Cattle Spreadsheet by dgt21189

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									Practical Beef Nutrition
and Ration Formulation
           Dan Loy
          301 Kildee
       dloy@iastate.edu
               Basic Outline
   Nutrient Requirements of Importance
   Adjustments to Requirements (beef cows)
   Heifer development
   Adjustments to Requirements (feedlot)
   Introduction to BRANDS
   Common Nutritional “problems” (time
    permitting)
        Nutrient Requirements of
              Importance
   Energy
   Protein
   Major Minerals
   Minor Minerals and Vitamins
        PARTITIONING OF ENERGY

Gross Energy (GE)           Digestion loss (fecal)

Digestible Energy (DE)      Urine loss
                            Combustible gases (CH4)

Metabolizable Energy (ME)
                            Heat increment (HI)
                            -heat of fermentation
                            -heat of nutrient metabolism
Net Energy (NE)

NEm                         NEg
-basal metabolism           -retained energy
-activity at maintenance
-sustaining body temp
        Net Energy for Production
   Weight Gain
       Lean vs. Fat
   Body Condition gain
   Fetal Growth
   Milk Production
     Net Energy for Maintenance
   Basal Metabolism
   Environmental adjustments
      Metabolizable Protein
CP                         bypass
                     UIP


            energy (TDN)
                                    MP
     DIP (ammonia)         MCP
        Effect of Weight and ADG on
            Protein Requirements

                 900
                 800
MP Required, g




                 700
                 600
                 500                                          550 lb
                 400                                          900 lb
                 300
                 200
                 100
                   0
                 1.1 ADG   2.2 ADG       3.3 ADG    4.4 ADG
                           Average Daily Gain, lb
                 Major Minerals
   Calcium
       Required for milk production and growth
       Grains are low in Ca, Forages are high in Ca
   Phosphorous
       Required for milk production and growth
       Grains and corn coproducts are high in P, and low
        in Ca
       Ca:P may be important in steers because of urinary
        calculi
             Major Minerals cont’
   Magnesium
       Low in lush spring grass—Grass Tetany is a
        common deficiency
   Salt
       Sodium requirement, most feeds are low in sodium
   Potassium
       High in forages, low in grains.
   Sulfur
       Needed when urea is added. Toxicity is concern
    Trace Minerals and Vitamins
   Trace Minerals for Beef Cattle
       Co, Cu, I, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn
       Should be part of sound mineral supplementation
        program
       Regional differences
   Vitamin Requirements
       Vitamin A, D, E. Some B vitamins may be needed
        for stressed calves.
Adjustments to Requirements (cows)
   Stage of Production
   Environmental Adjustments
   Cow size and breed
   Body Condition Scoring
                               Seasonal Beef Cow Energy
                                     Requirements
                          60
Energy Requirement %TDN




                          58
                          56
                          54
                          52
                          50
                          48
                          46
                          44
                          42
                          40
                               1   2   3   4   5     6    7     8    9   10   11   12
                                               Month After Calving
                              Seasonal Beef Cow Protein
                                    Requirements
                         11
Protein Requirement, %




                         10

                         9

                         8

                         7

                         6

                         5
                              1   2   3   4   5     6    7     8    9   10   11   12
                                              Month After Calving
   EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON
     ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
      Lower                            Upper
      Critical                         Critical
      Temperature                      Temperature




                     THERMONEUTRAL
Cold stress                                   Heat Stress
                         ZONE

                        Optimum
                        for
                        Performance
                        and
                        Health

Low                                                  High
              EFFECTIVE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Lower Critical Temperature

  •Coat Description        LCT
  •Summer or wet           59
  •Fall                    45
  •Winter                  32
  •Heavy winter       18
           Effective Temperature

                            Temperature
 Wind Speed           -10   0    10       20    30
 Calm                 -10   0    10       20    30
 5                    -16   -6   3        13    23
 15                   -25   -15  -5       4     14
 30                   -46   -36  -26      -16   -6


*Maintenance Requirements increase .7% for each degree
of cold stress.
    Environmental Adjustments NRC
   Added are:
       Internal insulation factors (body condition or
        fatness)
       Hide thickness
       Heat production from feed
 Effect of Breed on Energy Requirements
                                                      120%
                        120%
Relative NEm Required



                                           100%
                        100%    90%

                        80%
                        60%
                        40%

                        20%
                         0%
                                 Bos     Bos taurus    Dairy
                               indicus                breeds
                           Effect of Lactation on Energy
                                   Requirements 120%
                         120%
Relative NEm Required,



                                   100%
                         100%
       % of Basal




                         80%

                         60%

                         40%

                         20%

                          0%
                                    Non-         Lactating
                                  lactating
        Body Condition Scoring
   Management tool for adjusting energy
    requirement of beef cows
   Also used to evaluate previous nutrition of
    feeder cattle
                         Thin Cows
• 1     Severely emaciated; starving and weak; no palpable fat
  detectable over back, hips or ribs; tailhead and individual ribs
  prominently visible; all skeletal structures are visible and sharp to
  the touch; animals are usually disease stricken. Under normal
  production systems cattle in this condition score are rare.

• 2   Emaciated; similar to BCS 1, but not weakened; little visible
  muscle tissue; tailhead and ribs less prominent.

• 3     Very thin; no fat over ribs or in brisket; backbone easily visible,
  slight increase in muscling over BCS
        Borderline and Optimum
• borderline
• 4    Borderline; individual ribs noticeable but overall fat cover is
  lacking; increased musculature through shoulders and hindquarters;
  hips and backbone slightly rounded versus sharp appearance of
  BCS 3.


• optimum
• 5     Moderate; increased fat cover over ribs, generally only 12th and
  13th ribs are individually distinguishable; tailhead full, but not
  rounded.

• 6   Good; back, ribs, and tailhead slightly rounded and spongy
  when palpated; slight fat deposition in brisket.
                     Fat Condition
• 7    Fat; cow appears fleshy and carries fat over the back, tailhead,
  and brisket; ribs are not visible; area of vulva and external rectum
  contain moderate fat deposits; may have slight fat in udder.

• 8     Very fat; squared appearance due to excess fat over back,
  tailhead, and hindquarters; extreme fat deposition in brisket and
  throughout ribs; excessive fat around vulva and rectum, and within
  udder; mobility may begin to be restricted.

• 9    Obese; similar to BCS 8, but to a greater degree; majority of fat
  deposited in udder limits effective lactation. Under normal production
  systems cattle in this condition score are rare.
      Condition Scoring Examples

   Condition Score 3



   Condition Score 6



   Condition Score 8

    Pictures from NDSU factsheet AS-1026
       Condition Scoring of Cows
   Optimum is condition 5-6 at calving
   Each condition score it 80 to 150 pounds
    depending on cow size
   It is best to condition score cows in the fall to
    allow sufficient time for condition score gain
              Heifer Development
   Target Weight Concept
   Heifers should be 60% of mature weight at
    breeding and 85% of mature weight at calving
   Sets target weights and rate of gain
       1400 mature size should weigh: 840 at breeding
        and 1190 at calving. If fall weight is 500 lb., in
        November (210 days before breeding), then ADG
        needs to be 1.6 to breeding.
    Adjustments to Requirements
             (feedlot)
   Frame size
   Implants
   Feed additives
   Step up programs
   Bunk Management/Monitoring
Frame Size
         Weight at 28% Body Fat
                                Frame Size

         1     2     3      4      5      6      7      8      9

Steer    882   954   1029   1102   1175   1250   1322   1395   1470


Heifer   705   763   824    882    939    1001   1058   1115   1177
The Normal Growth Curve

             Management
             for more rapid
             growth changes
             the shape
Muscle Growth
Fat Growth
          Methods of Increasing Grain
      Ration Step

                                                 Concentrate
    %                       Feed
                                                 Intake
Concentrate
                        X   Intake
                                             =
               Days
                                      Days                     Days

        Increasing Grain
                             Feed
                                                 Concentrate
     %                       Intake
 Concentrate            X                    =
                                                 Intake




                 Days
                                      Days                     Days
Feed Additives for Feedlot Cattle
   Ionophores
   MGA
   Optaflexx
   Broad spectrum antibiotics
   Coccidiostats
          Adapting cattle to grain
   Two parts
       Manage feed consumption
       Adjust rumen microbes to new substrate
       Each may take 2-3 weeks with calves
       May only take 4 weeks with previously adapted
        yearlings
   Thumb rule for initial grain consumption
       .5 to 1% of bodyweight
     Developing a Starting Program
           (some examples)
   determine expected intake
   determine eventual ration
   determine beginning concentrate levels
Sample starting program - Long
   hauled calves ( 400 lb.)
            Conc., lb Feed Intake % Conc.
Week 1      3        4           75
Week 2      5.5      8           75
Week 3      7        10          75
Week 4      8.5      12          75
Final ration 8.5     14          60
Sample starting program - precon or
    low stress calves (400 lb.)
            Conc., lb Feed Intake % Conc.
Week 1      4        8           60
Week 2      6.6      11          60
Week 3      7.5      12.5        60
Week 4      8.4      14          60
Final ration 8.5     14          60
    Sample starting program -
 Backgrounded yearlings (800 lb.)

            Conc., lb Feed Intake % Conc.
Week 1      6        15          40
Week 2      10       17          60
Week 3      14       20          70
Week 4      17       23          74
Final ration 20      25          80
    Goal of Feedbunk Management
   Deliver a consistent, nutritious, fresh ration in
    a manner that maximizes feed intake and
    minimizes waste and spoilage.
     Some Items a Good Bunk Sheet
            Should Contain
    Pen Number          Indication of Slick
    Lot Number           Bunks
    Head Count          Indication of When
    In Weight            Bunks Last Cleaned
    Current Weight      Amount of Feed Fed
                          Last 5-7 Days
    Days on Feed
    Days on Ration


From Horton (1990)
       SDSU Bunk Scoring System
   Developed to improve feed deliveries in a
    University Research Feedlot
   Improved efficiency
   Uses a 4-Point Bunk Scoring System




From Pritchard (1993)
SDSU 4-Point Bunk Scoring
        System
   Score Description
   0    No feed remaining in bunk.
   1/2 Scattered feed present. Most of bottom of
        bunk exposed
   1    Thin uniform layer of feed across bottom of
        bunk.
        Typically about 1 kernal deep.
   2    25-50% of previous feed remaining.
   3    Crown of feed is thoroughly disturbed. >50%
        of feed remaining.
   4    Feed is virtually untouched. Crown of feed
        still noticeable.
Bunk Score 0 to 1/2
Bunk score 1 and 2
Example Bunk Sheet

Feedlot:_________________

Date      1           2            3            4            5              6           7
 P
 e            Days on Feed ________           Ration Number_______
 n                                                                  Pe n Cr a s h e d
 #
 13    249     2    201     2    201 1/ 2     207     0    207 1/ 2      207     0    213     0
 P
 e
 n
              Days on Feed ________           Ration Number_______
                                                                        Co n s is t e n t
 #
 15    30 3 1 / 2   30 3 1 / 2   30 3 1 / 2   30 3 1 / 2   30 3 1 / 2    30 3 1 / 2   30 3 1 / 2
 P
 e
 n
              Days on Feed ________           Ration Number_______
                                                                  Rig h t o n t r a c k
 #
 32    255 1/ 2     255 1/ 2     255     0    255 1/ 2- 255 1/ 2         255     0    258     0
 P
 e
 n
              Days on Feed ________
                                                                 I n c r e a s in g DMI
                                              Ration Number_______
 #
 35    2 37 1 / 2   2 37 1 / 2   2 37 1 / 2   2 37 1 / 2   2 37 1 / 2    240     0    246     0
              Making Feed Calls
   Cattle Aggressiveness
       25-50-25 Rule
   Weather
     Heat
     Mud
     Rain
     Cold

   Storm Rations?
        Other Bunk Mgmt Factors
   Feed presentation
     Mixing
     Processing (particle size)
     Fines (conditioners)

   Nutritional Adequacy
Bunk Management Philosophy
                                                                                          R hodes Pen 4 (1997)


                       30


                       28


                       26


                       24
D r y Matter In take




                       22
                                                                                                                         A D G - 3 .5 9
                                                                                                                         F /G - 6 .3 4
                       20


                       18


                       16


                       14


                       12


                       10
                            1

                                5

                                    9

                                        13

                                             17

                                                  21

                                                       25

                                                            29

                                                                 33

                                                                      37

                                                                           41

                                                                                45

                                                                                     49

                                                                                           53

                                                                                                57

                                                                                                     61

                                                                                                          65

                                                                                                               69

                                                                                                                    73

                                                                                                                         77

                                                                                                                              81

                                                                                                                                   85

                                                                                                                                        89

                                                                                                                                             93

                                                                                                                                                  97

                                                                                                                                                       101

                                                                                                                                                             105

                                                                                                                                                                   109

                                                                                                                                                                         113

                                                                                                                                                                               117

                                                                                                                                                                                     121

                                                                                                                                                                                           125

                                                                                                                                                                                                 129

                                                                                                                                                                                                       133
                                                                                                     D ays o n F eed
                                            D r y Matter In take




                        10
                             12
                                  14
                                       16
                                            18
                                                    20
                                                             22
                                                                   24
                                                                        26
                                                                             28
                                                                                  30
                    1

                    8

                   15

                   22

                   29

                   36

                   43

                   50

                   57

                   64

                   71

                   78

                   85

                   92

                   99

                  106

                  113
                                                                                       Private Lot (1984)




D ays o n F eed
                  120

                  127

                  134

                  141

                  148

                  155

                  162

                  169

                  176

                  183

                  190

                  197

                  204

                  211
                                                                                                            Bunk Management Philosophy
   Cumulative Performance of
    Prescription Fed Cattle
                            Treatment
Item                 Prescription Ad libitum
Cumulative (121 days)
BW                      1328      1331
ADG                      3.84      3.85
DMI                    23.57       26.39
F/G                    6.15        6.90
Frequency of slick      69.3       39.7
bunks, %


Pritchard, 1997
Beef Nutrition via the
 BRANDS Software
      Package
Drs. Daryl Strohbehn and Dan Loy
     Extension Beef Specialists
            What is BRANDS?
   BRANDS is a series of spreadsheet programs
    which work in conjunction with Microsoft®
    Excel to assist producers and beef
    professionals in balancing rations for all types
    of cattle.
   BRANDS features 5 ration modules.
   Feedlot
   Beef Cow
   Heifer
   Growing Bull
   Breeding Bull
 programmed using
“Nutrient
Requirements of
Beef Cattle”
Seventh Revised Edition
     Update 2000
Comes in two different types of packages

Standard Edition Modules
     For the beginner (Excel 5.0 & beyond)
Professional Edition
     For the experienced nutritionist that has
multiple clients (Excel 2000 & beyond)
Introduction Screen-BRANDS Professional
Feed Library Worksheet
Cow Module- Professional Edition Input Screen




                     Mature Cow Weight (lbs)

                     small         1100        1100
                     medium        1350        1350
                     large         1600        1600
Ration Balancing Screen
Feedyard Module- Professional Edition Input Screen
   Heifer
  Module-
Professional
Edition Input
   Screen
Calendarized Heifer
Development Screen
Nutritional Problems in Beef Cattle
   Grass Tetany
   Urinary Calculi
   Sulfur Toxicity (polioencephalamalacia)
   Se deficiency
   Acidosis and Bloat
   Nitrate and urea toxicosis
   Molds and mycotoxins

								
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