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									        BEIT 336
BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
      STUDY NOTES




        Adapted from:
      SANDRA J. NELSON
    SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
  INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
    TERRE HAUTE, INDIANA
          Revised 2008
                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                                  Page
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... iv
Chapter 1 – Orientation to Business Reports
        Report Classifications .............................................................................................................................. 2
        Report Definitions .................................................................................................................................... 3

Chapter 2 – Techniques of Readable Writing and
Chapter 3 – Qualities of Effective Report Writing
       Audience Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 5
       Audience Memory Curve ......................................................................................................................... 6
       Paragraph Development ........................................................................................................................... 7
                Sample Paragraph ...................................................................................................................... 7
                Transitions ................................................................................................................................. 7
       Informal Report Introductory Paragraph(s) .............................................................................................. 9
                Sample of an Informal Report Introduction ............................................................................... 9
       Informal Report Closing Paragraph(s) ................................................................................................... 10

Chapter 5 – Determining the Problem and Planning the Investigation
       Problem Statement ................................................................................................................................. 12
       Scope (Factors)....................................................................................................................................... 13

Chapter 8 – Organizing Information and Constructing the Outline
       Content Outlines..................................................................................................................................... 15
               Formal Report Content Outlines .............................................................................................. 15
               Informal Report Content Outline ............................................................................................. 16
       Arrangement of Ideas ............................................................................................................................. 17
       Report Headings ..................................................................................................................................... 18
               Report Heading Formats .......................................................................................................... 18
       Report Header or Footer ......................................................................................................................... 18

Chapter 11 – Constructing Short and Special Reports
       Informative Reports ............................................................................................................................... 20
                 Sample Informative Report ...................................................................................................... 22
       Feasibility Reports ................................................................................................................................. 23
                 Sample Feasibility Report (Deductive) .................................................................................... 24
       Justification Reports ............................................................................................................................... 26
                 Sample Justification Report ..................................................................................................... 27
       Progress Reports..................................................................................................................................... 28
                 Sample Progress Report ........................................................................................................... 29
       Recommendation Reports ...................................................................................................................... 30
                 Sample Recommendation Report (Inductive) .......................................................................... 31
                 Sample Recommendation Report (Modified Deductive) ......................................................... 32
       Developing an Effective Oral Presentation with Visual Aids ................................................................ 33

Chapter 12 – Physical Presentation of Reports
       Report Formatting .................................................................................................................................. 36
       Sample Standard Business letter Format – Block Style ......................................................................... 37
       Sample Standard Business Letter Format – Modified Block Style with Blocked Paragraphs ............... 38
       Sample Memorandum Format ................................................................................................................ 39
       Sample Manuscript Format .................................................................................................................... 40
       Formatting Guidelines for the Formal Report ........................................................................................ 41
Chapter 13 – Documentation and the Bibliography
       Reference Citations – APA .................................................................................................................... 44

Chapter 14 – Graphics for Reports
       Formal Graphic Aid Presentation ........................................................................................................... 46
               Table ....................................................................................................................................... 46
               Charts or Figures ...................................................................................................................... 47
       Informal Graphic Aid Presentation ........................................................................................................ 48
               Sample Informal Graphic Aid Presentation ............................................................................. 48
                                              1



CHAPTER 1 – ORIENTATION TO BUSINESS REPORTS
                                                                                                                    2


                                     REPORT CLASSIFICATIONS
To gain an understanding of the larger concept of report writing, it is important to recognize that reports can be
classified in several ways. Reports can be classified or categorized by readership, time, authorization, purpose
or function, formality, writing style, method, and arrangement of ideas. Thus, the topic of report writing is more
complex than might be realized at first. In this class, we will explore that complexity.

First, reports can be classified according to the audience or reader. Report readers can be internal (within the
company) or external (outside the company). In addition, the internal audience can be classified by direction.
You may write to a boss (upward), a colleague on your level (parallel), or a subordinate (downward). Your
language, content, and format could change with the reader. For example, with a reader at your level of
responsibility, you would be more casual (and use the memo format). However, if the internal reader is your
superior, you might be more formal (using memo or letter format). The formality with a subordinate is
dependent upon the situation and company custom (letter or memo). External messages to a client, however,
usually call for more formality in language and format (letter instead of memo format).

Second, reports can be classified according to time; such as, annual, progress, or monthly (weekly, etc.) reports.

Third, reports are often categorized by authorization. When you decide to send a report, that report could be
termed ―self-initiated.‖ A self-initiated report frequently requires more background information. You must
provide enough background information to bring the reader ―up to speed‖ on the topic. However, if someone
else asks you to write a report, that report is termed ―assigned.‖ An assigned report may or may not require
lengthy background information since, in some instances, the person who assigned the report may be familiar
with the topic.

Fourth, identifying the purpose or function provides another classification. Reports are classified basically as
informative or analytical. An informative report includes facts, but does not include an analysis of those facts.
On the other hand, an analytical report includes facts, analyses, and recommendations.

Fifth, reports can be classified on a continuum from formal to informal. The most formal report format is the
manuscript with several prefatory parts and the most informal format is the memorandum. Note, the letter
format is more formal than the memo format. As you move from formal to informal reports, the format
changes (moves from manuscript to letter to memorandum), the parts (or sections) change (no prefatory parts in
the more informal format), and the writing style changes (frequently from impersonal to personal). Most
frequently a memo is sent to an internal reader, a letter is sent to an external reader, and a manuscript is sent to
either an internal or external reader. However, depending on the audience and the formality desired,
memoranda, letters, and manuscripts can be sent to internal or external readers.

Sixth, we can look at reports by writing style. In a formal report, the writer often writes in the impersonal or
third person writing style. On the other hand, as the format becomes more informal, writers switch to the
personal writing style using personal pronouns.

Seventh, reports may be classified by method. Very simply, we prepare either written or oral reports.

Eighth, reports are classified by the arrangement of the ideas in the report. While the textbook authors discuss
indirect and direct order of ideas, we will add one more category, the modified deductive (see textbook and
study notes on chapter 8 for a discussion on the arrangement of ideas). Conducting an audience analysis helps
you determine the arrangement of ideas that should be used to approach readers more effectively.
                                                                                                                      3


                                         REPORT DEFINITIONS
In BEIT 336, you will write various types of reports. For a better understanding of report writing, it is
important for you to know the definitions of frequently-written reports. Therefore, you are responsible for
knowing the following definitions:

Feasibility report: A report where two or more alternative options are compared. See sample in the packet.

Justification report: In a justification report, the writer presents one decision or solution to a problem and
provides a rationale for that solution. See sample in the packet.

Proposal: In a proposal, the writer indicates a willingness or desire to do a project. In such a report, the writer
outlines the project and asks for approval.

Policy, procedures, and instructions: A policy is the philosophy or goal of a company--the ―what.‖
Procedures are the general ―how‖ to carry out the policy, and instructions are the specific ―how‖ to carry out the
procedures. Depending on the need, a report could include all three areas (the policy, the procedures, and the
instructions) or just one area. See sample in the packet.

Executive summary, synopsis, precis, epitome: These four terms mean a condensed version of the entire
report.

Audit: An audit report contains the results of a systematic investigation of almost any company-related area
(financial, production, marketing, accounting, etc.)

Annual report: An annual report is a report to corporate stockholders--required by government and used as a
public relations tool.

Minutes: An official written record of events at a meeting is called the minutes of the meeting.

Performance appraisal: A performance appraisal is the written assessment of an employee used for retention,
promotion, pay increases and to the employee to improve.

Progress: A progress report is written to keep the authorizer informed about the status of a project for a
particular time frame. See sample in the packet.
                                                    4


 CHAPTER 2 – TECHNIQUES OF READABLE WRITING and
CHAPTER 3 – QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE REPORT WRITING
                                                                                                                  5


                                         AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
At the beginning of the report process, the writer conducts an audience analysis. The purpose of an audience
analysis is to determine how to approach the reader(s) for the best results.

Before starting an audience analysis, the writer must determine the purpose of the message. For example, does
the writer want to inform, to persuade, or to present an analysis of a situation or problem? The purpose of the
message must be extremely clear to the writer. If the purpose of the message is not clear to the writer, the writer
will not be able to convey that purpose to the reader.

When conducting an audience analysis, the writer determines the following:

        Identify the primary reader of the message. Is the primary reader your superior, a colleague at the
         same level as you, or a subordinate? Is the reader a decision maker?
        Identify the secondary reader or readers. Again, what is the relationship of the secondary reader(s) to
         the writer?
        Determine the demographics of the primary and secondary reader(s). Demographics are the statistics
         concerning the reader(s) such as age, education, gender, or income level.
        Determine the psychographics of the primary and secondary reader(s). Psychographics refers to the
         attitudes of the reader(s) toward you and your topic. While attitudes are important, psychographics
         includes more areas. For example, the beliefs and values held by the reader(s) could influence actions.
        Analyze the extent of the topic knowledge held by the reader(s). In other words, how much
         background of the topic must the writer provide before progressing to the basic message?
         Categorize the message expectations of the reader(s), to the extent possible. What are the readers
         expecting to read and see? To get a good idea of reader expectations, review your assignment and
         review company custom for such messages. Reader expectations could determine content, length of
         report, language, and formality.

Once the audience analysis is complete, the writer will have a better idea of whether to approach the reader or
readers using a direct or indirect logical arrangement of content. In addition, the writer will have a better
understanding of the basic content to include, the language level to aid the reader(s) in understanding the
content, and the formality necessary to satisfy the reader(s) and company custom.
                                                                                                                6


                                  AUDIENCE MEMORY CURVE

Research results indicate that there is a pattern to remembering facts. We know that readers remember first what
is placed first (called primacy), remember second what is placed last (called recency), and remember least what
is placed in the middle. How can we use this information in effective writing?

We use this information when organizing information in reports, paragraphs, and sentences. To take advantage
of the concept, place important information at the beginning of the report (direct and modified direct
arrangement of ideas) or at the end (indirect arrangement of ideas). Do not bury important information in the
middle of the report.

The same concept holds true when writing paragraphs. A well-developed paragraph in business messages
contains a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and summary and/or transition sentences. In this arrangement
the topic sentence serves the concept of primacy and the summary sentence serves the concept of recency.
Again, don’t bury important information in the middle of the paragraph.

We can adjust the arrangement of sentences to fit the memory curve also. By writing sentences using the active
voice, we take advantage of primacy. Furthermore, avoid burying important information in the middle of a long
sentence. Use active voice and shorter sentences to take advantage of the memory curve.
                                                                                                                7


                                         PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT
Paragraphs contain sentences that develop one idea. In other words, the sentences in a paragraph are related by
idea. The topic sentence is the main or general idea for the paragraph, and the remaining sentences support the
topic sentence and send the reader on to the next paragraph. The topic sentence may be placed at the beginning,
at the end, or in the middle of the paragraph. In addition, the topic sentence may be only implied. For this
class, place the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. A well-developed paragraph should,
therefore, contain the following:
                             TOPIC SENTENCE
                            +SUPPORTING SENTENCES
                            +SUM-UP AND/OR TRANSITION SENTENCE

                                                Sample Paragraph

Topic sentence:            The Jones Rug Shampoo product should meet your carpet cleaning needs.
Supporting sentences:      The rug cleaner can be used with any Rug Bright machine. One gallon of the cleaner
                           will clean over 450 square feet of carpet. Also, the cleaner will not harm the
                           operator’s skin and is environmentally safe. The cost of $10 per gallon is lower than
                           any competitor’s price.
Sum-up and transition
sentence(s):               Jones Rug Shampoo is versatile, long lasting, safe, and cost effective. In addition to
                           the rug shampoo, the Jones Company produces a glass cleaner.

Next paragraph:            The windows in your office--------

                                                  Transitions

Transitions link ideas and help develop unity and coherence in the report. With unity and coherence, the reader
is encouraged to read the report from the beginning to the end. Transitions can be words, phrases, paragraphs,
or sentences. Although transition paragraphs are important and useful, we will concentrate on transition words,
phrases, and sentences in this section. Caution: Avoid using too many transitions. When you use too many
transitions, you will clutter your writing and be repetitious.

Words and Phrases

While words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs can be transitions, you are probably most familiar with
transition words and phrases. A few transitional words and phrases are listed below:

                  Furthermore                         As a result
                  Therefore                           For example
                  However                             For instance
                  First, second, third                As a result
                  Next                                Since then
                  Finally                             As an illustration
                  Also                                In addition
                  Too                                 On the other hand

As you know, there are additional transitional words and phrases that may be used to connect ideas. In addition
to words and phrases, transition sentences are important in the development of coherence.

Sentences

Transition sentences may be forward or backward references. The forward reference is placed at the end of a
paragraph or section and provides a subtle hint of the topic of the next paragraph or section (avoid such wording
as ―In the next paragraph I will discuss‖). A backward reference is placed at the beginning of a paragraph in
                                                                                                              8

combination with the topic sentence and provides a connection to the previous idea. Do not place a forward
reference and a backward reference back-to-back. A sample of backwards and forwards transition follows:

     While the Rug Bright machine operates with any rug cleaner, the Jones Rug Shampoo product is a
     superior product (backward reference and topic sentence). The Jones Rug Shampoo can be used with any
     carpet-cleaning machine. One gallon of the cleaner will cover over 650 square feet of carpet. Also, the
     cleaner will not harm the operator’s skin and is environmentally safe. The cost of $10 per gallon is lower
     than any competitor’s price. Jones Rug Shampoo is versatile, long lasting, safe, and cost effective. In
     addition to the rug shampoo, the Jones Company produces a glass cleaner (forward reference).
                                                                                                                    9


                 INFORMAL REPORT INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH(S)
All reports have an introduction, body (the presentation of data), and closing, and the content of these sections
depend on a combination of the topic, formality, reader, and company custom. Therefore, in the introductory
paragraph(s), the writer determines which items to include by assessing the reader, considering the formality,
considering the topic, and considering company custom.

Depending on the situation, audience analysis, and company custom, the introduction of an informal report,
such as a memorandum, could include the following items:

                  Authorization*
                  Larger picture of problem
                  What you did*
                  Why you did it*
                  Areas of information investigated and/or dates (scope)*
                  How information gathered*
                  Criteria for decisions
                  Shortcomings (limitations)
                  Preview of report contents*

*These items are frequently included in an informal report introduction.

Sample of an Informal Report Introduction

As you requested (AUTHORIZATION), I investigated the family leave employee benefit after Union Local #5
indicated the addition of this topic in contract negotiations (WHAT AND WHY). To gather information on
family leave benefits, I ran computer database searches at Cunningham Memorial Library (HOW). This report
includes information on the current status of federal and Indiana family leave legislation and statistics gathered
from companies that responded to surveys on family leave benefits (AREAS OF INFORMATION
INVESTIGATED AND REPORT PREVIEW).
                                                                                                               10


                      INFORMAL REPORT CLOSING PARAGRAPH(S)
A closing is included at the end of an informal report. The closing is a signal to the reader that the writer is
finished and is an opportunity for the writer to summarize the main points, express goodwill, ask for feedback,
and/or provide contact numbers. Consider the reader when writing the closing--who is the reader and what is
your relationship to the reader. The tone of the closing should be friendly and positive (not harsh or
demanding), and you should not thank the reader (thank the reader after the reader has done something
requiring an expression of gratitude).

Include a summary in the closing if the report is lengthy or contains complex ideas or data. In addition, you
may include a summary to take advantage of the memory curve. If you include a summary (to provide
recency), remember that a summary is a brief restatement of the main facts discussed in the message section of
the report. Do not include new information in the summary. Finally, the summary should be short. A sample
of an informal closing follows:

         The Jones cleaning products will meet your needs. The Rug Bright machine, the Jones Rug Shampoo
         product, and the Jones Window Cleaner are versatile, long lasting, safe, and cost effective. I would
         like to meet with you next week to demonstrate our products and will call you within two days to set
         an appointment. Should you have questions about our products before that time, please give me a call
         at 459-8000. I look forward to meeting with you.
                                          11



CHAPTER 5 – DETERMINING THE PROBLEM AND
      PLANNING THE INVESTIGATION
                                                                                                          12


                                       PROBLEM STATEMENT

Explanation

Examining the situation, determining if the problem requires an analysis or a reporting of information,
answering a set of questions, and writing the problem statement, identifies the problem.

         The following questions are answered concerning a situation:

         1.   What must I accomplish with this message?
         2.   Why is this message important or imperative?
         3.   Who is the subject of the message?

The answers to these questions are combined into a statement called the problem statement or the statement of
the problem.

Consider the Situation

 The personnel director of the Watson Supply Company, Terre Haute, Indiana, wants to know if the company
should keep the current indemnity employee health benefit plan or change to the HMO option to reduce
premiums and retain current benefits.

Answer the Questions

     1. What:     analyze HMO and current employee health benefits
     2. Why:      determine whether the company should change to an HMO or keep the current health
                  benefit plan to reduce costs and retain benefits.
     3. Who:      Watson Supply Company

Write the Problem Statement—There are three ways to write the problem statement, and you may use any
one of these ways:

     1. Question: Should the Watson Supply Company, Terre Haute, Indiana, keep the current conventional
        indemnity employee health plan or change to an HMO option to reduce costs and retain health
        benefits?

     2. Infinitive: The problem of this study is to analyze employee health benefits and to determine if the
         Watson Supply Company, Terre Haute, Indiana, should change from the current plan to an HMO
         option to reduce costs and retain health benefits.

     3. Declarative: The results of this study will determine whether the Watson Supply Company, Terre
         Haute, Indiana, should keep the current employee health benefit plan or change to an HMO option to
         reduce costs and retain benefits.
                                                                                                               13



                                             SCOPE (FACTORS)
Explanation of Scope

Scope is defined as the boundaries of the study that are set by the researcher. The scope includes the areas the
researcher chose to consider and the areas the researcher chose not to consider. In addition, the scope section
includes the reason areas were not considered. This section often refers to aspects of the problem, solutions, or
factors that were and were not considered in the study:

What factors did you consider? What factors could you have considered and why? Determine areas of
information that are needed before a solution can be reached. This information is often called the factors of the
problem and may be defined as categories of facts needed to answer the problem statement. These factors are
researched by gathering primary and/or secondary information. In the Introduction section, discuss the scope
which includes the breadth and depth of each factor.

Sample Factors

The breadth and depth of factors are outlined in the table below (do not include such a table in your long
report).

              Costs                  Benefits          Satisfaction with Options         Availability
         Employer              Office visits          Employer                         Location
         Employee              Hospitalization        Employee                         Accreditation
                               Medication             State and national figures
                               Dental
                               Eye


A sample follows where the writer discusses the breadth and depth of each factor.

     Not all of the factors considered for research were within the scope of this project. Costs (employer and
     employee), benefits (office visits, hospitalization, medication, dental, and eye), employer and employee
     satisfaction with options (state and national figures), and availability of accredited HMO clinics were
     examined. While government regulations of HMOs are important to consider when examining health care
     options, this topic will be examined separately by the Watson Supply Company legal counsel, and,
     therefore, was not included in this study.
                                                                                                            14




                      CHAPTER 8 – ORGANIZING INFORMATION AND
                            CONSTRUCTING THE OUTLINE


After the writer has developed the problem statement, determined the factors, formulated the hypotheses (if
necessary), and gathered the data, the writer must organize the report. Reports are organized with three main
parts, the introduction, the body (presentation of data), and the ending or closing. In addition, reports may be
written in formal or informal organization schemes depending on situation, audience analysis, and company
custom. The following information should help you understand the organization process.

                                              CONTENT OUTLINES
In the more formal organization, the writer includes a heading for each section. The following indirect outline
illustrates the sections that could be included in a formal report:

                                        Formal Report Content Outlines
I.   Preliminary parts
II.  Body
     A. Introduction
           1.   Statement of authorization
           2.   Background of the problem (including definitions of terms)
           3.   Statement of the problem and statement of the hypotheses
           4.   Scope (factors)
           5.   Limitations (shortcomings)
           6.   Sources and methods of data collection
           7.   Report preview
     B. Presentation of Data
     C. Report ending
           1.    Summary
           2.    Conclusions
           3.    Recommendations
III.    Supplementary parts
     A. References
     B. Appendices

While the writer is still interested in being formal, the following organization is somewhat less formal. Note
when using this particular organization, the writer omits some of the more formal headings. The following
outline illustrates a less formal and indirect arrangement:

I.      Preliminary parts (title page, table of contents, illustration of charts, executive summary)
II.     Body
      A. Introduction (heading)
                                                                                                             16


             1. Background of the problem                                  )
             2. Statement of the problem                                   ) Content of
             3. Scope (factors)                                            ) section; no
             4. Sources and methods of data collection                     ) headings
             5. Report preview                                             )
       B.    Discussion of factors (headings will be the names of the factors)
       C.    Report ending
              1. Summary and Conclusions (heading)
              2. Recommendations (heading)
III.        Supplementary parts
       A.    References (heading)
       B.    Appendix or Appendices (heading)




                                         Informal Report Content Outline

An informal report organization (such as you will use for the short report assignments in BEIT 336) includes
much of the same information as included in a formal report. However, the introduction tends to be shorter and
headings are used only for the factors (if at all). An informal and indirect organization is illustrated below:

I.   Introductory Paragraph(s)
      A. Authorization
      B. Larger picture of problem (background)
      C. What you did
      D. Why it was done
      E. Areas of information investigated (factors)
      F. How information gathered
      G. Criteria for decisions (if necessary)
      H. Shortcomings (if needed)
      I. Preview of report contents
II. Information in Body (few headings)
      A. Information gathered
      B. Information analyzed
      C. Suggested action
III. Closing Paragraph(s) (statement of goodwill, request for feedback, and helpful information such as contact
numbers)
                                                                                                                    17


                                      ARRANGEMENT OF IDEAS

You will include three sections in all your reports--introduction, body (presentation of data), and closing.
However, in the indirect, direct, and modified direct orders, the arrangement of ideas is different. You must
look at the results of the audience analysis to determine the most appropriate arrangement of ideas. The
organization of ideas in each type of arrangement of ideas and the corresponding audience analysis are shown
below:

        Arrangement                     Arrangement of Ideas                        Audience Analysis
            Order
     Indirect (inductive)     Introduction                                   Needs persuasion
                              Facts, facts, facts                            Has time to read
                              Conclusions & Recommendations                  Wants to see analysis
                              Closing                                        Writer’s credibility low
                                                                             Sensitive topic
     Direct (deductive)       Conclusions & Recommendations                  Receptive to the ideas
                              Introduction                                   Too busy to read
                              Facts, facts, facts                            Wants to see bottom line
                              Summary                                        Writer’s credibility high
                              Closing                                        Topic not sensitive
     Modified Direct          Introduction                                   Receptive to the ideas
     (modified                Conclusions & Recommendations                  Too busy to read
     deductive)               Facts, facts, facts                            Wants to see bottom line
                              Summary                                        Writer’s credibility high
                              Closing                                        Topic not sensitive

Notice that when the reader needs to be guided slowly toward the bottom line (needs persuasion to favor the
ideas), has time to read, and prefers knowing the facts, the most effective arrangement is indirect. Also, use the
indirect when the writer’s credibility is low with the reader, and the topic is sensitive. When the reverse of
these items is the situation, use either the direct or modified direct.

The only difference between the direct and the modified direct is in the placement of the introduction. Most
writers find it very difficult to squeeze in the introduction after discussing the bottom line (conclusions and
recommendations). Therefore, by placing the introduction first and proceeding to the bottom line (bottom line
is still close to the beginning of the report), the writer ―sets the stage‖ nicely for the reader and gives the bottom
line or decision quickly. Note, also, that the direct or modified direct arrangements are effective only when the
writer’s credibility is high with the reader and the topic is not sensitive.
                                                                                                                   18


                                          REPORT HEADINGS
Report headings or captions are used to organize the report contents, to alert the reader to text contents, to
provide emphasis or interest to the report, and to encourage the reader to continue. Of course, reports can be
written without headings. However, use headings in BEIT 336 reports. Note: Avoid forcing the reader to
depend on the heading to know the content of the section. Instead, include the topic of the section in the topic
sentence. Also, when a list follows a heading, include a lead-in sentence to introduce the list.

Report headings are arranged into levels or degrees with format used to show importance or weight and to show
relationship among the levels. Sections of a report with equal weight or importance are placed under the same
heading format. There is a standard format for heading levels. However, some style manuals may suggest
heading format differing from the standard arrangement. Use the standard format illustrated below for all
BEIT 336 reports. These rules follow current APA style (NOTE: samples in textbook frequently use an
alternate style).

Here are the five levels of headings in APA journals:

                              CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING (LEVEL 5)

                             Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1)

                       Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2)

Flush left, italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side heading (Level 3)

         Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)

When to Select Heading Levels

Few articles require all levels of headings. The complexity of the paper determines the number of levels of
headings used. The following guidelines will help determine the appropriate heading level.

One level. For a short article, level one is sufficient. Use centered uppercase and lowercase headings (See level
1 above).

Two Levels. If the material has short subordinate material, you would use level 1 heading in combination with
level 3 heading. Example:

                                                Method (Level 1)

Procedure (level 3)

Three levels. For many articles three levels of heading is needed. Use Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4 headings.
Example:

                                                Method (Level 1)

Procedure (level 3)

         Instrumentation. (level 4)
                                                                                                                19


Four levels. As the paper becomes more complex, the need for four levels may arise. Use heading Levels 1
through 4. Example:
                                           Research (Level 1)

                                                Method (Level 2)

Procedure (Level 3)

         Instrumentation. (Level 4)

Five levels. Sometimes all levels must be used in a complex document. Add Level 5 heading above all other
headings.

Informal Report Headings

For most informal reports such as memos and short letters, use Level 3 and Level 4 headings. For short reports
and longer more complex letters, another level of heading may be added. Use Level 2 headings for this
purpose.


                                      REPORT HEADER OR FOOTER
A header or footer is a line of identification placed on pages after page 1 (not on page 1). A header is placed at
the top of the page, and a footer is placed at the bottom of a page. The header or footer helps the writer and the
reader identify the pages of an individual report in case the pages become separated. A header or footer will
contain, at the very least, the page number and may contain the subject, the reader’s name, and/or the date. Use
either a header or footer on all reports longer than one page. An example of a header or footer follows:

February Progress                                 June 1, xxxx                                            Page 2

or

Henry Jones
June 1, xxxx
Page 2
                                                      20


CHAPTER 11 – CONSTRUCTING SHORT AND SPECIAL REPORTS
                                                                                                              21



                                      INFORMATIVE REPORTS

Business people are often asked to write informative reports. Of course, before you write any report, you will
conduct an audience analysis. An informative report is written to provide the facts only--no analysis
(conclusions or recommendations). You will include an introduction, message (or body), summary and closing.
Use the following organization when writing an informative report:

Introduction

Include the following information in the introductory paragraph(s):
1. Authorization: "As you requested..." if the report is assigned. Omit if the report is self-initiated.
2. *What you are doing or did: Include the purpose of the report---the "what."
3. Why are you doing it: Include why you are writing the report (the deeper reason rather than that the report
     is assigned) if the audience analysis indicates a need to do so.
4. Background of the problem: Include a discussion of the larger picture of the problem (might be a historical
     look at the topic or problem---what brought you to this point with the topic) if the audience analysis
     indicates a need.
5. How you gathered your information: Include the "how" if the audience analysis indicates a need (such as
     your low credibility with the reader). Providing an in-depth discussion of your efforts to gather data might
     help to raise your credibility with the reader.
6. *Areas investigated: Other terms for "areas investigated" are scope, subtopics, or factors. These terms refer
     to the boundaries of the report.
7. *Report Preview: The report preview is a statement telling the reader the organization of the message
     section of the report.

Caution: Do not include a heading such as "Introduction" for this section of an informal report. Such a heading
is too formal.

*Frequently included in an informal introduction.

Message

The following guidelines should help you write the message section of an informative report.

1.   Arrange the message (or body) contents from most important to least important.
2.   Use headings according to the format outlined in Study Notes.
3.   Omit conclusions and recommendations - just give the facts of the situation.
4.   Use well-developed paragraphs (topic sentence written first) with transitions words, phrases, and sentences
     to connect ideas.
                                                                                                               22


Summary and Closing

A summary is a restatement of the main facts in the message section and reminds the reader of the main facts.
A summary is included if the length of the report, complexity of the contents, or arrangement of ideas suggests
the need for a repetition of main points. Include a summary in the informative report assignment to give you
practice. In informal reports, omit a heading for the summary section. Instead, use a transition sentence to move
from the last subtopic to the summary (new paragraph).

An informal closing is needed to provide closure to the report. The informal closing is tacked on to the
summary and includes goodwill sentences (friendly) and contact information. The tone of the closing should be
warm and friendly. Be aware of your audience. For example, don’t tell your boss to call you as soon as
possible---you call the boss if needed.

Read the samples of various types of reports located in Nelson’s Study Notes. These samples will give you a
good idea of the type of introduction and closing to include.
                                                                                                                 23


                                SAMPLE INFORMATIVE REPORT
                                               MEMORANDUM

TO:               Harry Butterfield

FROM:             Joseph Patterson J P

DATE:             November x, xxxx

SUBJECT:          School of Business – Furniture and Equipment Information


As you requested, I gathered some information on the office furniture and equipment in the School of Business
for the annual report. To gather this information, I interviewed the chairperson of each department. In this
memo, I am including information on furniture purchase dates and problems and equipment inventory and
problems.

Furniture

I spoke with Chairperson Homes and Chairperson Black to gather information on the purchase date of and
problems with the current furniture in their respective offices. The chairpersons were quite willing to discuss the
office furniture with me, and they provided the following information:

      Office              Furniture Purchase Dates                Problems with Current
                                                                        Furniture
Analytical            Majority of the furniture was          Battered desks
Department            purchased in the 1980’s                Drawers that stick
                                                             Uncomfortable chairs
                                                             Lack of space for computers
Organizational        Majority of the furniture was          Lack of space for computers
Department            purchased in the early 1980’s          Scratched desks
                                                             Broken bookcases

Equipment

After discussing office furniture with the each chairperson, we turned our conversation to office equipment. I
gathered the following equipment information:

      Office                Equipment Inventory                Problems with Current Equipment
Analytical            4 computers                            Photocopy machine can’t handle
Department            1 fax                                  demand
                      1 small photocopy machine
Organizational        4 computer                             Photocopy machine can’t handle
Department            1 fax                                  demand
                      1 small photocopy machine

In summary, the department chairpersons report that they have old furniture and some inadequate equipment.
I’ll call you this week to see if you would like more detailed information on the furniture and equipment
situation in the department offices. However, please call me at extension 345 should you have questions before
I talk with you.
                                                                                                                 24


                                        FEASIBILITY REPORTS
A feasibility report identifies and compares alternative solutions to a problem. The analysis of the data
collected is typically the most critical step in preparing a feasibility report. The alternatives are compared based
on common criteria, and rating or ranking systems are commonly used to determine the best alternative.

A feasibility report can be written in inductive or deductive order. If placed in deductive order, begin the report
by stating which alternative solution should be implemented. Other items typically included in the opening
paragraphs of a feasibility report are the background, purpose, factors, scope, sources and methods of gathering
data, and conclusion criteria (description of rating/ranking system).

The body of a feasibility report can be organized by factor or by solution. Comparisons are made and data
provided for each factor or solution. The best solution is emphasized.

Conclusions are drawn typically by determining which solution has the best overall rating or ranking. A
summary could be provided at this point to restate the strengths of this alternative. As with all other
memorandum reports, a feasibility report should end with some closing remarks concerning feedback or
immediate action to be taken.
                                                                                                               25


                         SAMPLE FEASIBILITY REPORT (DEDUCTIVE)

                        CENTURGY COMPUTERS AND SOFTWARE SUPPORT

123 East Goldman Street                                                                       FAX: 915-317-0064
Silverton, NH 31872                                                                      Telephone: 915-317-0046

                                               MEMORANDUM

TO:             Chris MacGregor, General Office Manager
FROM:           Student's Name, Office Supply Coordinator
DATE:           April xx, XXXX
SUBJECT:        Purchase of Chairs for Software Support Technicians


Based on an evaluation of chairs for the Software Support Technicians, I recommend that six of the HON
Comfortask Multifunctional Chairs be ordered through the Chair Exchange representative.

You requested that an evaluation be conducted to identify the most cost-effective and functional chairs for the
software support technicians. As you know, the six technicians spend the majority of their eight-hour shifts
sitting in their chairs while conferring with customers over the phone. Each of the technical support stations has
a phone, computer, and filing cabinet in which additional software materials are kept. Due to the necessity of
movement within the station, chairs need to be wheeled to allow for easy movement.

After conferring with the Chair Exchange sales representative, I determined that the best types of chairs to
consider would be the Intensive Category chairs (those designed for jobs in which the person is seated 5-8
hours) or the Multifunctional Executive or Managerial chairs.

The maximum cost to spend for these six chairs was set at $2,500 (approximately $400 per chair). Six chairs
were analyzed based on cost and features (such as adjustable seat height, tilt angle, and lumbar support). To be
objective, each chair was assigned a ranking (1 to 6) on both categories of analysis. Because more emphasis is
placed on cost savings, the rankings were multiplied by the following percentages: cost = 75%, features = 25%.
Finally, the rankings for each chair were added. The chair with the lowest overall ranking was considered to be
the best. An analysis of these six chairs follows in this memo. The cost of each chair and the respective
ranking is summarized in Table 1.

Table 1
Chair Types, Cost, and Ranking

                Type of Chair                       Cost     Ranking          Adjusted
                                                                              Ranking
HON Executive Memory Foam Chair                     $399      6 * .75           4.50
HON Mobius Executive Chair                          $375      5 * .75           3.75
HON Comfortask Multifunctional Chair                $239      1 * .75           0.75
RAYNOR Multi-function Task Chair                    $299      2 * .75           1.50
UNITED ZING High Performance Task Chair             $327      3 * .75           2.25
GLOBAL Posturetech II Manager's Chair               $331      4 * .75           3.00

With the HON Comfortask Multifunctional Chair receiving the lowest ranking of price, the analysis continued.
The software technicians provided the rankings of features. The Chair Exchange representative supplied a
sample of each chair for testing purposes. The participating technicians then ranked the chairs (1 to 6) based on
comfort and features. The cost of each chair was not revealed to the participants. The features available with
each chair and the respective rankings are summarized in Table 2.
                                                                                                           26


Table 2
Chair Features and Ranking

     Type of Chair                              Features                      Ranking       Adjusted
                                                                                            Ranking
HON Executive Memory         360° swivel; Tilt lock; Seat & back height        1 * .25        0.25
Foam Chair                   adjustment; Tilt and back angle;
                             Memory foam reduces pressure points

HON Mobius Executive         Tilt tension; Pneumatic seat height; Lumbar       2 * .25        0.50
Chair                        support; Urethane-padded arms; Tubular Steel

HON Comfortask               Lock-in tilt position; Pneumatic seat height      3 * .25        0.75
Multifunctional Chair        adjustable; Adjustable Arms;
                             Build-in lumbar support; Seat Tilt

RAYNOR Multi-function        Posture lock; Forward tilt; Protective nylon      4 * .25        1.00
Task Chair                   shell; Adjustable back height; Extra thick
                             molded foam cushions; Scotchgarded fabric;
                             Pneumatic height adjustment

UNITED ZING High             Heavy-duty tilt tension control; Back seat        6 * .25        1.50
Performance Task Chair       height adjustment; Back angle with infinite
                             lock; Pneumatic seat height; No arms for easy
                             movement in/out of chair

GLOBAL Posturetech II        Oversized base for extra stability; 1-touch       5 * .25        1.25
Manager's Chair              pneumatic height adjustment;
                             Tension adjustment; Height-adjustable arms
                             with pivot feature


Again the HON Comfortask Multifunctional Chair received the lowest ranking in the analysis of features. The
respective rankings for each chair are shown in Table 3 with the adjusted rankings.

Table 3
Comparison of the Chairs' Overall Rankings

                   Chair                                Cost      Features    Total
HON Executive Memory Foam Chair                         4.50        0.25      4.75
HON Mobius Executive Chair                              3.75        0.50      4.25
HON Comfortask Multifunctional Chair                    0.75        0.75      1.50
RAYNOR Multi-function Task Chair                        1.50        1.00      2.50
UNITED ZING High Performance Task Chair                 2.25        1.50      3.75
GLOBAL Posturetech II Manager's Chair                   3.00        1.25      4.25

The HON Comfortask Multifunctional Chair received the best ranking in the adjusted total and is considered to
be the best value for the price.

With your approval, I will contact the Chair Exchange representative to order six of the HON Comfortask
Multifunctional Chairs. If you have any questions, please call me at extension 206.
                                                                                                               27


                                     JUSTIFICATION REPORTS

Some situations may exist in which you favor a particular course of action and wish to present your reasons in a
report. In these cases, you will write justification reports. Therefore, whenever you know what is best to do,
you can write a justification report to propose the solution and justify it.

While a justification report can be written using talking headings or no headings, the text can be organized
using the following modified deductive arrangement with topic headings:

1.   Introduction—Include WHAT, WHY, HOW, BACKGROUND (if needed, describe activities leading to
      recognition of problem and description of problem's symptoms), and REPORT PREVIEW.

2.   Recommendation—Propose a solution or make a recommendation.

3.   Implementation—Explain how to put the recommendation into effect by providing concrete details. Also,
      identify possible problems with the recommendation and give suggestions for confronting these problems.

4.   Justification—Set stage for reader. For example, list factors, explain depth of investigation, and describe
      how you gathered information. Explain the reasons why this recommendation should be adopted (be
      persuasive). Give the advantages to this recommendation.

5.   Summary. Brief restatement of your main point.

6. Closing goodwill paragraph.
                                                                                                              28


                               SAMPLE JUSTIFICATION REPORT
                                        WATSON SUPPLY COMPANY

5648 Wabash Avenue                                                                           FAX: 812-456-8169
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809                                                              Telephone: 812-456-8179


                                                MEMORANDUM


TO:               John Smith

FROM:             Susan Wilson     SW
DATE:             November x, xxxx

SUBJECT:          Investigation of Flextime


As we discussed, the absenteeism rate for our sales people has increased to an average of 6.5 percent.
Therefore, I investigated the problem. To complete the task, I surveyed employees and examined experiences
of other companies. My recommendation and my analysis are included in this memo.

After looking at the problem, I recommend that we investigate the implementation of flextime scheduling for
the sales force as a way to reduce absenteeism.

Justification

The recommendation to examine flextime scheduling for the sales force is based partially on the results of an
employee survey. I surveyed all the sales people, and 95 percent of these employees (100 percent response rate)
indicated that 90 percent of their absences were related to handling personal responsibilities and our inflexible
work schedule. After I examined the survey results, I looked at the experiences of other companies regarding
flextime and absenteeism.

During the last month, I interviewed managers at ten of the leading companies in our field. First, I asked the
managers about flextime policies. All ten managers reported that flextime scheduling had been implemented.
Second, I asked the managers to comment on absenteeism. Three managers declined to make any comment on
absenteeism rates, but seven managers indicated that absenteeism rates declined after implementation of
flextime. Therefore, from my limited investigation, flextime scheduling could have a positive influence on
absenteeism and should be investigated thoroughly.

Implementation

There are several steps involved in implementing this recommendation. To put this plan into effect, we must
first conduct a thorough investigation of employee needs concerning flexible work schedules. Next, we should
examine flextime scheduling looking at the benefits of this type of scheduling and examining the various
flextime options in relation to our needs. Finally, since we know some of our employees are resistant to change,
we should involve sales people and managers early in this decision process.

An investigation of flextime scheduling with a needs analysis and with a thorough study of flextime options
may lead to a solution for the absentee problem. I’ll give you a call the end of this week to set up an
appointment for us to discuss my recommendation. If you have any questions, I plan to be in my office each
afternoon until 5 p.m.
                                                                                                              29


                                         PROGRESS REPORTS
Progress reports are written periodically to keep the person who assigned the report informed about the status of
a project. The information in a progress report helps managers 1) monitor the progress of a project, 2)
determine its budgetary status, and 3) respond to any unforeseen problems. Internal or external progress reports
are written. For example, your boss may request progress reports during a project. Furthermore, you may have
a contract with another company and be required to report periodically concerning your progress in meeting the
terms of the contract.

Progress reports may be written using topic or talking headings. The topic headings of Work Completed and
Problems Encountered and Work Scheduled are appropriate when discussing the progress of a single project.
However, use the names of the projects when reporting the progress of multiple jobs. When you use the project
names as headings, discuss the work completed, problems encountered, and work scheduled of the project under
the single project heading. Remember to use good paragraphing technique. Include a general topic sentence
followed by supporting sentences in short paragraphs. A progress report often includes the following content:

1. Introduction (no heading)—includes WHAT, WHY, BACKGROUND (if necessary), SCOPE (for
     example, dates in which progress is being reported), and REPORT PREVIEW.

2. Work Completed (heading when discussing the progress of a single project only)—describes what
    steps have been completed toward the completion of the project during the time period given. Also, a
    discussion of problems that were confronted and how they were solved may be included in this section
    (problems may be also a separate section).

3. Work Scheduled (heading when discussing the progress of a single project only)—reports on what
    work remains and on the deadline for completing this work. Often a schedule is included with specific
    dates of completion.

4. Closing (no heading)—encourages feedback so that you are aware of the reader’s reaction to progress on
     the project and any adjustments you need to make in the tentative schedule. Also the closing should
     include goodwill and contact information.
                                                                                                               30


                                     SAMPLE PROGRESS REPORT
                                         WATSON SUPPLY COMPANY

5648 Wabash Avenue                                                                          FAX: 812-456-8169
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809                                                             Telephone: 812-456-8179

                                                 MEMORANDUM

DATE:             June x, xxxx
TO:               Mary Arnold, Project Manager      MA
FROM:             Anne Hook, Supervisor
SUBJECT:          Restoration of Royal Oaks


As you know, the restoration of Royal Oaks in Savannah, Georgia began in June. This report is the first of a
series of reports that you will be given monthly to keep you informed on the progress of the restoration. In this
report, I am including information on the work completed, problems encountered, and work scheduled.
Progress is described beginning on June 6 when we arrived at the site and ending June 21.

Work Completed and Problems Encountered

We hired some of the work crew. Jane Black, Henry Douglas, and I arrived in Savannah on June 6. We spent
June 7, 8, and 9 hiring the carpenters and painters to begin the restoration. We plan to hire two more carpenters
this week.

These employees have been busy, and the exterior and interior work is progressing. The eaves have been
replaced, and the carpenters started replacing the siding on the south side. The porch has been repaired, and the
windows have been replaced. In addition, the interior work is on schedule. Four doors have been replaced on
the second floor, and three doors have been repaired. Rooms and hallways on the second floor have been
painted. With all our progress, we have encountered a few problems.

One problem involves locating and scheduling specialty workers. I have not been able to hire someone
qualified to restore the exterior fireplaces. I contacted Robert Mason, as you suggested, and he has retired.
Mason gave me some suggestions of workers to contact. I will contact the workers Mason recommended, and I
am confident that I will have solved this problem within two weeks.

Work Scheduled

Except for the fireplace worker, we are on schedule. The carpenters and painters should finish by July 5, and
the person hanging the wallpaper will finish by July 10. Except for the construction required for the fireplaces,
we expect to be through with the rough work by August 1, two weeks ahead of schedule. If we encounter no
additional difficulties, I will schedule the landscapers for the first week in August.

I am enjoying the restoration work. Please let me know if you have any suggestions to help us complete this
project on time. I will be at the site each day, and you may contact me by calling my mobile number 345-111-
4562.
                                                                                                                 31


                                  RECOMMENDATION REPORTS
In a recommendation report, the writer analyzes a situation, draws conclusions, and makes recommendations. A
conclusion is an interpretation of facts; not a restatement of the facts. A conclusion is not a repetition of the
numbers but what the numbers tell us. A recommendation is a suggested action that the company should take
based on the conclusions and how that action should be implemented.

Recommendation reports may be written inductively or deductively and topic or talking headings should be
used in the analysis section of the report. A content outline is given below:

1.   Introduction (no heading)—include authorization (if needed), what, why, background (if needed), areas
     investigated (scope, subtopics, factors), how (if needed), and report preview.

2.   Middle paragraphs—analyze the facts and include parallel headings for each separate topic or factor.
     State the conclusions and recommendations either within each section or at the end of the entire analysis
     section.

3.   Closing (no heading)—include a short summary if the report is very long, a goodwill statement, a request
     for feedback, and contact information.
                                                                                                                  32


                  SAMPLE RECOMMENDATION REPORT (INDUCTIVE)
                                         WATSON SUPPLY COMPANY

5648 Wabash Avenue                                                                          FAX: 812-456-8169
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809                                                             Telephone: 812-456-8179

                                                 MEMORANDUM

TO:               Harrison White, Plant Manager
FROM:             Joan Smith, Facilities Management     JS
DATE:             January x, xxxx
SUBJECT:          Parking Lot Problems


Complaints about the condition of the parking lots have increased 25 percent since January, and I investigated
these complaints as you requested. In looking at the problem, I reviewed the complaints and talked with
employees. In addition, I contacted the City Electric Company and Southwest Paving, Inc. In this memo, I’m
including a discussion of current parking lot problems and two recommendations.

Lights (topic heading) or Add More Lights (talking heading)

In examining the parking lot situation, I looked first at the lighting. Fifty percent of the complaints received
about the parking lots involved comments on the poor lighting. I talked with 20 employees about the lots, and
15 of these employees commented that the lighting is poor. After talking with the employees, I called City
Electric Company (service contract #890234), and John Jones inspected the lighting. Jones stated that the
parking lots should have lighting every 50 feet. We have lights every 75 feet. City Electric would install the
necessary lights for $5,000. From the evidence I gathered, it is clear we have inadequate lighting in the parking
lots. Therefore, I recommend City Electric install additional lighting.

Surface (topic heading) or Repair Surface (talking heading)

After evaluating the lighting in the parking lots, I looked at the condition of the surface. From the complaint
cards, I determined that 45 percent of the complaints concerned the potholes in the lot and the lack of parking
space markings. Seventeen out of the twenty employees I spoke with also discussed the surface problems.
Employees commented on receiving flat tires from hitting potholes and getting dents in their car doors from
cars parking too close. Harry Brown, Southwest Paving, inspected the lots and commented on the poor
condition of the surface. Brown gave me an estimate of $1000 to repair potholes, seal surface, and paint
parking space lines. The surface of our parking lots is in disrepair; therefore, I recommend we repair the
surface immediately. While the estimate from Southwest appears reasonable, I recommend we get at least two
more quotes for the job.

I have enjoyed investigating the condition of the parking lots and would like to meet with you, if possible, to
discuss these two recommendations. I’ll give you a call to discuss your schedule early next week or you may
contact me at extension 5555.
                                                                                                                   33


         SAMPLE RECOMMENDATION REPORT (MODIFIED DEDUCTIVE)
                                          WATSON SUPPLY COMPANY

5648 Wabash Avenue                                                                           FAX: 812-456-8169
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809                                                              Telephone: 812-456-8179

                                                  MEMORANDUM

TO:               Harrison White, Plant Manager
FROM:             Joan Smith, Facilities Management     JS
DATE:             January x, xxxx
SUBJECT:          Parking Lot Problems


Complaints about the condition of the parking lots have increased 25 percent since January, and I investigated
these complaints as you requested. In looking at the problem, I reviewed the complaints and talked with
employees. In addition, I contacted the City Electric Company and Southwest Paving, Inc. In this memo, I’m
including a discussion of current parking lot problems, my conclusions and two recommendations.

Conclusions and Recommendations

From the evidence I gathered, it is clear we have inadequate lighting in the parking lots. Therefore, I
recommend City Electric install additional lighting

Also, I found that the surface of our parking lots is in disrepair; therefore, I recommend we repair the surface
immediately. While the estimate from Southwest appears reasonable, I recommend we get at least two more
quotes for the job.

Lights (topic heading) or Add More Lights (talking heading)

In examining the parking lot situation, I looked first at the lighting. Fifty percent of the complaints received
about the parking lots involved comments on the poor lighting. I talked with 20 employees about the lots, and
15 of these employees commented that the lighting is poor. After talking with the employees, I called City
Electric Company (service contract #890234), and John Jones inspected the lighting. Jones stated that the
parking lots should have lighting every 50 feet. We have lights every 75 feet. City Electric would install the
necessary lights for $5,000.

Surface (topic heading) or Repair Surface (talking heading)

After evaluating the lighting in the parking lots, I looked at the condition of the surface. From the complaint
cards, I determined that 45 percent of the complaints concerned the potholes in the lot and the lack of parking
space markings. Seventeen out of the twenty employees I spoke with also discussed the surface problems.
Employees commented on receiving flat tires from hitting potholes and getting dents in their car doors from
cars parking too close. Harry Brown, Southwest Paving, inspected the lots and commented on the poor
condition of the surface. Brown gave me an estimate of $1000 to repair the potholes, seal the surface, and paint
parking space lines.

I have enjoyed investigating the condition of the parking lots and would like to meet with you, if possible, to
discuss these two recommendations. I’ll give you a call to discuss your schedule early next week or you may
contact me at extension 5555.
                                                                                                                 34


                              DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE
                         ORAL PRESENTATION WITH VISUAL AIDS

Your Lesikar/Pettit textbook (chapter 16) provides a fairly complete discussion on delivering an oral
presentation, and the following information provides in-depth information on preparing the message and the
visual aids.

Preparing the Message

The steps involved in developing an oral report are similar to that of a written report. For example, consider the
following steps for developing a presentation:
     1. Determine the problem
     2. Define the listeners and adapt the message to those particular listeners
     3. Examine the physical setting
     4. Research the topic
     5. Prepare an outline taking the time limit into consideration
     6. Prepare visual aids
     7. Develop the presentation
     8. Practice the presentation

As you know, a written report contains an introduction, message (or body), and closing. An oral report contains
the same three parts. In fact, the old adage ―tell them what you are going to tell them‖ (introduction), ―tell
them‖ (message or body), and ―tell them what you told them‖ (closing) is a good way to remember the
organization. The introduction of an oral presentation should take about 10% of the time allotted, the message
or body should consume about 80% of the presentation, and the closing should be short using about 10% of the
time.

The introduction is the speaker’s opportunity to gain attention and to tell the audience what you are going to
discuss (listing your main topics is a good way to help the audience understand your speech organization). In
other words, you are ―setting the stage‖ for your presentation. Remember, an audience feels more comfortable
knowing what you are doing and where you are going. In addition, you might want to quote an authority, refer
to the occasion, or ask a rhetorical question. Furthermore, you may need to establish your creditability (state
your credentials or explain how you gathered information) and may want to mention how questions from the
audience will be handled.

The main part of your presentation is the ―tell them‖ portion. In this most important portion of your
presentation, you will relate your topic to the audience, grab and keep attention, divide the topic into subtopics
(perhaps, chronologically or spatially) and, limit the main ideas to three or four (providing in-depth discussion).

When you reach the closing portion of the presentation, you could summarize the main points, quote an
authority, propose a solution, or challenge the listeners to complete a goal. To indicate you are closing use non-
verbal communication such as gathering your notes or use verbal communication such as ―Are there any
questions?‖ Avoid saying ―thank you‖ to indicate you are finished, and avoid putting ―thank you‖ on a
presentation slide. Use ―thank you‖ when someone tells you what a wonderful presentation you gave!

Preparing Visual Aids

Visual aids complement the presentation, provide visual interest, and help the audience understand complex
issues. Given these objectives, you must determine what content to include as part of your visual aids. There
are, of course, many types of visual aids. For example, you could have handouts, use a chalkboard or a dry
erase board, use transparencies with an overhead projector, or use a computer with a projection unit. Since your
assignment is prepare a PowerPoint presentation which would be used (if you were going to give the
presentation instead of just preparing the visual aid) with a computer/projection unit or used as transparencies
for an overhead projector, we will focus on the preparation of that visual aid.
                                                                                                              35


Microsoft PowerPoint is called presentation or presentation graphics software, and this software is very easy to
learn (at least if you stick with the basic functions). When preparing a PowerPoint presentation, use the
following guidelines:
     1. Include a title page.
     2. Include a blank page at the end of the presentation so the audience doesn’t see the ―behind the scenes‖
          of the software when you are finished.
     3. Use a slide design with the following characteristics:
               a. Use a consistent design for the entire presentation.
               b. Use a design with a fairly dark background (easier to read than a light background).
               c. Use a simple design.
               d. Avoid using the colors red or yellow for the text (often difficult to read).
     4. Use a sans serif (block letters) typeface such as Arial without special effects such as shadows or
          underlining. Note: Times New Roman is a serif typeface (curved lines at the end of each letter).
     5. Use a font size of at least 36 pt.
     6. Use uppercase and lowercase letters. All capital letters are difficult to read.
     7. Use clip art that is relevant to the topic and helps communicate the message.
     8. Keep clip art small to avoid overpowering the words.
     9. Use clip art judiciously. Don’t clutter your slides.
     10. Keep your slides simple, simple, simple in design and wording.
     11. Include only one topic to a slide.
     12. Avoid using complete sentences. Rather than complete sentences, use phrases starting with action
          verbs.
     13. Use parallel construction when writing the content (see Lesikar/Pettit pages 317-318 to refresh your
          knowledge of parallel construction).
     14. Avoid sound effects.
     15. Use a small textbox near by the bottom of the slide to give credit to references.
     16. Avoid being ―cutesy‖ or clever---be businesslike.
CHAPTER 12 – PHYSICAL PRESENTATION OF REPORTS
                                                                                                           36


                                       REPORT FORMATTING

The information in chapter 12 focuses on the format of manuscript reports. Reports may be formatted as a letter
or a memorandum in addition to the manuscript format. The letter or memorandum format is reserved for short
reports (three or four pages). When the report is longer, the format should change to a manuscript.

When a manuscript report is sent to the reader, a letter or memo of transmittal is sent with that report. This
transmittal message provides an opportunity to transmit (give) the report to the reader with a personal touch.

The format of standard business letters and memos is covered in the textbook, but use the information presented
here in place of the information in the textbook. In this section, illustrations are provided of standard
formatting. First, you will find illustrations of the standard business letter format. Formatting details are
included in the body of the illustrated letters. Second, an example of the standard memorandum format is
provided. Again, formatting information is included in the body, or message, section of the illustration. Finally,
important information is included in the illustration of the manuscript report format (further information on
formatting manuscript reports is included in the textbook).
                                                                                                                        37


                     SAMPLE STANDARD BUSINESS LETTER FORMAT
                                    Block Style

          (variable white space as needed for ―picture frame‖)



                       Company Name & Logo
                                             company address
Date

          (variable white space as needed for ―picture frame‖)

Name of Reader
Title
Company
Street Address
City, State, Zip

Salutation—Dear Mr. or Ms. Reader:

This letter is an illustration of a standard business letter prepared in the block style where all lines begin at the
left margin (note the line spacing between the sections).

Letters are considered more formal than memoranda. The letter should appear in the middle of the page and
have the ―picture frame‖ appearance (centered vertically and horizontally with equal white space at the left and
right margins and equal white space at the top and bottom margins). To be standard business format, the letter
must contain a return address (writer’s address) or letterhead, date, inside address (reader’s name and address),
salutation, message, and complimentary close. The message section of a letter is singled spaced with a double-
space (one blank line) between paragraphs.

Reference notations (attachment or enclosure) and/or initials (initials of person who keyed document for you)
may be placed after the complimentary close

Sincerely yours,
                                      )
                                      )(3 blank lines created by pressing ―Enter‖ 4 times)
                                      )
Type your name here

initials of typist

Enclosure
                                                                                                                 38


                    SAMPLE STANDARD BUSINESS LETTER FORMAT
                       Modified Block Style with Blocked Paragraphs




                      Company Name & Logo
                                           company address
                                                                  Date

(variable white space as needed for ―picture frame‖)

Name of Reader
Title
Company
Street Address
City, State, Zip

Salutation—Dear Mr. or Ms. Reader:

This letter illustrates another standard business letter style, the modified block style. Note that the letter
contains a return address (your address), the reader’s address or inside address, salutation, message or body
section, complimentary closing, and reference notation (optional).

In this style of letter, the return address, complimentary closing, and signature line are placed at the same
location on the line, approximately one tab stop to the right of the middle. Remember, a standard business letter
has the ―picture frame‖ appearance. The ―picture frame‖ appearance means that the letter appears in the middle
of the page.

                                                                Sincerely,



                                                                Type your name here

Enclosure
                                                                                                              39


                                SAMPLE MEMORANDUM FORMAT

                                                   MEMORANDUM

TO:               John Jones

FROM:             Susan Smith

DATE:             August xx, xxxx

SUBJECT:          Short Subject Line—Focus on Topic


A memorandum is considered informal. As you can see, a memorandum includes the heading of memorandum,
to, from, date, and subject. With a memo, you don’t have to worry about the ―picture frame‖ appearance as you
do in letters or manuscripts. In other words, the word ―Memorandum‖ can be typed on line one and default
margins can be used. Do not include courtesy titles (Mr./ Ms.) in memos except when you want to show more
respect for the reader (reader may be boss). Also, in keeping with the informal format of a memo, you will not
include a salutation or complimentary close. You will, however, single space the body of the memo with a
double space (one blank line) between paragraphs.

You will usually include a signature on the memo. The signature is frequently just the placing of your initials
after your name on the ―From‖ line or at the end of the memo. To be even more informal, you may write your
first name after your typed name. However, at times you will see that the writer has written his/her full name
after the typed name and this practice is more formal.
                                                                                                                40


                                 SAMPLE MANUSCRIPT FORMAT

                       THE TITLE OF THE MANUSCRIPT IS CENTERED HERE

     The manuscript format is considered more formal than a memo or a letter. The more formal the
manuscript, the more parts (such as title page or table of contents) the report contains. The language used in the
manuscript is more formal than the language in a memo or letter. For example, in a more formal manuscript
report, the writer may write in the third person, will not use slang or casual language, and may avoid using
contractions.

Manuscripts report may be single or double-spaced. The first paragraph of this example shows a single-spaced
format while this paragraph illustrates a double-space manuscript. If you single-space the report, you may
indent the paragraphs or you may use the block style without indenting paragraphs; however, you must leave
one blank line between paragraphs. When you double-space a manuscript, you must indent the paragraphs to
show where a new paragraph begins. When you double-space the manuscript, DO NOT use the block style and
DO NOT leave a triple space between paragraphs—simply double-space throughout the manuscript and indent
the paragraphs.
                                                                                                              41


               FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR THE FORMAL REPORT


Use the following formatting guidelines for the formal report:

   Margins

    Left margin - 1 ½‖
    Right margin – 1‖
    Top margin – 1‖ default for all pages except first page of Introduction where top margin is 2‖.
    Bottom margin – 1‖ default

   Line spacing

    Double space report except for the following items which are single spaced:

    Memo or letter of transmittal (double space between parts of memo or letter and between paragraphs)
    Title page (blank lines among the sections)
    Executive Summary (double space between paragraphs)
    References (single space within an entry, and double space between entries)
    Lists (double space between items on list)

    Indent paragraphs when you double space a report and don’t leave extra blank lines between paragraphs.
    In other words, double space all the way through.

   Pagination

    The preliminary sections of a formal report are often paginated using lowercase Roman numerals and the
    rest of the report is paginated using Arabic numbers. Based on APA guidelines, page numbers should be
    placed in the upper right corner. In addition, some pages in a formal report are counted in the sequence but
    not numbered (no number showing on the page). See the following illustrations for a graphic display of
    pagination.
                                                                             42




   Letter of                 Title Page                              iii
  Transmittal                                      Table of Contents
                                                      and List of
                                                     Illustrations



 (counted as i but        (counted as ii but
 NOT numbered)             NOT numbered)




                     iv                        1                         2
   Executive                   Page 1               Page 2 through
   Summary                (Introduction…)          Recommendations




                                                            2

                     12                    13         Title Page
Recommendations             References               Appendix A




                                                    (counted as 14 but
                                                     NOT numbered)



                     15     Title Page                               17
  Contents of              Appendix B                Contents of
  Appendix A                                         Appendix B




                          (counted as 16 but
                           NOT numbered)
CHAPTER 13 – DOCUMENTATION AND THE BIBLIOGRAPHY
                                                                                                              44


                                   REFERENCE CITATIONS - APA
References are cited in the text to give credit to the sources of the information used in a report (both quotations
and ideas), and cited references are listed on a separate page placed at the end of the document. For this course,
use the American Psychological Association (APA) style guide.

Text Citations

In the APA style, text reference citations are enclosed in parentheses (termed ―parenthetical reference‖) within
the text. The APA style uses the author/date (author, date) method of citation. The parenthesis is placed as
close as possible to the information being cited. If the citation is placed at the end of a sentence, the period for
the sentence comes after the parenthesis.

Reference Page

The APA reference page contains a list of the references cited in the text. This section is titled ―References‖
not ―Bibliography‖ and is placed before an appendix. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order and NOT
numbered or lettered. APA guidelines require the reference page to be double-spaced with paragraph
indentation. However, for the class assignment, single space within each entry and double space among entries.
 Use the hanging paragraph (or hanging indent) feature in word processing (first line of entry is placed at the left
margin and succeeding lines are indented). In addition, use italics for the name of the book or journal instead of
underlining as recommended by APA. Note the unusual nature of the APA citations—initials only rather than
full first name of an individual and very little capitalization.
CHAPTER 14 – GRAPHICS FOR REPORTS
                                                                                                                46


                           FORMAL GRAPHIC AID PRESENTATION

                                                      Table

Tables may be used to illustrate data in a formal report. A table is labeled as ―Table,‖ and the table is given a
number (Arabic) and a title. The label and title are typed flush with the left margin on separate lines above the
table. Do not use all capital letters. Place the source note below the table.

The formal table presentation includes the following parts:

          General introduction (including a phrase such as ―…as shown in Table 1‖)
          Label and number
          Title
          Table (graphic aid)
          Source
          Specific discussion

Formal Table Presentation Sample

          Between 1990 and 1999, the Harris Manufacturing Company shifted operations from the northern

states to the south and southwest states. Workers relocated with the company, and the number of employees

who relocated by year is shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Harris Manufacturing Company Employee Relocation – 1990 to 1999

                  1995        1996      1997       1998       1999

 South              100        45        78        100         25

 Southwest           45        22        28         45         15


Note. From ‖Manufacturing Relocation, ‖ by H. Jones, 2000, Management Today, 25, p.115.

      You will notice from the data that more employees from the Harris Manufacturing Company relocated to
the south rather than to the southwest.
                                                                                                                 47


                                                Charts or Figures

Data may be illustrated in a formal report using figures/charts (any graphic aid other than a table). A figure can
be is labeled as ―Figure‖ (can be abbreviated as ―Fig.‖) or ―Chart‖ and the figure/chart is given a number
(Arabic) and a title. The label, number, and title are placed below the figure flush with the left margin. The
source notation is placed below the label and title.

When you use a figure/chart (a pie, bar, line, map, photograph, etc.), the presentation includes the following
items:
       General introduction (―as shown in Figure 1‖)
       Figure (graphic aid)
       Label and number. Title
       Source
       Specific discussion

Formal Figure Presentation Sample

     Citizens in the United States are eating more vegetables. The percentage breakdown for the increase in the

variety of vegetables eaten from 1990-1999 is shown in Figure 1.
                                        Broccoli
                                          15%                Peas
                                                             30%


                                    Carrots
                                     30%
                                                          Beans
                                                           25%

Figure 1. Vegetable Consumption Increase in the United States by Variety 1990-1999.
From ―Peas and Carrots are Favorites,‖ by T. Roland, 2000, Agriculture News, 14, p.18.

         As shown, U.S. citizens increased their consumption of peas and carrots over broccoli and beans.
                                                                                                           48


                         INFORMAL GRAPHIC AID PRESENTATION


An informal graphic aid presentation is not as complicated as the formal presentation. The graphic aid
presentation for informal reports includes the following items:

         Introduction and discussion (―…as follows…‖ or ―…the following…‖ type of wording rather than the
                  more formal ―as shown in Table 1 or Figure 1 or Chart 1)
         Table or figure (or chart)
         Source note

Sample Informal Graphic Aid Presentation

         Between 1990 and 1999, the Harris Manufacturing Company shifted operations from the northern

states to the south and southwest states. Workers relocated with the company and the number of employees

who relocated by year is as follows:

                  1995       1996      1997      1998      1999

 South             100        45        78        100        25

 Southwest          45        22        28        45         15


Note. From ‖Manufacturing Relocation, ‖ by H. Jones, 2000, Management Today, 25, p.115.
                                                                                                               49


                  INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SELECTED FUNCTIONS
                           OF MICROSOFT WORD 2007
BAR CHART
  Create a Bar Chart
              Place the cursor in your document where you want the bar chart to appear. NOTE: Press
      ENTER several times at end of document text to position the cursor far enough below the text to allow
      room to move or resize the chart.
              Click on Insert, then select the chart option.
              Click on any desired type of chart and select OK. Sample bar chart and Datasheet appears.
              Key in your data to replace data in sample datasheet. Delete data not needed by clicking on
      the row number or column letter to highlight the row or column, clicking on Edit, Clear, and All.
              Click outside the Datasheet and graph to return to your document.

   Edit the Chart
               Select the chart and then click on the ―EDIT DATA‖ option in the chart -> Design Tab.
               Change data as necessary.
               Click outside the chart to return to your document screen.

   Resize the Chart
                Single click on the chart to get the handles.
                Position the cursor over a corner handle until a double arrow appears.
                Hold down the left mouse button and drag diagonally until you reach the desired size.
        Release the mouse
                button. Double Click outside to remove the handles.

   Move the Chart
                Single click on the chart to get the handles.
                Place the cursor on the chart. Hold down the left mouse button and move cursor to new
       location. Release the mouse button. Click outside the chart to remove the handles.
                Note: You can’t move the chart past the end of your documents, and you can’t move the chart
       sideways. Use the center or align right buttons on the formatting toolbar to move the chart sideways.

BOLDFACE
   Click on the ―B‖ button on the formatting toolbar to turn boldface on before keying text and to turn
   boldface off after keying text. To boldface existing text, select the text to be boldfaced by placing the
   cursor in front of the text and dragging the mouse (hold down left mouse button) to highlight the text.
   Click on the ―B‖ button to boldface the highlighted text.

CENTER
   Click on the ―Center‖ button on the toolbar to center text before keying that text. Click on the ―Align Left‖
   button on the toolbar to return to left alignment. To center existing text, select the text to be centered by
   placing the cursor in front of the text and dragging the mouse (hold down left mouse button) to highlight
   the text, and click on the ―Center‖ button to center the highlighted text.

EXIT
                 Click on the ―Office‖ button, and then select ―Exit Word‖.
                 OR
                 Click on the X button in the upper right corner of the screen.
                                                                                                               50


HANGING PARAGRAPH
          Click on the ―Page Layout‖ Tab
          Select the expand button at the right bottom of the ―Paragraph‖ block.
          The ―Indents and spacing‖ window is opened.
          In the ―Indentation‖ column, select the arrow mark at the ―Special‖ tab.
          Select ―Hanging‖ and specify the hanging width.
          Click OK.

HEADER
   A header is text printed at the top of each page as a line of identification. Headers should appear on the
   second and succeeding pages of a document but not on the first page (a footer is a line of text repeated at
   the bottom of the page). When you add a header (or footer), Word switches you to page layout view and
   activates a pane where you create the header (or footer). Also, a special toolbar is activated to aid you in
   creating the header.

     For example, you can add the page number to the header by clicking on the first button (the button with
     the number sign). After you have created the header and returned to your document, you will see the
     header in your document.

   Create a Header
               Click on the ―Insert‖ tab. Select the ―Header‖ from ―Header and Footer‖ block.
               Select the type of header needed.
               Key in the text of the header.
               Add page number by clicking on the button with the number sign.
               If the page number is on a line by itself, you can center or right align the number by clicking
       on the desired alignment button on the formatting toolbar. If the page number is on a line with other
       text, you will need to use a tab to center or right align the number; and the default tabs in the header
       work properly ONLY if you are using the default margins.
               Click on Close to return to your document.

   Edit a Header
               Click on the ―Insert‖ tab. Select the ―Header‖ from ―Header and Footer‖ block.
               Click ―Edit Header‖ button in the ―Header‖ Window.
               Edit the text of the header.
               Delete or remove the page number if needed.
               Click ―OK‖.

   Suppress Header on Page 1
              Click on the ―Insert‖ tab. Select the ―Header‖ from ―Header and Footer‖ block.
              Click on the Page Layout tab .
              Click on the small expand button at the right bottom of ―Page Setup‖ block.
              Select ―Layout‖ tab and select the width of header from the edge.
              Click on OK.

   Delete a Header
               Click on the ―Insert‖ tab. Select the ―Header‖ from ―Header and Footer‖ block.
               Click on the ―Remove Header‖ in the bottom.
               Click OK.
                                                                                                         51


LEADERS (The dots extending from the topic to the page number in a table of contents are called
leaders.)
                Place the cursor where you want the leader tabs to begin.
                In the ―Page Layout Tab‖, expand the ―Paragraph‖ by clicking the expand button on the right
         bottom.
                In the ―Indents and Spacing‖ tab, select ―tabs‖ button from the left bottom.
                Select the type of leader wanted in the ―Leaders‖ section.
                Click on OK.
                Key in the text, press Tab, and leaders will appear.

  LISTS
              Place the cursor where list is to be created.
              In the ―Home‖ tab, select the ―Paragraph‖ Block.
     Click on the Numbering or Bullets button.

Example:
   1.             This is an example of a numbered list using the Increase indent button to indent the list from
         the left margin and using the Numbering button to create the hanging indent. A hanging indent is
         where the first line (numbers in this case) is set off from the text of the item. You can create the
         hanging indent starting at the left margin using the Numbering button only.
    (NOTE: The default Word setting automatically creates a new left margin as shown here when you use the
    Numbering or Bullets button to turn the automatic bullet or numbering command off. To change the margin
    back to what it was originally, open the Format menu and select Paragraph. Then enter ―0‖ for the left
    indention and select ―none‖ for the special indent.

  LINE SPACING
            Click on the ―Page Layout‖ Tab
            . Select the expand button at the right bottom of the ―Paragraph‖ block
            The ―Indents and spacing‖ window is opened.
            In the ―spacing‖ column, select the arrow mark at the ―line spacing‖ tab
            Click on the line spacing desired.

  MARGIN CHANGES
          Click on the ―Page Layout‖ Tab
          Click on Margins tab, if necessary.
          Choose the desired margin settings.

  PAGE BREAKS
           Place the cursor where you want the new page to begin.
           Click on ―Insert‖ tab
           Select ―Page break‖

  PAGINATION
   Start Page Numbering
               Go to Insert Tab and then choose Page Number in the Header and Footer block
               If you don’t want the default Arabic numbers, click on Format Page Number to select style of
        numbering.
               Change format/style as needed.
               Click OK

   Sections and Page Numbering
    You must divide a document into sections if you want to change the style of page numbering within that
    one document. Key in the document first and then turn on page numbering in each section with the style
    desired.
                                                                                                                                   52


                   Key in your document.
                   Divide the document into sections by opening the Page Layout tab, Page Set up group, click
            on breaks and then trace to and select next page.
                       To be able to insert different page numbers styles, your sections should be completely separated. To do
            that, the link connecting section two with section one will need to be broken. Scroll to the page where each section
            begins and double-click in the footer at the location of your page number.
                       On the ribbon, the header & footer design tab will appear. From this tab, in the navigation section, de-
            select the link to previous button. This Section and the previous section one will no longer be connected, and you
            can apply separate formatting to both sections.
                       To insert page number, go to Insert tab, Page Number in the Header & Footer block. Chose the desired
            location.
                       Scroll to Format page number in Page number to choose the format of your numbers.


PIE CHART
   Create a Pie Chart
        Place the cursor in your document where you want the pie chart to appear. NOTE: Press ENTER several times at
        the end of the document text to position the cursor far enough below the text to allow room to move or resize the
        chart.

            Click on "Chart" in the "Illustrations" section.


            Scroll through the chart templates in the box that comes up. Templates are arranged by type, so scroll down to
             the "Pie" section. When you find a pie chart style that you like, click on it and then click "OK." The pie chart will
             open up in Word on half of the screen. Excel will open on the other half of the screen; this is where you will
             enter data.


            Click on the cells in the Excel screen to rename the categories. Enter your own labels for what the slices of the
             pie will represent.


            Change the title of the chart by clicking on the title in Excel and entering your own title.


            Enter data for the pie chart into the Excel screen. Notice that as you enter data, the pie's slices change size. To
             add more categories, click on the cell where you want to add new information. Right click, select "Insert" and
             then insert a row.


            Double-click outside the chart to return to your document.


   Insert Slice Data Labels and Rotate Slices
     Double-click on the chart (box appears around chart and datasheet appears).
     Go to layout tab, in the labels block chose data labels. Chose where you want to position your data.
        Then, click on more data labels options and check Show percent or Show label and percent, and OK.
     Place cursor inside chart, hold down right mouse button, click on Format Data Series and then Series
        Options tab. Change angle as needed to create a ―proper‖ pie with the largest slice at 12 o’clock.
     Click outside the chart to return to your document.

   Edit, Move And Resize the Chart
     See Bar Chart instructions for editing, moving and resizing the chart.

TABLES FEATURE
  Create a Table
              Place the cursor where you want the top-left corner of the table.
           Click the Insert Tab of the Ribbon

           Click the Tables Button on the Tables Group. You can create a table one of four ways:
                                                                                                            53


              Highlight the number of row and columns

              Click Insert Table and enter the number of rows and columns

              Click the Draw Table, create your table by clicking and entering the rows and columns

              Click Quick Tables and choose a table
               In the Insert table box that will appear, click on AutoFormat to apply pre-designed formatting
      to your table.
               Click on AutoFit and note change in previewed table. AutoFit insures the columns are as
      wide as they need to be. Click on AutoFit if you want to use this feature.
               Click OK twice.
               Key in data using TAB to move among the columns and rows.
               Use right alignment or a right or decimal tab to right align all numbers. To use a tab you must
      set the tab then hold the Ctrl key while pressing the Tab key to enter a tab as the Tab key by itself
      moves you to the next cell.

 Add or Delete Rows or Columns
             Select the cell, row, or column to be edited (hold down left mouse button and drag to
     highlight).
             Glick on the Table tools tab and select the desired editing function.

 Delete a Table
             Select the table by holding down left mouse button and dragging to highlight the entire table.
             Go to Table Tools tab, Delete box and click on delete table.
 Resize Columns
      o Go to layout tab, in the right corner click on properties.
      o select the column or raw tab if necessary
      o enter the desired height or width for the first column or raw
      o click on next column or raw and enter the desired height or width
      o etc.

 Center the Table between the Margins
     o Go to layout tab and then choose properties
     o select the Table tab if necessary
     o click on Center in the Alignment section

TEMPLATES
              Open the File menu and select New.
              Click on the tab for the template you desire (such as Memos).
              Click on the style of template you want to use.
              Click on OK.
                                                                                                                                  54


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING SELECTED FUNCTIONS
                                OF POWERPOINT 2007
SELECT DESIRED OPTION FROM OPENING SCREEN

The opening dialog box presents four options. The first three options assist you in creating a presentation, and
the last option allows you to open an existing presentation. The first three options are defined below:
 AutoContent Wizard: Provides help with content and appearance for several types of presentations.
 Template:                 Provides a predesigned appearance, and you provide the content.
 Blank Presentation: You create the presentation by adding content and design.

           After you have selected a presentation type, you must follow screen instructions for the AutoContent Wizard,
select a further option for Template, or select a layout for Blank Presentation. In BEIT 336 you should use the Template
option.

SELECT A DESIGN

Previous versions of PowerPoint had only minor terminology changes in the application of a new template. ―Format/Apply
Design Template‖ became ―Format/Slide Design‖. However, PowerPoint 2007 now refers to ―Design Theme‖. The location
has changed as well. For your work in BEIT 336, click Select the Design tab on the ribbon at the top of your screen.
Themes will be displayed in the center of this tab. Select a page design that will look good for your presentation, and
click OK. You don’t want a background that is too dark or cluttered. (Note: some of the Design Templates
might not be available on your computer because they have not been installed.)

SELECT A PAGE LAYOUT

After selecting a page design, you must select the layout of the page from several options. To do that, go to Home tab and
then click on Layout. For the first page, select the TITLE SLIDE layout, and click OK

WORK IN DIFFERENT VIEWS

To access all the different slide views, click on the view tab at the top of the screen. On the left end of the view tab of the
ribbon, you will see the different choices for methods to view your slides. Each of these views is described below:

    Slide View or Normal View: This is the view you see firs on the screen when you are creating the slides. It allow
    direct editing of the current slide.
    Slide Sorter View: Presents all the slides in small format—you can easily move slides in this view. Double click
    on any slide to return to Normal view.
    Notes Pages View:         Allow you to create and edit speaker’s notes.
    Slide Show View:          Runs a slide show.

In 2007, in the Normal View There are 4 work areas: the "Outline" and "Slide" tabs on the left side and the "Notes" and
"Slide" panes on the right side.


EDIT SLIDES

Add Text
If you want to add text where a text box does not already exist, you need to create a text box by
 Go to Insert tab, click on Tex Box.
 Then drag the mouse on the slide to create a text box in the location and width of your choice. The text box will expand
     lengthwise as you type to accommodate your text. Use the selection handles to widen the text box further if necessary.
                                                                                                                           55


Edit Text
     In the Normal View, Select the "Outline" tab or the "Slide" pane to edit text. The "Outline" tab shows the text and
      titles of each slide and the "Slide" pane shows the current slide.

     Position the cursor on the text and change it, just as you would in Word. You can select the text and cut, copy or paste
      it using one of the following methods: right click the text to bring up the context menu and select the desired editing
      command, select the desired editing command from the toolbar or use the appropriate keyboard shortcut (Ctrl+X to
      cut, Ctrl+C to copy and Ctrl+V to paste).


Add a Slide
 Click on the New Slide button on the Standard Toolbar at the top of the screen.
 Click on the desired page layout then click OK.

Copy a Slide
To copy and paste data:

        Select the item(s) that you wish to copy

        On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Copy

        Select the item(s) where you would like to copy the data

        On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Paste
Delete a Slide
 Switch to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the Slide Sorter button near the bottom left of the screen.
 Click on the slide you want to delete.
 Click on Edit, and select Delete Slide, or simply press Delete.

Move among Slides
Click on Previous or Next Slide button on the right side of the screen near the bottom in Slide View.
OR click on the vertical scroll bar on the right of the screen.

Add Clip Art
        Click the Insert Tab

        Click the Clip Art Button

        Search for the clip art using the search Clip Art dialog box

        Click the desired clip art
Size Clip Art
    Click on the image to select it (handles appear around image).
    Position the cursor on a corner handle until a double arrow appears.
    Hold down the left mouse button, and drag the handle diagonally to create a box of desired size. Be sure
     you resize the clip art diagonally to retain its original proportions.
    Release the mouse button.

Move Clip Art
  Click on the image to select it (handles appear around image).
  Place the cursor on the image, and hold down the left mouse button.
  Drag the box to the desired location, and release the mouse button.
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Change Font Style and Size
     Existing Text
    Select text by clicking first to select the edit box then positioning and dragging the mouse to highlight the
     specific text you want to edit.
    Click the arrow next to the font name and choose a font.

    Remember that you can preview how the new font will look by highlighting the text, and hovering over the new font
    typeface

    Click the arrow next to the font size and choose the appropriate size, or

    Click the increase or decrease font size buttons.

    New Text
    Change style and size by selecting desired typeface, size, and style (bold, italics, underline) before you key
     in the text.
Change Page Design and Layout

Power point 2007offers numerous choices of background designs and styles. To change a design to slides,
click on the ―design‖ tab. Once there, you can choose which design you prefer. If you wish, you can let
your cursor hover over one of the options until you’re shown a preview of the background on the main
slide.

Check Spelling
To check the spelling in a presentation:

         Click the Review tab

         Click the Spelling button

CREATE AND EDIT A CHART

Create

    Insert a new slide by clicking on the New slide button and select an Auto Layout page design containing a
     chart then click OK; or go to insert tab and then click on chart.
    Double click on chart area. The Microsoft Graph window appears with the Datasheet.
    Key in your data to replace data currently on the Datasheet.
    Clear any rows or columns you don’t need by
         Clicking on the numbered gray button on the left for the row or the letter gray button at the top for
            the column you want to delete
         Right click with the mouse and click clear (Note: be sure you clear the data rather than delete it! If
            you simply delete the data, blank data categories will be included in your graph)
    Click outside the chart to return to your slide.

Edit
 Display the slide containing the chart you want to edit.
 Double click inside the chart. The Datasheet appears.
 Edit the chart, and click outside the chart to return to your slide.

*Or you can go to design tab and then click on edit data
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CREATE AND EDIT SPEAKER’S NOTES

        Open the presentation for which you want to create Speaker’s Notes
        Select the slide

        Click View

        Click Note Pages

        Click the Click to add Notes section of the screen

        Type in the Notes for that slide
         Edit
        Edit notes by clicking on the text you want to edit (to get edit box), and editing as needed

CREATE AUDIENCE HANDOUTS

        Open the presentation for which you want to create Audience Handouts
        Click on File and Print. The Print dialog box appears
            Click on the down arrow beside the Print what dialog box, select handouts, then click on the down
         arrow beside slides per page and select the number of slides you want on each page and select horizontal
         or vertical.
            Choose other items (such as printing in pure black and white) as desired. Click OK.


ADD TRANSITIONS AND BUILDS
A slide show can be created with or without the special effects of transitions used to introduce a slide during a
slide show. For example, you can fade in from black or dissolve from one slide to another.

You can also use animation (sometimes called builds) to add special visual or sound effects to text or an object.
For example—you can have your text bullet points fly in from the left or hear the sound of applause when a
picture is uncovered. You can animate any number of objects on a slide, and you can even animate elements of
a chart.


Transitions
 In slide or slide sorter view, select the slide or slides you want to add a transition to.
       Click the Animations tab

       Choose the appropriate animation or click the Transition dialog box
       To apply the transition to all the slides, click Apply to All.
       Repeat the process for each slide you want to add a transition to.
         To view the transitions, on the Slide Show menu, click Animation Preview

Builds (Animate text and objects)
 In slide view, display the slide that has the text or objects you want to animate.
       Click the Animations tab on the Ribbon

       Click Custom Animation

       Click Add Effect

       Choose the appropriate effect (Note: don’t use sounds in your 336 presentation.)
       For Help on an option, click the question mark and then click the option.
       Repeat the steps for every object you want to animate.
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    Click on the animation you wish to move. Use the Re-Order arrows at the bottom of the Custom Animation task pane to
    move the animation up or down in the list.
   To preview animations, click Preview.

RUN YOUR SLIDE SHOW

 Click on the Slide Show button near the bottom right of the screen.
Advance from slide to slide by pressing the left mouse button or the space bar

								
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