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									                                                                                             Volume 5, Issue 26
                                                                                               June 30, 2006


Rights unit challenges U.S. over bank data                                            Inside this issue:

                                                                                      Health and IT .......................... 2
BY DAN BILEFSKY, INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE

A human rights group in London said Tuesday that it had lodged complaints in          Information Sharing .............. 5
32 countries against a banking consor tium in Brussels, contending that it vio-       Privacy and Trust .................... 6
lated European and Asian data protection rules by providing the United States
                                                                                      New Papers & Reports..........9
with confidential information about international money transfers.
                                                                                      New Horizons...................... 15
Simon Davies, director of Privacy International, said the organization filed the      Internet Governance .......... 17
complaints with the data protection authorities with the aim of halting what it       Points of View ...................... 18
called "illegal transfers" of private information to the United States by the         Next Week .......................... 20
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications, or Swift.               Book Review ...................... 21

The complaints were filed in the 25 EU countries, Australia, Canada, Iceland,
Lichtenstein, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland and the Chinese territor y of
                                                                                      FIGURES OF THE WEEK
                                                                                       • Up to 75% of information work-
Hong Kong.                                                                               ers admitted to having made
                                                                                         business decisions that later
                                                                                         turned out to be wrong due to
"Swift appears to have violated data protection rules in Europe," Davies said,           incorrect, incomplete, or contra-
"by making these transfers without the consent of the individuals involved and           dictory business data or informa-
                                                                                         tion. Addition-ally, only about
without the approval of European judicial or administrative authorities. The             10% of information workers said
scale of the operation, involving millions of records, places this disclosure in         they always have all the informa-
                                                                                         tion they need to confidently
the realm of a fishing exercise rather than a legally authorized investigation."         make business decisions. 89% of
                                                                                         information workers have had
                                                                                         the data they use to make deci-
The Bush administration has defended the program as a crucial element in its             sions in their job questioned or
campaign against terrorism, but Europe and the United States are increasingly            challenged by colleagues or
                                                                                         supervisors, Harris Interactive
at odds over how to protect civil liber ties at the same time.                           reports
                                                                                       • The combined revenue of the
On Tuesday, the European Parliament's center-right European People's Par ty,             major telecom equipment ven-
its largest and most influential grouping, called for the EU to open an inquir y         dors in China dropped 6.7% in
                                                                                         2005, to $16 bln. Nokia, the top
into the legality of Swift's actions. Thomas Bickl, a spokesman for the par ty,          vendor, almost doubled its lead,
said it was concerned that the transfers had been made as par t of a cover t             and Huawei Technologies edged
                                                                                         Motorola out of second place,
and untransparent operation.                                                             Gartner says.

Separately, the Council of Europe, the human rights watchdog in Strasbourg,            • Global demand for digital still
                                                                                         cameras will continue to be
renewed its criticism Tuesday of the United States' alleged abductions of ter-           strong in the short term, with
rorism suspects in Europe and demanded that Washington apologize and com-                111 million units shipping in
                                                                                         2008, but a slowdown is on the
pensate the victims.                                                                     horizon. Asia-Pacific and the Rest
                                                                                         of the World (ROW) will
                                                                                         emerge as powerhouses and
Davies said Swift had received broad administrative subpoenas for millions of            account for over 40% of the
records from the Treasur y Depar tment, which gave its actions a legal basis in          global DSC shipments in 2010.
                                                                                         More vendors will exit the mar-
the United States. But he said the subpoenas took the form of letters that               ket in the next 18 months, IDC
were issued without judicial consent or due process in the European Union,               says.
where only the data protection authorities or the cour ts have the power to            • In Europe some 60 commercial
consent to such transfers.                                                               3G networks have already been
                                                                                         rolled out. 3G technology is
                                                                                         being used by 47 mln subscribers
"These transfers could be made on the grounds of national security, but Swift            worldwide, and their number is
                                                                                         rising fast. 3G penetration in
did not seek approval from European authorities to do this," he said. "It was            Western Europe will grow to
willing to overlook European civil liber ties rules in order to satisfy U.S. objec-      more than 60% by 2010,
                                                                                         Deutsche Bank says. Italy and the
tives, and this is the most recent in a long list of attempts by the U.S. to             UK will boast the highest 3G
invade the privacy of Europeans."                                                        penetration rates in 2010, while
                                                                                         Belgium and Greece will have the
                                                                                         lowest. Germany and France will
More at http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/27/news/secure.php                           rank just below the Western
                                                                                         European average.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                              Page 2


HEALTH AND IT
                                                                     • For the electronic health-records work group, to "deploy
Halamka, HITSP spending summer
cooking up standards                                                 standardized, widely available, secure solutions for accessing lab-
BY BY JOSEPH CONN, HITS                                              oratory results and interpretations in a patient-centric manner
                                                                     for clinical care by authorized parties," including both current
                                                                     and historical data.
A federal advisory panel tasked with harmonizing healthcare
information standards will focus its efforts this summer on
                                                                     According to Halamka, the next steps for HITSP will be to pre-
developing cookbooklike instructions aimed at helping IT users
                                                                     pare and submit paper-based implementation guidelines to
and vendors implement a targeted group of data transmission
                                                                     providers and IT vendors for what he described as "a reality
activities, or "use cases" for biosurveillance, personal health-
                                                                     check," asking them, "if what we have said is implementable, if
record development and electronic health-record interoper-
                                                                     you see any 'gotchas.' That will give us a test-drive on paper
ability.
                                                                     before people have to code it. After our Sept. 29 release, we're
                                                                     talking about how we actually ensure we get this used and test-
The standards panel also will be working with a consortium of
                                                                     ed in the real world."
healthcare payers to develop a core set of data and communi-
cations standards so the plans can electronically swap member
                                                                     Halamka was in Oak Brook, Ill., recently at a meeting of
information when a person moves from one plan to another
                                                                     Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise, a consortium of health-
and to set up member personal health records using demo-
                                                                     care IT users and developers that works on what it calls inte-
graphic and clinical data.
                                                                     gration profiles for specific data transmission tasks, ensuring that
                                                                     various vendors' systems can communicate with each other.
"We took 570 standards, and we reduced them to 92 and said
                                                                     IHE members' technical staffers gather periodically in Oak
this is going to be the starting point for our work over the sum-
                                                                     Brook for "Connectathons," weeklong work sessions in which
mer in producing some very detailed guides on how to imple-
                                                                     they test and debug specific integration profiles and ensure
ment them," said John Halamka, chairman of the Healthcare
                                                                     their IT systems can communicate with each other.
Information Technology Standards Panel that met June 14 and
approved the work thus far. "Our deadline is to have all that
                                                                     Halamka said some HITSP work products might be field-tested
work done by Sept. 29."
                                                                     within the Connectathon program.
The HITSP is working under a contract between the Office of
                                                                     In addition to its work with AHIC, the HITSP also has reached
the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology at
                                                                     an agreement to work with a consortium of health plans devel-
HHS and the American National Standards Institute in
                                                                     oping a common set of standards to electronically share basic
Washington. The panel is working in conjunction with the
                                                                     demographic and clinical information about members, accord-
American Health Information Community, a 17-member IT
                                                                     ing to Halamka. Last month, the America's Health Insurance
advisory group established last year by HHS Secretary Mike
                                                                     Plans and the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association disclosed
Leavitt.
                                                                     that their member plans have agreed to work together on the
                                                                     common standards, which also would enable the plans to offer
Work groups of the advisory panel also must come up with
                                                                     members personal health records based on the uniform data
their own recommendations on how to advance healthcare IT
                                                                     elements. Plan officials said the PHRs could be used to gather
by the September deadline and are looking to the HITSP for
                                                                     and display not only administrative claims data already collect-
technical assistance on the appropriate standards to use. The
                                                                     ed by the plans, but also clinical information such as lab results
initial AHIC use cases are:
                                                                     not always available to the plans at this time.
• For the biosurveillance work group, the transmission of
                                                                     "I had the whole AHIP leadership of this project come to the
"essential ambulatory care and emergency department visit, uti-
                                                                     HITSP board meeting June 2," Halamka said. "The outcome was
lization and lab result data from electronically enabled health-
                                                                     that AHIP and HITSP will be working together.
care delivery and public health systems in standardized and
anonymized format to authorized public health agencies with
                                                                     "Their transactions really align with the consumer-empower-
less than one day lag time."
                                                                     ment use case," Halamka said. "The AHIC use case may be
                                                                     slightly narrower than the AHIP use case, but we'll get align-
• For the consumer-empowerment work group, the deployment
                                                                     ment.The idea is we end up with a common set of standards.
to targeted populations, such as those with chronic health con-
                                                                     They're engaged, absolutely."
ditions, of "a pre-populated, consumer-directed and secure elec-
tronic registration summary" and "a widely available, pre-populat-
                                                                     Source: http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article.cms?articleId=40413
ed medication history linked to the registration summary."
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                             Page 3


HEALTH AND IT - II
                                                                     The Ford health system's portal is expected to complete more
                                                                     than 100,000 transactions for 45,000 registered users, Kuhn said.
Networking: Portals for medical care
BY GENE KOPROWSKI, UPI
                                                                     Doctors and other healthcare professionals see portals like
CHICAGO, June 26 (UPI) -- A patient refills her prescription for     these as a key to preventative healthcare. According to the
Diuril online, a high-blood-pressure medication, without having      American Heart Association, preventive healthcare services are
to walk down the street in the summer heat and wait for the          an integral part of any corporate healthcare plan.
local pharmacist to fill out the prescription.
                                                                     During the last six months there has been a national push for
Though rare today, Internet-based "patient portals," like the        physicians to convert their paper records to electronic medical
one at Detroit's Henry Ford Health System, which is a network        records (EMR) to facilitate preventive care. President Bush, dur-
of 24 primary-care centers that makes it one of America's            ing his State of the Union address, even asked Congress to
largest healthcare systems, will become increasingly common in       "make wider use of electronic records and other health infor-
the future.                                                          mation technology to help control costs and reduce dangerous
                                                                     medical errors."
"Hospitals across the country are seeking a more comprehen-
sive approach to patient portal development that encompass-          Doctors are being encouraged to switch to EMR by the feds -
es clinical information," said Peter Kuhn, president of Medseek,     - as well as state governments, patients and insurance compa-
the Solvang, Calif.-based network technology developer.              nies. However, the total number of physicians in private prac-
                                                                     tice who have converted to EMR remain below 10 percent.
Using the ".net technology" developed by Microsoft, patient
portal platforms can link directly to the electronic medical         With more than 200 different EMR and practice management
records of hospitals, enabling patients to update their informa-     software vendors to choose from, doctors are faced with the
tion, including emergency contact numbers; obtain personalized       challenge of having to sort through the huge number of ven-
medical information; ask billing questions; renew and refill pre-    dors to find a product that fits their specific needs.
scriptions; request results from lab tests and receive automatic
updates.                                                             More at http://www.upi.com/Hi-Tech/view.php?StoryID=20060626-
                                                                     092227-4555r


Initial CCHIT EMR report cards due                                   are tested by then, Leavitt said.

out July 18                                                          "We're almost halfway through the testing," Leavitt said. "We're
BY BY JOSEPH CONN, HITS                                              not sure we'll get them all.We've set that date for the 18th, and
                                                                     we're going to sit with that.We need to hold that date. If we're
                                                                     not able to get them all in, we'll keep testing and announce
Report cards are due July 18 for the first batch of vendors of
                                                                     (additional certifications) every two weeks."
electronic medical-records software that submitted their sys-
tems for testing by the federally funded Certification
                                                                     Leavitt said systems were given their choice of testing time slots
Commission for Healthcare Information Technology, according
                                                                     based on the order in which the vendors applied for testing
to an announcement by the Chicago-based commission.
                                                                     first, had their $28,000 testing fee paid and had their materials
                                                                     ready for inspection.
Only systems that earn straight A's -- that is, systems that pass
100% of the tests for functionality and security -- will be enti-
                                                                     "We used a fair method, determined by their own hustle,"
tled to claim that they are CCHIT-certified, according to the
                                                                     Leavitt said.
commission. But under CCHIT's procedures, the names of
companies whose systems failed will not be announced.
                                                                     CCHIT was created in 2004 as a collaboration of the American
                                                                     Health Information Management Association, the Healthcare
More than two dozen IT vendors of EMRs designed for the
                                                                     Information and Management Systems Society and the
ambulatory-care market volunteered their systems for testing,
                                                                     National Alliance for Health Information Technology -- all based
according to CCHIT Chairman Mark Leavitt.The exact number
                                                                     in Chicago -- in answer to a call by David Brailer, then-national
has not been disclosed.
                                                                     coordinator for health information technology at HHS, for a
                                                                     private-sector organization to certify EMR systems.
The goal is to have all of the vendors' systems tested by the
July 18 deadline, so the names of all the vendors certified can
                                                                     More at http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article.cms?articleId=40430
be released at once, but there is a backup plan if not all systems
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                          Page 4


HEALTH AND IT - III
                                                                  Services Secretary Michael O. Leavitt , but it has yet to pro-
                                                                  duce recommendations.
Digital files raise security concerns
Questions posed about patient computer
                                                                  ``The public is very sensitive about how their information is
                                                                  used," said David Lansky , a senior director at the nonprofit
data
BY CHRISTOPHER ROWLAND, BOSTON GLOBE                              Markle Foundation in New York, which studies the impact of
                                                                  technology on society.

                                                                  Not only are consumers worried about the theft or misuse of
                                                                  records, but their privacy rights may prove to be different
                                                                  from state to state and city to city unless there are uniform
                                                                  protections, he said.

                                                                  ``Let's say you move from Boston to San Diego and your
                                                                  health records follow you. What will happen at the other end
                                                                  of the line?" Lansky said. ``You need to have some level of
                                                                  confidence that everyone connected is playing by the same
                                                                  rules."

                                                                  The forum focused on efforts around the country to encour-
                                                                  age the use of electronic records, including a $50 million pilot
                                                                  project sponsored by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of
Hospitals and doctors are shifting more patient records to        Massachusetts to digitize medical records in Brockton, North
computer files, but no one has settled how the nation should      Adams, and Newburyport.
safeguard the sensitive information once it is transformed into
bits and bytes, according to consumer healthcare advocates        Each of those communities has a committee that is deciding
gathered in Boston.                                               how security issues will be addressed. A bedrock principal so
                                                                  far in all three places is that only hospitals and doctors who
The lack of uniform privacy standards is becoming a problem,      are connected to those networks will be allowed to view the
they say, as communities in Massachusetts and around the          records, said Micky Tripathi, who is leading the effort as exec-
country experiment with ways to share electronic records          utive director of the Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative .
between providers.
                                                                  Speakers at the forum said patients should pay more atten-
``We're in totally uncharted terrain," said John McDonough ,      tion to consent forms they sign at physicians' offices, which
executive director of Health Care for All, the nonprofit con-     spell out with whom their medical information can be shared.
sumer organization in Boston that sponsored Friday's forum
on health records.                                                But reading the forms is one thing, and making decisions
                                                                  based on what they say, and their legal implications, is anoth-
Unanswered questions are these:                                   er. The eHealth Collaborative has hired an expert to help
                                                                  translate the legalese in consent forms into something
Should data shared in these networks be made available to         patients can understand.
insurance companies? Health researchers? Drug companies?
The easiest answer would be no. But what if the information       ``Having people totally understand how their information is
could help insurance companies control costs, or help med-        being used is complicated," said Ray Campbell, chief executive
ical researchers spot risks, or develop better treatments?        of the Massachusetts Health Data Consortium , a nonprofit
                                                                  healthcare consulting and technology group in Waltham.
Meanwhile, what level of control should patients have over
who views their records? Should patients be allowed to view       Source: http://www.boston.com/business/technology/articles/2006/06/
their own records from home? And how should hospitals and         26/digital_files_raise_security_concerns?mode=PF
doctors respond after a security breach?

The federal government established a panel to study these
issues last year under the leadership of Health and Human
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                              Page 5


INFORMATION SHARING
                                                                        last year for it to be upgraded so the 10 new member states
                                                                        that joined the bloc in 2004 can use it.
Unisys, Microsoft team up on EU
police data system
REUTERS                                                                 Britain and Ireland are outside the area, together with the 10
                                                                        mainly eastern European member states, which will have to
                                                                        beef up border checks before they can join.
BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Microsoft Corp (MSFT.O) announced
on Wednesday it was teaming up with Unisys Corp (UIS.N) to
                                                                        The system, which is used by police and border guards on the
create the technology platform for a cross-border system to
                                                                        Schengen area's external borders, stores data about people
share police data in the European Union.
                                                                        who should not be allowed into the area, terrorist suspects and
                                                                        people who should be under surveillance.
Unisys is advising the European Commission in setting up the
system. Financial details were not contained in a joint Microsoft-
                                                                        The new system will also store information about people want-
Unisys statement, but officials said the final value of the deal will
                                                                        ed under a pan-European arrest warrant and who should be
depend on how many countries use the technology.
                                                                        extradited to the EU state where they have committed a
                                                                        crime. The Commission has said it expects the new system to
Thirteen European Union states and non-EU Norway and
                                                                        be completed in 2007.
Iceland are members of the Schengen area, in which border
controls have been scrapped and people can travel without
                                                                        Microsoft and Unisys said they were also working on a new
having to show their passports other than for checks when
                                                                        information system for exchanging visa data that is being intro-
boarding aircraft.
                                                                        duced in the Schengen area.
An existing database lets countries inside the area share data
                                                                        Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/
on stolen cars and fugitives. The European Commission called
                                                                        2006/06/28/AR2006062800228_pf.html


Students Design Sensor Network To                                       down a tree, for example.

Protect Forest                                                          The data also becomes available on a Web site where anyone
BY LAURIE SULLIVAN, TECHWEB                                             can monitor Romania's latest forest conditions. "We used
                                                                        Microsoft's eBox as the central unit, the brain of the system,
TECHNOLOGY NEWS
                                                                        and the sensors are the ears and the nose," Pop said. "We can
                                                                        listen for the sounds of chainsaws to stop loggers from cutting
Four college students have developed an application to protect          down trees, or try to prevent fires by analyzing the data from
forests in Romania against tree poachers, flooding and fires.The        sensors that monitor carbon monoxide, temperature and
application uses a network of sensors to monitor humidity,              humidity."
sound, temperature and carbon monoxide levels.
                                                                        High carbon monoxide levels or low humidity readings during
The Politehnica University of Bucharest students built the appli-       hot days can trigger a fire alert, for example, he said.
cation with Microsoft Corp. products, and they took first place
in the recent Windows Embedded Student ChallengE. The                   CaLamp Inc. principal engineer James Y. Wilson, who participat-
group was one of 30 international teams who made the finals.            ed as a judge in the Microsoft student competition, says the
                                                                        application confirms that radio frequency (RF) technology and
The application focuses on saving Romania's forests by tying            sensor networks are feasible, yet underutilized.
into the contest theme: preserve, protect and enhance the
environment. Illegal logging, which accounts for about 40 per-          Many companies probably haven't considered monitoring the
cent of the trees cut down in Romania, contributes to flash             status of environmental resources through sensor networks,
floods and landslides triggered by the country's incessant rains,       because these types of applications are not motivated by prof-
according to Christian Pop, a 22-year-old third-year computer           its, Wilson suggested. In fact, many of the applications the stu-
science student at the university, who led the team called 44           dents demonstrated at the competition might have otherwise
Tech.                                                                   slipped under the radar, he said.
The application works under low power requirements, estab-              More at http://www.techweb.com/wire/networking/189601611
lishing a network and routing protocol that connects the sen-
sors to a central server. From there, alerts are sent to PDAs if
the application recognizes the sound of a chainsaw cutting
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                             Page 6


PRIVACY AND TRUST
Voter Database Security Questioned                                   voter data.
BY MARC SONGINI, COMPUTERWORLD                                       "The data I have collected and feel some responsibility for is
                                                                     now out of my hands," she said. "I have zero control over what
The creation of statewide voter databases, as mandated for all       happens once it's in the custody of the secretary of state. We
states by the federal Help America Vote Act, could pose              do know that nobody is excellent at managing databases with
unavoidable privacy risks, some advocates and officials fear.        respect to privacy."

"The Help America Vote Act mandated that all states create           A spokeswoman for California Secretary of State Bruce
centralized, statewide voter registration databases, but it didn't   McPherson said that the state's voter database is adequately
mandate any protections for that data," said Kim Alexander,          protected against unauthorized access and data theft.
president and founder of the California Voter Foundation, a
nonprofit voting technology watchdog group.                          "The [voter registration] database is entirely implemented on a
                                                                     dedicated private network, including state-owned, dedicated
When people register to vote in the U.S., they are required to       workstations for data exchange with counties," she said.
provide personal information, such as date and place of birth        "Servers, workstations and network components are hardened
and current residence, which could be used by identity thieves,      to industry standards and verified by regular scanning and
she said. Such personal information will be stored in each           analysis."
state's voter database.
                                                                     Source: http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=
Freddie Oakley, clerk recorder for Yolo County, Calif., said she     viewArticleBasic&articleId=112206
fears that a loss of local control could diminish the security of


Always in the camera's eye                                           will affect us legally and shape us socially.
BY JANET KORNBLUM, USA TODAY                                         "We're going to be a society where tons and tons of photo-
                                                                     graphs and information about us are available online without
Traffic cameras zoom in enough to capture your dangling ciga-        our consent," says Jason Schultz, staff attorney with the
rette. Crime cameras "see" in the dark. Satellite images show        Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy and civil liberties advo-
whether your car is in the driveway. Most Americans realize          cacy group that focuses on computers and digital technology.
ubiquitous monitoring is the price of living in a high-tech world.
                                                                     "Privacy is sometimes something we don't realize we value
These days, surveillance cameras aren't just mounted on build-       except in hindsight."
ings and satellites, controlled by government and businesses.
Now they're carried by a nation obsessed with its own image.         It's not that most citizen videographers are looking to violate
                                                                     anyone's privacy.
Kids snap cellphone pictures at parties and instantly put them
on the Web; fans who nab photos of unsuspecting celebrities          Instead, many of today's burgeoning filmmakers are tomorrow's
share them on celebrity-watch sites.The guy in the car next to       Hollywood hopefuls just looking for their lucky break. And many
you is leaning out of his window, taking a video that he later       bystanders will do anything they can to be in pictures.
uploads to a video site where it could be seen by dozens or
hundreds of people — maybe even millions.                            "I usually have my camera on me," says Steven Downie, 22, a
                                                                     manufacturing technician from Woburn, Mass., whose home-
"Our computers are about to become unblinking paparazzi,"            brewed videos have drawn some attention on YouTube, a rap-
says Paul Saffo of the Institute for the Future in Menlo Park,       idly growing website where people post and watch a huge
Calif. "And we're all going to feel a little bit like Brad and       array of homemade and professional videos. "If you go to a
Angelina."                                                           party or convention, you'd be surprised how many people
                                                                     wave, (flash) a peace sign, stick out their tongue or just yell
Thanks to the availability of cheap digital cameras and websites     'Hey.'
that simplify photo-sharing, Americans have a new favorite pas-
time: creating their own reality shows, featuring themselves —       "Cameras are fun. It's like the new thing to do," he says. "TV
and anyone else they see along the way.                              shows are boring. Cameras are the way to go. It's fresh."

While many, especially young people, think it's all fun, privacy     More at http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-06-26-camera-
watchers are eyeing the new trend, trying to gauge just how it       crazy_x.htm
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                              Page 7


PRIVACY AND TRUST - II
                                                                      "We all know it's a major problem in society, and a potentially
Research center to focus on ID theft
BY WILLIAM KATES, ASSOCIATED PRESS                                    dangerous problem. It cuts across every aspect — commerce,
                                                                      national security, government, our private lives. There is a
An alliance of businesses, colleges and federal crime fighters will   tremendous need, though, for more research," Gordon said.
combine their expertise at a new research center that will
study the problems of identity theft and fraud.                       One recent survey reported that there have been more than
                                                                      28 million new identity theft victims since 2003, but Gordon
Founding partners of the Center for Identity Management and           said it's likely that just as many incidents go undetected or unre-
Information Protection include LexisNexis and IBM, the U.S.           ported.
Secret Service and the FBI. Participating schools include
Carnegie Mellon University, Indiana University and Syracuse           In May, up to 26.5 million people were exposed to possible
University.                                                           identity theft and fraud when a Veterans Affairs Department
                                                                      data analyst's laptop computer was stolen from his home in
The center will be established in upstate New York at Utica           suburban Maryland. The laptop contained names, birth dates
College, which pioneered the nation's first curriculum on             and Social Security numbers.
white-collar crime in 1988.
                                                                      So far, there have been no identity crimes linked to the VA theft,
Research will focus on critical issues in identity management,        but lesser incidents have become commonplace.
information sharing policy and data protection, said Dr. Gary
Gordon, a Utica College professor and expert in cybercrime            "Identity theft has become rampant in our society and to bet-
and identity fraud.                                                   ter combat the problem we need bold, new and innovative
                                                                      solutions," said U.S. Rep. Sherwood Boehlert, R-N.Y., chairman
"The first thing we have to do is better understand the size and      of the House Science Committee.
scope of the issue," Gordon said.
                                                                      More at http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/computersecurity/info
Officials were to announce creation of the center Wednesday           theft/2006-06-27-id-theft-center_x.htm
in Washington, D.C. and in Utica.

                                                                      Congress is acting none too soon, say some observers. "The
                                                                      Congress is way late - a day late and a dollar short - when it
Does digital age spell privacy's doom?
BY GREGORY M. LAMB, THE CHRISTIAN                                     comes to privacy," says Robert Gellman, a privacy and informa-
SCIENCE MONITOR                                                       tion policy consultant in Washington, D.C., who served for
                                                                      nearly two decades as a congressional aide focused on privacy
State laws help inform people when their personal data has            issues. "All the creative things that have been going on in priva-
been stolen, but some want stronger measures at the feder-            cy have been going on at the state level."
al level.
                                                                      Since February 2005, when data-aggregation company
"'The right to be let alone," Supreme Court justice Louis             ChoicePoint revealed that scammers had tricked it into provid-
Brandeis once said, is "the right most valued by civilized men."      ing them with the private financial records of 163,000 people,
That right seems under renewed attack today in a world where          at least 88 million individual records held by the government or
personal records are stored digitally and can be obtained by          private companies have been exposed to possible theft,
those clever enough to hack in or by simply grabbing a laptop         according to the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse in San Diego.The
computer. Nearly every day, a new headline tells of Americans'        incidents occurred in a variety of ways, from both government
private information being stolen by criminals or combed               and private databases.
through by government agencies seeking terrorists.
                                                                      In one highly publicized case, the Social Security numbers and
What's the outlook for privacy? It's probably going to get            other personal information of some 28 million US military vet-
worse before it gets better, some experts say. But new protec-        erans were stolen from a government employee's home in
tions, mostly enacted at the state level, are helping. Congress       May. In one of many private examples, 243,000 customer
may finally get into the act as early as this week, though con-       records of hotels.com were lost when a laptop computer was
sumer advocates say new federal laws may actually weaken pri-         stolen from a vehicle in February.
vacy protections, depending on how they are worded.
                                                                      More at http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0628/p15s01-ussc.html
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                           Page 8


PRIVACY AND TRUST - III
                                                                    Program. Under RT, volunteers submit biometrics, go through
                                                                    FBI background checks and, if approved, receive an identifica-
DHS Special Report | Authentication,
ID are in the cards                                                 tion card to go through airport security more quickly. TSA
                                                                    launched five pilots in 2004 and now has implemented the
                                                                    program at a handful of airports, including Orlando, Fla.
RFID, biometrics are integral to many of
DHS’ plans
BY JASON MILLER, GCN                                                The Transportation Worker Identity Credential, another TSA
                                                                    program, uses a biometric ID card for port workers to gain
Robert Mocny, deputy program manager for the U.S. Visitor           physical or logical access to secure areas.TSA tested the pro-
and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology program, has a            gram from Nov. 2004 until June 2005 at 28 sites around the
simple vision for making the borders more secure.                   country using fingerprints and iris biometrics.

It doesn’t have to do with 12-foot fences, or unmanned aeri-        Other parts of DHS also are using RFID and biometrics in
al vehicles or anything fancy. It is a simple card combining two    other ways. The Coast Guard is using biometrics to authenti-
technologies that have been around for decades—biometrics           cate vendors into their facilities more quickly, and the Secret
and radio frequency identification.                                 Service is relying on RFID for asset tracking.

Such a card, Mocny envisions, would give border patrol offi-        No-longer-missing link
cers a complete picture of visitors as they enter and exit the
country, and ensure that they actually leave when they’re sup-      While biometrics and RFID technologies hardly are new, their
posed to.                                                           maturation and public acceptance seem to pave the way for
                                                                    extensive, long-term use.
This is a big difference from what is happening now under the
I-94 pilot program that DHS is running as part of the U.S.Visit     “Biometrics is the key link that connects the individual to the
system. The pilot uses a long-range RFID chip implanted in a        threat assessment,” said Darrin Kayser, a TSA spokesman. “It
form for visitors who require a visa, but critics contend that it   allows us to combat fraud and ensures that the individual at
can guarantee only that the form leaves the country, not the        the access point is who they said they are. It is a key piece to
visitor. Mocny agrees with that criticism.                          TWIC and Registered Traveler.”

“That is why we will challenge industry to devise a way to          Mocny said that adding RFID tags to certain documents will
make sure that a person is leaving the country by having a          simplify and ensure safe travel, while guaranteeing citizens’ pri-
RFID and biometric device together,” he said. “It could             vacy and allowing people to move through checkpoints quick-
become the [People Access Security Service under the                ly enough to allow for the flow of commerce over the bor-
Western Hemisphere Initiative] card or something else. It is all    ders.
about the timing of the marriage of the technology.”
                                                                    “RFID is playing a larger role, especially for cargo,” said Jeremy
Starring roles                                                      Grant, a senior vice president and emerging technologies ana-
                                                                    lyst for the Stanford Washington Research Group of
In the meantime, biometrics and RFID—both separately and            Washington. “DHS still needs to better develop how to
together—are playing significant roles in at least four high-       deploy it and manage it. It reminds me [of] where biometrics
profile programs across DHS.                                        was four or five years ago. It has a lot of promise, but people
                                                                    still are figuring out the best way to use it.”
Along with the I-94 pilot, U.S.Visit captures biometric data on
visitors and checks their fingerprints against terrorist and        At least one vendor agrees with Mocny’s vision of marrying
criminal databases.                                                 the two technologies.

The PASS card, though Congress likely will delay its imple-         Jim Stolarski, program manager of the Smart Border Alliance
mentation, would include a long-range RFID chip to quickly          for U.S.Visit and director of homeland security for Accenture
transmit information to border control officers about the           LLP of Chicago, said his company is lab-testing an RFID and
holder of the card.                                                 biometric device.

The Transportation Security Administration is relying on fin-       More at http://www.gcn.com/print/25_17/41094-1.html
gerprint and iris biometrics for its Registered Traveler
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                              Page 9


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS
                                                                      expansion in aid has brought with it a growing fragmentation in
                                                                      organization and policy. This volume, edited by Lael Brainard
Security By Other Means
THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION                                             and soon to be published by the Brookings Institution Press, is
                                                                      aimed to be a resource for policy makers and stakeholders as
In the face of military overreach combined with unprecedent-          well as a catalyst for informed debate on improving the effec-
ed new global challenges, the United States must reform its           tiveness of United States foreign assistance and ultimately con-
weak aid infrastructure in order to leverage its soft power           tributing to the overall well-being of citizens ensnared in pover-
more effectively and grapple with global poverty, pandemics,          ty worldwide.
and transnational threats. Although U.S. spending on foreign
assistance has seen its greatest increase in forty years, this        More at http://www.brookings.edu/global/security_chapters.htm

                                                                      And it has no authors in any conventional sense.Tens of thou-
                                                                      sands of people—who have not gotten even the glory of affix-
Can History be Open Source?
Wikipedia and the Future of the Past                                  ing their names to it—have written it collaboratively. The
BY ROY ROSENZWEIG                                                     Roosevelt entry, for example, emerged over four years as five
                                                                      hundred authors made about one thousand edits.This extraor-
                                                                      dinary freedom and cooperation make Wikipedia the most
This article was originally published in The Journal of
                                                                      important application of the principles of the free and open-
American History Volume 93, Number 1 (June, 2006): 117-46
                                                                      source software movement to the world of cultural, rather
and is reprinted here with permission.
                                                                      than software, production.
History is a deeply individualistic craft.The singly authored work
                                                                      Despite, or perhaps because of, this open-source mode of pro-
is the standard for the profession; only about 6 percent of the
                                                                      duction and distribution, Wikipedia has become astonishingly
more than 32,000 scholarly works indexed since 2000 in this
                                                                      widely read and cited. More than a million people a day visit the
journal’s comprehensive bibliographic guide, “Recent
                                                                      Wikipedia site. The Alexa traffic rankings put it at number 18,
Scholarship,” have more than one author. Works with several
                                                                      well above the New York Times (50), the Library of Congress
authors—common in the sciences—are even harder to find.
                                                                      (1,175), and the venerable Encyclopedia Britannica (2,952). In a
Fewer than 500 (less than 2 percent) have three or more
                                                                      few short years, it has become perhaps the largest work of
authors.1
                                                                      online historical writing, the most widely read work of digital
                                                                      history, and the most important free historical resource on the
Historical scholarship is also characterized by possessive indi-
                                                                      World Wide Web. It has received gushing praise (“one of the
vidualism. Good professional practice (and avoiding charges of
                                                                      most fascinating developments of the Digital Age”; an “incredi-
plagiarism) requires us to attribute ideas and words to specific
                                                                      ble example of open-source intellectual collaboration”) as well
historians—we are taught to speak of “Richard Hofstadter’s sta-
                                                                      as sharp criticism (a “faith-based encyclopedia” and “a joke at
tus anxiety interpretation of Progressivism.”2 And if we use
                                                                      best”). And it is almost entirely a volunteer effort; as of
more than a limited number of words from Hofstadter, we
                                                                      September 2005, it had two full-time employees. It is surely a
need to send a check to his estate.To mingle Hofstadter’s prose
                                                                      phenomenon to which professional historians should attend.4
with your own and publish it would violate both copyright and
professional norms.
                                                                      To that end, this article seeks to answer some basic questions
                                                                      about history on Wikipedia. How did it develop? How does it
A historical work without owners and with multiple, anony-
                                                                      work? How good is the historical writing? What are the poten-
mous authors is thus almost unimaginable in our professional
                                                                      tial implications for our practice as scholars, teachers, and pur-
culture.Yet, quite remarkably, that describes the online encyclo-
                                                                      veyors of the past to the general public?
pedia known as Wikipedia, which contains 3 million articles (1
million of them in English). History is probably the category
                                                                      Writing about Wikipedia is maddeningly difficult. Because
encompassing the largest number of articles. Wikipedia is
                                                                      Wikipedia is subject to constant change, much that I write
entirely free. And that freedom includes not just the ability of
                                                                      about Wikipedia could be untrue by the time you read this. An
anyone to read it (a freedom denied by the scholarly journals
                                                                      additional difficulty stems from its vast scale. I cannot claim to
in, say, jstor, which requires an expensive institutional subscrip-
                                                                      have read the 500 million words in the entire Wikipedia, nor
tion) but also—more remarkably—their freedom to use it.You
                                                                      even the subset of articles (as many as half) that could be con-
can take Wikipedia’s entry on Franklin D. Roosevelt and put it
                                                                      sidered historical.5 This is only a very partial and preliminary
on your own Web site, you can hand out copies to your stu-
                                                                      report from an ever-changing front, but one that I argue has
dents, and you can publish it in a book—all with only one
                                                                      profound implications for our practice as historians.
restriction: You may not impose any more restrictions on sub-
sequent readers and users than have been imposed on you.
                                                                      More at http://chnm.gmu.edu/resources/essays/d/42
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                               Page 10


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS - II
                                                                        secondary documents without base documents. Securing an
                                                                        identity document is a vital first step for a terrorist or anyone
Successfully Securing Identity
Documents: A Primer on Preventive                                       else who wants to enter the United States illegally.

                                                                        Tactics for entering the United States using illicit documents
Technologies and ID Theft
BY ALANE KOCHEMS AND LAURA KEITH                                        include traveling on fake, stolen, or forged passports; hiding past
                                                                        travel by acquiring a new passport by claiming that the old
Identity theft has become a hot topic in today’s society, with tel-     passport was lost, stolen, or damaged; and traveling under
evision commercials oversimplifying and trivializing the threat         “legitimate” passports that have been purchased blank and
by focusing on the potential financial consequences. Identity           filled in with false personal data.Terrorists have also used legit-
theft is a more serious threat than someone draining a grand-           imate means to enter the United States, including entering as
mother’s bank account. False or fraudulent documents could              students, requesting political asylum, and avoiding immigration
help terrorists enter the United States and establish themselves        inspection upon entrance.[1] These tactics highlight the need
in preparation for an attack on the country. Since this country         for security professionals to be able to validate identity docu-
relies primarily on identity-based security systems, secure iden-       ments, not just generally to be on the lookout for fraudulent
tity documents are critical to national security.                       papers.

Taking advantage of the available technologies could help to            The Problem
minimize the inherent weaknesses in an identity-based security
system.To secure documents from fraud, policymakers need to             Behind every type of identity document should be a person. In
examine carefully the available technologies, reviewing their           this country, proof of a person’s legal existence is often
capabilities, requirements, infrastructure demands, and costs.          required for transactions and for access to places and things.
They should also consider how these technologies could affect           From obtaining passports and visas to protecting critical infra-
individual privacy and fundamental liberties. Finally, policymak-       structure, security systems must be in place to ensure that the
ers should work in conjunction with the private sector and              person requesting access to a location or information is actual-
other stakeholders to create a compendium of best practices             ly the person indicated by that person’s identity document.
that uphold the principles of federalism while ensuring a suc-          Currently, security officers have very limited means of validating
cessful strategy for identity security.                                 documents and verifying that they are based upon legitimate
                                                                        breeder documents.
Types of Identity Documents and Their Uses
                                                                        For example, the 9/11 hijackers used identity documents to
“Identity document” refers to a wide variety of documents—              enter United States repeatedly on non-immigrant visas. While
from birth certificates to credit cards—that are used for many          these men could and should have been stopped for many rea-
purposes. Because of this variety, it is important to distinguish       sons, their use of student and visitor visas was not one of those
between base identity documents, also known as breeder doc-             reasons. In fact, many known terrorists who have lived in or
uments, and secondary identity documents.                               have been extradited from the United States entered legally
                                                                        and had legitimate green cards. In other words, they claimed
For instance, an acceptable national base identity document is          immigrant status and were on the “path to citizenship.”[2]
a birth certificate. Internationally, a passport is typically consid-
ered a base identity document. Secondary identity documents             Another potential weakness in relying on identity documents is
(e.g., driver’s licenses, credit cards, immigration visas, and green    the personnel who issue the documents. Are the guards and
cards) are obtained by showing proof of the base identity doc-          other personnel responsible for identity documents and access
uments. Base identity documents can also be used to obtain              doing their jobs effectively and faithfully, or are they scoping out
access to specific data or secure locations at the workplace.           weaknesses in the system? For instance, in May 2004, workers
                                                                        at department of motor vehicles (DMV) centers in northern
Types of Document Fraud                                                 Virginia were selling driver’s licenses on the side to people who
                                                                        were in the country illegally. Despite legislation that tightened
With so many types of identity documents, there inevitably are          loopholes, two more workers from the same DMV centers
many ways to perpetrate fraud. Successfully replicating or emu-         were arrested and convicted a year later.[3] In addition to the
lating a base document increases the likelihood of obtaining            nation’s border, access to and protection of critical infrastruc-
legitimate secondary documents—or, rather, secondary docu-              ture also rely to a great extent on identity-based systems.
ments that appear legitimate even though they are based on
the false base documents. It is also possible to obtain legitimate      More at http://www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandDefense/bg1946.cfm
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                           Page 11


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS - III
                                                                    As a result of these system planning and implementation issues,
Homeland Security Information
Network Could Support Information                                   HSIN is not effectively supporting state and local information
                                                                    sharing. Although users generally like the web portal technol-
                                                                    ogy because of its user-friendliness and flexibility, those we
Sharing More Effectively
DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY                                     interviewed said they are not committed to the system
                                                                    approach. Users are confused and frustrated, without clear
Executive Summary                                                   guidance on HSIN’s role or how to use the system to share
                                                                    information effectively. Because some lack trust in the system’s
State and local personnel have opportunities and capabilities       ability to safeguard sensitive information, and because the sys-
not possessed by federal agencies to gather information on          tem does not provide them with useful situational awareness
suspicious activities and terrorist threats. By working together,   and classified information, users do not regularly use HSIN.
the various levels of government can maximize the benefits of       Instead, users resort to pre-existing means such as related sys-
information gathering and analysis to prevent and respond to        tems and telephone calls to share information, which only per-
terrorist attacks. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 assigned       petuates the ad hoc, stovepiped information-sharing environ-
responsibility to DHS to coordinate the federal government’s        ment that HSIN was intended to correct. Resources, legisla-
communications relating to homeland security with state and         tive constraints, privacy, and cultural challenges–often beyond
local government authorities, the private sector, and the pub-      the control of HSIN program management–also pose obstacles
lic. As part of this responsibility, the Act assigned the           to HSIN’s success.
Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection directorate
within DHS, in conjunction with its chief information officer,      To ensure effectiveness of the HSIN system and information
responsibility to establish a secure communications and infor-      sharing approach, we are recommending that the Director,
mation technology (IT) infrastructure that allows federal, state,   Office of Operations Coordination, Department of Homeland
and local governments, and other specified groups to access,        Security:
receive, and analyze data, and to disseminate information
acquired by DHS as appropriate. 1 To meet this mandate,             1.   Clarify and communicate HSIN’s mission and vision to
DHS is implementing the Homeland Security Information                    users, its relation to other systems, and its integration with
Network (HSIN).                                                          related federal systems.
As part of our ongoing responsibility to assess the efficiency,     2.   Define the intelligence data flow model for HSIN and pro-
effectiveness, and economy of departmental programs and                  vide clear guidance to system users on what information
operations, we conducted a review of HSIN. The objectives of             is needed, what DHS does with the information, and what
this review were to (1) identify DHS’ plans and activities for           information DHS will provide.
sharing information with state and local governments; (2)
determine how well HSIN supports these plans and activities;        3.   Provide detailed, stakeholder-specific standard operating
and, (3) identify challenges to information sharing among fed-           procedures, user manuals, and training based on the busi-
eral, state, and local government agencies. The scope and                ness processes needed to support homeland security
methodology of this review are discussed in Appendix A.                  information sharing.
Due to time pressures, DHS did not complete a number of the         4.   Ensure crosscutting representation and participation
steps essential to effective system planning and implementa-             among the various stakeholder communities to determine
tion, hindering the success of the HSIN system. Specifically,            business and system requirements, and encourage com-
DHS did not clearly define HSIN’s relationship to existing col-          munity of interest advisory board and working group par-
laboration systems and also did not obtain and address                   ticipation.
requirements from all HSIN user communities in developing
the system. In addition, DHS did not adequately evaluate each       5.   Identify baseline and performance metrics for HSIN, and
of its three major HSIN releases prior to their implementation.          begin to measure effectiveness of information sharing
Further, the department has not provided adequate user guid-             using the performance data compiled.
ance, including clear information sharing processes, training,
and reference materials. Without establishing a baseline and        More at http://www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/OIG_06-38_Jun06.pdf
developing specific performance measures, DHS has no effec-
tive way to track or assess information sharing using HSIN.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                            Page 12


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS - IV
                                                                     (CFAA) - could be used to target the tactics of malicious spy-
                                                                     ware distributors. He urged the Congress to provide law
Spyware Enforcement
A Report by the Center for Democracy and                             enforcement officials with the necessary resources to use these
                                                                     laws in prosecuting spyware offenses. He also noted that many
                                                                     states had long-standing fraud statutes that could be brought to
Technology (CDT), June 2006
                                                                     bear on spyware distributors, and that neither the federal nor
By now most computer users have become familiar with the             the state laws had yet been used to take action in the spyware
term "spyware," largely because they or someone they know            space.
have experienced it first-hand. Computer users are increasing-
ly finding programs on their computers that they did not know        Since then, law enforcement officials have increasingly applied
were installed and that they cannot uninstall, that create priva-    statutes - some long-standing, some relatively new - to spyware
cy problems and open security holes, that can hurt the per-          cases. Leading the charge has been the FTC, which to date has
formance and stability of their systems and that can lead them       brought six cases under its unfair and deceptive practices
to mistakenly believe that these problems are the fault of their     authority. The Department of Justice has actively pursued spy-
hardware or Internet provider. One vital component of the            ware purveyors under the CFAA and the Wiretap Act, with 11
response to this menace has been the use of new and existing         cases to date. And three attorneys general at the state level
laws to prosecute spyware distributors.                              have filed spyware lawsuits under state fraud and consumer
                                                                     protection laws, with two more cases initiated under new state
In March 2004, CDT President Jerry Berman testified about            spyware statutes.
spyware before the Senate Commerce Committee, highlighting
the fact that several existing federal laws - Section 5 of the       More at http://www.cdt.org/privacy/spyware/20060626spyware-enforce
Federal Trade Commission Act, the Electronic Communications          ment.php
Privacy Act (ECPA), and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

                                                                     being watched) or even abstract “eye spots” on a computer
                                                                     screen.
‘Big Brother’ eyes make us act more
honestly
                                                                     But this, says Roberts, is the first time anyone has observed the
We all know the scene: the departmental coffee room, with the        effect in a natural situation, with people using their own money.
price list for tea and coffee on the wall and the “honesty box”
where you pay for your drinks – or not, because no one is            It could have far-reaching implications. In previous experiments,
watching.                                                            people consistently appeared to behave more generously than
                                                                     they needed to for their own self-interest, even when told their
In a finding that will have office managers everywhere scurry-       actions were anonymous. This has led an influential school of
ing for the photocopier, researchers have discovered that            economists to argue that altruism in humans is innate, rather
merely a picture of watching eyes nearly trebled the amount of       than being based on cynical self-interest.
money put in the box.
                                                                     But if just a photocopied pair of eyes can treble honesty, the
Melissa Bateson and colleagues at Newcastle University, UK, put      Newcastle team suspects that these previous experiments may
up new price lists each week in their psychology department          somehow have been spoiled by subliminal cues that made peo-
coffee room. Prices were unchanged, but each week there was          ple feel they were being watched.
a photocopied picture at the top of the list, measuring 15 by 3
centimetres, of either flowers or the eyes of real faces.The faces   In other words, self-interest may play a large part after all, with
varied but the eyes always looked directly at the observer.          people feeling the need to be seen as honest. “Those results
                                                                     might need to be re-examined,” says Roberts.
In weeks with eyes on the list, staff paid 2.76 times as much for
their drinks as in weeks with flowers. “Frankly we were stag-        Meanwhile, the Newcastle team wants to repeat the work with
gered by the size of the effect,” Gilbert Roberts, one of the        more people, in different situations, perhaps posting pictures of
researchers, told New Scientist.                                     eyes where tickets are sold for public transport. They would
Powerful signal                                                      also like to discover what kind of eyes work best.

Eyes are known to be a powerful perceptual signal for humans.        Source: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9424-big-brother-eyes-
People behave more cooperatively when they are being                 make-us-act-more-honestly.html
“watched” by a cute image of a robot (see Pay up, you are
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                      Page 13


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS - V
                                                                  Should a cyber attack or massive Internet failure occur, well-
                                                                  intentioned government officials and industry leaders are
Essential Steps to Strengthen
America’s Cyber Terrorism                                         not currently in a position to synchronize efforts and deploy
                                                                  coordinated and tested capabilities to restore Internet serv-
                                                                  ices. In addition, the nation’s political and business leaders
Preparedness
New Priorities and Commitments from                               are not prepared to manage public trust issues, such as con-
                                                                  fidence in the markets, in the event that cyberrestoration
                                                                  efforts are unsuccessful or appear uncoordinated.
Business Roundtable’s Security Task Force
BUSINESS ROUNDTABLE
                                                                  Although experts disagree about the likelihood of a wide-
Introduction and Background                                       scale cyber disaster, they do agree that the risks and poten-
                                                                  tial outcomes are serious enough to mandate careful prepa-
The Internet and its communications infrastructure serve as       ration and planning. The Roundtable believes that business
the critical backbone of information exchange that is vital to    and government must take action — individually and collab-
our nation’s security and our economy.Yet the United States       oratively — to address this issue.
is not sufficiently prepared for a major attack, software inci-
dent or natural disaster that would lead to disruption of         In Section III, the Roundtable offers business and govern-
large parts of the Internet.                                      ment leaders specific recommendations designed to:

Despite a series of efforts in recent years to address this       •   Improve the ability to identify and assess strategic
issue, significant gaps exist in the response plans of the U.S.       threats and provide early warning;
government and the private sector for reconstituting the
Internet in the event of an unprecedented massive Internet        •   Better coordinate reconstitution responsibilities of both
disruption.                                                           the public and private sectors; and

The uninterrupted use of the Internet is essential to the         •   Ensure that necessary commitments and investments
continuity of our nation’s economy. For this reason, Business         are made in the institutions that will play critical roles in
Roundtable’s chief executive officers (CEOs), who represent           reconstituting the Internet infrastructure.
160 leading U.S. companies, made for tifying the Internet and
the infrastructure that supports Internet health one of the       Unlike the nation’s response to Hurricane Katrina, which
main priorities in 2005.                                          was centered on the government’s role, industry must
                                                                  undertake principal responsibility for reconstituting the
The CEOs urged an examination of preparedness as well as          communications infrastructure, including telephony, Internet
Internet-restoration capabilities. The Roundtable hosted          and broadcast media. The Roundtable’s analysis highlights
member and nonmember companies to explore various                 the need to further explore consolidation of response pro-
dimensions of the problem, including a review of govern-          grams and to negotiate additional mutual aid agreements in
ment plans in an effort to understand the federal govern-         the critical infrastructure community.
ment’s commitment, funding and preparation for a major
cyber disruption. The Roundtable’s review found that there        Developing a private sector/government partnership focus-
are no well-coordinated processes that would integrate the        ing on an appropriate response program will enhance our
disparate plans of industry and government to restore             nation’s cyber-response position. The federal government
Internet functioning.                                             should take action to redefine roles and responsibilities, fund
                                                                  longterm programs, and treat potential Internet disruptions
Progress has been made over the past 10 years on techni-          as a serious national problem.
cal issues, such as establishing computer security readiness
teams in government and gaining a better understanding of         Without these changes, our nation will continue to use ad
cyber risks across the industry and government, but strate-       hoc and incomplete tools for managing a critical, national
gic management and governance issues have yet to be               risk to the Internet.
addressed. These include ways to reconstitute the cyber
economy and shore up market confidence after a widescale          More at http://www.businessroundtable.org/pdf/20060622002Cyber
Internet failure. Unaddressed strategic issues also include       ReconFinal6106.pdf
the types of leadership and management challenges govern-
ment and industry leaders faced after Hurricane Katrina.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                           Page 14


NEW REPORTS AND PAPERS - VI
                                                                     had access to data on veterans -- not all of the DOD medical
                                                                     information was captured in the existing health information sys-
GAO wants VA, DOD to improve
medical data sharing                                                 tem, the GAO said.

                                                                     "Developing an electronic interface that will enable [the] VA and
They've made progress, but more remains
to be done                                                           DOD to exchange computable patient medical records is a high-
BY LINDA ROSENCRANCE, COMPUTERWORLD                                  ly complex undertaking that could lead to substantial benefits --
                                                                     improving the quality of health care and disability claims process-
                                                                     ing for the nation's service members and veterans," Linda
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the U.S.
                                                                     Koontz, director of information management issues at the GAO,
Department of Defense must improve their efforts to stan-
                                                                     said in testimony last week before a Senate subcommittee.
dardize health records, the U.S. Government Accountability
Office said in a report (download PDF) released last week.
                                                                     Carl Hendricks, the DOD's Military Health System CIO said in
                                                                     a statement that "DOD and VA share health information today."
The GAO said the two agencies have made some progress in
                                                                     But he went on to note that the two agencies continue to
sharing the health information of patients who receive care
                                                                     work on ways to improve the systems now in place.
from both departments and electronically transferring labora-
tory work orders and results. But they still have not developed
                                                                     Michael Kussman, the VA's undersecretary of health, said in a
a clearly defined project management plan -- something the
                                                                     separate statement that the VA and DOD record-sharing
GAO had previously called on them to do.
                                                                     efforts are guided by the so-called Electronic Health Records
                                                                     Interoperability Plan, which involves a series of progressive,
The agencies have been working on ways to electronically
                                                                     related data exchange initiatives that comprise a comprehen-
exchange patient information for eight years, but they have run
                                                                     sive strategy for sharing health data.
into delays, the GAO said. In addition, they have not yet fully
populated the repositories that will store the data for future
                                                                     "The plan is closely aligned and dependent upon parallel devel-
health systems, meaning much work remains to be done before
                                                                     opments in the health data standards industry, so that as stan-
virtual medical records are shared.
                                                                     dards and technologies mature, interoperability will increase,"
                                                                     Kussman said.
Even though a joint agency report in 2004 said the Federal
Health Information Exchange program was fully operational --
                                                                     Source: http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=
and providers at all VA medical centers and clinics nationwide
                                                                     viewArticleBasic&articleId=9001474


                                                                     In response to this uninformed discussion,and with the inten-
                                                                     tion of assisting election officials and the public as they make
The Machinery of Democracy:
Protecting Elections in an Electronic                                decisions about their voting machines, the Brennan Center for
                                                                     Justice at NYU School of Law assembled a Task Force of inter-
                                                                     nationally renowned government, academic and private-sector
World
THE BRENNAN CENTER TASK FORCE ON                                     scientists, voting machine experts,and security professionals to
VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY                                               perform a methodical threat analysis of the voting systems
                                                                     most commonly purchased today.This is, as far as we know,the
Problems with voting system security are making headlines like       first systematic threat analysis of these voting systems.The
never before.The issue is attracting attention because of a          methodology, analysis, and text were extensively peer reviewed
number of factors: the rash of close, high-profile elections since   by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”).
2000, greater attention to security since September
11,2001,the recent shift in many states from mechanical to           In this report, the Task Force reviews several categories of
computerized voting systems, and high-profile reports about          threats to the technologies of three electronic voting systems.
hacking of common electronic voting machines.                        Direct Recording Electronic voting systems (“DREs”), DREs
                                                                     with a voter-verified auditable paper trail (“DREs w/ VVPT”)
Public attention to voting system security has the potential to      and Precinct Count Optical Scan (“PCOS”) systems. We then
be a positive force. Unfortunately, too much of the public dis-      identify, as against each system, the least difficult way for an
cussion surrounding security has been marred by claims and           attacker to change the outcome of a statewide election.
counter-claims that are based on little more than speculation or
anecdote.                                                            More at http://www.brennancenter.org/programs/downloads/Full%20
                                                                     Report.pdf
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                           Page 15


NEW HORIZONS
                                                                    other Web page is a good page; why don’t you visit that?’
                                                                    People caught up to that a long time ago.”
Scalable Hyperlink Store: Making the
Impossible Possible
BY ROB KNIES, MICROSOFT                                             What hasn’t occurred, though, is a thorough evaluation of both
                                                                    types of algorithms that evaluate link structure. Query-inde-
                                                                    pendent algorithms, in which Web content is analyzed without
Marc Najork is fond of taking on big challenges.
                                                                    taking a specific query into account, rely on the hypothesis that
                                                                    pages to which many other pages link are important and there-
A principal researcher based in Microsoft Research’s Silicon
                                                                    fore elevated in the ranking of results to subsequent queries.
Valley lab, Najork is accustomed to tackling complex comput-
                                                                    This is the model for search technology, circa 2006.
er-science projects for which the stakes are high and the poten-
tial rewards vast.
                                                                    But there is another category of link-based ranking algorithms:
                                                                    query-dependent.This approach depends on an analysis of the
His latest quest involves an attempt to improve the results to
                                                                    Web graph, a mathematical model in which individual Web
search queries, and in doing so, he is examining ways to mine
                                                                    pages represent vertices in the graph and hyperlinks between
the obscure corners of the World Wide Web to deliver better,
                                                                    the Web pages represent connections between the vertices.
more precise search results to users.
                                                                    “You get a query,” Najork says,“you issue it against your full-text
Not only is his goal of huge significance, but the scope of his
                                                                    index, you get a thousand or 10,000 results, and you explore
working vision is pretty substantial, as well. He is pursuing
                                                                    the Web graph in the neighborhood of this results set. The
research that aims to encompass the entirety of the hyperlinks
                                                                    pages in the result set include the pages that are linking to
included in MSN Search®—about a quarter of a trillion hyper-
                                                                    those pages and the pages that are being linked to by those
links in all.
                                                                    pages.”
Yes, you read right, a quarter of a trillion. For the numerically
                                                                    The theory is that such a query-dependent approach would
inclined, that’s 250,000,000,000. (Had enough zeros yet?)
                                                                    provide better search results, but it hasn’t really been verified
                                                                    by the research community. Large-scale search engines do not
“This,” Najork understates, “is incredibly big.”
                                                                    currently employ query-dependent searches—for good rea-
                                                                    son. It’s just too darned difficult.
No argument there. But how does one even conceptualize
working at such a scale? It all stems from a deceptively simple
                                                                    “It’s actually, computationally, incredibly expensive to do this,”
premise.
                                                                    Najork says.
“I’m interested in Web search,” Najork explains, “and in partic-
                                                                    Mechanical limitations in hard-disk drives make it impossible to
ular, I’m interested in the ranking of search results.”
                                                                    serve query-dependent results in a timely fashion. And the
                                                                    sheer size of the Web graph makes it impossible to fit the
That interest has resulted in the creation of the Scalable
                                                                    whole graph on a single computer.
Hyperlink Store, a specialized database that distributes a com-
pressed version of the entire Web graph across a series of
                                                                    Najork’s solution, the Scalable Hyperlink Store, was to create a
computers to deliver fast access to hyperlink information.
                                                                    memory database that contains the Web graph and distribute
                                                                    it onto a series of computers, lodged in the main memory of
“There are, customarily, three different ways to rank search
                                                                    each. He used about 10 percent of the MSN Search corpus—
results,” Najork says. “One way is to see how well the query
                                                                    about 25 billion hyperlinks—for research purposes, to try to
terms correlate with what’s on a Web page.You might compare
                                                                    determine if query-dependent ranking is superior. His work
the query to the actual content of the page. That’s been well
                                                                    continues, but for now, the jury is still out.
explored.
                                                                    “One of the interesting outcomes of that research,” he says, “is
“Another way to look at it would be to see what pages are
                                                                    that query-dependent results are not markedly better than
popular with users. Essentially, you get feedback from the actu-
                                                                    query-independent ones, which are a lot cheaper to compute.
al user population. There has been work done in that area, as
                                                                    But things actually differ depending on the type of query you’re
well.
                                                                    asking. Query-dependent results seem to be doing better on
                                                                    topical queries, but I’m still investigating that.”
“The third possibility is that you examine the link structure of
the Web: how Web pages link to one another. If a Web page
                                                                    More at http://research.microsoft.com/displayArticle.aspx?id=1489
links to another Web page, then, presumably, it’s saying: ‘This
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                          Page 16


NEW HORIZONS - II
                                                                   People visiting the four-day exhibition organized by the Royal
Coming soon: mind-reading computers
BY PATRICIA REANEY, REUTERS                                        Society, Britain's academy of leading scientists, will be invited to
                                                                   take part in a study to hone the program's abilities.
LONDON (Reuters) - A raised eyebrow, quizzical look or a
nod of the head are just a few of the facial expressions com-      The scientists, who are developing the technology in collabora-
puters could soon be using to read people's minds.                 tion with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of
                                                                   Technology (MIT) in the United States, also hope to get it to
An "emotionally aware" computer being developed by British         accept other inputs such as posture and gesture.
and American scientists will be able to read an individual's
thoughts by analyzing a combination of facial movements that       "Our research could enable Web sites to tailor advertising or
represent underlying feelings.                                     products to your mood," Robinson told Reuters. "For example,
                                                                   a webcam linked with our software could process your image,
"The system we have developed allows a wide range of men-          encode the correct emotional state and transmit information
tal states to be identified just by pointing a video camera at     to a Web site."
someone," said Professor Peter Robinson of Cambridge
University in England.                                             It could also be useful in online teaching to show whether
                                                                   someone understands what is being explained and in improv-
He and his collaborators believe the mind-reading computer's       ing road safety by determining whether a driver is confused,
applications could range from improving people's driving skills    bored or tired.
to helping companies tailor advertising to people's moods.
                                                                   "We are working with a big car company and they envision this
"Imagine a computer that could pick the right emotional            being employed in cars within five years," Robinson said, adding
moment to try to sell you something, a future where mobile         that a camera could be built into the dashboard.
phones, cars and Web sites could read our mind and react to
our moods," he added.                                              Anyone who does not want to give away too much information
                                                                   about what they are feeling, he said, can just cover up the camera.
The technology is already programmed to recognize 24 facial
expressions generated by actors. Robinson hopes to get more        Source: http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=tech
data from the public to determine whether someone is bored,        nologyNews&storyID=2006-06-26T121245Z_01_L23596655_RTRU
interested, confused, or agrees or disagrees when it is unveiled   KOC_0_US-SCIENCE-COMPUTERS.xml
at a science exhibition in London on Monday, July 3.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                              Page 17


INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE
Whois data a key weapon in fraud                                      gators use to identify wrongdoers," he said.

fight, FTC says                                                       In one instance, the agency was able to stop seven companies
BY ERICA OGG, CNET                                                    sending sexually graphic e-mails without the legally required
                                                                      warning labels. Leibowitz said he was "uncertain" the agency
                                                                      would have been able to do so without unhindered access to
The Federal Trade Commission has made a pitch for open
                                                                      Whois data.
access to Whois, saying the databases are a key weapon in its
fight against spyware and other Internet fraud.
                                                                      "If ICANN restricts the use of Whois data to technical purpos-
                                                                      es only, it will greatly impair the FTC's ability to identify Internet
The agency on Tuesday called access to the Whois databases,
                                                                      malefactors quickly--and ultimately stop perpetrators of fraud,
which contain contact information for Web site operators, "crit-
                                                                      spam and spyware from infecting consumers' computers,"
ical to the agency's consumer protection laws." It was respond-
                                                                      Leibowitz said.
ing to a recommendation from a Internet Corporation for
Assigned Names and Numbers committee to restrict use of
                                                                      He did note the importance of an accurate Whois database,
the data to strictly "technical purposes."
                                                                      saying, "the Commission has advocated that stakeholders work
                                                                      to improve the accuracy of such information, because inaccu-
The official statement comes after an address by FTC
                                                                      rate data has posed significant obstacles in FTC investigations."
Commissioner John Leibowitz to a meeting of ICANN this
week in Morocco, where he gave examples of how Whois data
                                                                      However, he added that even imperfect information has proved
has aided the agency's attorneys and investigators in identifying
                                                                      helpful. He cited cases in which the agency tracked down sus-
perpetrators of Internet scams, spam and other illegal online
                                                                      pects using a range of phony registration names by matching
activity.
                                                                      contact information.
"Whois databases often are one of the first tools FTC investi-
                                                                      Source: http://news.com.com/2102-7348_3-6088651.html


                                                                      barred from teaching last year after writing an essay criticizing
                                                                      China's censorship rules.
Chinese Media Law Would Require
Consent to Report on Emergencies
BY EDWARD CODY, WASHINGTON POST                                       "They surely want to tighten their controls over us," said a
                                                                      reporter at a well-known magazine who, like many colleagues,
                                                                      spoke on condition of anonymity to protect his job. "I expect
BEIJING, June 26 -- The Chinese government has drafted legis-
                                                                      that control over the press will become tighter and tighter."
lation to fine newspapers up to $12,000 if they report on
emergencies without first getting permission from local author-
                                                                      Under a practice that has developed in recent years, Chinese
ities, official media said Monday.
                                                                      journalists said, newspaper editors generally can publish sensi-
                                                                      tive stories using their own judgment, but at the risk of being
The new restrictions would apply to coverage of natural disas-
                                                                      called on the carpet afterward by party censors. The censors
ters, health crises and social unrest, such as the riots that have
                                                                      regularly coax senior editors by alerting them to certain sub-
broken out across rural China in recent years. In effect, the draft
                                                                      jects that are out of bounds and suggesting that others be han-
law would make local governments the sole arbiters of infor-
                                                                      dled with particular care.
mation as they manage emergency situations.
                                                                      This system has resulted in a gray area: Some newspapers dare
The draft law, which has been sent to the Standing Committee
                                                                      to print stories others do not. But stepping too far beyond
of the National People's Congress, marked a further tightening
                                                                      what the censors deem acceptable has cost several top editors
of controls on the media in a country already subject to cen-
                                                                      their jobs in the past year.
sorship by the Communist Party's national, provincial and
municipal propaganda departments. Chinese journalists lament-
                                                                      One was Li Datong, who ran Freezing Point, a supplement in the
ed what they saw as another sign among many that President
                                                                      China Youth Daily that published in January an essay questioning
Hu Jintao's government is curbing what had been a slight liber-
                                                                      the official Chinese version of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900.
alization of press freedoms in recent years.
                                                                      More at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/
"We have never had such a law before," said Jiao Guobiao, a
                                                                      06/26/AR2006062601242.html?referrer=emailarticle
former journalism professor at Beijing University who was
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                          Page 18


POINTS OF VIEW
                                                                    Some argue that adding wellness programs would raise the
                                                                    health insurance cost to the employer. This may be true, but if
The Private Sector: Be well
Too much focus on sickness, not enough on                           health-care utilization is decreased by effective wellness pro-
                                                                    grams, the cost of health insurance premiums that the employ-
                                                                    er pays will decrease. Yes, it may take a few years, but is it not
prevention leads to health-care crisis
BY DR. BRUCE S. RABIN                                               time to start somewhere to change the downward spiral? All
                                                                    good things are worth waiting for.
Much attention has been paid in recent months to a "health-
care crisis" as the cost of quality health care continues to rise   How can the likelihood of health be enhanced and the risk of
beyond inflationary levels, squeezing people out of health insur-   disease development reduced?
ance altogether or reducing their benefits.                         Health is achieved by not being overweight or smoking, being
                                                                    physically active and optimistic, having friends to interact with,
However, what seems to be lost in the debate about what to          enjoying religion or being spiritual, eating a healthy diet and
do about the crisis is, in my mind, a very simple solution.         finding activities that calm the brain when one is experiencing
                                                                    high levels of stress.These are all behaviors that will contribute
With effective wellness programs embraced by all of us --           to a high quality of life. Indeed, as a further incentive to health
including employers, health-care providers and insurance carri-     insurance providers (and individuals), those who remain healthy
ers -- we can dramatically improve the health of our popula-        as they age have a shorter demise than individuals who have
tion, thus decreasing our reliance on an overburdened "sick         chronic disease. Being healthy while alive is much less costly
care" system. In the long run, we can stem the tide of racing       than living with chronic illness and dying over many years.
increases in health insurance premiums and, more importantly,
improve the quality of life of our population.                      Who will pay?
                                                                    A changing of the way health insurance providers and employ-
Many communities have outstanding physicians and hospitals.         ers view health is needed. Ample data show that the workplace
However, being excellent at treating disease is not the same as     can have profound negative effects on an individual's mental
helping people be healthy. The definition of health is the free-    and physical health with related high costs to the health insur-
dom from disease.                                                   ance provider. Thus, a partnership between employers and
                                                                    health insurance providers can have a significant effect on
Unfortunately, most medical care institutions do not function as    health and health insurance costs.
"health systems" because they already are overburdened with
disease management. Clearly, this is not because they do not        Paying to keep people healthy will be more beneficial than
want to focus on maintaining or achieving health, but because       waiting for them to become ill and then paying to get them
they are not paid to keep people healthy.They are paid to treat     better.This does not even address the moral and ethical ques-
people who are not healthy.                                         tions of the importance of a high quality of life in which one is
                                                                    not a burden to himself or herself or family members and dig-
Logic would indicate that health insurance providers will bene-     nity is maintained as one ages.
fit if they use payments from subscribers to help prevent dis-
ease, thus reducing the amount of money they pay to treat dis-      Who will lead the effort to unite the health insurance
ease. In addition, if employers had on-site programs that con-      providers and employers?
tributed to wellness, they too would save money. The major          It is time to bring the leaders of health-care systems, health
reasons for high health-care costs to employers are employee        insurance providers, and leaders of industry, communities and
obesity, depression and stress, all addressable by on-site well-    government together to initiate a new culture. One where the
ness programs.                                                      quality of life is addressed while we continue to take justifiable
                                                                    pride in our ability to manage disease.
There are several issues that need to be addressed in the effort
to have wellness programs, but all are easily answered.             In short, a radical change in culture is required, yet the benefits
                                                                    are enormous. I would argue that not only is this change pos-
Why not use health insurance premiums to promote wellness?          sible, but it also is necessary if we are to avoid sinking further
Some believe that there is a lack of effectiveness of wellness      into a black hole of exponentially rising health-care costs and
programs. While this may have been more true in the past, it is     not achieving the highest quality of life possible.
no longer an adequate excuse. Another concern is that by the
time someone benefits from a wellness program promoted by           Source: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06178/701362-114.stm
one health insurance provider, the person may have switched
to another provider. But that is not a problem if all insurance
carriers promote wellness.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                                               Page 19


POINTS OF VIEW - II
                                                                      then be sold by phone operators around the world taking
                                                                      part in the "3G for All" program.
Wireless: From zero to 3G: A cell-
phone utopia?
                                                                      The wholesale price of 3G phones today ranges from $200
                                                                      to $500, according to Neil Mawston, a senior analyst with the
Pair sought between security, privacy
BY ERIC SYLVERS, INTERNATIONAL HERALD                                 consultancy Strategy Analytics.
TRIBUNE
                                                                      The final price paid by consumers depends on the size of the
Executives in the cellphone and computer industries are fond          subsidy given by the phone company selling the phone in
of speaking about bridging the digital divide, the gap between        return for a long-term subscription.
people with access to technology and those without. But
translating the talk into action is not easy. In addition, the ben-   Soppitt said the GSM Association had not set a price target
efits of high-tech gadgetry for the poor often are not evident.       for the cheap 3G handsets because each element of
                                                                      advanced phones, whether it be the camera, the memory or
How do you bring Internet access to remote villages in Africa?        the color screen, had a great impact on the price of produc-
And are people's lives going to improve once they can get             tion. So until the core requirements of the phone are estab-
online? The GSM Association, a trade group that represents            lished, it is too soon to speak about price, he said.
mobile phone operators in 213 countries, has a plan for the
first question and responds with a resounding yes to the sec-         "Getting below $100 wholesale would put the handsets in
ond.                                                                  reach of affluent people in developing markets, and by 2007
                                                                      there is a good chance that could happen," Mawston said.
This month, the association introduced a "3G for All" program         "Getting to below $50 is a good two to three years away."
that aims to make multimedia phone services and mobile
Internet access available to people on the fringe of the digital      Mawston raised some skepticism about the project. "I think
world.                                                                the GSMA is being a bit optimistic in suggesting that people
                                                                      in developing markets will begin using mobile data services,"
Bringing cellphone services to the two-thirds of the world's          he said.
population that does not yet use them has long been a goal
of the association, which last year promoted a project to build       "If phone companies are struggling even in developed markets
the cheapest possible telephone.                                      to get people to use advanced data services, it will be even
                                                                      more difficult in developing countries. The 3G networks will
Thanks in part to that initiative, the wholesale price of the         be used mostly for voice and text messaging, like we've seen
cheapest cellphones has dropped to less than $30, but now             in developed countries," Mawston said.
the association wants to take that a step further by encour-
aging the production of a low-cost mobile phone that works            Soppitt said such arguments were simplistic and incorrect.
on third-generation networks. Those phones today are typi-
cally expensive and advanced, nearly mini-computers them-             "It's very tough for analysts to understand the potential of 3G
selves.                                                               services in developing countries if they've never been there,"
                                                                      said Soppitt, who recently returned from visiting South
"We are helping to catalyze the 3G market by speeding things          African townships in a GSMA project. "In Europe and other
up and creating a virtuous circle of people using the advanced        developed parts of the world, there are competing ways to
services and the market supplying handsets to meet that               get information, but in the rest of the world, mobile Internet
demand," said Ben Soppitt, the director of strategic initiatives      may be the only option."
at the GSM Association, which is based in London.
                                                                      The GSM Association says it is working in other ways to bring
A group of association members will define a core set of              the mobile Internet to developing countries. It has set up a
requirements that the low-cost 3G handsets must have, and             fund to finance projects in Africa and Asia, including one in
then several manufacturers will compete to design the phone           India where the mobile operator Airtel provides entrepre-
that best meets those requirements at the most competitive            neurs with handsets that are adapted to work as pay phones.
price.
                                                                      Source: http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/26/business/wireless27.php
The association will endorse the winning phone, which will
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                             Page 20



                                                                              June
                 NEXT WEEK

July 3-5
                                                           Sun   Mon   Tues      Wed        Thu        Fri       Sat
The Second IASTED International Conference on
Telehealth.Banff,Alberta,Canada.The event is spon-
sored by The International Association of Science and      28    29    30         31        1          2        3
Technology for Development (IASTED).Details at:
http://shorl.com/gupifrevoluti

July 6-8                                                    4    5      6         7         8          9       10
International Conference on Information
Communication Technologies in Education,Rodos,
Greece.The ICICTE Conference will seek to address
the new perspectives of education and training systems
                                                           11    12    13         14        15        16       17
imposed by their ever-changing role in an evolving multi
cultural social environment.Details at:
http://www.icicte.com/isite/home/
                                                           18    19    20         21        22        23       24


                                                           25    26    27         28        29        30        1




                                           Featured Event of the Week
                                       ASPEN IDEAS FESTIVAL
                      INSPIRED THINKING IN AN IDYLLIC SETTING • ASPEN, COLORADO
           http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/c.huLWJeMRKpH/b.899955/k.2D7/Aspen_Ideas_Festival.htm/

     For more than 50 years, the Aspen Institute has been the nation’s premier gathering place for leaders from
      around the globe and across many disciplines to engage in deep and inquisitive discussion of the ideas
                          and issues that both shape our lives and challenge our times.

     In a groundbreaking extension of its mandate to create opportunities for deep dialogue, the Aspen Institute
      now seeks to engage a broader audience in a discussion of some of the significant ideas and issues that
       touch all parts of our society through the arts, science, culture, religion, philosophy, economics, and poli-
        tics. Alongside our partner, The Atlantic, we intend to offer a stimulating and invigorating celebration of
                         some of the liveliest minds on the stage today. We invite you to join us.

        The 2006 Aspen Ideas Festival will engage its participants in a variety of programs, tutorials, seminars,
         and discussion events that together are guaranteed to charge the atmosphere with vibrant intellectual
         exchange. Think of it as a weeklong summer university for the mind–remarkable lectures and classes
                                          across a stimulating array of topics.
Volume 5, Issue 26                                                                                           Page 21

SITES COMPENDIUM                               BOOK REVIEW
http://news.com.com                            BEFORE THE NEXT ATTACK: PRESERVING
http://research.microsoft.com                  CIVIL LIBERTIES IN AN AGE OF TERRORISM
http://today.reuters.com                       BY BRUCE ACKERMAN
http://www.aspeninstitute.org
http://www.boston.com                          Terrorist attacks regularly trigger the
http://www.brennancenter.org                   enactment of repressive laws, setting in
http://www.brookings.edu                       motion a vicious cycle that threatens to
http://www.businessroundtable.org              devastate civil liberties over the twenty-
http://www.cdt.org                             first century. In this clear-sighted book,
http://www.computerworld.com                   Bruce Ackerman peers into the future and
http://www.csmonitor.com
                                               presents an intuitive, practical alternative.
                                               He proposes an "emergency constitution"
http://www.dhs.gov
                                               that enables government to take extraor-
http://www.gcn.com
                                               dinary actions to prevent a second strike
http://www.gmu.edu
                                               in the short run while prohibiting permanent measures that
http://www.heritage.org
                                               destroy our freedom over the long run.
http://www.iht.com
http://www.iht.com/articles
                                               Ackerman's "emergency constitution exposes the dangers
http://www.intellicosm.net                     lurking behind the popular notion that we are fighting a "war
http://www.modernhealthcare.com                on terror." He criticizes court opinions that have adopted the
http://www.newscientist.com                    war framework, showing how they uncritically accept extreme
http://www.nytimes.com                         presidential claims to sweeping powers. Instead of expanding
http://www.post-gazette.com                    the authority of the commander in chief, the courts should
http://www.techweb.com                         encourage new forms of checks and balances that allow for
http://www.upi.com                             decisive, but carefully controlled presidential action during
http://www.usatoday.com                        emergencies. In making his case, Ackerman explores emer-
http://www.washingtonpost.com                  gency provisions in constitutions of nations ranging from
                                               France to South Africa, borrowing some useful aspects and
                                               adapting others. He shows that no country today is well
                                               equipped to both fend off terrorists and preserve fundamen-
         research@markle.org                   tal liberties, drawing particular attention to recent British reac-
                                               tions to terrorist attacks. Written for thoughtful citizens
    Research & Selection: Stefaan Verhulst     throughout the world, this book is democracy's constitutional
         Production: swandivedigital           reply to political excess in the sinister era of terrorism.

                                               Bruce Ackerman is Sterling Professor of Law and Political
Please send your questions, observations and
    suggestions to sverhulst@markle.org
                                               Science, Yale University, and the author or coauthor of more
                                               than fifteen books on political philosophy, constitutional law,
                                               and public policy, including The Stakeholder Society (with
                                               Anne Alstott), Voting with Dollars (with Ian Ayres), and
                                               Deliberation Day (with James S. Fishkin), all published by Yale
                                               University Press.

                                               Source: http://www.intellicosm.net/books/bks_0300112890.htm

								
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