Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution Worksheet Answers 12 14 2010

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Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution Worksheet Answers 12 14 2010 Powered By Docstoc
					                                   12/14/2010



Class Assignments
 What                           By When
• Name in book                 8/19/09
• Signed lab safety contract   8/21/09
• Lab Safety Quiz              8/21/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future

                                      Page: 1
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            Introduction

• Mrs. Francis




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            Attendance/books

• Name - correct me if I’m wrong
  – Come and get your book
    • Bring you notecard & copy of schedule
  – Write:
    •   Your Name (under “Issued to”)
    •   09-10 (under “Year issued”)
    •   under ”Condition/Issued” write nothing
    •   Sit quietly and skim through your book


                                                    Page: 3
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                  Books

• Take care of them.
• Do not put any papers in them, use
  folders to carry papers.
• Check for any defects or writing in
  them.
  – Don’t get charged for someone else’s
    vandalism


                                              Page: 4
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               3 ring binders

• You should keep a 3 ring binder or
  notebook for biology
  – Dividers
    •   Notes
    •   Homework
    •   Outlines/Reading Guides/Handouts
    •   Labs




                                              Page: 5
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                           Odd

Class Assignments
 What                             By When
• Name in book                   8/19/09
• Signed lab safety contract     8/21/09
• Lab Safety Quiz                8/21/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future

                                           Page: 6
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         Emergency Procedures

• Fire
  – Out classroom door to right, outside South
    Main Doors (Custodial) in parking lot - Stay as a
    group
     • If blocked, turn left and exit LACC doors
• Tornado
  – Out door to right, kneel facing the wall in the
    inner hallway - Stay as a group
• “Code Red”
  – Stay in your seat and be quiet, listen for
    instructions


                                                         Page: 7
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If you’re the first
  student out the
 door, please block
   open the door.
 If you’re not willing to do this, do NOT be the first one out the door!




                                                                              Page: 8
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                   Grading

• Grading - school grading scale
  – Total Points




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       Homework Expectations

• Name (first and last), date due, class
  period
• Answer each question
  – All answers must be in complete sentences
  – Be as specific as possible
  – Use the book as a reference
• Questions
  – Come in and ask me – that question may end up
    on a quiz


                                                    Page: 10
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            Homework Policy

• Homework must be completed and
  handed in
• I may not grade all homework, but it
  is still due
  – Homework is for practice and to help you
    understand concepts
    • If you don’t do it you will not have that
      practice


                                                    Page: 11
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Make up
 slips




            Page: 12
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              Web Page

• Power Points and links

• http://www.pontiac.k12.il.us/academic
  s/science/biology2.htm




                                       Page: 13
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                  Safety Rules

• Read through the handout
• Safety Equipment locations
  –   First aid kit – teacher’s desk drawer
  –   Eyewash station – teacher’s desk
  –   Safety shower – rooms 112 & 114
  –   Fire extinguisher – side of west door
       • Mrs. Francis 1st
  – Fire blanket – room 114
       • Use to put out fires

                                                Page: 14
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                                                  Lab Peer
                                                  Pressure
                  Lab Safety
• General Rules
   –   Responsible
   –   Follow directions
   –   Don’t work alone
   –   No food, drink or gum in the lab
        • Do not use your mouth for suction
   – Do only the experiment directed
        • With the teacher present
   – Be prepared (prelab done) and read                      From: http://cavemanchemistry.com
                                                              ch120slides/tables/foilgrp05.html
     through the lab before coming to
     class
        • If you don’t understand something ask
          Mrs. Francis
   – If you feel ill during class tell Mrs.
     Francis


                                                                              Page: 15
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                   Lab Safety

• General Rules (cont.)
   –   No horseplay
   –   Keep lab area clean & uncluttered
   –   Work in a well ventilated area
   –   Dispose of chemical waste properly
        • Solid materials are not to be flushed
          down sink (matches, metals)
        • Teacher directed                    From: http://www.usn.org/Library/InfoManage/Guide.asp?FolderID=
                                                               1551&SessionID={26D87993-D311-4135-A8FD-F85F3AF51896}&SP=2

   – Read labels
   – Clean lab area when done, return all
     lab equipment & wash your hands!
        • If not complete, set up time with
          instructor


                                                                                                          Page: 16
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                   Lab Safety

• General Rules (cont.)
  – Monitor your experiment
     • Do not wander
  – Know what to do during a fire drill
     • Turn off all equipment and exit the classroom
  – Treat microorganisms as if they were harmful
  – Do not hold a specimen in your hand while using
    a scalpel




                                                         Page: 17
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                   Lab Safety

• Clothing
  – Lab goggles are to be worn any time chemicals,
    heat, or glassware is used
     • Regular glasses do not protect
  – Contact lenses
     • Make sure your instructor has given you permission to
       wear them
  – Lab aprons have been provided and should be
    worn in selected activities
  – Long hair must be tied back
     • No loose clothing, jewelry, sandals
     • Closed-toed shoes most appropriate



                                                           Page: 18
                                                  12/14/2010




               Lab Safety

• Accidents and Injuries
  – Report any accident, injury, or fire
    • Immediately to Mrs. Francis
  – If a chemical splashes in your eye or on
    your skin
    • Flush for 20 minutes in eyewash or safety
      shower




                                                    Page: 19
                                                   12/14/2010




                   Lab Safety

• Handling Chemicals
  – All chemicals are to be considered dangerous
     • Only smell by wafting
  – Stir solutions with a glass stirring rod
  – Never return unused chemicals to original
    container
  – Any unlabeled chemicals should be given to the
    teacher
  – Never remove chemicals from the lab
  – Do not enter the chemical storage area

                                                     Page: 20
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              Lab Safety
• Handling Glassware & Equipment
  – Never handle broken glass with
    bare hands
     • Use brush and dustpan
  – Examine glassware
     • Do not use broken, chipped, or dirty
       glassware                              From: http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/

  – If you do not understand a piece of             cartoonists/ato/lowres/aton1547l.jpg


    equipment, ask for help
  – Glass tubing into rubber stopper
     • Use towel or gloves
     • Twist the tubing and stopper
       carefully
     • Add water



                                                                                      Page: 21
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                   Lab Safety

• Heating Substances
  – Do not point the open end of a test tube
    towards anyone
  – Never look into a container that is being heated
  – Do not leave a lit burner unattended
  – Do not use flammable materials near a burner
  – Use tongs to pick up heated glass
     • Heated glass looks like cool glass




                                                   Page: 22
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From: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/picturing%20lab%20safety.html    Page: 23
                                                      12/14/2010




From: http://expedioscientiam.net/school/resources/    Page: 24
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           Lab Safety Quiz

• 35 Questions
  – 20 multiple choice
  – 14 true/false
  – 1 diagram
• To work in the lab this year
  – You must achieve a 100% on this quiz!
  – Have a signed safety contract on file!


                                              Page: 25
                               12/14/2010




        Post Quiz Activities

• Hand in quiz
• Pick up AR 1.1 & W.S. 1.2
• Do one of the following
  – Read 5-13
  – Work on worksheet




                                Page: 26
                                          12/14/2010
                              Even

Class Assignments
    What                              By When
•    Signed lab safety contract      8/21/09
•    Lab Safety Quiz                 8/21/09
•    Read 5-13                       8/24/09
•    AR 1.1, W.S. 1.2                8/24/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future



                                           Page: 27
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               Biology

• Write down at least five words that
  you think of when you hear the word
  biology




                                        Page: 28
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              Biology

• The science that studies living
  organisms.
  – Individual living things
  – The study of life
• Brainstorm
  – Examples of living things

  – branches of biology


                                     Page: 29
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            Characteristics of Living Things

      • Display organization
            – cell--> tissue--> organ --> system
            – Differentiation – stem cells to specific jobs
      • Cells
            – Smallest unit that can carry on all functions of life
            – unicellular ---> multicellular
      • Utilize energy
            – Metabolism – all chemical reactions in the body
               • Autotrophs
                   – Obtain energy from the sun by photosynthesis
               • Heterotrophs
                   – Obtain energy from consuming autotrophs or heterotrophs


•A.R. 1.1
                                                                                Page: 30
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         Characteristics of Living things
     • Maintain Homeostasis
         – Stable internal environment
            • Temperature
            • Water levels
     • Grow
         – number of cells
         – size of cells
     • Reproduction
         – necessary for continuity of life
            • Sexual – 2 parents
                – Genetic variation – change over time - evolution
            • Asexual – 1 parent
                – clone


•Martian and the Car
•W.S. 1.2                                                              Page: 31
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From: http://www.alanarnette.com/images/everest/coverage/frostbite.jpg




                                                                         From: http://www.ridgevrs.org/index.cfm?fs=news.newsView&News_ID=16
                                                                                                                             Page: 32
                                                    12/14/2010
                          Even/Odd

Class Assignments
 What                                           By When
• Read 5-13                                    8/24/09
• AR 1.1, W.S. 1.2                             8/24/09
• W.S. “Are viruses alive/Martian & the car”   8/25/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future




                                                     Page: 33
                                            12/14/2010

                          Cells



   Homeostasis                       Grow




                       Organisms




   Metabolism                        Reproduction




                      Organization
•Are viruses alive?                          Page: 34
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 Page: 35
                                          12/14/2010




   What is the scientific method???

• Logically explains phenomenon
  (plausible explanations)
• Based upon evidence rather than
  belief
  – Uses evidence to explain phenomenon
• Must be repeatable, unbiased,
  reliable


                                           Page: 36
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       Scientific Method Quote
"It has become fashionable in science education to
  mold K-12 students around an idee fixe of a
  modern scientist; formulating hypotheses,
  observing measuring, and discovering through
  hands-on investigations. What has been left
  unsaid is that real scientists don't actually
  spend very much of their day 'observing' and
  'measuring.' They read! Reading for
  understanding of content is the core process
  skill of science, and there is no substitute for
  practice at an early age.
Dr. Stan Metzenberg, "Reading: The Most Important
  Science Process Skill"


                                                 Page: 37
                                       12/14/2010




     Steps of the Scientific Method:

1)    Observation
2)    Hypothesis
3)    Experiment
4)    Conclusion




                                        Page: 38
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                              Even

Class Assignments
    What                                           By When
•    W.S. “Are viruses alive/Martian & the car”   8/25/09
•    Retake Safety Quiz                           8/25/09
•    Read 13-24                                   8/26/09
•    Chapter 1 Quiz 1                             8/28/09
•    Detergent Essay                              8/29/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future


                                                        Page: 39
                                                     12/14/2010




                       1. Observation

     • senses used
         – something unusual or unexplained
         – Used to form questions
         – Soldiers were turning yellow, getting a
           fever and dying during the Spanish-
           American War in Cuba (Yellow Fever)
     • question is formed from observations
         – What was causing the Yellow Fever?

•Yellow Fever & Spanish-American War                  Page: 40
                                                12/14/2010




              2. Hypothesis

• Hypothesis:
  – Testable possible explanation to a
    problem
    • explains observations AND can be tested
  – Can never be proven beyond all doubt
    • because it can not falsify some information
    • new data may arise
• Mosquitoes were carrying a bacterium
  that was causing Yellow Fever

                                                    Page: 41
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              Terminology

• Data: information scientists gather
• How is data collected?
  – Observation – senses
  – Measuring – quantitative data
  – Sampling – randomly testing a small
    population and extrapolating the data
  – Organizing – tables, charts, graphs, maps


                                            Page: 42
           From: http://www.csiss.org/classics/uploads/snow_cholera_map.gif




Page: 43
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                3. Experiment
                                                     Setting up a
                                                 controlled experiment

• Process of testing a hypothesis by
  gathering data under controlled conditions
  – Controlled experiment
     • control and experimental group, which are identical
       except for one factor
        – independent variable

• Dependent variable: Measured variable
• Scientist have a good idea of outcome
  – Not wild guesses


                                                                   Page: 44
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                  Example

• Soldiers were divided into two groups
  – Control
    • Lived in normal conditions
  – Experimental
    • Lived in mosquito netting
• What was the independent variable?
• What was the responding variable?


                                        Page: 45
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             4. Conclusion

• Analyzing the data:
  – determining whether data is reliable
  – Does it support the hypothesis?
  – Statistical tests, comparisons with other
    tests, look for sources of experimental
    error
• After analyzing the data, scientist
  will model, infer and form theories

                                            Page: 46
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                            Theory

• Definition:
  – A belief or principle that guides action or
    assists comprehension or judgment
  – A set of statements or principles devised to
    explain a group of facts or phenomena,
    especially one that has been repeatedly tested
    or is widely accepted and can be used to make
    predictions about natural phenomena.
  –   From Dictionary.com


• Unifying explanation for a broad range of
  hypothesis
  – Biology

                                                     Page: 47
                                      12/14/2010
                          Even

Class Assignments
 What                             By When
• Read 13-24                     8/26/09
• Chapter 1 Quiz 1               8/27/09
• Detergent Essay                8/28/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future




                                       Page: 48
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           Chapter 1 Quiz 1 Review
• Biology
• Characteristics of life
   – Homeostasis
        • cold
   –   Cells
   –   Growth
   –   Reproduction
   –   Metabolism
• Scientific method
   – Hypothesis
   – Experiment
        • Variables
        • controlled
   – Theory
   – Conclusion


                                      Page: 49
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4. Draw a
conclusion

                   3.
               Experiment

                            Predict your
                             conclusion




                             2. Forming a
                              hypothesis
                Ask A
               question
  1. Making
observations
                                      Page: 50
                                      12/14/2010




            Is it Science?

• “People didn’t get hurts as much back
  then.”



• “Fractured Futures”




                                          Page: 51
                                      12/14/2010
                          Even

Class Assignments
 What                             By When
• Chapter 1 Quiz 1               8/27/09
• Read Acne Study                8/28/09
• Detergent Essay                9/2/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future




                                       Page: 52
                                                  12/14/2010




                 Acne Study

• Observation
  – Kids who eat non-Westernized diets don’t have
    as much acne
• Hypothesis
  – Low sugar diet improves acne in young males
• Prediction
  – If young males eat a diet with less simple
    sugars, then they will have less acne



                                                    Page: 53
                                     12/14/2010




              After Quiz

• Pick up hand out and read Acne study
• We will discuss it when everyone is
  done

• SUMMARIZE what you think this
  article is about
  – In one or two sentences.


                                         Page: 54
                                                             12/14/2010




                  Acne Study

• Experiment
  – Two groups (15-25 males) studied for 12 weeks
     • Experimental group
        – Low sugar diet(25 % protein & 45% complex carbs)
     • Control group
        – Carbohydrate dense foods – normal Western diet
  – Independent variable
     • Presence of simple carbs in diet
  – Dependent variables
     • Number of acne lesions
     • Insulin sensitivity



                                                              Page: 55
                                                               12/14/2010




                     Acne Study

• Results
   – Experimental group had half as many acne lesions as
     control group
   – Experimental group lost an average of 3 kg and also
     decrease BMI
   – Experimental group increased insulin sensitivity
• Conclusion
   – Nutrition-related lifestyle factors play a role in acne
   – More studies are needed
• Verification
   – ???



                                                                Page: 56
                                    12/14/2010
                      Odd

Class Assignments
 What                            By When
• Section Reviews p. 13 & 20   8/28/09
• Detergent Essay               9/2/09
• Measurement W.S.              9/2/09




• Due this class period
• Due next class period
• Due in the future


                                     Page: 57
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          Scientific Notation

• 2500 = 2.5 x 103
• 10,000 = 1 x 104
• 0.02 = 2 x 10 -2, etc.
  – Scientific notation makes large or small
    numbers easy to work with.
• Avagadro’s number



                                               Page: 58
                                        12/14/2010




       SI Units of Measurements

• International System of Units - Set
  of measuring units called SI.
                                        NIST
  – Developed in France 1791.
  – Revised version of metric system.
• 1. Base units and Derived Units.
  –   Length - Meter
  –   Mass - Gram
  –   Volume - Cubic Meter or Liter
  –   Density = Mass/Volume.
                                         Page: 59
                                         12/14/2010




 SI Units of Measurements Cont.

• 2. Metric Prefixes
  –   Micro – μ - 0.000001 - millionth
  –   Milli - m - 0.001 - Thousandth
  –   Centi - c - 0.01- Hundreth
  –   Deci - d - 0.1 - Tenth
  –   Base - m - l - g - 1
  –   Deka - d - 10 - Ten
  –   Hecto - h - 100 - Hundred
  –   Kilo - k - 1000 – thousand


                                          Page: 60
                               12/14/2010




                 SI Prefixes

•   giga (G) - billion
•   mega (M) - million
•   kilo (k) - thousand
•   deci (d) - tenths
•   centi (c) - hundredths
•   milli (m) - thousandths
•   micro (μ) - millionths
•   nano (n) - billionths

                                 Page: 61
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 Page: 62
                                               12/14/2010




      Find your measurements
                                      Converting Units in the
                                          Metric System



• Height
  – Determine in centimeters (measure to
    nearest 0.1 cm)
    • Convert to mm and km
• Weight
  – Determine in kg (measure to nearest kg)
    • Convert to g and mg



                                                  Page: 63
                                    12/14/2010




             After Test

• Pick up measurement worksheet and a
  ruler and complete the worksheet.

• If you were not here yesterday.
  Makeup work is due tomorrow.




                                     Page: 64
                                          12/14/2010




       Limits of Measurement

• 1. Precision
  – how exact a measurement is.
     • Varies on instrument used
• 2. Accuracy
  – The closeness of a measurement to the
    actual value of what is being measured.




                                              Page: 65
                            12/14/2010


Uncertainty in Measurement
           Precision and Accuracy




                             Page: 66

				
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Description: Chapter 15 Theory of Evolution Worksheet Answers document sample