Cell Organelles Worksheet Keys by igo14967

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									Laboratory Title: Cells
Your Name: Felisha Borg
Lab Goals:
    
Lab Objectives: Students will. . .
         identify important organelles within a plant cell
         identify important organelles within an animal cell
         distinguish the difference between animal and plant cells
         discuss the functions of organelles in plant/animal cells
         create their own cell modles
         be able to create keys and relate importance of them
Benchmark(s) Addressed:

Science
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
P=Physical science; L=Life science; E=Earth and Space science; S=Scientific inquiry; D=Design (engineering)



Math
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Materials and Costs:
    List the equipment and non-consumable material and estimated cost of each

          Item                                                                                                                Cost
          C ............................................................................................................................$
          S ............................................................................................................................$
          S ............................................................................................................................$
          V ............................................................................................................................$
          O ............................................................................................................................$
          S ............................................................................................................................$
          C ............................................................................................................................$
          6 ............................................................................................................................$
Estimated total, one-time, start-up cost: ................................................................. $

    List the consumable supplies and estimated cost for presenting to a class of 30 students

Item Cost
         P   ............................................................................................................................$
         G   ............................................................................................................................$
         D   ............................................................................................................................$
         R   ............................................................................................................................$
         L   ............................................................................................................................$
         C   ............................................................................................................................$



Estimated total, one-time, start-up cost: ................................................................. $


Time:
    Preparation time:
    Set up time:
    Instruction time:
    Clean-up time:


Assessment (include all assessment materials):




Extensions/changes for younger grades:
         Changes:
         Extensions:
Background information:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology)

The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the
functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a
living thing, and is often called the building block of life.[1] Some organisms, such as most
bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are
multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a
typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilised ostrich egg
cell.[clarification needed How large?][2]

In 1835, before the final cell theory was developed, Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small
"granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first
developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms
are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, that vital functions
of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary
for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.[3]

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive term for the
smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665
when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived
in.[4]

Anatomy of cells
There are two types of cells: eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are usually
independent, while eukaryotic cells are often found in multicellular organisms.

Prokaryotic cells
Main article: Prokaryote
Diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell

The prokaryote cell is simpler, and therefore smaller, than a eukaryote cell, lacking a nucleus and
most of the other organelles of eukaryotes. There are two kinds of prokaryotes: bacteria and
archaea; these share a similar overall structure.

A prokaryotic cell has three architectural regions:

      On the outside, flagella and pili project from the cell's surface. These are structures (not
       present in all prokaryotes) made of proteins that facilitate movement and communication
       between cells;
      Enclosing the cell is the cell envelope – generally consisting of a cell wall covering a
       plasma membrane though some bacteria also have a further covering layer called a
       capsule. The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from
       its environment, serving as a protective filter. Though most prokaryotes have a cell wall,
       there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma (bacteria) and Thermoplasma (archaea). The
       cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against
       exterior forces. It also prevents the cell from expanding and finally bursting (cytolysis)
       from osmotic pressure against a hypotonic environment. Some eukaryote cells (plant cells
       and fungi cells) also have a cell wall;
      Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the cell genome (DNA) and
       ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. A prokaryotic chromosome is usually a
       circular molecule (an exception is that of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which
       causes Lyme disease). Though not forming a nucleus, the DNA is condensed in a
       nucleoid. Prokaryotes can carry extrachromosomal DNA elements called plasmids, which
       are usually circular. Plasmids enable additional functions, such as antibiotic resistance.
Eukaryotic cells
Main article: Eukaryote




Diagram of a typical animal (eukaryotic) cell, showing subcellular components.
Organelles:
(1) nucleolus
(2) nucleus
(3) ribosome
(4) vesicle
(5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
(6) Golgi apparatus
(7) Cytoskeleton
(8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(9) mitochondria
(10) vacuole
(11) cytoplasm
(12) lysosome
(13) centrioles within centrosome

Eukaryotic cells are about 15 times wider than a typical prokaryote and can be as much as 1000
times greater in volume. The major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that
eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities
take place. Most important among these is the presence of a cell nucleus, a membrane-delineated
compartment that houses the eukaryotic cell's DNA. It is this nucleus that gives the eukaryote its
name, which means "true nucleus." Other differences include:

      The plasma membrane resembles that of prokaryotes in function, with minor differences
       in the setup. Cell walls may or may not be present.
      The eukaryotic DNA is organized in one or more linear molecules, called chromosomes,
       which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell
       nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Some eukaryotic organelles such
       as mitochondria also contain some DNA.
      Many eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles
       in chemosensation, mechanosensation, and thermosensation. Cilia may thus be "viewed
       as sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling
       pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell
       division and differentiation."[5]
      Eukaryotes can move using motile cilia or flagella. The flagella are more complex than
       those of prokaryotes.

             Table 1: Comparison of features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
                              Prokaryotes                             Eukaryotes

Typical organisms       bacteria , archaea      protists, fungi, plants, animals

                                                ~ 10–100 µm (sperm cells, apart from the tail, are
   Typical size        ~ 1–10 µm
                                                smaller)

                        nucleoid region ; no
 Type of nucleus                                real nucleus with double membrane
                       real nucleus
                                                linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone
       DNA             circular (usually)
                                                proteins
  RNA-/protein-                                 RNA-synthesis inside the nucleus
                       coupled in cytoplasm
    synthesis                                   protein synthesis in cytoplasm
    Ribosomes          50S+30S                  60S+40S
  Cytoplasmatic                                 highly structured by endomembranes and a
                       very few structures
    structure                                   cytoskeleton
                       flagella made of         flagella and cilia containing microtubules;
  Cell movement
                       flagellin                lamellipodia and filopodia containing actin
                                                one to several thousand (though some lack
   Mitochondria        none
                                                mitochondria)
   Chloroplasts        none                     in algae and plants
                                                single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms
   Organization        usually single cells
                                                with specialized cells
                       Binary fission (simple   Mitosis (fission or budding)
   Cell division
                       division)                Meiosis
              Table 2: Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells
                         Typical animal cell                           Typical plant cell
Organelles           Nucleus                                    Nucleus
                         o Nucleolus (within nucleus)                o Nucleolus (within nucleus)
                     Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)           Rough ER
                    Smooth ER                                  Smooth ER
                   Ribosomes                                    Ribosomes
                   Cytoskeleton                                Cytoskeleton
                   Golgi apparatus                             Golgi apparatus ( dictiosomes )
                   Cytoplasm
                   Mitochondria                                Cytoplasm
                   Vesicles                                    Mitochondria
                   Lysosomes                                   Vacuole(s)
                   Centrosome                                  Cell wall
                       o Centrioles



Subcellular components




The cells of eukaryotes (left) and prokaryotes (right)

All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have a membrane that envelops the cell, separates
its interior from its environment, regulates what moves in and out (selectively permeable), and
maintains the electric potential of the cell. Inside the membrane, a salty cytoplasm takes up most
of the cell volume. All cells possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing
the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary
machinery. There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells. This article will list these primary
components of the cell, then briefly describe their function.

Cell membrane: A cell's defining boundary
Main article: Cell membrane

The cytoplasm of a cell is surrounded by a cell membrane or plasma membrane. The plasma
membrane in plants and prokaryotes is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane serves to
separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double
layer of lipids (hydrophobic fat-like molecules) and hydrophilic phosphorus molecules. Hence,
the layer is called a phospholipid bilayer. It may also be called a fluid mosaic membrane.
Embedded within this membrane is a variety of protein molecules that act as channels and pumps
that move different molecules into and out of the cell. The membrane is said to be 'semi-
permeable', in that it can either let a substance (molecule or ion) pass through freely, pass
through to a limited extent or not pass through at all. Cell surface membranes also contain
receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones.
Cytoskeleton: A cell's scaffold
Main article: Cytoskeleton




Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial cell: nuclei stained blue, mitochondria stained red, and F-
actin, an important component in microfilaments, stained green. Cell imaged on a fluorescent
microscope.

The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place;
helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis, the
separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth
and mobility. The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments
and microtubules. There is a great number of proteins associated with them, each controlling a
cell's structure by directing, bundling, and aligning filaments. The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is
less well-studied but is involved in the maintenance of cell shape, polarity and cytokinesis.[6]

Genetic material

Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid
(RNA). Most organisms use DNA for their long-term information storage, but some viruses (e.g.,
retroviruses) have RNA as their genetic material. The biological information contained in an
organism is encoded in its DNA or RNA sequence. RNA is also used for information transport
(e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA) in organisms that use DNA for the
genetic code itself. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add specific amino acids during
the process of protein translation.

Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular DNA molecule (the bacterial
chromosome) in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic genetic material is divided into
different, linear molecules called chromosomes inside a discrete nucleus, usually with additional
genetic material in some organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts (see endosymbiotic
theory).

A human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus (the nuclear genome) and in the
mitochondria (the mitochondrial genome). In humans the nuclear genome is divided into 23 pairs
of linear DNA molecules called chromosomes. The mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA
molecule distinct from the nuclear DNA. Although the mitochondrial DNA is very small
compared to nuclear chromosomes, it codes for 13 proteins involved in mitochondrial energy
production as well as specific tRNAs.

Foreign genetic material (most commonly DNA) can also be artificially introduced into the cell
by a process called transfection. This can be transient, if the DNA is not inserted into the cell's
genome, or stable, if it is. Certain viruses also insert their genetic material into the genome.

Organelles
Main article: Organelle

The human body contains many different organs, such as the heart, lung, and kidney, with each
organ performing a different function. Cells also have a set of "little organs," called organelles,
that are adapted and/or specialized for carrying out one or more vital functions.

There are several types of organelles within an animal cell. Some (such as the nucleus and golgi
apparatus) are typically solitary, while others (such as mitochondria, peroxisomes and
lysosomes) can be numerous (hundreds to thousands). The cytosol is the gelatinous fluid that
fills the cell and surrounds the organelles.

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts – the power generators
      Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and
      sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria play a critical role in
      generating energy in the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria generate the cell's energy by the
      process of oxidative phosphorylation, utilizing oxygen to release energy stored in cellular
      nutrients (typically pertaining to glucose) to generate ATP. Mitochondria multiply by
      splitting in two. Respiration occurs in the cell mitochondria.
      Organelles that are modified chloroplasts are broadly called plastids, and are involved in
      energy storage through the process of photosynthesis, which utilizes solar energy to
      generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.[citation needed]
      Mitochondria and chloroplasts each contain their own genome, which is separate and
      distinct from the nuclear genome of a cell. Both of these organelles contain this DNA in
      circular plasmids, much like prokaryotic cells, strongly supporting the evolutionary
      theory of endosymbiosis; since these organelles contain their own genomes and have
      other similarities to prokaryotes, they are thought to have developed through a symbiotic
      relationship after being engulfed by a primitive cell.[citation needed]
Ribosomes
      The ribosome is a large complex of RNA and protein molecules. They each consist of
      two subunits, and act as an assembly line where RNA from the nucleus is used to
      synthesise proteins from amino acids. Ribosomes can be found either floating freely or
      bound to a membrane (the rough endoplasmatic reticulum in eukaryotes, or the cell
      membrane in prokaryotes).[7]
Cell nucleus – a cell's information center
       The cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle
       found in a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell's
       chromosomes, and is the place where almost all DNA
       replication and RNA synthesis (transcription) occur.
       The nucleus is spherical in shape and separated from
       the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the
       nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope isolates and
       protects a cell's DNA from various molecules that
       could accidentally damage its structure or interfere
       with its processing. During processing, DNA is
       transcribed, or copied into a special RNA, called
       mRNA. This mRNA is then transported out of the
       nucleus, where it is translated into a specific protein
       molecule. The nucleolus is a specialized region within
       the nucleus where ribosome subunits are assembled. Diagram of a cell nucleus
       In prokaryotes, DNA processing takes place in the
       cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic reticulum – eukaryotes only
       The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the transport
       network for molecules targeted for certain
       modifications and specific destinations, as compared
       to molecules that will float freely in the cytoplasm.
       The ER has two forms: the rough ER, which has
       ribosomes on its surface and secretes proteins into the
       cytoplasm, and the smooth ER, which lacks them.
       Smooth ER plays a role in calcium sequestration and
       release.


Golgi apparatus – eukaryotes only
       The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to
       process and package the macromolecules such as
       proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell. It
       is particularly important in the processing of proteins
       for secretion. The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the
       endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells. Vesicles
       that enter the Golgi apparatus are processed in a cis to
       trans direction, meaning they coalesce on the cis side
       of the apparatus and after processing pinch off on the
       opposite (trans) side to form a new vesicle in the
       animal cell.[citation needed]
                                                                  Diagram of an endomembrane
                                                                  system
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes – eukaryotes only
      Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out
       organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. Peroxisomes have enzymes
       that rid the cell of toxic peroxides. The cell could not house these destructive enzymes if
       they were not contained in a membrane-bound system. These organelles are often called a
       "suicide bag" because of their ability to detonate and destroy the cell.[citation needed]
Centrosome – the cytoskeleton organiser
       The centrosome produces the microtubules of a cell – a key component of the
       cytoskeleton. It directs the transport through the ER and the Golgi apparatus.
       Centrosomes are composed of two centrioles, which separate during cell division and
       help in the formation of the mitotic spindle. A single centrosome is present in the animal
       cells. They are also found in some fungi and algae cells.[citation needed]
Vacuoles
       Vacuoles store food and waste. Some vacuoles store extra water. They are often
       described as liquid filled space and are surrounded by a membrane. Some cells, most
       notably Amoeba, have contractile vacuoles, which are able to pump water out of the cell
       if there is too much water. The vacuoles of eukaryotic cells are usually larger in those of
       plants than animals.

Structures outside the cell wall
Capsule

A gelatinous capsule is present in some bacteria outside the cell wall. The capsule may be
polysaccharide as in pneumococci, meningococci or polypeptide as Bacillus anthracis or
hyaluronic acid as in streptococci.[citation needed] Capsules are not marked by ordinary stain and can
be detected by special stain. The capsule is antigenic. The capsule has antiphagocytic function so
it determines the virulence of many bacteria. It also plays a role in attachment of the organism to
mucous membranes.[citation needed]

Flagella

Flagella are the organelles of cellular mobility. They arise from cytoplasm and extrude through
the cell wall. They are long and thick thread-like appendages, protein in nature. Are most
commonly found in bacteria cells but are found in animal cells as well.

Fimbriae (pili)

They are short and thin hair like filaments, formed of protein called pilin (antigenic). Fimbriae
are responsible for attachment of bacteria to specific receptors of human cell (adherence). There
are special types of pili called (sex pili) involved in the process of conjunction.[citation needed]

Cell functions
Cell growth and metabolism
Main articles: Cell growth and Metabolism
Between successive cell divisions, cells grow through the functioning of cellular metabolism.
Cell metabolism is the process by which individual cells process nutrient molecules. Metabolism
has two distinct divisions: catabolism, in which the cell breaks down complex molecules to
produce energy and reducing power, and anabolism, in which the cell uses energy and reducing
power to construct complex molecules and perform other biological functions. Complex sugars
consumed by the organism can be broken down into a less chemically-complex sugar molecule
called glucose. Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), a form of energy, via two different pathways.

The first pathway, glycolysis, requires no oxygen and is referred to as anaerobic metabolism.
Each reaction is designed to produce some hydrogen ions that can then be used to make energy
packets (ATP). In prokaryotes, glycolysis is the only method used for converting energy.

The second pathway, called the Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle, occurs inside the mitochondria
and is capable of generating enough ATP to run all the cell functions.




An overview of protein synthesis.
Within the nucleus of the cell (light blue), genes (DNA, dark blue) are transcribed into RNA.
This RNA is then subject to post-transcriptional modification and control, resulting in a mature
mRNA (red) that is then transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm (peach), where it
undergoes translation into a protein. mRNA is translated by ribosomes (purple) that match the
three-base codons of the mRNA to the three-base anti-codons of the appropriate tRNA. Newly-
synthesized proteins (black) are often further modified, such as by binding to an effector
molecule (orange), to become fully active.
Creation of new cells
Main article: Cell division

Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This
leads to growth in multicellular organisms (the growth of tissue) and to procreation (vegetative
reproduction) in unicellular organisms.

Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear
division, called mitosis, followed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis. A diploid cell may
also undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells, usually four. Haploid cells serve as gametes in
multicellular organisms, fusing to form new diploid cells.

DNA replication, or the process of duplicating a cell's genome, is required every time a cell
divides. Replication, like all cellular activities, requires specialized proteins for carrying out the
job.

Protein synthesis
Main article: Protein biosynthesis

Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for the modulation and
maintenance of cellular activities. This process involves the formation of new protein molecules
from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in DNA/RNA. Protein synthesis
generally consists of two major steps: transcription and translation.

Transcription is the process where genetic information in DNA is used to produce a
complementary RNA strand. This RNA strand is then processed to give messenger RNA
(mRNA), which is free to migrate through the cell. mRNA molecules bind to protein-RNA
complexes called ribosomes located in the cytosol, where they are translated into polypeptide
sequences. The ribosome mediates the formation of a polypeptide sequence based on the mRNA
sequence. The mRNA sequence directly relates to the polypeptide sequence by binding to
transfer RNA (tRNA) adapter molecules in binding pockets within the ribosome. The new
polypeptide then folds into a functional three-dimensional protein molecule.

Cell movement or motility
Cells can move during many processes: such as wound healing, the immune response and cancer
metastasis. For wound healing to occur, white blood cells and cells that ingest bacteria move to
the wound site to kill the microorganisms that cause infection.
At the same time fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) move there to remodel damaged structures.
In the case of tumor development, cells from a primary tumor move away and spread to other
parts of the body. Cell motility involves many receptors, crosslinking, bundling, binding,
adhesion, motor and other proteins.[8] The process is divided into three steps – protrusion of the
leading edge of the cell, adhesion of the leading edge and de-adhesion at the cell body and rear,
and cytoskeletal contraction to pull the cell forward. Each of these steps is driven by physical
forces generated by unique segments of the cytoskeleton.[9][10]
Evolution
Main article: Evolutionary history of life

The origin of cells has to do with the origin of life, which began the history of life on Earth.

Origin of the first cell
Further information: Abiogenesis

There are a number of theories about the origin of small molecules that could lead to life in an
early Earth. One is that they came from meteorites (see Murchison meteorite). Another is that
they were created at deep-sea vents. A third is that they were synthesized by lightning in a
reducing atmosphere (see Miller–Urey experiment); althougyze chemical reactions (see RNA
world hypothesis). But some other entity with the potential to self-replicate could have preceded
RNA, like clay or peptide nucleic acid.[11]

Cells emerged at least 4.0–4.3 billion years ago. The current belief is that these cells were
heterotrophs. An important characteristic of cells is the cell membrane, composed of a bilayer of
lipids. The early cell membranes were probably more simple and permeable than modern ones,
with only a single fatty acid chain per lipid. Lipids are known to spontaneously form bilayered
vesicles in water, and could have preceded RNA. But the first cell membranes could also have
been produced by catalytic RNA, or even have required structural proteins before they could
form.

Origin of eukaryotic cells

The eukaryotic cell seems to have evolved from a symbiotic community of prokaryotic cells. It is
almost certain that DNA-bearing organelles like the mitochondria and the chloroplasts are what
remains of ancient symbiotic oxygen-breathing proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively,
where the rest of the cell seems to be derived from an ancestral archaean prokaryote cell – a
theory termed the endosymbiotic theory.

There is still considerable debate about whether organelles like the hydrogenosome predated the
origin of mitochondria, or viceversa: see the hydrogen hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic
cells.

Sex, as the stereotyped choreography of meiosis and syngamy that persists in nearly all extant
eukaryotes, may have played a role in the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. An 'origin
of sex as vaccination' theory suggests that the eukaryote genome accreted from prokaryan
parasite genomes in numerous rounds of lateral gene transfer. Sex-as-syngamy (fusion sex) arose
when infected hosts began swapping nuclearized genomes containing co-evolved, vertically
transmitted symbionts that conveyed protection against horizontal infection by more virulent
symbionts.

       http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/

The following is a glossary of animal cell terms:
cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is
semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the
nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are
made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite
sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like
organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the
membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates
into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing
digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner
membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The
mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the
cell.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells
have more than one nucleolus.
nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus
controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA
(in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of
protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with
the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough
appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called
cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with
the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER
transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats)
and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins
and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes.
vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food
being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.

Plant cells:

amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch. Amyloplasts are found in starchy
plants like tubers and fruits.
ATP - ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy
storage by organisms. In plant cells, ATP is produced in the cristae of mitochondria and
chloroplasts.
cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell
wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and
blocking others.
cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives
the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form
the structure of the plant.
centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the
nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are
made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite
sides of the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not
have centrioles.
chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and
carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process is called photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is
magnesium based and is usually green.
chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (in
which energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy - food) takes place in the
chloroplasts.
christae - (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell's mitochondrion that are
finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell's energy production (it is
where ATP is generated).
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body - (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like
organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The golgi body
packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
granum - (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum.
mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner
membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The
mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the
cell.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.
nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus
controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA
(in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane
photosynthesis - a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food
energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water. Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments
(substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of
protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with
the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough
appearance. Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called
cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with
the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER
transport materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats)
and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins
and lipids to the Golgi body and membranes
stroma - part of the chloroplasts in plant cells, located within the inner membrane of
chloroplasts, between the grana.
thylakoid disk - thylakoid disks are disk-shaped membrane structures in chloroplasts that
contain chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are made up of stacks of thylakoid disks; a stack of thylakoid
disks is called a granum. Photosynthesis (the production of ATP molecules from sunlight) takes
place on thylakoid disks.
vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. Most plant
cells have a single vacuole that takes up much of the cell. It helps maintain the shape of the cell.




*** All the activities below are created so that they can be printed out for the classes. So there is
a lot of space within the activities and explanations to make printing and copying easier for us
teachers.




                                         Activity #1
Activity one can be used for many different things. it can be used as a pretest to see what the
students need to know. It can be used as a post test or it can be used like it was during today’s
lesson as a note assistant.
                                         Activity #2
This wasn’t covered within the lesson plan. But I thought that it would be a helpful worksheet.
It’s has good visuals for the division this can also be used and a post or pre test as well as a note
assistant
                                    Activity #3




http://www.teach-nology.com/gold/cell.html
                                       Activity #4
                      Create your own plant and animal cell model
        This is the activity we did during the lesson plant personally I like it more as a homework
assignment then an in-class activity. However I really wanted to do this activity.
This activity can be used as an in class assignment or can be used as a homework project. Both
options pose pros and cons. Pros for the at home and Cons in the class activity makes you have
to buy all the materials, and create time in class. Cons for the at home and Pros for the in class
ensures that every student will create a hands on model, and you will be there to answer any
questions that they student may come across.
        Homework choice: If you chose to do it as a homework assignment the only materials
you will need is the paper to print the assignment on. The assignment is for each student to create
their own plant and animal cells using whatever materials they wish. Each cell must include the
main parts of the cell, have a key describing what things are, and label each cell. You may also
want to include a size requirement depending on the location where you want to display them.
        In class assignment:
                Materials: *****I’m a big fan of eatable things so this will be candy/food
centered but it is possible to use any other kind of materials you can find.
                                       Activity #5
                               Enchanted Learning Software's
                                Jello 3-D Animal
                                    Cell Craft
                                            More Crafts

                              This projects lets the student make
                              an edible, 3-D model of an animal
                              cell. The various organelles of the
                               cell are represented by fruits and   More on Animal Cells
        More Crafts
                                candies. When you've finished
                                 making your cell and writing
                                     about it, you can eat it!

Supplies:

      Gelatin, either a light-colored Jello (like
       lemon) or unflavored gelatin with sugar or
       juice added
      Water
      Spoon (to stir the gelatin)
      Microwave or stove (used to heat the water)
      A small but sturdy plastic bag to make the
       gelatin in (we used 1-gallon ziplock bags)
      Various fruits and candies used to represent
       the parts of the cell: raisins, gummy worms
       (plain and sour), gumdrops, gum ball, jelly
       beans, grapes, mandarin orange sections,
       sprinkles, M&M's, jaw breakers, a small stone
       fruit (like a plum), dried fruit, and/or hard
       candy. Note: marshmallows will float on top
       of the gelatin, so they don't work well in this
       craft.
      Refrigerator (used to set the gelatin)


                  Make the light-colored Jello or gelatin, but make it
                  with a bit less water than the instructions call for
                  (this will make the gelatin a little stiffer and will
  make the cell components stay in place better). The
  gelatin will represent the cytoplasm of the cell.
  First, heat the water to boiling (use about three-
  quarters of what is called for in the instructions).
  Dissolve the gelatin in the hot water and carefully
  stir it. Carefully add the same amount of cold water.
      Place an open plastic bag (we used 1-gallon
      ziplock bags) inside a sturdy container (like a
      large bowl or pan) - this makes pouring the
      Jello easier. Slowly pour the cooled gelatin into
      the bag - make sure that there is room in the
      bag for all the cell components that will be
      added later. Seal the bag and put it in the
      refrigerator.
When the gelatin is almost set (this takes about an
hour, but depends on the temperature of your
refrigerator), open the bag and start adding the
components of the cell. (Also, have the student label
the cell components using this printout, including the
name of each cell component and what they used to
represent it using the animal cell glossary.)
                                                                                 Cell
                                                                                 compo
                                                                                 nents
                                                                                 (we've
                                                                                 include
                                                                                 d what
                                                                                 we
                                                                                 used
                                                                                 for our
                                                                                 model,
                                                                                 but you
                                                                                 can
                                                                                 choose
                                                                                 whatev
                                                                                 er
                                                                                 edible
                                                                                 parts
                                                                                 you
                                                                                 like):
                                                                                 cell
membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. It is represented
by the plastic bag.
centrosome - a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and
radiating tubules. This is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis),
the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. It
is represented by a gum ball.
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are
located. It is represented by the gelatin.
Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex) a flattened, layered,
sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It
produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages
proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
It is represented by folded ribbons of hard candy.
lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and
containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
They are represented by M&M's.
mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The
inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called
cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. They are represented by raisins.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. It is represented by
the plum's skin.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.
Some cells have more than one nucleolus. It is represented by the plum pit.
nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The
nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis)
and contains DNA (in chromosomes). It is represented by the plum.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are
sites of protein synthesis. They are represented by candy sprinkles.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected,
membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm
(the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with
ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the
cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body,
or inserted into the cell membrane). It is represented by sour gummy worms.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected,
membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm
(the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is
called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains
enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER
buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi
body, lysosomes, and membranes. It is represented by gummy worms.
vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills
with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell. They are
represented by jaw breakers.


              Re-seal the plastic bag and refrigerate the gelatin until
              it is fully set.



                            When the gelatin is set, you can examine
                            your 3-D gelatin cell and then eat it.

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/jello/
                                      Activity #6
                    It's Alive, Alive, Allllllllllliiiiiiivvvvveeee!

Background: You will be in groups of three, each with your own job. The jobs to choose from
are Contractor, Architect, Surveyor. Your job, as a group, is to build the most realistic life-like
plant cell the world has ever seen.

Problem: What does a 3-dimensional cell look like? What are the various parts of plant cells?

Hypothesis: ______________________________________________________.

Materials: Play-doe, food coloring or tempera paints (red, purple, green, blue, white), 1 pair of
gloves, yarn or undercooked spaghetti, pepper, plastic-bubble packing, aluminum foil, plastic
wrap, pencil shavings, scissors, 1 large knife, glue.

Procedure:

1. Before we start be aware that on the final day you must present your cell to the class.

2. After you have decided upon your jobs, the Contractor and Architect will collaborate to design
the plant cell. The design should be drawn up on a piece of paper that explains what materials
will be used for each organelle. It should be colored the same color it will appear when it is built.
Take your time and make a good drawing. This should be completed early on day two.
Throughout this entire process the Surveyor should be writing down the order in which each
organelle was designed and the order in which it will be built. Along with this the Surveyor must
make a copy of the design that the group can use when building it. The Surveyor's job is to
basically take notes all the way through, so if the final product doesn't come out as planned the
Surveyor can look back at their notes and answer why.

3. After you have finished your design, hand it in and your teacher will approve it. If it is
approved, you can start to build your cell.

4. Building should be the role of the contractor. Architect's watch the builders to make sure they
are doing it exactly as planned. Surveyors should take notes on how it is built and also can assist
the Architects to make sure it is being built as planned.

http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/bio/lab6/
                                       Activity #7
                            Picking your teeth with DNA!

Problem(s): Where is DNA found in living organisms? What is DNA made of? What are
nucleotides? What are the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA? Which bases pair together in a
DNA molecule?

Hypothesis: ________________________________________________________.

Materials: 30 Toothpicks, 4 different colored markers, construction paper, Glue.

Procedure:

1. You will be given 30 toothpicks. Using the four markers, completely color each toothpick any
of colors you want. Make sure to color the toothpick one solid color and try use all the colors.

2. Take the piece of construction paper and cut it in half.

3. Draw the phosphate and sugar backbone on each piece of paper, as your teacher has written on
the board. There will need to be 15 phosphate and 15 sugar units on each paper. Take your time!

4. Now on one of pieces of paper attach a tooth pick, with glue, to each sugar group.

5. Did you guess what the color on toothpick was for yet? Each color represents a different
nitrogenous base. Look at the board, find out which bases you have made.

6. To complete your DNA molecule, color your the remaining toothpicks the color of the
complementary base of your current strand and attach them to the sugar molecules of your other
stand of DNA, then attach both strands together by the bases (toothpicks).

Conclusion Questions:

1. Where is DNA found in a cell?

2. What are chromosomes?

3. What is the function of DNA?

http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/bio/lab7/
                                         Activity #8
Name _______________________



                       How Does A Plant Cell Relate To Your School?

Directions:

In the space provided below describe the function of each cell organelle and then state what person in
your school serves a similar function in your school.

  Plant Organelle      Function within the Plant cell      Who at your school has a similar job?

      Cell Wall


    Plasma (Cell)
     Membrane


       Nucleus


     Cytoplasm


    Chloroplast(s)


   Mitochondrion


     Vacuole(s)


    Chromosomes
       (DNA)


    Ribosome(s)



  http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/bio/work1/
                                            Activity #9




Name _______________                                                            Date _____________



                    Cells Group Creative Writing

Directions: As a group, you have 25 minutes to write a brief story using the words below.


 MITOCHONDRIA                  CHLOROPHYLL             TISSUES                      CHROMOSOME

 CYTOPLASM                     NUCLEOLUS               ORGANS

 CHLOROPLAST                   NUCLEUS                 VACUOLE




______________________________________________________________________________




  http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/group/
                                     Activity #10
Name ________________________                                       Date ____________________




       Comparing Plant And Animal Cells VENN Diagram


Directions: Fill in the VENN Diagram to compare PLANT CELLS to ANIMAL CELLS. Use the
words in the word box.

     cell membrane              cell wall             chloroplast             cytoplasm
      mitochondria              nucleus                ribosome                vacuole



                       PLANT CELL                    ANIMAL CELL




 http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/2/
                                       Activity #11
Name _______________                                          Date _____________




                              Bank On It! Worksheet
                              Cells


                                        Work Bank

tissues   photosynthesis,      plant    the important of     transport.   perform
                              cells,    They tissues for



Simple ____________ are also referred to as ground tissues.
____________ include the tissues known as parenchyma,
collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Parenchyma tissue is composed
____________ parenchyma ____________ which are found
throughout ____________ plant. They are particularly abundant in
the stems and roots. The leaf cells that carry out photosynthesis are
also parenchyma cells. Unlike many other plant cells, parenchyma
cells are alive at maturity and retain the ability to divide. They
____________ many functions. Some are specialized
____________ ____________ others for storage, and still others
for secretion and ____________ An ____________ class of
parenchyma cells makes growth tissues called meristem and
cambium. These ____________ give rise to all other tissues in the
____________ body.

 http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/science/cell/bank/
Name _______________                                                  Date _____________



                        Cells Vocabulary Quiz
Directions: Match the vocabulary words on the left with the definitions on the right.




                              the central, essential, or highly concentrated part around
 1. tissue
                              which other parts are grouped.

                              a musical instrument consisting of a keyboard attached to a
 2. vacuole                   device that forces air through a number of pipes to produce
                              a wide range of sounds; pipe organ.

                              a membranous enclosure within a cell that contains
 3. chromosome                substances isolated from the protoplasm, such as dissolved
                              acids.

 4. chlorophyll
                              the ground protoplasm of cells that is outside the nucleus.
 (chlorophyl)

                              any of the very tiny rodlike or stringlike structures that occur
 5. cell membrane             in nearly all cells of plants and animals, and that process
                              food for energy.

                              a small spherical body in the nucleus of a cell, consisting of
 6. chloroplast
                              protein and RNA.

                              the mass of like cells in an animal or plant body, esp. as they
 7. cell wall
                              form a specific organ:

                              one of the tiny, threadlike, DNA-containing bodies found in
 8. nucleolus                 the cell nuclei of all plants and animals, responsible for
                              transmitting hereditary characteristics.

                              the green pigment in the leaves and stems of plants that is
 9. organ                     necessary for the production of plant food by
                              photosynthesis.
                    the rigid outermost layer of a plant cell, which is made of
10. cytoplasm
                    cellulose.

                    a small oval green bit of protoplasm that contains chlorophyll
11. nucleus
                    and is the location of photosynthesis.

                    the semipermeable membrane that encloses the contents of
12. mitochondrion
                    a cell; plasma membrane.
                                             Activity # 12
Community Cell
Subjects: Arts & Humanities: Visual Arts; Science: Life Sciences
Grades: 6-8



Brief Description
This activity is designed to introduce students to the parts and functions of the cell. This kinesthetic
lesson will engage all types of learners.

Objectives
Students learn about the parts and functions of an animal cell.

Keywords
biology, cells, cell structure, organelles

Materials Needed

For the class: dark felt cut into a circle measuring 16 to 18 inches, spray adhesive
Per student group:

       pieces of felt in a variety of colors cut into 1-to 2-inch squares
       scissors
       tag board
       glitter
       markers
       student-researched materials on cells
       neon-colored sticky notes
       plastic or paper bag

Lesson Plan

Before the lesson: Students use library, media, or Web sources to research information about
cells. Some suggested Web sites:

       The Cell
       Cell Structure and Function
       Cytology
       Mitosis

Procedures:
     1. Discuss the meanings of the words organelle and cell. Students can share information gathered
         from research sources and/or from the suggested Web sites above.
     2. Organixe students into cooperative groups of three or four.
     3. Place the large dark felt circle on a chalkboard or wall. Say "This circle represents the smallest
         unit of life. It has many functions, and together we are going to build a model of the human cell."
     4. Distribute task cards to each group. The task cards are neon-colored sticky notes with the name
         of a specific organelle written on each one.
     5. Distribute a small bag of supplies to each group: glitter, scissors, square felt, markers, tag board.
     6. Say "Working with your group, create a model of your assigned organelle. Look through your
         research materials to find a picture of the organelle. Using only the materials found in your bag,
         your group must construct a model of your organelle. On your tag board, clearly write the
         function and the name of your assigned organelle."
     7. Let one group at a time come to the board or wall. Using the spray adhesive, have each group
         place its organelle within the large circular cell. One member from each group recites the name
         of the organelle and its function(s). Students sitting at their desks use separate paper to draw
         and label each organelle as it is presented to the class.

Assessment

Observe cooperative group behavior. Grade students for class participation, presentation of
organelles, and copies of cell model.
Activity # 13
#2580. Eukaryotic Animal Cell, Candy Cell Model
Science, level: Middle
Posted Mon May 13 18:16:50 PDT 2002 by Kristen Coggins (keltic73@msn.com).
University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada
Materials Required: candy
Activity Time: 50 mins
Concepts Taught: The cell

Daily Lesson Plan
Kristen Coggins
Lesson Topic: Eukaryotic Animal Cell, Candy Cell Model

Objectives:

After the lesson the students will be able to:
1. Identify the parts of the cell
2. Describe the functions of selected cell organelles

Materials Needed:

1. Zip-lock bag (provided)
2. Index cards- cell organelle card showing the name of the cell and the function (provided)
3. Various types of candy (provided)
4. Cell Organelle Key (provided)
5. Colored pencils

Lesson and Activity:

1. Present concepts of the eukaryotic cell in short whole-class discussions (to be done in prior
class period)
2. Hand out Candy Cell Instruction Sheet and go over activity
3. Hand out materials.
4. Students will complete activity and candy cell model

Closure:

1. Do you know the parts of the cell?
2. Clean Up
3. Keep your cell model.

Evaluation:
Students should keep their candy cell model for later class periods and to use as a study aid to
use to study for the assessment on cell organelles and functions.


Procedure: Eukaryotic Animal Cell, Candy Cell Model

DO NOT EAT THE CANDY!

Key
Cell Organelle Candy

Nucleus Jawbreaker
Mitochondria Jelly Bean
Cytoskeleton Tooth Picks
Lysosomes Skiddles
Golgi Apparatus Swedish Fish
Ribosomes Mini Gummi Bears
Smooth ER Smooth Red Laces
Rough ER Sour Licorice
Zip-Lock Bag Cell membrane (holds is all together)

Procedure

1. Cut 5 index cards in ½.
2. Write the name of the cell organelle and the candy used on one side of the index card.
a. Write the function on the other side.
b. Use 1 color of colored pencil for both. Do not use this color again.
c. Repeat this process for all of the organelles.
3. You will have 9 cards total, each written in a different color.
4. Put the cell organelles and the cards in the zip-lock bag.
5. Rewrite the Key, on 1 whole index card, so that each organelle is written in the same color that
you chose for the index card. Place the Key in the bag
6. Keep the candy cell model to study for the test.

Closure

1. The teacher will check to see if your project has been completed.
2. Chose one member of the group to keep the cell as it will be used later in class and as a study
aid.

								
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