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									                                   5 STEPS TO A 5

                        AP U.S. History
                                     2010–2011




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                           5 STEPS TO A




              AP U.S. History
                                                                                     5
                                            2010–2011

                                           Stephen Armstrong



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                                                                                        CONTENTS

                                           Preface xiii
                                           Introduction: The 5-Step Program   xv

                              STEP 1 Set Up Your Study Program
                                   Chapter 1 What You Need to Know About the AP U.S. History Exam 3
                                           Background of the Advanced Placement Program 3
                                           Questions Frequently Asked About the AP U.S. History Exam 5
                                   Chapter 2 How to Plan Your Time 8
                                           Three Approaches to Preparing for the AP U.S. History Exam 8
                                           Calendar for Each Plan 10

                              STEP 2 Determine Your Test Readiness
                                   Chapter 3 Take a Diagnostic Exam 17
                                           How and When to Use the Diagnostic Exam 18
                                           Conclusion (After the Exam) 18
                                           Getting Started: The Diagnostic/Master Exam 20
                                           Answers to Diagnostic/Master Exam 34

                              STEP 3 Develop Strategies for Success
                                   Chapter 4 How to Approach Each Question Type 51
                                           Multiple-Choice Questions 52
                                           Document-Based Essay Questions 54
                                           Free-Response Essay Questions 55
                                           Reading and Interpreting Primary Source Documents 55
                                           Analyzing Primary Source Documents 57

                              STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
                                   Chapter 5 The Settling of the Western Hemisphere and
                                               Colonial America (1450–1650) 61
                                           Native Americans and European Exploration 62
                                           The French in Canada 62
                                           The English in the Americas 63
                                           Effects of English, French, and British Settlement 65
                                           Chapter Review 65
                                   Chapter 6 The British Empire in America: Growth and Conflict (1650–1750)   68
                                           The Impact of Mercantilism 69
                                           African Slavery in the Americas 70
                                           Continued Unrest in New England 71
                                           The Salem Witch Trials 71
                                           Wars in Europe and Their Impact on the Colonies 71
                                           The Growth of the Colonial Assemblies 72
                                           The Era of “Salutary Neglect” 72

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                 vi › Contents

                                        The Great Awakening 73
                                        Chapter Review 73
                                Chapter 7 Resistance, Rebellion, and Revolution (1750–1775) 76
                                        Problems on the Frontier 77
                                        Additional Conflicts Between the British and
                                            Their Colonial “Allies” 77
                                        The Policies of George Grenville 78
                                        A Sense of Crisis: The Stamp Act 78
                                        More Protest: The Townshend Acts 79
                                        Continued Tension in Massachusetts 80
                                        The Calm Before the Storm: 1770–1773 80
                                        The Boston Tea Party 81
                                        The Intolerable Acts 81
                                        The First Continental Congress 81
                                        Chapter Review 82
                                Chapter 8 The American Revolution and the New Nation (1775–1787) 84
                                        The American Revolution 85
                                        The Second Continental Congress 85
                                        The Declaration of Independence 86
                                        The Outbreak of the Revolution: Divisions in the Colonies 86
                                        Strategies of the American Revolution 87
                                        Washington as Commander 87
                                        The War Moves to the South 88
                                        The Treaty of Paris 89
                                        The Establishment of Governmental Structures
                                            in the New Nation 89
                                        The Articles of Confederation 89
                                        The Northwest Ordinances 90
                                        Shays’ Rebellion 90
                                        Chapter Review 91
                                Chapter 9 The Establishment of New Political Systems (1787–1800) 93
                                        Desire for a Stronger Central Government 94
                                        Government Under the New Constitution 94
                                        The Issue of Slavery 95
                                        Ratification of the Constitution 95
                                        The Presidency of George Washington 95
                                        The Bill of Rights 96
                                        Competing Visions: Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson 96
                                        The French Revolution 97
                                        Foreign Policy and Jay’s Treaty 98
                                        Washington’s Farewell Address 98
                                        The Presidency of John Adams 98
                                        The Alien and Sedition Acts 99
                                        Chapter Review 99
                               Chapter 10 The Jeffersonian Revolution (1800–1820) 102
                                        The Election of 1800 103
                                        Reform of the Courts 103
                                        Westward Expansion 104




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                                                                                                      Contents   ‹   vii

                                          Political Tensions and the Strange Case of Aaron Burr 105
                                          European Wars Spill Over to America (Again) 106
                                          The War of 1812 106
                                          The American System 107
                                          The Missouri Compromise 108
                                          Chapter Review 108
                                 Chapter 11 The Rise of Manufacturing and the Age of Jackson (1820–1845)   111
                                          The Growth of the Factory 112
                                          The Monroe Doctrine 113
                                          Policy Toward Native Americans 113
                                          The Second Great Awakening 113
                                          Political Reform: The Jacksonian Era (1829–1841) 114
                                          The Election of 1824 115
                                          The 1828 Presidential Election 115
                                          Jackson as President 115
                                          The Nullification Controversy 116
                                          The Bank Crisis 116
                                          The Whig Party: A Challenge to the Democratic-Republicans 117
                                          Chapter Review 117
                                 Chapter 12 The Union Expanded and Challenged (1835–1860) 120
                                          The Ideology of Manifest Destiny 121
                                          “Remember the Alamo!” 122
                                          The Pivotal Election of 1844 122
                                          War with Mexico 123
                                          Political Challenges of the 1850s 124
                                          Effects of the Compromise of 1850 125
                                          The Presidency of Franklin Pierce 125
                                          The Return of Sectional Conflict 126
                                          “Bleeding Kansas”: Slave or Free? 126
                                          The Dred Scott Decision 127
                                          The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 127
                                          John Brown’s Raid 127
                                          The Presidential Election of 1860 128
                                          Chapter Review 128
                                 Chapter 13 The Union Divided: The Civil War (1861–1865) 131
                                          Advantages of the North and South in War 132
                                          The Attack on Fort Sumter and the Beginning of War 133
                                          War Aims and Strategies 133
                                          Developments in the South and in the North 135
                                          The Emancipation Proclamation 136
                                          1863: The War Tips to the North 136
                                          War Weariness in the North and South 137
                                          The End of the Confederacy 137
                                          Chapter Review 137
                                 Chapter 14 The Era of Reconstruction (1865–1877) 140
                                          Lincoln’s Plans for Reconstruction 141
                                          Andrew Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction 142
                                          The Reconstruction Programs of the Radical Republicans 143




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                                         A Period of Radical Reconstruction 143
                                         The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 144
                                         Radical Reconstruction Reinforced 144
                                         The End of Reconstruction 145
                                         Chapter Review 145
                                Chapter 15 Western Expansion and Its Impact on the
                                             American Character (1860–1895) 148
                                         Federal Legislation Encourages Western Settlement 149
                                         Farming on the Great Plains 150
                                         The Transformation of Agriculture on the Plains 150
                                         Women and Minorities on the Plains 151
                                         Mining and Lumbering in the West 151
                                         Ranching in the West 152
                                         The Plight of Native Americans 152
                                         The Organization of the American Farmer and Populism 153
                                         The Impact of the West on American Society 155
                                         Chapter Review 156
                                Chapter 16 America Transformed into the Industrial Giant
                                             of the World (1870–1910) 158
                                         The Growth of Industrial America 159
                                         The Changing Nature of American Industry 160
                                         The Consolidation of Businesses 161
                                         The Growth of Labor Unions 162
                                         An Increased Standard of Living? 163
                                         The Impact of Immigration on American Society 164
                                         The Transformation of the American City 165
                                         Politics of the Gilded Age 166
                                         Cultural Life in the Gilded Age 168
                                         Chapter Review 168
                                Chapter 17 The Rise of American Imperialism (1890–1913) 172
                                         A Period of Foreign Policy Inaction 173
                                         A Sign of Things to Come: Hawaii 174
                                         The 1890s: Reasons for American Imperialism 174
                                         The Spanish-American War 175
                                         The Role of America: Protector or Oppressor? 177
                                         The Debate Over the Philippines 177
                                         Connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic: The Panama Canal 178
                                         The Roosevelt Corollary 178
                                         Chapter Review 179
                                Chapter 18 The Progressive Era (1895–1914) 182
                                         The Origins of Progressivism 183
                                         The Goals of Progressives 184
                                         Urban Reforms 184
                                         The Progressives at the State Level 185
                                         Women and Progressivism 185
                                         Reforming the Workplace 186
                                         The Square Deal of Theodore Roosevelt 186
                                         Progressivism Under William Howard Taft 187




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                                                                                                           Contents   ‹   ix

                                         The 1912 Presidential Election 188
                                         The Progressive Legacy of Woodrow Wilson 188
                                         Did Progressivism Succeed? 189
                                         Chapter Review 189
                                Chapter 19 The United States and World War I (1914–1921) 192
                                         The American Response to the Outbreak of War 193
                                         Increasing American Support for the Allied Powers 194
                                         America Moves Toward War 194
                                         America Enters the War 195
                                         The Impact of the American Expeditionary Force 195
                                         The Home Front During World War I 196
                                         Keeping America Patriotic 196
                                         Woodrow Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles 197
                                         The United States and the Middle East 198
                                         The Treaty of Versailles and the United States Senate 199
                                         The Consequences of American Actions After the War 199
                                         Chapter Review 199
                                Chapter 20 The Beginning of Modern America: The 1920s 202
                                         A Decade of Prosperity 203
                                         Republican Leadership in the 1920s 204
                                         The Presidency of Warren G. Harding 204
                                         The Scandals of the Harding Administration 205
                                         The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge 206
                                         The Election of 1928 206
                                         Urban vs. Rural: The Great Divide of the 1920s 207
                                         Culture in the 1920s 209
                                         The Jazz Age 209
                                         The Lost Generation 210
                                         Chapter Review 211
                                Chapter 21 The Great Depression and the New Deal (1929–1939) 214
                                         The American Economy of the 1920s: The Roots of the Great Depression   216
                                         The Stock Market Crash 217
                                         The Social Impact of the Great Depression 218
                                         The Hoover Administration and the Depression 218
                                         The 1932 Presidential Election 219
                                         The First Hundred Days 220
                                         The Second New Deal 221
                                         The Presidential Election of 1936 222
                                         Opponents of Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal 223
                                         The Last Years of the New Deal 224
                                         The Effects of the New Deal 224
                                         New Deal Culture 225
                                         Chapter Review 225
                                Chapter 22 World War II (1933–1945) 228
                                         American Foreign Policy in the 1930s 229
                                         The United States and the Middle East in the Interwar Era 230
                                         The Presidential Election of 1940 and Its Aftermath 231
                                         The Attack on Pearl Harbor 231




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                                        America Enters the War 232
                                        The Role of the Middle East in World War II 234
                                        The War Against Japan 235
                                        The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb 235
                                        The Home Front During the War 236
                                        Discrimination During the War 237
                                        Chapter Review 238
                               Chapter 23 The Origins of the Cold War (1945–1960) 241
                                        The First Cracks in the Alliance: 1945 243
                                        The Iron Curtain 243
                                        The Marshall Plan 244
                                        Berlin: The First Cold War Crisis 245
                                        1949: A Pivotal Year in the Cold War 245
                                        The Middle East in the Early Years of the Cold War 246
                                        The Cold War at Home 247
                                        The Heating of the Cold War: Korea 249
                                        The Rise of McCarthyism 249
                                        The Cold War Policies of President Eisenhower 250
                                        A Dangerous Arms Buildup 251
                                        Chapter Review 252
                               Chapter 24 Prosperity and Anxiety: The 1950s 255
                                        Economic Growth and Prosperity 256
                                        Political Developments of the Postwar Era 257
                                        Civil Rights Struggles of the Postwar Period 258
                                        The Conformity of the Suburbs 259
                                        Chapter Review 261
                               Chapter 25 America in an Era of Turmoil (1960–1975) 264
                                        The 1960 Presidential Election 265
                                        Domestic Policies Under Kennedy and Johnson 266
                                        The Struggle of Black Americans: From Nonviolence
                                            to Black Power 267
                                        The Rise of Feminism 269
                                        The Cold War in the 1960s 270
                                        The Vietnam War and Its Impact on American Society 270
                                        Chapter Review 273
                               Chapter 26 Decline and Rebirth (1968–1988) 276
                                        The Presidency of Richard Nixon 277
                                        The Watergate Affair 279
                                        The Presidency of Gerald Ford 281
                                        The Presidency of Jimmy Carter 282
                                        The Election of 1980 283
                                        The Presidency of Ronald Reagan 283
                                        Chapter Review 285
                               Chapter 27 Prosperity and a New World Order (1988–2000) 288
                                        The 1988 Election 289
                                        The Presidency of George Bush 289
                                        The 1992 Election 290




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                                         The Presidency of Bill Clinton 291
                                         The 2000 Presidential Election 293
                                         Chapter Review 293
                                Chapter 28 The Threat of Terrorism and the Increase of
                                             Presidential Power (2001–2008) 296
                                         9/11 and Its Aftermath 297
                                         Events Leading Up to the American Invasion of Iraq 297
                                         Operation Iraqi Freedom 298
                                         The Effect of the War at Home 298
                                         The Victory of Conservatism in the Bush Era 299
                                         The United States in Transition: 2007–2008 301
                                         Chapter Review 302
                                Chapter 29 Contemporary America: Evaluating the “Big Themes”      305

                               STEP 5 Build Your Test-Taking Confidence
                                         AP U.S. History Practice Exam 1   312
                                         AP U.S. History Practice Exam 2   342

                                         Glossary 371
                                         Bibliography 407
                                         Websites 409




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                                     5 STEPS TO A 5

                        AP U.S. History
                                       2010–2011




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                                                    CHAPTER
                                                                                                 8
                                    The American Revolution and the
                                          New Nation (1775–1787)
                                     IN THIS CHAPTER
                                     Summary: The Second Continental Congress, meeting in May 1775, began
                                     to prepare the American colonies for war. The impact of Common Sense
                                     by Thomas Paine and other documents continued to fan anti-British senti-
                                     ment in the colonies, although there were still a number of loyalists who
                                     supported British policies. As commander of the colonial army, George
                                     Washington practiced a defensive strategy, which, along with invaluable
                                     assistance from the French, helped to defeat the British army. The first gov-
                                     ernment of the new nation was established by the Articles of Confederation,
                                     which created a weak national government.

                       KEY IDEA      Keywords
                                     Second Continental Congress (May 1775): meeting that authorized the cre-
                                     ation of a Continental army; many delegates still hoped that conflict could
                                     be avoided with the British.
                                     Common Sense (1776): pamphlet written by Thomas Paine attacking the
                                     system of government by monarchy; this document was very influential
                                     throughout the colonies.
                                     Battle of Yorktown (1781): defeat of the British in Virginia, ending their
                                     hopes of winning the Revolutionary War.
                                     Treaty of Paris (1783): treaty ending the Revolutionary War; by this treaty
                                     Great Britain recognized American independence and gave Americans the
                                     territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
                                     Articles of Confederation (ratified 1781): document establishing the first
                                     government of the United States; the federal government was given limited
                                     powers and the states much power.

                 84 ›




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                                    Northwest Ordinances (1784, 1785, 1787): bills authorizing the sale of lands
                                    in the Northwest Territory to raise money for the federal government; bills
                                    also laid out procedures for these territories to eventually attain statehood.



                  The American Revolution
                                    Prelude to Revolution: Lexington and Concord: April 1775
                                    Events in the colonies had little effect on attitudes in Britain. Both George III and Lord
                                    North still insisted that the colonies comply with edicts from England. What they failed to
                                    realize was that royal authority in the colonies was routinely being ignored. British General
                                    Thomas Gage was the acting governor of Massachusetts, and in early 1775 he ordered the
                                    Massachusetts Assembly not to meet. They met anyway.
                                         Gage also wanted to stop the growth of local militias. On April 19 he sent a group
                                    of regular British troops to Concord to seize colonial arms stored there and to arrest any
                                    “rebel” leaders who could be found. As you learned in second grade, Paul Revere and other
                                    messengers rode out from Boston to warn the countryside of the advance of the British
                                    soldiers. At dawn on April 19, several hundred British soldiers ran into 75 colonial militia-
                                    men on the town green in Lexington. The British ordered the colonists to disperse; in the
                                    confusion, shots rang out, with eight colonists killed and ten wounded.
                                         The British marched on to Concord, where a larger contingent of militiamen awaited
                                    them. The British destroyed military stores and food supplies and were ready to return to
                                    Boston when the colonists opened fire, with three British soldiers killed and nine wounded.
                                    The British were attacked as they retreated to Lexington; they lost 275 men, compared to
                                    the 93 colonial militiamen killed. At Lexington, the British were saved by the arrival of
                                    reinforcements.
                                         Several weeks later, Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticond-
                                    eroga from the British. Cannons from the fort were dragged to Boston, where they would
                                    be a decisive factor in forcing the British to leave Boston harbor in March 1776.



                  The Second Continental Congress
                                    The purpose of the Second Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia in May
                                    of 1775, was clear: to get the American colonies ready for war. It authorized the printing
                                    of paper money to buy supplies for the war, established a committee to supervise foreign
                                    relations with other countries, and created a Continental Army. George Washington was
                                    appointed commander in chief of this new army. Washington was chosen because of his
                                    temperament, because of his experiences in the Seven Years War, and because he was not
                                    from Massachusetts, considered by George III to be the place where the “rabble” were.
                                         The Congress made one final gesture for peace when moderates drafted, and the Con-
                                    gress approved, the sending of the “Olive Branch Petition” to George III. This document,
                                    approved on July 5, 1775, asked the king to formulate a “happy and permanent reconcili-
                                    ation.” The fact that the king refused to even receive the document strengthened the hand
                                    of political radicals throughout the colonies.




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                                    The Impact of Common Sense
                                    The impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense on colonial thought was immense. Paine
                                    was a printer and had only been in the colonies for two years when his pamphlet was
                                    published in January of 1776. Virtually every educated person in the colonies read this
                                    document: 120,000 copies were sold within three months. Paine proclaimed that “monar-
                                    chy and hereditary succession have laid the world in blood and ashes” and called George
                                    III a “royal brute.” Paine attacked the entire system of monarchy and empire, expressing
                                    confidence that the colonies would flourish once they were removed from British control.
                                    Many saw in Paine’s document very sensible reasons why the Americas should break from
                                    Britain. When discussing the document, one New York loyalist bitterly complained that
                                    “the unthinking multitude are mad for it. . . .”



                 The Declaration of Independence
                                    On June 7, 1776, Henry Lee of Virginia made a motion at the meeting of the Second
                                    Continental Congress in Philadelphia. His motion proposed that American colonies be
                                    considered independent states, that diplomatic relations begin with other countries, and
                                    that a confederate form of government be prepared for future discussion by the colonies.
                                    It was decided that the motion would be voted on July 1 (giving delegates time to win the
                                    resistant middle colonies over). In the meantime, one committee worked on a potential
                                    constitution, while another was appointed to write the declaration of independence. This
                                    committee gave the job of writing the first draft to Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was a per-
                                    fect choice. He was a student of the thinkers of the Enlightenment and other thinkers of
                                    the era.
                                         Jefferson’s argument maintained that men had certainly “unalienable rights,” which
                                    included “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” Jefferson stated that when a govern-
                                    ment “becomes destructive of these ends” those who live under it can revolt against it and
                                    create a government that gets its “just powers from the consent of the governed.” Jefferson
                                    also listed many things the British had done that were oppressive to the colonies. Unlike
                                    others who had criticized certain ministers or Parliament, Jefferson personally blamed
                                    George III for many of these misdeeds. This document was formally approved on July 2,
                                    1776; this approval was formally announced on July 4.



                 The Outbreak of the Revolution: Divisions in the Colonies
                                    The celebrations surrounding the announcement of the Declaration of Independence took
                                    place in every colony, but not every citizen living in the Americas took part. Many loyalists
                                    were members of the colonial economic elite and feared the repercussions on their pocket-
                                    books of a break with Great Britain. Other loyalists saw the legitimacy of Britain’s control
                                    over the colonies; some loyalists were also very practical men, who predicted the easy defeat
                                    of the colonies by the seemingly immense British army.
                                        Blacks in America greeted the Declaration of Independence with enthusiasm. Many
                                    free blacks saw the possible revolution as a chance to improve their position; slaves saw
                                    the possibilities of freedom from slavery. (During the war, some slaves managed to escape
                                    their masters, and a few even fought on the side of the British.) During the fighting, Brit-
                                    ish troops freed slaves in Georgia and South Carolina. In the North, some slaves fought




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                                    in colonial militias, winning their freedom through military service. The British courted
                                    Native American tribes, but their determination to definitively help the British in battle
                                    was never strong.



                  Strategies of the American Revolution
                                    It is easy to see how the British thought that they would be able to defeat the colonists
                                    quickly and decisively. Britain had a strong navy, one of the finest armies of Europe, and
                                    considerable support from approximately 150,000 loyalists in the colonies. In addition, in
                                    the first years of the war, the Continental Army suffered from poor discipline, frequent
                                    desertions, lack of supplies and money, and a virtually nonexistent navy. However, an obvi-
                                    ously long supply line (four to six weeks by ship) divided British policies in London, and an
                                    army used to fighting the more “formal” European type of war would end up hindering
                                    British efforts. The leadership of George Washington, the willingness to use defensive tac-
                                    tics and only attack when needed, and the fact that they were fighting on home territory,
                                    all helped aid the colonial military efforts. Washington felt that a lengthy war would assist
                                    the colonists, since they were fighting on home ground.
                                         In June 1775, a bloody battle had taken place at Bunker Hill in Boston. The colonists
                                    were defeated, but at the expense of nearly 1000 British dead or wounded.



                  Washington as Commander
                                    The British approach under General William Howe was to slowly move his army through
                                    the colonies, using the superior numbers of the British army to wear the colonists down.
                                    However, from the beginning things did not go as planned for the British. In March 1776,
                                    the British were forced to evacuate Boston. The British then went to New York, which they
                                    wanted to turn into one of their major military headquarters. (A large number of loyalists
                                    lived there.) Washington and his troops attempted to dislodge the British from New York in
                                    late August of 1776; Washington’s army was routed and chased back into Pennsylvania.
                                         During November and December of 1776, Washington’s army faced daily desertions
                                    and poor morale. On Christmas night, Washington boldly led the Battle of Trenton
                                    against the Hessian allies of the British, defeating them. On January 3, Washington
                                    defeated a small British regiment at Princeton. These victories bolstered the morale of the
                                    colonial army greatly.
                                         Another tremendous advantage for the colonists was the arms shipments from the
                                    French that they began receiving in late 1776. French aid for the colonies did not come
                                    from any great trust that developed between the two sides; for over a century, France and
                                    Britain had been bitter rivals, and the French saw the American Revolution as another
                                    situation that they could exploit for their gain against the British. Massive British naval
                                    superiority in the Americas was at least partially counterbalanced by the entry of the French
                                    navy into the war.

                                    The “British Blunder” of 1777
                                    The British decided on a strategy to strike a decisive blow against the colonists in 1777.
                                    Three separate British armies were to converge on Albany, New York, and cut off New
                                    England from the rest of the colonies. The British effort is called a blunder because of the
                                    poor execution of military plans that might have been effective. An army led by General




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                 88 › STEP 4. Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

                                    Howe headed toward Philadelphia when, for obvious strategic reasons, it should have been
                                    heading toward Albany. Howe was intent on taking on Washington’s army in Philadelphia
                                    and decisively defeating it. The army under “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne carried too
                                    much heavy equipment, which could be carried in preparation for European battles but
                                    not through the forests of North America. On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne was forced to
                                    surrender at Saratoga. Some military historians claim this defeat was the beginning of the
                                    end for the British. The colonial victory convinced the French to send troops to aid the
                                    war effort.
                                        Women became increasingly important to the war effort of the colonies. Women were
                                    prominent in the boycott of British goods, provided support services for the Continental
                                    Army, spied on British troops, and ran numerous households when the “man of the house”
                                    was off fighting the British. In a March 1776 letter to her husband John, Abigail Adams
                                    reminded him to “Remember the Ladies . . . Do not put such unlimited power in the hands
                                    of the Husbands.”



                 The War Moves to the South
                                    After their defeat at Saratoga, the British abandoned their strategy of fighting in New
                                    York and New England and decided to concentrate their efforts in the Southern colonies,
                                    where they imagined more loyalists to live. Despite their victory at Saratoga, the winter
                                    of 1777–1778 was the low point for the Continental Army. The British camped for the
                                    winter in Philadelphia, while Washington’s army stayed at Valley Forge. Cold weather,
                                    malnutrition, and desertion severely hurt the army. Morale improved when daily drilling
                                    began under the leadership of Baron von Steuben, a Prussian who had volunteered to help
                                    the colonists. As a result, the Continental Army that emerged in the spring was a much
                                    tougher and more disciplined unit.
                                         Nevertheless, initially the British southern strategy was successful. By the summer of
                                    1780, the British captured Georgia and South Carolina. Desertions continued, and Gen-
                                    eral Benedict Arnold went over to the British side.
                                         Things soon turned against the British. A Virginia army under George Rogers Clark
                                    defeated a British force and their Native American allies at Vincennes, Indiana, securing
                                    the Ohio River region for the colonies. By the summer of 1781, French army forces joined
                                    the Continental Army as two regiments marched from New York to Virginia. The Brit-
                                    ish southern campaign, now headed by General Cornwallis, was constantly hampered by
                                    attacks by bands of “unofficial” colonial soldiers, led by Francis Marion and other rebel
                                    leaders.
                                         Cornwallis decided to abandon the southern strategy and went into Virginia, where he
                                    was ordered to take up a defensive position at Yorktown. Once the British troops began
                                    to dig in, they were cut off by a combination of French and continental forces. Cornwallis
                                    hoped to escape by sea, but ships of the French navy occupied Chesapeake Bay. For three
                                    weeks, Cornwallis tried to break the siege; on October 17, 1781, he finally surrendered.
                                    Fighting continued in some areas, but on March 4, 1782, Parliament voted to end the Brit-
                                    ish military efforts in the former colonies.




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                  The Treaty of Paris
                                    British, French, Spanish (also allies with the colonists in the war), and American diplomats
                                    gathered in Paris in 1783 to make the treaty ending the war. The British and French dip-
                                    lomats were initially not impressed with the diplomatic efforts of the Americans, but soon
                                    the American team of John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams demonstrated shrewd
                                    diplomatic skills. The Americans negotiated separately with the British, and, on September
                                    3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed. (Please note that this is a different Treaty of Paris
                                    from the one ending the French and Indian War.) By this treaty, Great Britain formally
                                    recognized American independence. Britain held on to Canada, but all of the territory
                                    they had received from France after the French and Indian War (territory between the
                                    Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River) was given over to the Americans. The
                                    American diplomats also negotiated for fishing rights off the coasts of Newfoundland and
                                    Nova Scotia. The British insisted on, and received, promises that British merchants would
                                    be free to recover prewar debts and that loyalists would be treated as equal citizens and
                                    would be able to recover property seized from them during the war. (As might be expected,
                                    many loyalists were leaving the Americas during this period.)



                  The Establishment of Governmental Structures
                  in the New Nation
                                    The Drafting of State Constitutions
                                    By the end of 1777, ten new state constitutions had been written. Written into these con-
                                    stitutions were safeguards to prevent the evils that Americans had seen in the colonial gov-
                                    ernments established by the British. The governor was the most oppressive figure in many
                                    colonies; as a result, many new constitutions gave limited power to the governor, who was
                                    usually elected by the state assembly. All states except Pennsylvania and Vermont adopted
                                    bicameral legislatures, with more power usually given to the upper house. Most states
                                    also lowered the property qualifications for voting, thus allowing people who had not voted
                                    before the Revolutionary War to vote. Many historians comment that writers of these con-
                                    stitutions were making a conscious attempt to broaden the base of American government.
                                    Most state constitutions also included some form of a bill of rights.



                  The Articles of Confederation
                                    In the fall of 1777, the Continental Congress sent a proposed constitution out to the
                                    individual states for ratification. This document, called the Articles of Confederation,
                                    intentionally created a very weak national government.
                                        The main organ of government was a unicameral legislature, in which each state
                                    would have one vote. Executive authority was given to a Committee of Thirteen, with one
                                    representative from each state. For both amendment and ratification, the unanimous con-
                                    sent of all 13 state legislatures was required.
                                        The national government was given the power to conduct foreign relations, mediate
                                    disputes between states, and borrow money. The weakness of the national government
                                    was shown by the fact that it could not levy taxes, regulate commerce, or raise an army.




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                                    Because of disputes over land claims in the West, all 13 states didn’t ratify the Articles of
                                    Confederation until 1781.

                                    Economic Distress
                                    Financial problems plagued the new nation in the years immediately after the war. Many
                                    merchants had overextended themselves by importing foreign goods after the war. Large
                                    numbers of Revolutionary War veterans had never been paid for their service. The national
                                    government had large war debts. By the terms of the Articles of Confederation, the national
                                    government could not tax, so the national government began to print a large amount of
                                    paper money. These bills, called “Continentals,” were soon made worthless by inflation.
                                    Proposals for the national government to impose import tariffs came three times, and all
                                    three times they were defeated. Loans from foreign countries, especially France, propped
                                    up the national government during this period.



                 The Northwest Ordinances
                                    The sale of lands in the West was one way that the national government could make money,
                                    and westward settlement was encouraged. By 1790, nearly 110,000 settlers were living in
                                    Kentucky and Tennessee, despite the threat of Native American attack. The Northwest
                                    Ordinances of 1784, 1785, and 1787 regulated the sale of lands in the Northwest Territory
                                    and established a plan to give these settled territories statehood. The 1784 Ordinance pro-
                                    vided governmental structures for the territories and a system by which a territory could
                                    become a state. The Ordinance of 1785 spelled out the terms for the orderly sale of land
                                    in the Northwest Territory. The Ordinance of 1787 stated that any territory with 60,000
                                    white males could apply for statehood, provided a bill of rights for settlers, and prohibited
                                    slavery north of the Ohio River. Controversy over whether slavery should be allowed in
                                    these territories was a foreshadowing of the bitter conflicts that would follow on the issue
                                    of slavery in newly acquired American territories.



                 Shays’ Rebellion
                                    Like farmers in other parts of the colonies, farmers in western Massachusetts were in des-
                                    perate shape in the years after the Revolution. Many owed large amounts to creditors, infla-
                                    tion further weakened their economic position, and in 1786 the Massachusetts Assembly
                                    raised the taxes. Farmers took up arms, closing government buildings and freeing farmers
                                    from debtor’s prisons. This rebellion was called Shays’ Rebellion, after one of its leaders,
                                    war veteran Daniel Shays. The rebellion spread throughout Massachusetts and began to
                                    gain supporters in other New England states. The rebellion was put down by an army paid
                                    for by citizens of Boston and by lowering the taxes. To many, Shays’ Rebellion demon-
                                    strated that stronger state and national governments were needed to maintain order.




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                                                        The American Revolution and the New Nation (1775–1787)         ‹      91

                  Chapter Review
                                    Rapid Review Guide
                        KEY IDEA
                                    To achieve the perfect 5, you should be able to explain the following:
                                    • The first armed resistance to the British army occurred at Lexington and Concord.
                                    • The Second Continental Congress began to prepare the American colonies for war
                                      against the British, but by passing the Olive Branch Petition, they tried to accommodate
                                      colonial interests with those of the Crown.
                                    • The impact of the message presented in Common Sense by Thomas Paine was widespread
                                      throughout the colonies.
                                    • Many loyalists lived in the colonies at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War; many
                                      were members of the economic elite.
                                    • Blacks and women played a large role in the war effort of the colonies.
                                    • The defensive tactics of George Washington as leader of the Continental forces proved
                                      decisive, since a longer war was disadvantageous to the British army.
                                    • French assistance to the continental war effort proved invaluable; the French navy
                                      proved to be especially critical as the war progressed.
                                    • The Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War. In this treaty, American indepen-
                                      dence was recognized by the British and large amounts of territory west of the Appala-
                                      chian became American territory.
                                    • The Articles of Confederation created a weak national government, partially to avoid
                                      replicating the “tyranny” of the Crown in England.
                                    • To many colonial observers, Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated that a stronger national
                                      government was needed.

                                    Time Line
                                    1775: Battles of Lexington and Concord
                                          Meeting of Second Continental Congress
                                    1776: Common Sense published by Thomas Paine
                                          Declaration of Independence approved
                                          Surrender of British forces of General Burgoyne at Saratoga
                                    1777: State constitutions written in ten former colonies
                                    1777–1778: Continental Army encamped for the winter at Valley Forge
                                    1778: French begin to assist American war efforts
                                    1781: Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown
                                          Articles of Confederation ratified
                                    1783: Signing of the Treaty of Paris
                                    1786–1787: Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts
                                    1787: Northwest Ordinance establishes regulations for settlement of territories west of
                                      the Appalachian Mountains




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                 92 › STEP 4. Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

                 ❯ Review Questions
                  1. The purpose of the Olive Branch Petition                D. Quebec and the area immediately sur-
                     was to                                                      rounding it was ceded to the Americans
                      A. rally colonial support for war against Great        E. former loyalists in the colonies could
                          Britain                                                retrieve property seized from them during
                      B. petition the king for redress of economic               the Revolutionary War
                          grievances suffered by the colonies                  (Correct Answer: D. None of the British
                      C. ask the king to craft a solution to end the        territory in Canada was taken from them as a
                          tensions between Great Britain and the            result of the treaty.)
                          colonies
                                                                         4. Women were important in the war effort
                      D. request formal support of each colony the
                                                                            because they
                          the formulation of the Second Continental
                                                                             A. provided much of the financial backing for
                          Congress
                                                                                 the colonial cause
                      E. ask the king to grant independence to the
                                                                             B. provided several delegates to the Second
                          colonies
                                                                                 Continental Congress
                        (Correct Answer: C. Although the Second
                                                                             C. wrote influential articles in colonial news-
                     Continental Congress began to prepare the
                                                                                 papers urging the colonies to resist the
                     colonies for war against Great Britain, the del-
                                                                                 British
                     egates also voted to send this petition to George
                                                                             D. provided clothing and blankets for the
                     III, asking him to create harmony between
                                                                                 frozen troops at Valley Forge
                     Great Britain and the colonies.)
                                                                             E. maintained economic stability in the colo-
                  2. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War,                  nies by managing households across the
                     the British were extremely confident of victory              colonies while men were off fighting the
                     because all of the following reasons except                 British
                      A. they had outstanding generals that would              (Correct Answer: E. Although women
                         be commanding British forces in the                assisted the war effort in many ways, they made
                         Americas                                           an important contribution by managing estates
                      B. there were many loyalists throughout the           and farms while their husbands were serving
                         American colonies                                  in the colonial militias or in the Continental
                      C. the Continental Army suffered from poor            Army.)
                         discipline
                                                                         5. The weakness of the national government cre-
                      D. the British had an outstanding navy
                                                                            ated by the Articles of Confederation was dem-
                      E. the Continental Army was continually lack-
                                                                            onstrated by the fact that it was not given the
                         ing in supplies
                                                                            power to
                        (Correct Answer: A. Several of the main
                                                                             A. mediate disputes between states
                     generals commanding British troops in the
                                                                             B. raise an army
                     Revolutionary War proved early on to be quite
                                                                             C. conduct foreign relations
                     ordinary in tactical and leadership skills.)
                                                                             D. borrow money
                  3. All of the following were contained in the              E. print money
                     Treaty of Paris of 1783 except                            (Correct Answer: B. The national govern-
                      A. Americans got fishing rights off the coast of       ment was not given the power to issue taxes,
                         Newfoundland                                       regulate commerce, or raise an army.)
                      B. territory west of the Appalachian
                         Mountains was ceded to the Americans
                     C. American independence was recognized by
                         Great Britain




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