Cell Organelle Worksheets by vxs41455

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									Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell

      6.1 All organisms are made of cells
      6.2 Membranes organize a cell’s activities
      6.3 Membranes regulate the traffic of
      molecules
      6.4 The cell builds a diversity of products
      6.5 Chloroplasts and mitochondria
      energize cells
      6.6 An internal skeleton supports the cell
      and enables movement


                                                1
6.1 All organisms are made of cells
 Objectives
 Explain the main ideas of the cell theory.
 Describe how microscopes aid the study of
  cells.
 Compare and contrast animal cells and
  plant cells.
 Distinguish between prokaryotic and
  eukaryotic cells


                                           2
What do you have in common with..




                                    3
                   Cells!
6.1 Explain the main ideas of the cell theory


   Scientists, using microscopes, found cells
 in every organism they examined.

 This led to the cell theory—
 1. All living things are composed of cells
 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    function in living things.
 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

                                                 4
    6.1 Describe how microscopes aid the study of cells.
 Light microscopes (LM) 1000x actual size.
 Electron microscope uses a beam of
  electrons. 1,000,000 x,
enough to reveal details of the structures
  inside a cell.
 Scanning electron microscope
(SEM) surface of cells
 Transmission electron microscope
(TEM) inside of cells
   Micrographs are photos through a
  microscope.
  Notations like LM 200x                                   5
Light Microscopes in
Classroom




                       6
Try labeling without notes




  4x

  10x

 40x




                             7
 6.1 Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells.
                 Main Differences
Animal                                  Plant
 cilia                           cell wall
 contractile vacuole             central vacuole
centrioles                       chloroplast




There are Prokaryotic-(no nucleus) and Eukaryotic-(nucleus) in both kingdoms
                                                                       8
6.2 Describe the structure of cellular membranes   .
• Cell membranes are boundaries of all cells
• Structure-
Phospholipid bilayer
two-layer "sandwich“
 of molecules
• Proteins inserted



                                                       9
6.2 Identify functions of proteins in cellular
membranes.

   • Functions of cell membranes




                                                 10
6.3 Relate diffusion and equilibrium.

   Diffusion
   the movement of particles from where they
    are more concentrated to where they are less
    concentrated.




       demo                           equilibrium, or balance
                                  .
                                                           11
6.3 Describe how passive transport occurs
Explain how active transport differs from passive transport

Both diffusion and facilitated diffusion are
  forms of passive transport,
the cell DOES NOT use energy.
In facilitated diffusion, particles pass
  through a channel in a transport protein.




                                                              12
6.3 Relate osmosis to solute concentration
   The passive transport of water across a
    selectively permeable membrane is called
  osmosis
 Hypertonic-shrink
 Hypotonic-swell
 Isotonic-same
Demo 1
Demo 2

                                               13
6.3Describe how large molecules move across a membrane

   When a cell expends energy to move
    molecules or ions across a membrane, the
    process is known as active transport




                                                         14
 6.4 Identify the role of the nucleus in a cell.

A cell's nucleus contains DNA—
molecules that direct cell
activities.
DNA contains
Instructions
For making
 proteins


                                                   15
       6.4 Describe ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus

  Proteins are made by the
  ribosomes.
 Transportation membranes
are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
  Smooth ER- no ribosomes
  Rough ER-has ribosomes
  Some products that are made in the ER
travel to the Golgi apparatus
which acts as
―shipping and recieving‖
of the cell.
                                                                          16
  6.4 Distinguish between the functions of vacuoles and lysosomes

Vacuoles store undigested
 nutrients
          Contractile vacuoles-animals
          Central vacuole-plants

 – Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes




                                                                    17
6.4 Summarize the path of proteins through membranes.




                                                 18
6.5 Compare the functions of chloroplasts and mitochondria   .

 Chloroplasts are the photosynthetic
  organelles found in plants and algae.
 mitochondria are
where cellular respiration occurs.
This process releases energy
from sugars.
Sun’s energy to chloroplast to
Make Glucose to mitochondria to
 change glucose to ATP energy
                                                                 19
6.6 Describe the role of the cytoskeleton
in cell movement
 cytoskeleton (cyto means "cell"), a
  network of fibers extending
throughout the cytoplasm
 Straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give
  rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
  are called microtubules


Thinner, solid rods enable the cell to move
  or change shape are called
  microfilaments
                                              20
6.5 Compare and contrast the functions
of flagella and cilia
 Flagella are long, thin, whip-like
  structures that enable some cells
 to move


   Cilia are generally shorter and more
    numerous than flagella

   Remember that none of a cell’s organelles
    works alone. The cooperation of cellular
    organelles makes a cell a living unit that is
    greater than the sum of its parts
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Organelle      Description     Function     Membrane?   Found in      Found in
               /Nickname                                Procaryotic   Eukaryotic
                                                        cells?        cells?
                                                                      Animal Plant

Ribosome       Strands of      Protein      No          Yes           yes      yes
               RNA, with       Synthesis
               proteins
               attached
ER             Folds of cell   Channels     Yes         No            yes      yes
               membrane        for
               Hallways +      movement
               Highways        of
                               substances
Mitochondria   Bean shaped     Cell        Yes          No            yes      yes

               Powerhouse      respiration double
                               Breakdow
                               n sugars
Plastids       Chromo          Synthesiz    Yes         No            No       yes

               Chloroplast     e sugars
Golgi          Flat curved     Moves        Yes         No            Yes      yes
Bodies         “Post Office”   things
                               around                                                22
                               cell
Organelle    Description    Function        Membrane?   Found in      Found in
             /Nickname                                  Procaryotic   Eukaryotic
                                                        cells?        cells?
                                                                      Animal Plant

Lysosomes    Contain        Digest and      Yes         No            Yes      yes
             enzymes        destroy
             “Digestion”    useless
             “Stomachs”     structures

Vacuoles     “Tupperware”   Several         Yes         No            yes      yes
             Storage        different
             containers     types

Nucleus      Control        Cell Division   Sometimes   Not formed    Yes      yes
             Center
Centrioles   found in       Cell division   No          No            Yes        no
             animals only
Cell         Boundary       Surrounds       Yes         Yes           Yes       yes
membrane                    all cells
Flagella     “whip”         Movement        Not an      Yes           Yes       no
                            Gather food     organelle
Cilia        “eyelashes”    Movement        Not an      Yes           Yes       no
                            Gather food     organelle
                                            Not an                    No          23
                                                                                 yes
Cell Wall    Plants/algae   Structure                   Yes
                                            organelle

								
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