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					UWB R&D Activities in
              Prof Lye Kin Mun
    Deputy Executive Director (Industry)
     Institute for Infocomm Research

        IDA UWB Seminar
          24 May 2004

                                           Page 1
• IDA’s UWB Programme
• I2R’s Activities
• A*STAR Thematic Strategic Research
• Private Sector
• Cellonics Inc.
• Conclusions

                                  Page 2
Infocomm Development Authority

•Announced UWB Programme
 on 25 Feb 2003

•Set up UWB Friendly Zone in
 Science Park II

•Conducting test, measurements &
 experiments in UWBFZ on interference

•Participation in PULSERS (regulatory issues)

•Local Convenor for A*STAR’s Thematic Strategic
Research programme
                                                  Page 3
I2R     Goal – pushing UWB technology frontier

      Data Rate

                                             R UWB technology g y fro ntie r
                                          I2I2R UWB te c hno lo frontier

          Curre nt UWB te chnology frontie r
           Current UWB technology frontier

                                                                               Page 4
I2R   Our technologies: deliver an UWB access point ….

                                           SpaceTime Codes +
                                               Spatial Mux:
    UWB                                Lower terminal complexity
 access point                           and longer transmission
                                            range, given same
                                        transmission power and
                                          bandwidth efficiency

                                                       Digital Baseband
                                                     Longer transmission
                                                      range, even in non-
                                                        LOS multipath
                Single Reader estimating
                    Direction + Time
                       Of Arrival:
                Simpler, more convenient
                  location positioning
                                                                        Page 5
I2R      IEEE Standardisation Activities
 • Submitted UWB Alt-PHY proposal to IEEE 802.15.3a High Rate

 • Joined subsequently as author member of Multi-Band OFDM
      •to unify existing UWB technologies to form the best possible
      solution with co-existence and interoperability for IEEE 802.15.3a
      HR-WPAN Alt-PHY proposals

 • Active participation Study Group in IEEE 802.15.4a Low Rate
            •Currently performing measurement and
            modelling in indoor office environment
            •Up to 30m range

                                                                    Page 6
I2R   IEEE Standardisation Activities

                                        Page 7
I2R   MBOA Technical Group Activities

                                        Page 8
I2R      Internal Core - High Rate UWB project

 • To demonstrate wireless
   transmission of multimedia content
   download / video streaming over
   extended range (2x over standard     Engineering expertise
   range performance)                    - OFDM technology
 • IP generated will be compliant to     - Transceiver algorithms
                                         - IC design
      •MBOA PHY specification v1.0       - Hardware prototyping
      •MBOA MAC specification v0.6       - Medium Access Control
      or later version                   - Firmware implementation
      •MBOA MAC-PHY interface
      specification v0.7 or later
 • FPGA demo in Q1/2005

                                                                 Page 9
I2R   Internal Core - UWB High Rate RF Transceiver

  Demonstrated in April 2003, an Ultrawideband(UWB) wireless link
  that is capable of transmitting and receiving data at 500Mbps, at a
  range of 4m with BER better than 10E-6 and conforming to the
  emission limits stipulated by FCC.

                                                                        Page 10
I2R     Internal Core - UWB antennas
                                             I2R has strong expertise in small antenna designs.
                                             In particular, several UWB antennae have been
                                             developed and we were invited to give talks in
                           y                 IEEE conferences/workshops



                               Wf              21mm
             Wf                                              Slot                        Ground

                                        L3                          32mils RO4003


        Feed line

                          One of I2R’s antenna on PCB
                                                                                              Page 11
I2R Internal Core - UWB localisation system

 Project Features:
 - Position location with cm range of accuracy
 - Low data rate
 - Low power low cost
 - Short range, multi-hop based co-operative localization

                                                            Page 12
I2R       Low-rate, low-power UWB
 WHISPER project
 - TechnoBridge, a joint collaboration with TRLabs (Canada)

 System Requirements
      •low power consumption
      •low data rate
      •Coexist with other narrowband and UWB wireless devices
      •Capable of high precision ranging

                                                                Page 13
I2R                  Low-rate UWB - System design
                                                                            •IEEE 802.15.4 Low Rate Wireless PAN using UWB
                                                                            as Alternate-PHY Layer
                                                                            •Reuse 802.15.4 standard PHY Layer coding
           3.1 GHz        0.5 GHz                                10.6 GHz
                                                                            scheme – code position modulation (CPM)

                                        UWB analog modulator &              •2-PPM pulse transmission is used instead of
                     Code Pos
  Convertor          Modulation          2-PPM pulse generator              Offset QPSK
                                                                            •Multiband approach is used – only a 500 MHz
                                                                            band is used
                                                                            •Simple peak detector is used in receiver

                                                                                                 Peak             Baseband
                                                                                              Detector &             chip
                                                                                 LPF                       ADC
                                                             frequency                                             (orthog.
                                       FILTER                                                  Sampler
               LNA                                               quad                                               signal
                                                                 mixer                           Peak             detection,
                                                                                 LPF          Detector &   ADC    mapping &
                                                                            Q                                    bit sequence
                                                                            BW = 500MHz                          processing)



For detailed information see: -
     F Chin, W J Zhi and C C Ko, “System Performance of IEE 802.15.4 Low Rate Wireless PAN using UWB as
     Alternate-PHY Layer”,PIMRC’2003
     F Chin, W J Zhi and C C Ko, “System Performance of UWB based Low Rate Wireless PAN”,Asilomar ’2003
                                                                                                                               Page 14
I2R      Low-rate UWB – Band plan & Bit rate

      A modified 2-level CPM coding
      scheme (CPM + CPM offers
      longer code length per bit) is
      proposed to extend range at
      lower data rate
      Multiband approach is used –
      only a 500 MHz band within
      3.1 – 10.6 GHz is used

                                               Page 15
I2R      Low-rate UWB – Range performance (simulation)

 For 10% Packet error rate (128-bit packet size), range performance for 1-level CPM and
 2-level CPM coding scheme are ~ 5m and ~ 15m respectively
 IEEE 802.15.3a UWB Channel Model is used
                                                                                 Page 16
A*STAR Thematic Strategic Research Programme
“UWB+pervasive computing”
 The threefold objective of this workshop was to:
 • Ascertain the interest and research development levels and
 capabilities of the local research community in UWB and Pervasive
 • Identify focus areas where there are critical mass of relevant
 expertise and experience
 • Determine whether these critical mass areas can meld together in a
 compelling application framework to exploit the potential synergies of
 UWB and Pervasive Computing.

 Organisations involved :
        IDA, I2R, NUS (ECE), NTU (EEE, SCE), IME

                                                                    Page 17
Relevant Research Areas Identified
• UWB technology elements:
 Ultra-wideband antennas, MIMO antenna systems, propagation models,
 PHY/MAC design, and interference mitigation techniques.

 UWB system implementations:
 Single band/multi-band receiver and transmitter architecture, CMOS, SiGe
 design, advanced packaging techniques, high rate/low rate design trade-

 Protocols and Networking:
 Dynamic service discovery, protocol/domain handover, mobile ad-hoc
 networks, mobile quality of service, pervasive middleware, power

• Novel applications of pervasive computing enabled
  by UWB technology.
 E.g., body area networking, location and context aware computing.
                                                                      Page 18
Private Sector R&D
Many MNCs and SMEs with R&D facilities in
Singapore are interested or working in the
following areas:

  •Wireless USB Replacement technology
  •Position location and Ranging
  •Chipset design
  •Military applications

                                             Page 19
Cellonics UWB
                             Biological Cell Model
                                Arvanitaki (1939)

   Cell fast wave response

                                                          fast wave

                                                    slow wave
                                                                      Page 20
The CellonicsTM Technique

 Slow Wave

                                                    Fast Wave
             Input   CellonicsTM Element


                                                                Page 21
  An Example
                                    input waveform
CellonicsTM Circuit
           L       +
Vin                V


                                    output waveform
  Tunnel Diode
I-V Characteristic

                                                      Page 22
CellonicsTM Element Features

                                 • INCREDIBLY SIMPLE
                                 • SUPER SMALL SIZE
                                 • CONSUME VERY LITTLE POWER
                                 • LOW COST
                                 • CAN BE MASSIVELY PARALLEL
                                 • WIDESPREAD APPLICATIONS

        Inductor, Tunnel Diode

                                                        Page 23
                                        Comparison of Receiver Architecture
     Conventional Bluetooth transceiver

                                                                                                           L       +
                                                                                                    Vin            V

                                                  LNA                 Envelope                Cellonics™                  Decision
                                                                      detector                Receiver                    device

UWB transceiver architecture                                                                  •ONE symbol/pulse
        •ONE symbol/1000 pulses                                                               •VERY simple
                                            LNA         Cellonics™
        •Complex, require integration                   Transmitter
                                                                                     TX       •Does not require psec.
        in psec resolution
                                                                                              resolution at the

                                                                                     Diode    •Frequency translation
                                                                         L       +

Source: Intel Technology Journal

                                                                                                                                     Page 24
     Cellonics™ UWB Technology
Benefits of using Cellonics frequency translation method at the
•Provide option to occupy only certain desired frequency
spectrum, no energy wasted during transmission
•Minimize interference with other devices via frequency hopping
within 3-10 GHz band by changing the centre frequency of UWB

                                                             Page 25
         Conventional Correlator vs Cellonics
         Conventional Correlator

Incoming signal

              Matching signal
                                              •No matching signal required
           •Require to match incoming         •Timing is in the order of frame
           signal                             rate(up to the system designer)
           •Precise timing (in the order of   •Require only ONE pulse to
 frame     pulse width, usually hundreds      decode 1 symbol
           of picosecond)
           •Require thousand of pulses to
           decode 1 symbol

                                                                                 Page 26
•UWB has been identified by National Agencies to
be of strategic importance; viz. IDA and A*STAR.

•Public sector research is carried out by
Universities and Research Institutes in wide range
of areas.

•Private sector research is relatively smaller but
picking up.

                                                     Page 27

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