSW 1 - Scientific Thinking                                                                                      PLTS                             SEAL
                   Question?                                                                                                                                           skills                                                                                                    Y9   Y9
                                            3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model         1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to           1.2a (7) Describe an appropriate approach to                                            problem-solve – decide,
                                            and use it to explain changes of state. Recognise    explain a phenomenon. Recognise and explain          answer a scientific question using a limited range                                     choose, evaluate, gain
                                            the link between heating and cooling and             the value of using models and analogies to clarify   of information and making relevant observations                                        confidence in using a range of
 1       1       Fake - Engage activity
                                            changes of state Use the simple particle model       explanations                                         or measurements.                                                                       problemsolving strategies in
                                            to explain the physical characteristics of solids,                                                                                                             generate ideas and explore        scientific enquiry, gain a sense
                                            liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                             possibilities                     of mastery;
                                            3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to          1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and    1.2f (7) Describe patterns and trends in
                                            describe a range of physical observations. Apply     other evidence to back an argument and the           secondary evidence and link these to the                                               build a sense of coherence,
                                            and use this model to describe a range of            counterclaim in less complex and /or familiar        prediction or conclusion drawn. Recognise that                                         order and predictability in the
                                            separation techniques.                               contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm. Recognise    different conclusions may be drawn from                                                world by understanding the
 1       2
                                                                                                 that scientific evidence can be used to support or   secondary data.                                                                        principles of scientific enquiry,
              What was the crime?                                                                disprove theories.                                                                                        support conclusions, using        exploring how things work, and
              Why do particles matter                                                                                                                                                                      reasoned arguments and            discovering repeating patterns
              to forensic scientists.                                                                                                                                                                      evidence.                         and laws of science;
                                                                                                 1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to
                                                                                                 explain the same phenomenon and discuss the
 1       3 What Happened to the                                                                  strengths and weaknesses of the model.                                                                                                      work with others, e.g. to
           Guard? Why do particles                                                               Describe how the use of a particular model or                                                             question their own and others’    investigate, experiment, solve
           matter to forensic scientists                                                         analogy supports an explanation                                                                           assumptions                       problems, discuss strategy;
                                                                                                 1.1c (7) Use key scientific vocabulary and
                                                                                                 terminology in discussions and written work.                                                                                                communicate with others, e.g.
           Fake. What tests help                                                                 Identify and use the conventions of various                                                                                                 present a reasoned argument,
 1       4 forensic scientists solve                                                             genres for different audiences and purposes in                                                                                              review and justify their choices,
           crimes? • Why do particles                                                            scientific writing.                                                                                                                         explain and justify inferences
           matter to forensic scientists?                                                                                                                                                                  adapt ideas as circumstances      and deductions using
                                                                                                                                                                                                           change.                           mathematical reasoning;
                                                                                                 1.1a2 (7) Recognise that scientists of all
              Trace Evidence - Part 1.                                                           disciplines and nationalities often work together
 1       5
              How can we tell different                                                          to develop explanations. Recognise that sciecne                                                           collaborate with others to work
              substances apart?                                                                  cannot yet explain everything.                                                                            towards common goals
                                                                                                 1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and
                                                                                                 other evidence to back an argument and the
                                                                                                 counterclaim in less complex and /or familiar
 1       6
           Trace Evidence- Part 2.                                                               contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm. Recognise
           How can we tell different                                                             that scientific evidence can be used to support or
           substances apart?                                                                     disprove theories.
           Drunk on Duty. How can                                                                1.1a2 (8) Recognise that science is a communal,
           we tell different substances                                                          and therefore fallible, human activity and that
           apart?• What tests help                                                               different expanations can arise from individaul
 1       7
           forensic scientists to solve                                                          bias. Recognise questions that the scientific
           crimes?                                                                               process cannot answer.

 1       8 Who dunnit?
                                        3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model             1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to
                                        and use it to explain changes of state. Recognise        explain a phenomenon. Recognise and explain
                                        the link between heating and cooling and                 the value of using models and analogies to clarify
 2       1    Describing properties
                                        changes of state Use the simple particle model           explanations
                                        to explain the physical characteristics of solids,
                                        liquids and gases.
                                        3.2 (7) Sort some reactions into reversible and          1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to
                                        irreversible Recognise that new materials are            explain the same phenomenon and discuss the
 2       2 Extending the particle model made during chemical reactions                           strengths and weaknesses of the model.
                                                                                                 Describe how the use of a particular model or
                                                                                                 analogy supports an explanation
                                            3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to          1.1a1 (9) Describe the strengths and
                                            describe a range of physical observations. Apply     weaknesses of a range of available models and
 2       3          Changing state          and use this model to describe a range of            select the most appropriate. Explain why the
                                            separation techniques.                               manipulation of a model or analogy might be
                                                                                                 needed to clarify explanations
                                        3.2 (8) Recognise that materials can be made up
                                        of one or more kinds of particles. Describe the
               Is any new stuff formed? type and arrangement of atoms in elements,
 2       4    Where does it come from? compounds and mixtures. Describe and develop
                       Lesson 1         a particle model to explain the differences
                                        between the terms atoms, elements, compounds
                                        and mixtures.
                                        3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine the particle model to
               Is any new stuff formed?
                                        explain a range of physical observations.
 2       5    Where does it come from?
                                        Evaluate and refine the particle model to explain
                       Lesson 2
                                        a range of separation techniques.
            Substance, element,
2   6
                compound
            Modelling chemical
2   7     changes involving phase
                  change
         Understanding conservation
2   8       of matter in chemical
          change through modelling
2   9
3   1
3   2
3   3
3   4
3   5
3   6
3   7
3   8
3   9
3   10
3   11
3   12
3   13
3   14
3   15
3   16
3   17
3   18
3   19
3   20
3   21
3   22
4   1
4   2
4   3
4   4
4   5
4   6
4   7
4   8
4   9
4   10
4   11
4   12
4   13
4   14
4   15
4   16
4   17
4   18
4   19
4   20
4   21
4   22
5   1
5   2
5   3
5   4
5   5
5   6
5   7
5   8
5   9
5   10
5   11
5   12
5   13
5   14
5   15
5   16
5   17
5   18
5   19
5   20
5   21
5   22
6   1
6   2
6    3
6   4
6    5
6    6
6   7
6    8
6    9
6   10
6   11
6   12
6   13
6   14
6   15
6   16
6   17
6   18
6   19
6   20
6   21
6   22
7    1
7    2
7    3
7    4
7    5
7    6
7    7
7    8
7    9
7   10
7   11
7   12
7   13
7   14
7   15
7   16
7   17
7   18
7   19
7   20
7   21
7   22
8    1
8    2
8    3
8    4
8    5
8    6
8    7
8    8
8    9
8   10
8   11
8   12
8   13
8   14
8   15
8   16
8   17
8   18
8   19
8   20
8   21
8   22
9    1
9    2
9    3
9    4
9    5
9    6
9    7
9    8
9    9
9   10
9   11
9   12
9   13
9   14
9    15
9    16
9    17
9    18
9    19
9    20
9    21
9    22
10   1
10   2
10   3
10   4
10   5
10   6
10   7
10   8
10   9
10   10
10   11
10   12
10   13
10   14
10   15
10   16
10   17
10   18
10   19
10   20
10   21
10   22
11   1
11   2
11   3
11   4
11   5
11   6
11   7
11   8
11   9
11   10
11   11
11   12
11   13
11   14
11   15
11   16
11   17
11   18
11   19
11   20
11   21
11   22
12   1
12   2
12   3
12   4
12   5
12   6
12   7
12   8
12   9
12   10
12   11
12   12
12   13
12   14
12   15
12   16
12   17
12   18
12   19
12   20
12   21
12   22
13   1
13   2
13   3
13   4
13   5
13   6
13   7
13   8
13   9
13   10
13   11
13   12
13   13
13   14
13   15
13   16
13   17
13   18
13   19
13   20
13   21
13   22
14   1
14   2
14   3
14   4
14   5
14   6
14   7
14   8
14   9
14   10
14   11
14   12
14   13
14   14
14   15
14   16
14   17
14   18
14   19
14   20
14   21
14   22
15   1
15   2
15   3
15   4
15   5
15   6
15   7
15   8
15   9
15   10
15   11
15   12
15   13
15   14
15   15
15   16
15   17
15   18
15   19
15   20
15   21
15   22
16   1
16   2
16   3
16   4
16   5
16   6
16   7
16   8
16   9
16   10
16   11
16   12
16   13
16   14
16   15
16   16
16   17
16   18
16   19
16   20
16   21
16   22
17   1
17   2
17   3
17   4
17   5
17   6
17   7
17   8




          Framework
          objectives and
          number of times
          each is used in the
          above table
                                2.1 (7) Describe the role of organ systems in plants and               1.1a1 (7) Use an existing model/analogy to explain a                  1.2a (7) Describe an appropriate approach to answer a                    identify questions to answer and problems to       problem-solve – decide, choose,
                                animals that can contribute to the seven life processes.               phenomenon. Recognise and explain the value of using models           scientific question using a limited range of information and             resolve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        evaluate, gain confidence in using a
                                                                                                   0   and analogies to clarify explanations                               2 making relevant observations or measurements.                        1                                                   0 range of problemsolving strategies in        1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scientific enquiry, gain a sense of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mastery;
                                2.2 (7) Describe how organisms can vary and how this may               1.1a2 (7) Recognise that scientists of all disciplines and              1.2b (7) Recognise the range of variables involved in an               plan and carry out research, appreciating the     seek help, give and receive feedback,
                                lead to their survival in changing environments. Describe how          nationalities often work together to develop explanations.              investigation and decide which to control                              consequences of decisions                         review their own progress – as
                                the major taxonomic groups are classified. Use a combination       0   Recognise that sciecne cannot yet explain everything.               1                                                                      0                                                   0 individuals, class, or group;                0
          Jump back to top of   of food chains within a habitat to produce food webs.
          this sheet!
                                2.3 (7) Describe simple learned and innate behaviours in               1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of scientific data and other evidence        1.2c (7) Explain how action has been taken to control obvious          explore issues, events or problems from           build a sense of coherence, order and
                                response to internal & external stimuli and how these aid              to back an argument and the counterclaim in less complex and            risk and how methods are adequate for the task                         different perspectives                            predictability in the world by
                                survival.                                                              /or familiar contexts e.g. establishing a wind farm. Recognise                                                                                                                                   understanding the principles of
                                                                                                   0   that scientific evidence can be used to support or disprove         0                                                                      0                                                   0 scientific enquiry, exploring how things     1
                                                                                                       theories.                                                                                                                                                                                        work, and discovering repeating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        patterns and laws of science;


                                3.1 (7) Describe matter using a simple model and use it to             1.1b (7) Describe some benefits and drawbacks of scientific           1.2d (7) Describe and record observations and evidence                   analyse and evaluate information, judging its     explore changing self at puberty, the
                                explain changes of state. Recognise the link between heating           developments with which they are familiar. Recognise that             systematically. Recognise that the presentation of experimental          relevance and value                               effect of the changes of adolescence,
                                and cooling and changes of state Use the simple particle           2   decisions about the use and application of science and              0 results through the routine use of tables, bar charts and simple     0                                                   0 the influence of hormones and their          0
                                model to explain the physical characteristics of solids, liquids       technology are influenced by society and individuals                  graphs makes it easier to see patterns and trends                                                                          effect on the mind, body and
                                and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              relationships;
                                3.2 (7) Sort some reactions into reversible and irreversible           1.1c (7) Use key scientific vocabulary and terminology in               1.2e (7) Describe patterns and trends in results and link this         consider the influence of circumstances,          express and discuss personal feelings
                                Recognise that new materials are made during chemical                  discussions and written work. Identify and use the conventions          evidence to any prediction made. Describe and suggest how              beliefs and feelings on decisions and events      and opinions about issues in science.
                                reactions                                                              of various genres for different audiences and purposes in               planning and implementation could be improved                                                                            Present a reasoned argument, review,
                                                                                                       scientific writing.                                                                                                                                                                              justify and improve their choices, explain
                                                                                                   1                                                                       1                                                                      0                                                   0 and justify inferences and deductions      0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        using scientific reasoning and theory



                                3.3 (7) Describe, record and group observations from chemical          1.1a1 (8) Describe more than one model to explain the same              1.2f (7) Describe patterns and trends in secondary evidence       support conclusions, using reasoned                      work with others, e.g. to investigate,
                                reactions                                                              phenomenon and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of                  and link these to the prediction or conclusion drawn. Recognise   arguments and evidence.                                  experiment, solve problems, discuss
                                                                                                   0                                                                       2                                                                   1                                                      1                                              1
                                                                                                       the model. Describe how the use of a particular model or                that different conclusions may be drawn from secondary data.                                                               strategy;
                                                                                                       analogy supports an explanation
                                4.1 (7) Describe how energy can be stored eg. food, fuels &            1.1a2 (8) Recognise that science is a communal, and therefore           1.2a (8) Describe an appropriate approach to answer a                  generate ideas and explore possibilities          communicate with others, e.g. present a
                                electrical cells Describe how energy is transferred in simple          fallible, human activity and that different expanations can arise       scientific question using sources of evidence and where                                                                  reasoned argument, review and justify
                                contexts such as heating and cooling, food chains and simple           from individaul bias. Recognise questions that the scientific           appropriate making relevant observations or measurements                                                                 their choices, explain and justify
                                circuits. Recognize that quantitative measures of energy               process cannot answer.                                                  using appropriate apparatus.                                                                                             inferences and deductions using
                                transfer are needed to inform decisions e.g. about lifestyles.     0                                                                       1                                                                      0                                                   1 mathematical reasoning;                 1
                                Describe how energy stored in a range of energy resources
                                such as food, biomass, oil, gas, wind and waves can be
                                usefully transferred


                                4.2 (7) Recognise the forces acting on an object in different          1.1a3 (8) Identify a range of scientific data and other evidence        1.2b (8) Describe and identify key variables in an investigation       ask questions to extend their thinking            explore how scientific enquiry and the
                                situations. Distinguish between situations involving                   to back an argument and the counterclaim in more complex                and assign appropriate values to these                                                                                   development of scientific thinking is not
                                balanced/unbalanced forces. Recognise that forces can                  and /or less familiar contexts e.g. use of antibiotics. Describe                                                                                                                                 a straightforward progression from
                                combine or wholly/partly cancel each other out and their               how scientific evidence from different sources carries different                                                                                                                                 ignorance to truth, but is a set of
                                size&direction can be represented using arrows. Recognise              weight in supporting or disproving theories.                                                                                                                                                     theories or ‘paradigms’ which are
                                that there are Contact & Act-At-A-Distance forces.                 0                                                                       0                                                                      0                                                   0 socially constructed – explore the role of   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        interest groups, scientific communities,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sponsorship and patronage, social and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cultural change;
5.1 (7) Describe how natural and human processes have                   1.1b (8) Explain some issues, benefits and drawbacks of                   1.2c (8) Explain how to take action to control the risks to           connect their own and others’ ideas and         explore issues of social responsibility in
changed the atmosphere over time                                        scientific developments with which they are familiar. Recognise           themselves and others and demonstrate competence in their             experiences in inventive ways                   science and how they are applied in the
                                                                        that decisions about the use and application of science and               practical technique                                                                                                   world, develop their viewpoint and
                                                                        technology are influenced by society and individuals, and how                                                                                                                                   communicate with others, e.g. on issues
                                                                    0   these could impact on people and the environment.                     0                                                                     0                                                 0 such as the environment, cloning,          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        medical ethics, GM food, stem cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        research, space exploration;



5.2 (7) Recognise the processes involved in the formation of            1.1c (8) Use a range of scientific vocabulary and terminology           1.2d (8) Explain how the observation and recording methods              question their own and others’ assumptions      appreciate how people’s perceptions,
rocks.                                                                  consistently in discussions and written work. Adapt the stylistic       are appropriate to the task. Describe ways in which the                                                                 attitudes, beliefs, values and attitudes,
                                                                        conventions of a range of genres for different audiences and            presentation of experimental results through the routine use of                                                         including their own, impact on
                                                                    0   purposes in scientific writing.                                       0 tables, charts and line graphs makes it easier to see patterns      0                                                 1 contemporary scientific issues, e.g.         0
                                                                                                                                                and trends                                                                                                              energy conservation, animal testing;

5.3 (7) Describe the apparent movement of the Sun across the            1.1a1 (9) Describe the strengths and weaknesses of a range of           1.2e (8) Describe how the patterns and trends in results link to        try out alternatives or new solutions and       explore human and animal variation, and
sky and the pattern in the changing appearance of the Moon              available models and select the most appropriate. Explain why           the conclusions drawn and whether the evidence is sufficient.           follow ideas through                            how biological and genetic differences
                                                                        the manipulation of a model or analogy might be needed to               Describe and suggest, with reasons, how planning and                                                                    interplay with social and cultural
                                                                    0   clarify explanations                                                  1 implementation could be improved                                    0                                                 0 differences to generate a wide range of 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        social and emotional issues and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        outcomes;


2.1 (8) Explain how the organs and tissues in plants and                1.1a2 (9) Explain how bias, a lack of evidence or                       1.2f (8) Describe what needs to be considered in the collection         adapt ideas as circumstances change.            explore the social and emotional issues
animals function to support the seven life processes in a               misconceptions can give rise to inappropriate theories and the          and manipulation of simple secondary evidence to evaluate the                                                           associated with human reproduction,
healthy organism.                                                       role of scientists in questioning these. Identify some questions        conclusion or interpretation made. Recognise that the                                                                   e.g. effect of the changes of
                                                                    0   that the scientific process cannot yet completely answer but          0 selection, ordering or rejection of secondary data could lead to    0                                                 1 puberty/hormones on the mind, sexual         0
                                                                        can contribute to.                                                      different conclusions.                                                                                                  relationships, responsibility,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        communication, need to look after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        oneself;
2.2 (8) Explain how variation has benefits and limitations to the       1.1a3 (9) Use criteria to select relevant scientific data and other       1.2a (9) Explain how the planned approach to answer a                 assess themselves and others, identifying       study animal social behaviour, e.g.
survival of organisms in specific habitats. Describe some               sources of evidence to support or negate an argument. Explain             scientific question was informed by scientific knowledge,             opportunities and achievements                  survival, self-preservation, reproduction,
examples of variation arising from inherited and environmental          how scientific evidence from a range of sources can be used to            understanding or other sources of evidence.                                                                           hunting, social bonding, rearing young
factors. Explain energy transfer in food chains and webs and        0   support or disprove theories.                                         0                                                                     0                                                 0 and examine the similarities and             0
relate this to the abundance of organisms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                              differences between animals and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        humans;


2.3 (8) Explain how changes in learned behaviour due to                 1.1b (9) Evaluate the issues, benefits and drawbacks of                   1.2b (9) Use and apply independent and dependent variables            set goals with success criteria for their       learn autonomy by working
internal & external stimuli are of benefit to the organism.             scientific developments with which they are familiar .                    in an investigation by choosing an appropriate range, number          development and work                            independently when the opportunity
                                                                        Recognise that different decisions on the use and application             and value for each one.                                                                                               presents itself, expressing their own
                                                                    0   of scientific and technological developments may be made in           0                                                                     0                                                 0 opinions and conclusions.                    0
                                                                        different economic, cultural and social contexts.

3.1 (8) Apply and use the particle model to describe a range of         1.1c (9) Communicate effectively and use appropriate scientific           1.2c (9) Explain how approaches to practical work were                review progress, acting on the outcomes         develop persistence, resilience and
physical observations. Apply and use this model to describe a           temrinology and conventions in discussions and written work.              adapted to control risk                                                                                               optimism in the course of learning
range of separation techniques.                                         Adapt the stylistic conventions of a wider range of genres for                                                                                                                                  science, and solving scientific
                                                                        different audiences and purposes in scientific writing.                                                                                                                                         problems, e.g. challenge themselves,
                                                                    2                                                                         0                                                                     0                                                 0 overcome fears, deal with uncertainty        0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and anxiety, handle disappointment and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        frustration, cope with unexpected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        results;


3.2 (8) Recognise that materials can be made up of one or                                                                                         1.2d (9) Use and apply qualitative and quantitative methods to     invite feedback and deal positively with             experience satisfaction and mastery;
more kinds of particles. Describe the type and arrangement of                                                                                     obtain and record sufficient data systematically. Explain how      praise, setbacks and criticism
atoms in elements, compounds and mixtures. Describe and                                                                                           the presentation of experimental results through the routine use
develop a particle model to explain the differences between the     0                                                                             of tables, charts and line graphs makes it easier to see         0                                                  0                                              0
terms atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures.                                                                                                    patterns and trends

3.3 (8) Describe patterns in a range of chemical reactions                                                                                        1.2e (9) Explain how patterns and trends in results can be        evaluate experiences and learning to inform           develop a range of problem-solving
                                                                                                                                                  manipulated to be consistent with the evidence gathered and       future progress                                       approaches, e.g. systematic trial and
                                                                                                                                                  the predictions made. Explain how improvements to the                                                                   improvement, logical deduction;
                                                                    0                                                                             planning and implementation would have led to the collection of 0                                                   0                                              0
                                                                                                                                                  more valid and reliable evidence and a more secure conclusion.

4.1 (8) Use a simple model of energy transfer (eg. A flow                                                                                         1.2f (9) Explain whether the collection and manipulation of           communicate their learning in relevant ways       review their progress as they work,
diagram) to describe common observations (such as the way                                                                                         secondary evidence is sufficient or insufficient to support the       for different audiences.                          check and evaluate solutions, modify
sound is produced, transmitted and detected, how objects are                                                                                      conclusion or interpretation made. Explain how secondary                                                                their approach if necessary;
seen, how heating transfers energy by conduction, convection                                                                                      numerical data have been manipulated to support a particular
and radiation, how an electric current transfers energy in a                                                                                      conclusion or viewpoint.
circuit, how energy is transferred in ecosystems). Explain why      0                                                                                                                                               0                                                 0                                              0
quantitative measures of energy transfer should also be
considered when making informed decisions e.g. building wind
farms. Explain how electricity is generated using a variety of
energy resources


4.2 (8) Apply ideas about balanced and unbalanced forces to                                                                                                                                                             collaborate with others to work towards         build a sense of coherence, order and
explain the way objects move. Investigate situations where                                                                                                                                                              common goals                                    predictability in the world by
forces are applied over large or small areas or have a turning                                                                                                                                                                                                          understanding the principles of
effect Recognise that forces at a distance get weaker as the        0                                                                                                                                                                                                 1 scientific enquiry, exploring how things     0
distance increases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     work, and discovering repeating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        patterns and laws of science.
5.1 (8) Explain some of the changes that have led to the                reach agreements, managing discussions to        experience, explore and manage a wide
composition of the current atmosphere. Recognise simple                 achieve results                                  range of both positive and difficult
ideas of sustainable development                                                                                         emotions in the course of learning
                                                                                                                         science and solving scientific problems
                                                                                                                         (e.g. fear of getting it wrong, anxiety
                                                                                                                         when uncertain about the right process
                                                                    0                                                  0 to use, pleasure when it is going well,    0
                                                                                                                         satisfaction if you solve it/get it right,
                                                                                                                         sense of order when you see the pattern
                                                                                                                         emerge,
                                                                                                                         disappointment/anger/frustration if it
                                                                                                                         does not turn out right);


5.2 (8) Describe the processes involved in the formation of             adapt behaviour to suit different roles and      explore how scientific enquiry and the
sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks and use the                  situations, including leadership roles           development of scientific thinking has
characteristics of the rocks to explain how they formed                                                                  not been a rational, cumulative linear
                                                                                                                         progress but has been shaped by social
                                                                                                                         forces and in particular the emotions
                                                                                                                         and needs of individuals, groups and
                                                                                                                         cultures, e.g. search for order and truth,
                                                                                                                         repression through dogma and
                                                                    0                                                  0                                              0
                                                                                                                         traditionalism, drive to explore and seek
                                                                                                                         the new, wish to dominate nature, wish
                                                                                                                         to cheat death, drive for status, power,
                                                                                                                         money, sponsorship and patronage,
                                                                                                                         interest groups, etc.;



5.3 (8) Describe the position of the Earth in relation to the           show fairness and consideration to others        appreciate how people’s values and
position of other bodies in the solar system and use this to                                                             attitudes, including their own, affect
explain some phenomena. Recognise that astronomy and                                                                     contemporary scientific issues, and
space science provide evidence about the solar system.              0                                                  0 clarify and develop their own values and     0
                                                                                                                         attitudes about such issues;


2.1 (9) Explain how the specialisation of cells in plants and           take responsibility, showing confidence in       understand the brain/mind and how it
animals support the seven life processes in a healthy                   themselves and their contribution                works, how it developed through
organism. Explain how chemical, physical and biological                                                                  evolution, and the central role emotion
factors can disrupt the seven life processes e.g. smoking,                                                               plays. Explore the role of emotion in
environment, climate and microbes.                                                                                       thinking and reacting, and key biological
                                                                    0                                                  0 concepts such as the ‘three-part brain’, 0
                                                                                                                         ‘emotional hijack’, impulsivity, and the
                                                                                                                         centrality of emotion to rational decision-
                                                                                                                         making;


2.2 (9) Explain how variation in organisms can be artificially          provide constructive support and feedback to     understand what emotions do to the
induced (through the use of chemicals, radiation, genetic               others.                                          body – learning to recognise their own
engineering) and the effect of these organisms on the                                                                    emotions, such as anger, fear, joy and
environment. Explain how internal and external factors can          0                                                  0 stress, through their bodily reactions       0
affect energy transfer in food chains and webs.                                                                          such as raised heartbeat, flushing,
                                                                                                                         sweating, and churning stomach;


2.3 (9) Make links between observed social behaviours and the           seek out challenges or new responsibilities      explore the relationship between the
benefit to the survival of the species. (Note: Links to                 and show flexibility when priorities change      body and the mind – examine the effect
specialised cells and response to stimuli)                                                                               of the changes of puberty/hormones,
                                                                                                                         the growth of sexual feelings, and
                                                                    0                                                  0 lifestyle (exercise, diet, stress, sleep,    0
                                                                                                                         drug use and abuse) on emotions,
                                                                                                                         mood, motivation and behaviour;


3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine the particle model to explain a range       work towards goals, showing initiative,          study animal behaviour and the central
of physical observations. Evaluate and refine the particle model        commitment and perseverance                      role of emotion in the natural world, e.g.
to explain a range of separation techniques.                                                                             in survival, in self-preservation, in
                                                                                                                         reproduction, and in social bonding and
                                                                    1                                                  0 the examination of the similarities and      0
                                                                                                                         differences between animals and
                                                                                                                         humans.


3.2 (9) Use a particle model to construct predictions for simple        organise time and resources, prioritising
chemical reactions and to produce word equations.                   0   actions                                        0

3.3 (9) Link experimental and numerical data to Illustrate a            anticipate, take and manage risks
                                                                    0                                                  0
range of patterns in chemical reactions
4.1 (9) Develop more complex models of energy transfer                  deal with competing pressures, including
mechanisms (incorporating ideas about particles or waves) to            personal and work-related demands
explain conduction, convection, radiation, reflection, refraction
and dispersion of light, the transmission of sound, the flow of
electric current, communication systems. Use energy
accounting system such as Sankey diagrams to track energy
transfers. Use quantitative measures of energy transfer to          0                                                  0
support informed decision making e.g. comparing different
transport systems when considering how to travel. Apply the
idea of energy conservation and dissipation to simple
biological, chemical and physical systems.
4.2 (9) Recognise how simple quantitative relationships can be       respond positively to change, seeking advice
applied to the way objects move (including balanced and              and support when needed
unbalanced forces). Recognise how simple quantitative
relationships can be applied to situations where forces are      0                                                   0
applied over large and small areas or have a turning effect.

5.1 (9) Use one or more models, such as the carbon cycle or          manage their emotions, and build and
food webs, to explain some of the consequences of changes in     0   maintain relationships                          0
the environment
5.2 (9) Use the rock cycle as a model to explain the cyclical        discuss issues of concern, seeking
nature of rock forming processes and the timescales over         0   resolution where needed                         0
which they operate.
5.3 (9) Apply models and use scientific data to explain the          present a persuasive case for action
relative movement of the celestial bodies in the solar system.
                                                                 0                                                   0
Describe how astronomy and space science provide evidence
of the solar system and galaxy.
                                                                     propose practical ways forward, breaking
                                                                     these down into manageable steps                0

                                                                     identify improvements that would benefit
                                                                                                                     0
                                                                     others as well as themselves
                                                                     try to influence others, negotiating and
                                                                     balancing diverse views to reach workable       0
                                                                     solutions
                                                                     act as an advocate for views and beliefs that
                                                                                                                     0
                                                                     may differ from their own.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notes including text   Functional skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Rich Questions
Topic Lesson        Title/Big Question            Range and Content                       HSW1                              HSW2                  Range&Content Objectives / context                                                                                                   Barriers to learning                    Links across the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    book references         opportunities                  Evaluation/
                                                                                                                                                                                            HSW objectives for students           Range Outcomes   HSW Outcomes    (joining HSW with                          Prior Learning                                                             Starter                                                                                  Main                                                                       Plenary                                                               Apparatus/Resources                                      Homework   Assessment Opportunities                                               Key Words                          PLTS                       SEAL
                                                                                                                                                          for the lesson                                                                                                               e.g. misconceptions                        curriculum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and extra Risk     (Literacy, Numeracy,                reflection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  range and content)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  assessment details.          ICT)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In Fake, Billie and Dragon are trainee forensic scientists, aged about 17. Their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mentor is Dr Sherl.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Billie is the voice of the students doing the activities. It is not specified whether
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Billie is male or female.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 4, which has a space for you to insert a video clip of The Thomas Crown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Affair and introduces the Fake sequence. (you can download the film clip from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Throughout the learning sequence, Billie and Dragon are struggling to get to
                                              3.1 (7) Describe matter using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11EkV5RWgKM&eurl=http://www.allsubs.or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  grips with forensic techniques. They need to understand – and explain in terms
                                              a simple model and use it to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g/movie-trailer/thomas%20crown%20affair%2C%20the/11EkV5RWgKM See                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         problem-solve –
                                                                                                                1.2a (7) Describe an                                                                                                                                                                                                              of particles – how and why they work. In this endeavour, Billie is the bright,
                                              explain changes of state.       1.1a1 (7) Use an existing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the instructions on http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Video+tutorials                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          decide, choose,
                                                                                                                appropriate approach to                                                                                                                                                                                                           conscientious one who thinks things through and is really keen to understand
                                              Recognise the link between      model/analogy to explain a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  for how to download the flim clip and inset it into the slide). Make sure students                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      evaluate, gain
                                                                                                                answer a scientific question                                                                                                                                                                                                      what she’s doing and why. Dragon is less keen – he jumps to conclusions that
1    1                                        heating and cooling and         phenomenon. Recognise and                                          Discover some of the things forensic   Consider alternative explanations for a                                                                                                                                                                                                           note how much the painting in the film clip is worth.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 generate ideas and        confidence in using a
               Fake - Engage activity                                                                           using a limited range of                                                                                                                                                                                                          are not backed up by evidence, and just wants to get the work done as quickly                                                                                              Show slide 8, and then students feedback their ideas.
                                              changes of state Use the        explain the value of using                                         scientists do                          range of observations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In slide 5, Dragon tells the students what is known about the crime so far. Slide                                                                                                                                                                                                       Scene_setter.ppt                                                      explore possibilities     range of problemsolving
                                                                                                                information and making                                                                                                                                                                                                            as possible before sloping off somewhere else...
                                              simple particle model to        models and analogies to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     6 is a statement from the guard who was on duty when the gallery got broken                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             strategies in scientific
                                                                                                                relevant observations or
                                              explain the physical            clarify explanations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        into.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   enquiry, gain a sense of
                                                                                                                measurements.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Dr Sherl is Billie and Dragon’s rather serious – and very knowledgeable –
                                              characteristics of solids,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Slide 7 shows the crime scene. This can be printed out to give to students.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             mastery;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mentor. She has even written a book on forensic techniques. She’s keen that
                                              liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They work in pairs to discuss what could have happened, and what they would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  her trainees should understand everything thoroughly, and, as far as possible,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          investigate. Important to note is that the valuable painting is still there!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  work things out for themselves. She’s not averse to explaining some things to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  them, though.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Show students slides 2 and 3, which introduces them to the whole Forensics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Elicit                                                                                                                                                    Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show class slide 3. Have they come across any ways of showing up hidden                                                                                   Activity 1 – What was the crime?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fingerprints? Then show slide 4.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore                                                                                                                                                   Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students work in pairs. They are given a small piece of laminated white card
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          which they must make a fingerprint onto. They then use brushes and charcoal                                                                               A5 sized pieces of laminated white card (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          powder to gently brush on the powder to show up the prints.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Discuss with students how good this technique is. Show them slide 5.                                                                                      Charcoal powder in a container which allows for easy sprinkling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students work in pairs. Boiling tubes will be prepared which has a strip of filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          paper inside along with a substance at the bottom. Some pairs have coloured                                                                               Small paintbrushes.
                                                                              1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               wax, some iodine and some charcoal. Discuss with the students how to get                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                build a sense of
                                                                              scientific data and other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the substances to move up to the oil. They may come up with the idea of                                                                                   Boiling tubes set up as shown in diagram. Some with coloured wax chips                                                                                                                                                        coherence, order and
                                              3.1 (8) Apply and use the                                         1.2f (7) Describe patterns and
                                                                              evidence to back an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         heating. They should try holding the tube for 2 minutes first to see if this gives                                                                        (preferably red or purple), some with small lumps of charcoal, some with 0.05g                                                                                                                                                predictability in the world
                                              particle model to describe a                                      trends in secondary evidence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Evaluate
                                                                              argument and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the substances enough energy to move. (should be enough for iodine) If there                                                                              of iodine granules. The class will be working in pairs for this activity, and each                                                                                                                  support conclusions,      by understanding the
               What was the crime? Why        range of physical                                                 and link these to the                                                                                                                                                                                                             Engage                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 12 and 13 shown. Students write their response to
1    2                                                                        counterclaim in less complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                is no change, they should put the tubes in a beaker of hot water from the kettle                                                                          pair should have one of the tubes.                                                                                            ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 using reasoned            principles of scientific
               do particles matter to         observations. Apply and use                                       prediction or conclusion                                                                                                                                                                                                          Present slide 2 to the class – invite responses.                                                                                                                                Dr Sherl. They should use the particle diagrams in their
                                                                              and /or familiar contexts e.g.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and leave for 2 minutes (enough for wax). If still no change, they can heat by                                                                                                                                                                                                          Act_1.ppt                                                             arguments and             enquiry, exploring how
               forensic scientists.           this model to describe a                                          drawn. Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             answer.
                                                                              establishing a wind farm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   holding tube in test tube holders over a Bunsen burner (only for those with                                                                               Kettles filled with just boiled water                                                                                                                                                               evidence.                 things work, and
                                              range of separation                                               different conclusions may be
                                                                              Recognise that scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   charcoal).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              discovering repeating
                                              techniques.                                                       drawn from secondary data.
                                                                              evidence can be used to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Discuss with students if their substances fulfilled the criteria on slide 5.                                                                              250ml beakers                                                                                                                                                                                                                 patterns and laws of
                                                                              support or disprove theories.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       science;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explain                                                                                                                                                   Bunsen burners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 6 is shown which shows how the iodine can be used to show up the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fingerprints on the frame.                                                                                                                                Test tube holders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 7 introduces the essential question.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 8 – Introduces the idea of particles using an animation.                                                                                            Large beaker with a suitable lid, inside around 0.25g of iodine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 9 – has diagrams that show the 3 states of matter. If preferred,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          animations can also be used instead here. See                                                                                                             Hot plate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/particle_model_int
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ro.shtml for links to pages on solids, liquids and gases. Each of these pages                                                                             Strip of filter paper, about same height as beaker.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          contains animations that you can download. (See the page on the wiki
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials for information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 6 introduces the evidence that the students must collect.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For slides 7-9 demo an activity and then ask students to discuss the answers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to the questions in pairs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 7: Put an air freshener at the front of the classroom (a non-spray type)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and ask the students to put their hand up when they can smell it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 8: Put a few drops of ether onto a watch-glass at the front of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          classroom and invite the class to stand near the front to smell it. Only a few
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          drops are needed.                                                                                                                                         Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slide 9: Pass round the class some sealed syringes that contain just air and                                                                              Activity 2 – What Happened to the Guard?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ask them to squeeze them.
                                                                              1.1a1 (8) Describe more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Engage/elicit
                                                                              one model to explain the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explain                                                                                                                                                         Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Present slides 2 and 3 to the class. Invite initial ideas from students on how a                                                                               Evaluate
               What Happened to the                                           same phenomenon and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Slide 10: Show the class the animation of a gas being compressed into a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       work with others, e.g. to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  drug could have got from the vial to the guard (you might like to show the                                                                                     Slide 13 shown. Students prepare a response to explain
1    3         Guard? Why do particles                                        discuss the strengths and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             liquid. See http://www.s-                                                                                                                                       Air freshener (non-spray type)                                                                                                ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_                                                 question their own and    investigate, experiment,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  drawing of the crime scene again here)                                                                                                                         how their evidence proves that particles exist and how the
               matter to forensic                                             weaknesses of the model.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cool.co.uk/topic_quicklearn.asp?loc=ql&topic_id=4&quicklearn_id=2&subject_id                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Act_2.ppt                                                             others’ assumptions       solve problems, discuss
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Show slide 4 and then slide 5 which this contains the essential question that the                                                                              vial could have contained a drug to put the guard to sleep.
               scientists                                                     Describe how the use of a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             =21&ebt=217&ebn=&ebs=&ebl=&elc=4 for a suitable animation and the page                                                                                          Ether (ethoxyethane) with dropper                                                                                                                                                                                             strategy;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  students will be answering.
                                                                              particular model or analogy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           on the wiki that explains how to download and embed animations
                                                                              supports an explanation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials ). You can                                                                                      Watch glass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    talk about how some fire extinguishers contain liquid carbon dioxide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Slide 11: Introduces the idea of diffusion. The webpages                                                                                                        Plastic syringes full of air with end melted so it is sealed (about 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    http://www.purchon.com/physics/diffusion.htm and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    http://www.educationusingpowerpoint.org.uk/index.html?ks3science.html~main
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Frame contain suitable animations that can be downloaded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students are shown page 12. They have to match up the things they are trying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to prove with the evidence they have been shown. This slide can be printed out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and given to groups of students.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Activity 3 – Fake


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore                                                                                                                                                   Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students work in groups of 2-4. Each group has a set of cards from slide 5, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          small beaker with just enough water to cover the bottom, a piece of filter paper                                                                          Sets of cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 set between 2/4) and slide 8 (enough
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with line marked in pencil and cross (see diagram on slide 5) and a black felt-tip                                                                        for 1 set each).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          pen. They must figure out how to separate the ink in the pen, begin to formulate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ideas on how this works and how this could be used to find out if the painting is                                                                         Copy of the glossary from slide 7 (enough for 1 each)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a fake.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             communicate with
                                                                              1.1c (7) Use key scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Engage/elicit                                                                           Students feedback ideas.                                                                                                                                  100ml beakers with small amount of water (1 between 2/4)                                                                                                                                                                  others, e.g. present a
               Fake. What tests help
                                                                              vocabulary and terminology in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Present slides 2 and 3 to the class. Invite initial ideas from students on how to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           reasoned argument,
               forensic scientists solve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Evaluate
                                                                              discussions and written work.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       get evidence that the painting is a fake: Are all paints the same? How can we           Explain                                                                                                                                                   Strips of filter paper – just longer than height of beaker with pencil line drawn                                                                                                                                         review and justify their
1    4         crimes? • Why do                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Slide 10 shown. Students write their response to the art                                                                                                                                              ..\..\UPD8\Fake\FAke_                                                 adapt ideas as
                                                                              Identify and use the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tell one paint from another?                                                            Slide 6 is shown which outlines how the technique works. Students are given a                                                                             1cm from bottom and a cross drawn in the middle. These should be taped to a                                                                                                                                               choices, explain and
               particles matter to forensic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 gallery owner.                                                                                                                                                                                        Act_3.ppt                                                             circumstances change.
                                                                              conventions of various genres                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Slide 4 – this contains the essential questions that the students will be               copy of the glossary on slide 7 and a set of the cards on slide 8. They are given                                                                         wooden splint or something similar so the bottom just hangs in the water. (1                                                                                                                                              justify inferences and
               scientists?
                                                                              for different audiences and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         answering.                                                                              a few minutes to read the glossary. The teacher explains that before they can                                                                             between 2/4)                                                                                                                                                                                                              deductions using
                                                                              purposes in scientific writing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             carry out the test they need to understand how it works. Teacher reads slide 9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      mathematical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to class. Students hold up correct cards when gap comes up.                                                                                               Black felt-tip pens enough for 1 between 2/4– all the same if possible and                                                                                                                                                reasoning;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    different to the ones used as pen A and B.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students work in pairs. They are given ready prepared pieces of filter paper                                                                              Strips of filter paper with dot of black pen A, again taped to a wooden splint.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with a dot of black pen marked A, and another marked B. They must try out                                                                                 (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          chromatography on the pen. (NB – the students think its paint).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Strips of filter paper with dot of black pen B, taped to splint. (enough for 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    between 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100ml beakers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Activity 4 – Trace Evidence


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Equipment required:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Small zip-lock bags containing a mixture of calcium carbonate powder and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    small amount of hair (supposed to be horse hair, but any course hair cut from a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    paintbrush will do). (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore
                                                                              1.1a2 (7) Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Engage/elicit                                                                           Show slide 4. They work in pairs to identify 6 white powders. They are supplied         Explain                                                           Magnifying glasses (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                              scientists of all disciplines                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Present slide 2 to the class. Students work in pairs. Each pair is given a small        with a set of cards (from slide 5), the 6 powders labelled A-F, and a range of          Students feedback which powder they think is which.
               Trace Evidence - Part 1.                                       and nationalities often work                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        bag containing the trace evidence (calcium carbonate with a small amount of             laboratory equipment: beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers, filter                Good opportunity here for discussion - are they 100%              Sets of laminated cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 between 2)                                                                                                                                       collaborate with others
1    5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
               How can we tell different                                      together to develop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ‘horse’ hair.) They use a magnifying glass to look at the evidence. They need           paper, funnels, balances, water at room temperature, spatulas. They must plan           sure of which powder is which? Why not? What other                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to work towards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Act_4.ppt
               substances apart?                                              explanations. Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to make sure they put the powder back into the bag.                                     and carry out their own tests to identify the powders. If they ask about carrying       tests would have been useful? Which tests were harder             Small pots of powders, labelled. (about 4 of each)                                                                                                                                                  common goals
                                                                              sciecne cannot yet explain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They feedback – what was the evidence? Show them slide 3.                               out the melting point tests, they can explain why this cannot be done with the          to do? Why?                                                       A = Citric acid
                                                                              everything.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 equipment they have.                                                                                                                                      B = sodium chloride
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    C = sodium bicarbonate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D = Granulated white sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E = Starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    F = Calcium carbonate powder

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100ml beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers, spatulas, filter paper,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    funnels, balances, bottles of water at room temperature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photocopies of A5 sheet (slide 7) enough for 1 each.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Activity 4 – Trace Evidence


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Equipment required:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Small zip-lock bags containing a mixture of calcium carbonate powder and a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    small amount of hair (supposed to be horse hair, but any course hair cut from a
                                                                              1.1a3 (7) Identify a range of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Evaluate                                                          paintbrush will do). (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                              scientific data and other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Students are given a report sheet (slide 7) to fill in with the
                                                                              evidence to back an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 name of the unknown substance and what the evidence               Magnifying glasses (enough for 1 between 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Elaborate
                                                                              argument and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    can tell them about the crime. (animal hair could be
               Trace Evidence- Part 2.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Show students slide 6. This introduces the next task. They need to carry out                                                                              Sets of laminated cards from slide 5 (enough for 1 between 2)
1    6                                                                        counterclaim in less complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        horse hair, calcium carbonate can be used to groom                                                                                                                                              ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
               How can we tell different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Recap evidence and story from previous lesson.                                          similar tests on the sample in the bag to identify the powder.
                                                                              and /or familiar contexts e.g.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      horses - does the criminal work in a stable?) They also                                                                                                                                         Act_4.ppt
               substances apart?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students feedback with which powder they think it is.                                                                                                     Small pots of powders, labelled. (about 4 of each)
                                                                              establishing a wind farm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           comment on how useful the evidence is (does it tell us
                                                                              Recognise that scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           who the burglar was? Was it definitely left by the burglar?       A = Citric acid
                                                                              evidence can be used to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             etc)                                                              B = sodium chloride
                                                                              support or disprove theories.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         C = sodium bicarbonate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D = Granulated white sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E = Starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    F = Calcium carbonate powder

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100ml beakers, measuring cylinders, thermometers, spatulas, filter paper,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    funnels, balances, bottles of water at room temperature.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Photocopies of A5 sheet (slide 7) enough for 1 each.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show slide 3. Depending on the ability of the class and their initial ideas, you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          may want to read through the information with them and highlight important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          points. They work in groups of 2-4 to work out a way of separating the alcohol                                                                            Technician Guide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          from the juice so they can present the alcohol to the judge as evidence. They                                                                             Activity 5 – Drunk on Duty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          also could figure out a way of proving to the judge that what they have found is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          alcohol.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Students feedback with ideas.                                                                                                                             Equipment required:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Evaluate
                                                                              1.1a2 (8) Recognise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Show slide 5. Students write a statement to the gallery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explain                                                                                                                                                   Bottle of water and alcohol
               Drunk on Duty. How can                                         science is a communal, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    owner about what they have found out. They need to use
               we tell different                                              therefore fallible, human                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Demonstrate the distillation of a mixture of alcohol and water. Show class that the science words: Distillation, liquid, gas, boiling,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Engage/elicit                                                                           the mixture is not flammable. Then distil the mixture. Ask the students to                                                                                4 Watch-glasses
1    7         substances apart?• What                                        activity and that different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   condensing. You may find it useful to give students a                                                                                                                                                 ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Present slide 2 to the class. Ask for initial ideas.                                    explain what is happening at each stage using the correct scientific terminology. diagram of the apparatus to help them.
               tests help forensic                                            expanations can arise from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Act_5.ppt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show the students that the distillate is flammable – proof it is alcohol.                                                                                 Matches
               scientists to solve crimes?                                    individaul bias. Recognise                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Show slide 6. Use this as an impetus to start a
                                                                              questions that the scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Show slide 4. You can also insert an animation here. See                          discussion on whether this evidence is enough to prove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/elements_com_m the guard’s innocence.                                                          Distillation equipment with mixture of alcohol and water in the flask.
                                                                              process cannot answer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ix_8.shtml for the animation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          http://www.wikiedscience.com/display/users/Animation+tutorials for instructions                                                                           Bottle of orange juice labelled: ‘Evidence #2.1: Drink found on guard’s desk’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          on how to download animations and embed them into PowerPoint. Invite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          responses to Billie’s final question.                                                                                                                     If possible, another set of distillation equipment with orange juice in the flask. If
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    not, just another flask full of orange juice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Elaborate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Demonstrate the distillation of the guard’s drink. (this is in fact pure orange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          juice). Again, try to set alight the drink. Then distil it. Encourage the students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to point out any differences to the previous distillation. Collect any distillate and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Show slide 5 and 6. Students study the chromatograms and write a short
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    statement explaining what they show.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Show students slides 2, 3 and 4. Ask students to discuss what they could do                                                                                               Ask students to feedback ideas: is all this evidence
1   8   Who dunnit?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with the brown show polish to help them work out if the police’s prime suspect         Show slide 7. Discuss Dr Sherl’s comments in pairs. They now how several           enough to convict him? Would it stand up in court?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ..\..\UPD8\Fake\Fake_
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pieces of evidence that point to the gallery owner as committing the crime. He What other evidence would be useful?                                                                                                                             Act_6.ppt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             committed the crime. Ask for feedback.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    was going bankrupt – was this an insurance scam? He has a horse so spends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    time at stables – this links to the horse hair and calcium carbonate found at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    crime scene.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       In the plenary, the teacher firstly reviews the posters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       produced by the pupils and then builds upon these by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       using the key questions to introduce a scientific particle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       model for the three states of matter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Q1: How do we explain compressibility?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Important points to be drawn out here: gases can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Assign cards (Table 1.1) to match observations from starter with possible       compressed and so there must be large spaces between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    explanations.                                                                      the particles; liquids and solids cannot be compressed so
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Review pupil's observations and move towards an agreed pattern of               the particles must be closely packed; compression in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    properties of solids, liquids and gases.                                           gases is caused by the particles being pushed closer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. show pupils handout 2.5 - 'What does the image suggest about the                together rather than the particles themselves being
                                   3.1 (7) Describe matter using                                    To encourage the pupils to talk through their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      compressed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Identify their own                                                                                                                          arrangement of particles in this solid?'
                                   a simple model and use it to                                     ideas about the properties of solids, liquids                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Q2: How do we explain fluidity?                                         Sheet 1.1 'Solids, liquids and gases properties.'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ideas about the                                                                                                                             4. Pupil group work: Develop models of what must be 'inside' the solid, liquid
                                   explain changes of state.         1.1a1 (7) Use an existing      and gases, thereby motivating them to start                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Table 1.1 made into a card sort,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        properties of solids,                                                                                                                       and gas to give rise to the pattern of properties. - use cards and answers to 1.1 In fluids (liquids and gases) the particles can move freely
                                   Recognise the link between        model/analogy to explain a     thinking about this topic.                                                           Begin to recognise                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            across one another whereas in solids they cannot. Pupils                3 sealed syringes: (1 plasticene, 1 water and 1 air),
                                                                                                                                                  Encourage pupils to develop a model to                                liquids and gases;                                                                                                                          to help.
2   1                              heating and cooling and           phenomenon. Recognise and      To collect Assessment for Learning (AfL)                                             characteristic                                                                      Pupils to construct a model of solids, liquids and gases through observing                                                                                                often suggest that this is because the particles in solids              2 beakers, ice cubes, trough/tank for water, glass, kettle, sugar, measuring
        Describing properties                                                                                                                     represent the properties of solids,                                   begin to construct a                                                                                                                        5. Display posters and agree key features in common.
                                   changes of state Use the          explain the value of using     baseline information about the                                                       properties of solids,                                                               some of their features, using a circus of demonstrations - Sheet 1.1.                                                                                                                                                                             cylinders (10 and 50 ml).
                                                                                                                                                  liquids and gases.                                                    particle model that                                                                                                                         6. Pupils work in groups of about eight. Using their posters, they develop a role- are tightly packed together. The scientific explanation
                                   simple particle model to          models and analogies to        pupils’existing ideas on this subject.                                               liquids and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            goes one step further in recognising that there are bonds               Handout 2.5 'Scanning tunnelling microscope image of platinum'.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        accounts for the                                                                                                                            play to explain how solids, liquids and gases are different from each other.
                                   explain the physical              clarify explanations           To develop a shared view of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    between solid particles that hold them together. Thus it is             Poster paper and pens.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        properties that they                                                                                                                        Pupils relate the role-play to each of the features they have investigated,
                                   characteristics of solids,                                       characteristic properties of solids, liquids                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       impossible to push your hand through the desk. The                      Sheet 1.2 'Particle models of solids, liquids and gases.'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        have observed.                                                                                                                              explaining how their model accounts for the observations they have previously
                                   liquids and gases.                                               and gases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         bonds hold the particles together too strongly with some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    made.                                        Key questions to pose in moving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    towards a scientifically acceptable model for the three phases are:                kind of attractive force. Hold up a piece of wire and pull
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    How do we explain compressibility?                                                 hard on either end:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    How do we explain fluidity?                                                        ‘See, I’m pulling on the wire but I’m not strong enough to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What is in between the particles?                                                  snap it! I’m trying to pull apart the bonds between the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       particles but they’re too strong!’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Of course there are also bonds between the liquid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       particles but these are much weaker.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ‘Can anybody think of any evidence that water particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       are attracted to each other?‘
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pupils may suggest that water forms droplets, showing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Activity 2.2 Brownian motion                                                       The water particlesback on their ideas, showing their role-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that groups report hold together in a group, rather than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Show pupils a simulation of Brownian motion using a slide from Strengthening               plays, and the teacher draws upon features of pupils’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the teaching and learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science.                             models to generate an agreed class model to explain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This image may be elaborated by using smoke cells, or observing fine talc or               diffusion and expansion. This will be along the following
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  lycopodium powder on a drop of water through a microscope, or observing                    lines:1. Metal expansion When the stand is heated, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pollen grains on drops of water, as Robert Brown did, through a digital                    particles in the stand move around more and take up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  microscope.                                                                                more space (no new metal has been created to make the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The purpose of these images is to introduce the idea that particles are generally          stand longer). There is no expansion of individual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in a state of motion.                                                                      particles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Activity 2.3: Observing expansion and diffusion effects                                    2. Gas expansion When the gas is warmed, the particles            Sheet 2.1: ‘Expansion and diffusion: what happens?’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In this activity the pupils observe various phenomena involving expansion and              move around more quickly and take up more space.                  Brownian motion demonstration e.g. smoke cell.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Apply the particle                                                                                                                        diffusion. This will help pupils to recognise that the particles are moving and that       Some of the particles escape into the water, hence the            1. Metal expansion: A long needle (knitting needle) is held in a tall clamp stand
                                                                                                    To familiarise pupils with a range of
                                                                    1.1a1 (8) Describe more than                                                    To develop the particle model further in                            model to different                                   Lead a review of the particle model that was agreed by the class in the last         the rate of movement is dependent on temperature.                                          bubbles. This reinforces the idea that gas is matter and          so that it is horizontal with its tip balanced on a block.
                                                                                                    examples of diffusion and expansion
                                                                    one model to explain the                                                        order to explain the motion of the                                  situations, in particular                            lesson.                                                                              Pupils move around a circus of examples of expansion and diffusion and                     behaves just like the metal solid in ‘metal expansion’.           2. Gas expansion: Flask of air under water,
                                   3.2 (7) Sort some reactions                                      involving solids, liquids and gases.
                                                                    same phenomenon and                                                             particles in each state.                                            using ideas about the                                Key features of the model are:                                                       address questions on a prompt-sheet focusing on what happens in each case.                 3. Potassium manganate (VII) in water The crystal                 3. Potassium manganate (VII) in water: A crystal of potassium manganate (VII)
                                   into reversible and irreversible                                 To build up an agreed account of what                                                      Recognise examples
2   2   Extending the particle                                      discuss the strengths and                                                       To provide opportunities for pupils to                              movement of the                                      ●● particles are touching in the solid and liquid (not compressible) but are more Examples and rationale:                                                                       dissolves in the water and then the crystal particles             is placed into a beaker of warm water at the start of the circus.
                                   Recognise that new materials                                     happens for each example of diffusion and                                                  of diffusion and
        model                                                       weaknesses of the model.                                                        show that they can use the particle                                 particles.                                           widely spread out in the gas;                                                        1. Metal expansion: A long needle (knitting needle) is held in a tall clamp stand          intermingle continuously with the water particles. It seems       4. ‘Before and after’ potassium manganate (VII) in agar: the potassium
                                   are made during chemical                                         expansion.                                                                                 expansion in solids,
                                                                    Describe how the use of a                                                       model to generate explanations of two                               Model diffusion and                                  ●● particles are tightly packed in a regular arrangement in solids: the particles in so that it is horizontal with its tip balanced on a block.                                 that the two sets of particles must be moving around ‘of          manganate (VII) will diffuse slowly through the agar, so a sample would need to
                                   reactions                                                        To generate an agreed class explanation of                                                 liquids and gases.
                                                                    particular model or analogy                                                     new physical properties of matter –                                 expansion in terms of                                solids cannot move freely over each other (as they can in liquids);                  The stand (but not the needle) is heated. The expansion of the metal stand                 their own accord’ as ‘nothing is being done’ to the               be set up before the lesson.                  5. Blackcurrant cordial and orange
                                                                                                    diffusion and expansion in terms of
                                                                    supports an explanation                                                         diffusion and expansion.                                            a simple particle                                    ●● there is nothing between the particles in solids, liquids and gases.              causes the clamped end of the needle to rise so that the needle is no longer               beaker/water. This takes place in a matter of hours.              juice:
                                                                                                    particles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        model.                                                                                                                                    horizontal.                                                                                4. ‘Before and after’ potassium manganate (VII) in agar           6. Air freshener:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This shows the expansion of a solid when heated. Pupils will often be surprised            The potassium manganate (VII) particles intermingle               7. Red and blue water: Two containers contain the same volume of water (about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  that a solid, which they imagine to be‘unchangeable’, can expand. For this to              slowly with the gel particles when ‘nothing is being done’        1 litre). One has hot water, the other cold. Red and Blue food colourings.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  happen the particles must                                                                  to the agar.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  have moved in some way, as no new metal has been created to make the                       This can be seen in the course of 1 lesson, and gets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  stand longer.                                                                              more pronounced with time.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Gas expansion: Flask of air under water, warmed by the pupils, hands.                   5. Blackcurrant cordial and orange juice The blackcurrant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Alternatively use the two activities from Strengthening the teaching and learning          cordial and orange particles intermingle at the interface
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of particles in Key Stage 3                                                                between the liquids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  science – Handouts 2.12 A and B. These are more complex demonstrations                     6. Air freshener The air freshener particles intermingle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  involving the expansion of gases.                                                          with the air particles and gradually spread throughout the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Although pupils the idea that gas is matter and behaves like the metal by ice to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This reinforces will be very familiar with the change of state of water from               space.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Draw together key features of pupils’ models to develop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   water to steam, teachers may wish to demonstrate the process using a                      an explanation of phase change that is agreed by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   thermometer to follow the temperature at which phase changes occur. During                class:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the demonstration the teacher might pose the following questions:                         1. When the ice is heated, the particles vibrate more until
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Where is the water going? Where are the particles of water going? Do the                  the bonds between them break and the ice melts, turning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   particles just disappear? Can you see any evidence that the evaporated water              into water. As the ice is being heated its temperature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   is still in the room?’                                                                    does not rise: the heating is doing the work of breaking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ‘Why does the temperature of the ice not go above 0oC? Why does the                       the bonds between ice particles.
                                                                     1.1a1 (9) Describe the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        temperature of the water not go above 100 oC?’                                            2. When the water is heated, the water particles move
                                   3.1 (8) Apply and use the
                                                                     strengths and weaknesses of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   After the demonstration, use a range of other models to simulate what is                  around more quickly and the temperature of the water
                                   particle model to describe a
                                                                     a range of available models                                                                                                                        Model changes of                                                                                                                           happening to the particles. This will enable pupils to connect what they have             rises.
                                   range of physical
2   3                                                                and select the most            To introduce the properties associated with To model phase change in terms of the                                   state in terms of the                                                                                                                      observed to what is happening at the particle level. Such models could include            3. At about 100 ºC, the bonds between the water particles
        Changing state             observations. Apply and use
                                                                     appropriate. Explain why the   change of state.                            simple particle model                                                   simple particle model                                                                                                                      using polystyrene or other balls on a tray and applying a form of vibration to the        break down and the liquid water changes into gaseous
                                   this model to describe a
                                                                     manipulation of a model or                                                                                                                         of matter.                                                                                                                                 tray, either through a signal generator or loud speaker cone. Pupils need to see          steam. Although the water is being continuously heated at
                                   range of separation
                                                                     analogy might be needed to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a clear connection between the amount of energy put into a system and the                 100 ºC, the temperature does not rise further. The heating
                                   techniques.
                                                                     clarify explanations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          vibrational energy that is transferred to the particles.                                  at this point is doing the work of breaking the bonds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Demonstrate the making of popcorn to pupils.                                              between water particles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ask them to explain how this model can be used to represent the changes in                Pupils should be provided with opportunities to transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   state that they have observed.                                                            their understanding to new contexts. Provide groups of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ask pupils to identify any clear weaknesses of the model and make suggestions             pupils with different scenarios to explain, using the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   for improvement where appropriate.                                                        particle model. Here are some suggestions:-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ‘What you need to do now is to draw upon your particle ideas to explain, in as            1. Ice-cream melts at a higher temperature than ice. How
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   much detail as you can, what is happening as the ice melts to form water and              does the movement of the particles in these substances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the water boils to                                                                        compare at zero degrees centigrade?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pupils go round a circus of examples of change processes and address
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   questions on prompt sheets. The examples include physical and chemical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   changes, as well as mixing processes which do not include physical or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   chemical change. The prompts direct pupils towards changes in properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which indicate that a new substance is formed (and properties which can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   change when no new substance is formed). A key conclusion of the activity is
                                   3.2 (8) Recognise that                                                                                                                                      Recognise that a                                                                                                                                                    that it isn’t straightforward to tell by observation if new stuff is formed.
                                   materials can be made up of                                                                                                                                 change in some                                                                                                                                                      It is worth noting that we have not used the school science notion that physical
                                   one or more kinds of                                                                                                                                        properties might                                                                                                                                                    change is reversible but chemical change is not, because of the problems that
                                                                                                    To address a key problem: if we can’t tell by
                                   particles. Describe the type                                                                                                                                indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                             it leads to:                       how can you ‘reverse’ the change when wood is          The teacher collates pupils’ responses, identifying
                                                                                                    direct observation whether new stuff is                                                                            Appreciate that it is
                                   and arrangement of atoms in                                                                                                                                 is formed (e.g. taste,                                                                                                                                              filed to produce sawdust, or a block of chocolate melts to a sticky mess in a             properties that appear to give a ‘good’ indication that ‘new Sheet 4.1: ‘New stuff?’
        Is any new stuff formed?                                                                    formed, is there any way we can use our                                                                            very difficult to tell by
2   4                              elements, compounds and                                                                                                                                     colour), but that                                                                                                                                                   warm bag?                                                                                 stuff’ has formed, or ones that are ‘not so safe’ for           Magnesium ribbon, tongs, silver nitrate solution, sodium bromide solution, test
        Where does it come from?                                                                    particle model to help?                                                                                            direct observation
                                   mixtures. Describe and                                                                                                                                      changes in other                                                                                                                                                    The examples in the circus, and the rationale for choosing each one, are as               indicating that ‘new stuff’ has formed. This leads to the       tubes, beakers, salt (sodium chloride), spatulas, glass rods, orange squash (not
        Lesson 1                                                                                    To generate information about pupils’                                                                              whether new stuff has
                                   develop a particle model to                                                                                                                                 properties may not                                                                                                                                                  follows:                                                                                  idea that it is very difficult to identify by observation alone to drink), marble chips, pipettes, HCl.
                                                                                                    explanations of change and notions of                                                                              formed.
                                   explain the differences                                                                                                                                     indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                             1. Melting chocolate Physical change: resulting in change of shape.                       when new stuff has formed.
                                                                                                    matter.
                                   between the terms atoms,                                                                                                                                    is formed (e.g.                                                                                                                                                     Properties that remain the same include colour, consistency, and melting point.
                                   elements, compounds and                                                                                                                                     shape);                                                                                                                                                             The taste and texture may change depending upon the method of heating.
                                   mixtures.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       See the RSC publication Inspirational Chemistry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2. Burning magnesium Chemical change: resulting in change of properties like
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   colour, consistency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3. Making silver bromide: Chemical change: resulting in change of properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   like colour, but also state.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4. Dissolving salt Physical change: involving change in properties like colour,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   state, consistency, but not taste.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A common difficulty                                                                                            Demonstrates the formation of iron sulfide or other compounds made by direct              The worksheets ‘You’re the teacher!’ and the extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    that pupils have when                                                                                          combination. Details of these can be found in Strengthening the teaching and              sheet ‘Modelling dissolving’ are then used to provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    first introduced to                                                                                            learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science, handout 3.12, to illustrate how             opportunities for pupils to practise using the new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particle                                                                                                       changes in key properties can indicate that new stuff has formed.                         terminology.                      Experience suggests that
                                                                                                                                                                                               Recognise a broader                                                                                                                                                 a. Teacher demonstration: making iron sulfide                                             pupils will find it particularly difficult to learn to use this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    representations of
                                                                                                                                                                                               range of key                                                                                                                                                        The formation of iron sulfide has long been used to introduce the notion of               new terminology and to describe change processes. in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chemical change is
                                                                                                                                                                                               properties and                                                                                                                                                      chemical change. It has the advantage of involving reactants and products in              terms of changes in bonding between atoms. During
                                                                                                    To demonstrate how changes in key                                                                                                               that they assume that
                                                                                                                                                                                               changes which                                                                                                                                                       one phase.                                                                                subsequent lessons this process of using visual and
                                   3.1 (9) Evaluate and refine the                                  properties (e.g. magnetic attraction) can                                                                                                       changes in properties
                                                                                                                                                                                               indicate that new stuff                                                                                                                                             Furthermore, the stoichiometry of the reaction enables simple diagrams of the             verbal representations of particles to describe change will
                                   particle model to explain a                                      indicate that new stuff has formed.                                                                                                             are due to changes in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sheet 4.2: ‘Iron and sulfur’.
                                                                                                                                                                                               may have formed;        Attempt to model                                      Recap pupils’ responses from previous lesson, identifying properties that             interaction of the particles to be drawn.                                                 need constant reinforcement.
        Is any new stuff formed?   range of physical                                                To introduce pupils to formal definitions of    To allow pupils to model a chemical                                                             the particles                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Worksheet 4.3: ‘Definitions’
2   5                                                                                                                                                                                          Appreciate the          chemical change with                                  appear to give a ‘good’ indication that ‘new stuff’ has formed, or ones that are      Provide samples of coarse iron filings and sulfur for pupils who note key                 Through the worksheets, pupils return to the examples of
        Where does it come from?   observations. Evaluate and                                       substance, element and compound.                change for the first time using a simple                                                        themselves, rather                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Worksheet 4.4a: ‘You’re the teacher!’
                                                                                                                                                                                               meaning of the terms different kinds of                                       ‘not so safe’ for indicating that ‘new stuff’ has formed. This leads to the idea that properties, particularly that iron is attracted to a magnet but sulfur is not.            change processes met at the beginning of the lesson.
        Lesson 2                   refine the particle model to                                     To allow pupils the opportunity to use this     particle model.                                                                                 than the way in which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Worksheet 4.4b: ‘Modelling dissolving’
                                                                                                                                                                                               substance, element      particles.                                            it is very difficult to identify by observation alone when new stuff has formed.      Demonstrate the reaction by heating a spatula of iron filings mixed with a                They are presented with pieces of written work by
                                   explain a range of separation                                    new terminology appropriately in terms                                                                                                          they are combined                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Iron fillings, Sulfur, ignition tube, magnet.
                                                                                                                                                                                               and compound;                                                                                                                                                       spatula of sulfur in a pyrex tube. The resulting ‘stuff’ is grey: it is not a metal and   fictitious pupils. Working together, they have to identify
                                   techniques.                                                      of the models of change processes that                                                                                                          (e.g. ‘yellow sulfur
                                                                                                                                                                                               Attempt to use the                                                                                                                                                  it is not sulfur. It is no longer attracted to a magnet. These changes give a ‘good       errors in the language used by the fictitious pupils, and
                                                                                                    they have met so far in this unit.                                                                                                              particles change into
                                                                                                                                                                                               terms in the context of                                                                                                                                             indication’ that new stuff has been formed.                                               suggest alternatives.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    grey iron sulfide
                                                                                                                                                                                               particle models that                                                                                                                                                b. Modelling iron sulfide formation                                                       As an extension task, pupils are presented with an activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particles’). This will
                                                                                                                                                                                               they have developed.                                                                                                                                                The worksheet ‘Iron and Sulfur’ supports the modelling of the reaction of iron            in which they generate visual and verbal models of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    need to be addressed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    explicitly when the                                                                                            and sulfur. At this stage in the lesson, pupils are asked to make links between           process of dissolving sugar. They should be shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    particle model is                                                                                              the particle model of matter developed in the lessons on physical change, and             concrete examples of dissolving first, before they attempt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    introduced.                                                                                                    their observations of the properties of matter in chemical change. Introduce a            to visualise how the particles are arranged. Pupils will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   wider range of models that pupils can use to explain what has happened to the             need to be reminded of the arrangement of particles in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The worksheet ‘Looking at properties’ is used first. This is a circus activity in         This plenary session could be organised in a variety of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which pupils examine samples of elements, photographs of elements, and                    ways (whole-class quiz, teams, etc.). Good prompting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   writing about elements.                                                                   questions include:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The aim is to enable pupils to become accustomed to using the new term                    ‘Think about its appearance/how it is made: is there any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   element in relation to familiar and unfamiliar substances. One compound is also           evidence for more than one substance?’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   included to remind pupils that both elements and compounds are examples of                ‘Do you know this substance’s chemical name/think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   substances. Pupils use a range of different models to demonstrate their ideas             about the chemical name: is there any evidence for more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   about what these substances look like (see Strengthening the teaching and                 than one kind of particle in its structure?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science Handouts 3.5 and 3.6. Pupils are             ’'Tell me why’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   provided with a prompt sheet to focus their attention as they review the                  In this activity, pupils have the opportunity to use the new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   examples.                          The examples, and the rationale for their              terminology and ‘rules of thumb’ to identify and distinguish      Sheet 5.1: Looking at properties.
                                                                                                    To establish a common understanding of                                                                                                                                                                                                                         selection, are as follows:                                                                between some substances (particularly compounds) and              Samples, pictures or descriptions of the following chemicals clearly labelled with
                                                                                                    the terms substance, element and                                                           Use the terms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mixtures.               Present examples of elements,             their names:
                                                                                                    compound, and an agreed way of                                                             substance, element                                                                                                                                                   Calcium chloride This is a compound; the name suggests that it consists of               mixtures and compounds.                                           Calcium Chloride
                                                                                                    representing the particles in elements,                                                    and compound, and                                                                                                                                                    more than one kind of particle                                                           Pupils have to say whether each one is an element,                gold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Begin with a plenary review of the particle, and verbal descriptions of
2   6   Substance, element,                                                                         substances and compounds.                                                                  their associated                                                                                                                                                     Gold Familiar material; element; metal                                                   mixture or compound, and explain why using appropriate            uranium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             substance/mixture, molecule, element/compound, physical/chemical change
        compound                                                                                    To familiarise pupils with some well-known                                                 particle                                                                                                                                                             Uranium Material possibly familiar as a ‘scientific material’; element                   language.                                                         oxygen gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             introduced previously.
                                                                                                    elements and compounds, highlighting key                                                   representations, with                                                                                                                                                Oxygen gas Familiar name; non-metal, gaseous element                                     The examples suggested, and the rationale for choosing            nitrogen gas
                                                                                                    properties and features of nomenclature                                                    increasing                                                                                                                                                           Nitrogen gas As above                                                                    these, are as follows:                                            chlorine gas
                                                                                                    that indicate whether they are elements or                                                 confidence.                                                                                                                                                          Chlorine gas As above                                                                    Soil: Many pupils will know that soil is a mixture of sand,       calcium
                                                                                                    compounds.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Calcium Familiar material; element; metal; can be contrasted with calcium                water, organic matter…                                            iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chloride                                                                                 Sand Mixture: pupils may refer to the different colour of         sulfur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Iron Familiar material; element; metal                                                   grains, the fact that sand is made as different coloured
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sulfur Familiar non-metallic element.                                                    stones erode…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The prompt questions used by pupils, and their purpose, are as follows:                  Orange juice Mixture: Pupils may refer to the contents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             labelling on boxes of orange juice. This example allows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Does it have a name including two ‘scientific’ words?                                    the teacher to distinguish between the meanings of ‘pure’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Introducing pupils to the idea that chemical nomenclature is related to the              used in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chemical structure of substances, and that the name may indicate that the                everyday language and chemistry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    substance is made of more than one kind of particle.                                     Milk Mixture: Pupils may refer to the fact that milk contains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Is it a metal? Is it a gas? Is it neither a metal nor a gas?                             protein and calcium, or refer to the separation of milk and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In this activity, upon later, asked discussing the fact that most elements familiar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is drawn pupils are when to construct particle and verbal representations           cream at the top of the bottle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pairs of pupils then come together to compare, contrast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the structure of matter during change processes and to describe these in              and review each others’ representations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    terms of substance/element/mixture/compound/physical and chemical change                 No attempt is made to model the structure of the nitrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in order to revise the use of the new terminology and representations.                   ion at this stage. Furthermore, given their complexity, no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pupils are then presented with a new chemical change process to model,                   attempt is made to represent the structure of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    which involves a phase change.                                                           aqueoussolutions. Teachers may, however, choose to do
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examples of these could be:                                                              this with certain groups as an extensionactivity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● burning magnesium ribbon or any other metal in air;                                   The teacher reviews models produced by pupils, drawing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● burning a splint – emphasising that it is made from carbon and hydrogen;              out salient features. An agreed, shared model is
                                                                                                                                                                                               Use the terms                                                                                                                                                        ●● displacing copper from copper sulfate solution with iron or zinc;                     generated for each example.
                                                                                                                                                                                               substance, element,                                                                                                                                                  ●● displacing hydrogen from an acid using a metal.                                       Silver nitrate solution: Salient features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                               molecule, mixture,                                                                                                                                                   Working in pairs, pupils are asked to generate sentences to describe the                 ●● It is a solution                                               Silver nitrate solution, sodium chloride solution, silver chloride powder.
                                                                                                                                                                                               compound, physical                                                                                                                                                   change processes, involving the terms substance, element, molecule, mixture,             ●● It contains water, silver and nitrate particles                magnesium ribbon;
        Modelling chemical                                                                          Revise and consolidate the use of                                                          change and chemical                                                                                                                                                  compound, physical change and chemical change. For example in the case of
2   7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ●● Because it is a liquid, the particles are touching, but        splint and matches
        changes involving phase                                                                     terminology and representations introduced                                                 change, and their                                                                                                                                                    burning magnesium ribbon in air, pupils might report:                                    not bonded.                                                       displacing copper from copper sulfate solution with iron or zinc;
        change                                                                                      so far in this unit.                                                                       associated                                                                                                                                                           ●● two substances were heated together, magnesium and oxygen;                            ●● It will be necessary to discuss issues of size and             displacing hydrogen from an acid using a metal.
                                                                                                                                                                                               representations, to                                                                                                                                                  ●● magnesium and oxygen are elements;                                                    scale with pupils.                                                Sheet 6.1.
                                                                                                                                                                                               explain simple                                                                                                                                                       ●● oxygen is found in the air, which is a mixture of gases;                              Sodium chloride solution: Salient features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                               physical and chemical                                                                                                                                                ●● after the oxygen and magnesium had reacted, a new substance formed,                   ●● It is a solution
                                                                                                                                                                                               change processes.                                                                                                                                                    magnesium oxide;                                                                         ●● It contains water, silver and nitrate particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● magnesium oxide is a compound, because it is made of atoms from two                   ●● Because it is a liquid, the particles are touching, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    different elements;                                                                      not bonded.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ●● this is a chemical reaction, because a new substance has formed.                      ●● It will be necessary to discuss issues of size and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The teacher then briefly demonstrates a familiar chemical change: the                    scale with pupils.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    precipitation of silver chloride when solutions of silver nitrate and sodium             Silver chloride solid powder: Salient features to draw out:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chloride are mixed.                                                                      ●● It is a solid substance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Strengthening the teaching and learning of particles in Key Stage 3 science –            ●● It is a compound
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Handout 4.12 may be used in conjunction with the handouts here.                          ●● The particles are touching and bonded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    After watching the demonstration, pupils work in pairs to produce a visual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A. The procedure of inflating and weighing a balloon is then carried out. Pupils
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             now generate models, involving particles, to address the question: why does
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the mass of the balloon increase? For many pupils, the fact that ‘air makes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             things heavier’ is highly counter-intuitive: surely inflated balloons get lighter and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             float upwards? This problem often relates to pupils not appreciating the
                                                                                                             There is considerable                                                                                           distinction between mass and density. During this activity, teachers can make
                                                                                                             evidence that pupils                                                                                            explicit this problem with pupils by asking questions. Some ways of opening up
                                                                                                             find it difficult to                                                                                            problems, and dealing with them, are suggested below:
                                                                                                             appreciate that matter                                                                                          1. Pupils expect that adding a gas to a balloon makes it lighter (or not to change
                                                                                                             and mass are                                                                                                    its mass).
                                                                                                             conserved in change                                                                                             How come the inflated balloon is heavier than the empty one?
                                                                                                             processes,                                                                                                      ‘Think about all the air particles that you’re adding:
                                                                                    Explain the              particularly those                                                                                              the particles must weigh something’.
                                                                                    conservation of mass     involving gases. Many                                                                                           2. Pupils think that the air particles in the balloon ‘just float there’, so don’t add
                                      To make the conservation of substance                                                            Begin with a ‘predict-observe-explain’ activity: pupils initially predict what will                                                                                                                                                     The Sheets ‘Weighing air’ and ‘What happens to the weight?’ can be used to
          Understanding                                                             in terms of changes in   pupils do not focus on                                                                                          mass.
                                      and conservation of mass plausible to                                                            happen to the mass of a balloon when it is inflated. The process is not a                                                                                                    The teacher demonstrates the changes and works with        support
2    8    conservation of matter in                                                 particles;               matter in the gas                                                                                               Remember the sealed syringe filled with air, and how we could push the air
                                      pupils, particularly in change processes                                                         physical or chemical change, enabling attention to focus on the mass of gases.                                                                                               pupils to generate agreed explanations of the              this activity. Baloons, sensitive balance, conical flasks, beakers, marble chips,
          chemical change through                                                   Appreciate how mass      phase during change                                                                                             particles closer together? Would that make the syringe heavier?
                                      involving changes into, and out of, the gas                                                      Once the mass of air in a balloon has been dealt with, conservation of mass in                                                                                               conservation of mass in terms of particle representations. HCl, magnesium ribbon, crucible with lid, matches, salt, silver nitrate solution,
          modelling                                                                 is conserved in          processes. Even                                                                                                 What if we could cool the air tomake liquid air? What would it weigh then?
                                      phase.                                                                                           physical and chemical change processes involving gases is addressed.                                                                                                                                                                    sodium chloride solution.
                                                                                    changes into, and out    when gases are                                                                                                  Supposing you evaporate water to steam: will it loose its mass? Where will the
                                                                                    of, the gas phase.       focused upon, they                                                                                              mass come from when steam condenses on a cold window?
                                                                                                             are often thought to                                                                                            The purpose of these questions is to get pupils to think through the logically the
                                                                                                             have zero mass or                                                                                               implication that phase change between the liquid and gas phases involves
                                                                                                             negative mass                                                                                                   mass change.
                                                                                                             (‘bubbles make things                                                                                           3. Pupils think that air is ‘just nothing’.
                                                                                                             lighter’). This is true                                                                                         Show pupils how water does not enter an inverted glass beaker when it is
                                                                                                             for both physical and                                                                                           pushed into water.
                                                                                                             chemical changes.                                                                                               Ask: How come the water doesn’t fill the beaker?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             This activity aims to make plausible to pupils the fact that air and gases in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             general are ‘something’ rather than ‘nothing’.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             B. Pupils now practise modelling change processes involving gas in terms of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             particles, and explain how mass is conserved. The teacher initially
2    9                                                                                                                                                                                                                       demonstrates four examples, three
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This spreadsheet may help in the planning of your new KS3 SoW. The National Strategy's Planning Tool is available at http://www.s

Sheet 'HSW' contains the How Science Works Framework objectives for reference. Sheet 'Range' includes the Framework's Range

                        Making Use of the KS3 Science Developer Tool for planning and auditing schemes of learning:

The 'Medium Term Plan' sheet enables you to broadly plan the outline of a year's worth or Key Stage worth of lessons - simply re-n
Under this planning outline you have the Year 7, 8 and 9 HSW and Range yearly learning objectives (YLOs) from the framework, to
Use the links at top and bottom of sheet to move up and down easily and quickly.

Selecting YLOs and checking curriculum coverage:
Click on cell D4 and you will see a small arrow appear. Click on the arrow and you will have a list of all the first lines of the yr 7-9 Ra
Clicking in cells E4 and F4 enables you to add How Science works objectives in the same way.
You can then type a broad lesson title in cell C4.
Returning to the foot of the sheet (rows 373 on) you can now see that there are counters showing the number of times that each obj
You can either enter YLOs against each lesson in your scheme, or it is probably easier and more appropriate to indicate which YLO

Checking and planning progression:
You may like to Audit your work to ensure you have made progression through the objectives. Click on the 'Audit Now' button at the
Y7 objectives are lighter than Y9 ones! Scroll down the sheet to see if you have suitable progression and a suitable spread of when

Using the Tool to help complete your short term plans:
Once you have inserted a few objectives and lesson titles into the first topic area on the Medium Term Planner sheet, click on the 'S

You should now see that all your work has been copied over - the Framework objectives and your broad lesson titles are all in place
These cells (with green background) are protected so you cannot alter them (for your own protection), except from the medium term
If you scroll to the right you will see numerous columns - add extra columns of your own choosing, or change the titles if you so wish

Incorporating existing topics/lessons:
If you wish to incorporate any of your existing KS3 lessons you can copy and paste them into the relevant cells. To avoid potential f
You can also include hyperlinks to resources/websites etc.

Generating lesson plans for printing:
To generate a conventional-looking series of lesson plans from this you need the Word file: 'KS3 Lesson Template for Mail Merge'
This Word file is set up to mail merge off this spreadsheet so when you go through the mail merge process you can generate a year
When you open the Word File you may have to locate this spreadsheet for the PC (depends where you saved it) and then select 'Sh

Adding further columns to the spreadsheet means that you will have to choose to update the file during the mail merge process. Yo

To start the Mail Merge simply go to Tools>Letters and Mailings>Mail Merge when you are in the word Document.
I have put all the fields in place so keep clicking 'Next' in the bottom right corner and you should end up with all the lessons in a new
To generate the individual lessons select edit individual letters on the 6th step of the mail merge process and you can select an indiv
As the plans are then saved into a conventional word file you may edit them and include hyperlinks to resources etc.
Strategy's Planning Tool is available at http://www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/secondary/framework/

ce. Sheet 'Range' includes the Framework's Range&Content objectives. Similar sheets for PLTS and SEAL objectives.

 nning and auditing schemes of learning:

 s worth or Key Stage worth of lessons - simply re-number the lessons to divide into topics of your desired length.
 learning objectives (YLOs) from the framework, together with PLTS (Personal Learning and Thinking Skills) and SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of L



u will have a list of all the first lines of the yr 7-9 Range objectives from the framework. Click on one to choose it.


ounters showing the number of times that each objective has been used to enable you to get an overview of where you are focusing, identifying any gaps
easier and more appropriate to indicate which YLOs will be covered in a complete unit of work.


e objectives. Click on the 'Audit Now' button at the top of the page and follow the menus. The key is shown at the top right.
uitable progression and a suitable spread of when you revisit skills and content. Clicking the 'Clear Audit' button removes the colours.


on the Medium Term Planner sheet, click on the 'Short Term Planner' tab.

ectives and your broad lesson titles are all in place in the light green squares.
your own protection), except from the medium term plan sheet.
ur own choosing, or change the titles if you so wish in order to match the format of your school’s short term plans.


te them into the relevant cells. To avoid potential formatting problems it is best to paste into the cell editing bar at the top of the sheet once you have high



 Word file: 'KS3 Lesson Template for Mail Merge'
 h the mail merge process you can generate a year's, KS or topics worth of lesson plans off the spreadsheet with a couple of mouse clicks .
C (depends where you saved it) and then select 'Short Term Plan' to make it work.

 update the file during the mail merge process. You may also wish to adjust the word template to reflect the elements you want to see in your short term le

n you are in the word Document.
nd you should end up with all the lessons in a new word File ready to be printed/amended.
he mail merge process and you can select an individual lesson, a whole topic or the whole key stage. Save the file (default ‘letters’ under an appropriate n
nclude hyperlinks to resources etc.
kills) and SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning) - see rows 373 onwards. (These are also included on the first 4 pages of the spreadsheet and




 w of where you are focusing, identifying any gaps or areas that are not well covered.




 t' button removes the colours.




 ting bar at the top of the sheet once you have highlighted the relevant cell.




 heet with a couple of mouse clicks .


  the elements you want to see in your short term lessons plans.




Save the file (default ‘letters’ under an appropriate name e.g. topic title).
cluded on the first 4 pages of the spreadsheet and you may find it useful to print these for reference when selecting YLOs from the drop down lists).
en selecting YLOs from the drop down lists).

								
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