Certificate Employment Food and Beverage Servicing Summary The Competency Approach Competency The idea by qeo90024

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 24

More Info
									Summary
The Competency Approach

Competency
The idea of competencies was pioneered in the USA in the late 1960s and early 1970s and
spread to Europe and Australia in the late 1980s, driven by a number of key forces:
 Pressure from governments to develop national standards/occupational profiles;
 A disenchantment from employers with the outputs of the traditional school education
    system;
 A flattening of organisational structures; and
 Increasingly globalising business practices, demanding that human resource processes
    take a more international perspective, including encouraging the mutual recognition of
    qualifications and competencies.

Terminology is important in this field:
 Competence is the ability to perform the activities within an occupation or function to the
   standard expected in employment.
 Competencies are derived from key job roles and are usually described in terms of their
   context (eg. a 'range statement') and specified performance criteria.
 Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person that leads to or causes effective
   performance.
 Competency standard is the specification of the knowledge and skill and the application of
   the knowledge and skill across industries or within an industry to the standard of
   performance required in employment.

It is essential to link the competency approach to the strategic goals and objectives of the
tourism policies of ASEAN and its constituent countries. The competencies approach has
three key elements:
 Underlying characteristics of competence;
 Causality of competence; and
 Performance of competence.

Competencies themselves have five elements:
 Motives;
 Traits;
 Self-concept;
 Knowledge; and
 Skill.

The fourth and fifth elements of competency tend to visible, whilst the first three are less so
and more hidden and dependent on personality. Knowledge and skill are sometimes termed
surface competencies and are easier to develop than the deeper competencies. Another
approach to competencies is to classify them in terms of threshold competency (the essential
characteristics that everyone needs to perform a job to the minimal standard) and
discriminating competency (the characteristics that distinguish superior or above average
performance from the minimum).

Competency profiling and training


                                                                                             1
Competency profiling is a technique that aims to determine the unique set of competencies
associated with effective performance in a particular job. It involves a number of stages:
 Develop broad competency categories.
 Develop specific competencies.
 Develop a resource guide and competency rating forms.
 Establish performance standards against which the employees are assessed on the
    competencies.
 Develop competency-based training.

The Competency Approach for the Hospitality and Tourism Sector

The hospitality and tourism sector has embraced the competency approach. The approach
provides the sector with a unifying, common language for job analysis and the design of
training and qualification frameworks. As a result there has been significant investment in the
approach in a number of countries and international agencies including:
 Canada;
 England, Wales and Northern Ireland;
 The European Union (EU);
 The OECD; and
 The ILO.

Internationally, ASEAN, APEC and Australia have developed competency-based job analysis
and training packages for the hospitality and tourism sector.

The ASEAN Approach
At the eleventh meeting of the ASEAN taskforce on tourism manpower, ASEAN presented a
set of minimum competency standards within a qualifications framework for professionals in
retail and wholesale travel companies, housekeeping, front office, and food & beverage
service.

The APEC Approach
The APEC Tourism Skill Standard (TOSS) project defines a list of tourism job skills
standardised for the APEC region to be used by enterprises for occupational and operational
purposes within the workplace. It is designed to act as a template to assist APEC member
countries to develop their national standards system. The project was created in response to
the need for APEC to be responsive to both the new international workplace and a mobile
workforce.

The Australian Approach
Australia has sought to create an internationally competitive workforce by providing a more
universal system of vocational education. The Australian National Training Authority
(ANTA) is the Australian Government’s statutory authority providing a national and industry-
led focus for vocational education and training (VET). Competency-based training packages
provide the central system ‘architecture’ of VET in Australia. Training packages are sets of
nationally-endorsed competency standards and qualifications for recognising and assessing
people's skills. A training package describes the skills and knowledge needed to perform
effectively in the workplace, without prescribing how training should take place. These
packages are set within a national training framework.

Tourism Training Australia

                                                                                              2
Tourism Training Australia (TTA) is the leading national industry training advisory
association, established in 1982 to develop a flexible and effective training system for the
tourism and hospitality industry. The organisation brings together a large number of training
partners, including industry, government, unions, private and public training providers,
industry associations, universities and students/trainees.

TTA has developed training packages for the hospitality and tourism sector. The tourism and
hospitality industry has three training packages which cover the entire industry. These are
hospitality, tourism and caravans.

Training and qualifications are available for all jobs in the industry (including travel agents,
tour guides, cooks, food and beverage attendants, housekeepers and conference/meetings
organisers), providing career paths, job opportunities and flexible ways of achieving a
recognised national qualification.

Australian national qualifications reflect all jobs within industry sectors. They range across
six levels, from Certificate I to Advanced Diploma, and consist of frameworks of required
standards for job outcomes.

Competency standards set down the specific knowledge and skills required for successful
performance in the workplace and the required standard of performance. They are organised
into units, each with a code and title. The standards for hospitality and tourism cover both
general areas common to all sectors (eg. communication, leadership and occupational health
and safety), and sector-specific areas.




                                                                                               3
The Competency Approach
Competency

The idea of competencies dates back to the psychological assessment of personality traits,
intelligence and other abilities. The concept as it is now understood was pioneered in the USA
in the late 1960s and early 1970s by private sector companies who were defining competency
variables that could be used to predict job performance. The approach spread to Europe and
Australia in the late 1980s, driven by a number of key forces:
 Pressure from governments to develop national standards and occupational profiles;
 A disenchantment from employers with the outputs of the traditional school education
    system, where knowledge was valued over doing, and where it was felt that training was
    supplier-driven by the educators and trainers and not sufficiently demand-driven by
    employers;
 A flattening of organisational structures creating the need for organisations to move away
    from traditional ways of viewing occupations towards an approach which values the
    workforce and their competencies. In part this has been reinforced by the emergence of
    the knowledge economy and the recognition of the importance of developing the
    workforce as a competitive tool; and
 Increasingly globalising business practices, demanding that human resource processes
    take a more international perspective, including encouraging the mutual recognition of
    qualifications and competencies needed to perform in the workplace. Effectively, the
    competency approach provided a common language for this internationalisation of human
    resources.

As the concept has matured, it has been recognised that it is essential to link the competency
approach to the strategic goals and objectives of the organisation concerned – in this case the
tourism policies of ASEAN and its constituent countries. Effectively, competencies provide a
base for defining organisational capabilities and human resources – and identifying gaps.

The competencies approach is focused on the individual, emphasises outcomes and allows
flexible pathways to achieve those outcomes. It has three key elements:
 Underlying characteristics of competence - the competency is an integral part of a
    person's personality;
 Causality of competence - the competency causes or predicts behaviour and performance;
    and
 Performance of competence - the competency actually predicts effective (that is,
    minimally acceptable) performance as measured on a specific criterion or standard.

Competencies themselves have five elements:
 Motives - these drive, direct and select behaviour towards certain actions or goals and
  away from others;
 Traits - the physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations or information;
 Self-concept - a person's attitudes, values or self-image;
 Knowledge - information a person has in specific content areas; and
 Skill - the ability to perform a certain physical or mental task.




                                                                                             4
The fourth and fifth elements of competency tend to visible or surface competencies, whilst
the first three are characterised as hidden, deeper competencies and more dependent on
personality.

From a training point of view it is more cost effective to focus on surface competencies. Also,
as a result of the difficulty of assessing hidden competencies, the idea of a universal
standards of performance model has come about. This emphasises minimal standards of
performance. Competencies are more restrictively defined as the:

       ‘ability to perform activities within an occupation to the standards expected in
       employment’ or as 'the observable behaviours that are required of job incumbents to
       perform their jobs effectively'.

In other words, the practical application of the competency approach has tended to focus on
surface competencies.

Another approach to competencies is to classify them in terms of threshold competency and
discriminating competency:
 Threshold competencies are the essential characteristics that everyone needs to perform a
    job to the minimal standard; whilst
 Discriminating competencies are the characteristics that distinguish superior or above
    average performance from the minimum.

Competency profiling and training
Competency profiling is a technique that aims to determine the unique set of competencies
associated with effective performance in a particular job. It can be approached by either a ‘top
down’ or a ‘bottom up’ process. The top down approach involves selecting a set of
competencies from a dictionary of competencies and assessing them for particular positions.
The bottom up approach is preferred and involves a number of stages:
1. Develop broad competency categories. The initial step is to develop a set of broad
    competency areas, ie. to determine the critical skills that employees at a given level or job
    classification need to be most effective.
2. Develop specific competencies. Once broad categories are selected, the next step is to
    further define each and develop a list of more specific competencies. Normally a list of 5-
    10 competences are identified.
3. Develop a resource guide and competency rating forms. This involves the development
    of resource guides or competency manuals that will aid the sector in developing skills.
    The competencies are then ranked in terms of importance.

       Steps 1-3 are then used to

4. Establish performance standards against which employees are assessed on the
   competencies. These should be relevant, reliable and stable. In setting competency
   standards three questions are commonly asked:
       a. What action must be demonstrated? (Element)
       b. What performance standards must be met? (Performance criteria)
       c. What are the conditions under which the action must be carried out? (Range of
           variables).

5. Develop competency-based training with a schedule for each employee.


                                                                                               5
Considerations
Whilst the competency-based approach has gained wide recognition in the hospitality and
tourism field, care needs to be taken in the implementation of the approach. For this project
the following considerations need to be taken into account:
 The project needs to be clear on the use of terminology and in particular be aware that
    there is ambiguity in the meaning of the word ‘competency’. Practitioners for example
    variously refer to it as actions, behaviour and traits. A definitive glossary of terms is
    provided in Appendix 1.
 There is a need to be aware that the project will have to distinguish between off the shelf
    competencies for jobs (such as core competencies of literacy or numeracy) and those that
    have to be tailor made for the hospitality and tourism sector.
 It is important that the competency framework is flexible enough to embrace new
    developments in the hospitality and tourism sector and does not overtly focus on past
    ways of doing a job. Indeed, in countries where competency approaches are updated or
    overhauled the issue of creating flexibility and responsiveness within the system to
    accommodate the changing needs of both employers and individuals tends to dominate.
    The lesson from 25 years of developing the competency approach is that its development
    is still ‘a work in progress’.

The Competency Approach for the Hospitality and Tourism Sectors

The hospitality and tourism sectors have embraced the competency approach. The approach
provides the sector with a unifying, common language for job analysis and the design of
training and qualification frameworks. As a result there has been significant investment in the
approach in a number of countries. Internationally, ASEAN, APEC and Australia have
developed comprehensive competency-based job analysis and training packages for the
hospitality and tourism sector and these are dealt with below.

However, in addition to the ASEAN, APEC and Australia approaches, there are other
competency-based approaches for the sector that demonstrate international leadership and
significance. The following countries and organisations have particularly useful frameworks:

Canada
The Canadian Tourism Human Resources Council (CTHRC), supported by state-based
tourism education councils, pioneered the competency-based approach for the tourism and
hospitality sector (see for example www.atec.ca). The CTHRC is the national certifying body
of the tourism occupations. They have developed a comprehensive competency-based job
profiling and training system for the sector, supported by substantial industry funding. As a
result the system is well resourced with a range of excellent publications and support
materials. The Canadian system comprises 49 occupations in tourism and hospitality and for
each, national occupation standards have been developed. These standards describe the skills,
knowledge and attitudes (ie. competences) necessary to be a competent professional.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland
The development of the General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) in hospitality,
catering, travel and tourism is a comprehensive competency-based qualifications framework
(www.qca.org.uk). It began in 1986. The primary purpose of the framework is to create a
coherent classification and to facilitate transfer and progression. The analysis of competence
arises from the analysis of work roles. Current GNVQ developments are focussed on creating


                                                                                             6
flexibility and responsiveness within the system to accommodate the changing needs of both
employers and individuals.

European Union (EU)
The EU’s centre for the development of vocational training, CEDEFOP, has developed a
trans-national competency-based training and qualifications framework (www.cedefop.eu).
This is focussed on the development of common vocational education certificates in order to
create a European area of knowledge and mobility. As part of this project, common
specifications for the role of hotel manager were developed. An earlier project (CEDEFOP,
1991) created a common set of job profiles for the hotel and tourism sector in Europe.

Whilst CEDEFOP leads the trans-national recognition and development of common
frameworks, organisations such as the OECD and the ILO are also developing initiatives and
policy briefs in this area.

The ASEAN Approach

At the eleventh meeting of the ASEAN Taskforce on Tourism Manpower, ASEAN presented
a set of minimum competency standards within a qualifications framework for professionals
in retail and wholesale travel companies, housekeeping, front office, and food & beverage
service. The standards were based upon the competencies required to perform a set of
commonly agreed job titles in retail and wholesale travel companies, housekeeping, front
office, and food & beverage service.

The APEC Approach

The APEC Tourism Skill Standard (TOSS) project defines a list of tourism job skills
standardised for the APEC region to be used by enterprises for occupational and operational
purposes within the workplace (APEC, 2002). It is designed to act as a template to assist
APEC member countries to develop their national standards system. The project was created
in response to the need for APEC to be responsive to both the new international workplace
and a mobile workforce.

The project has three stages:
 Establishing a common approach to skill standards. These skill standards cover three areas
   required to perform a duty in the workplace – skill, knowledge and attitude;
 Synthesising the job performance standards; and
 Creating practical materials for application in APEC member states for hospitality, tours
   and travel.

For example, the skill standards for front office are:
 Receive and process reservations;
 Provide accommodation reception services;
 Maintain financial records;
 Process financial transactions;
 Conduct a night audit;
 Provide club reception services;
 Provide porter service;
 Provide arrival and departure assistance;


                                                                                           7
   Process point of sale transactions;
   Operate a computerised reservation system;
   Administer billing and settlement plans; and
   Perform a yield management system.

In turn each of these standards is accompanied by a number of more detailed elements. For
example:

Conduct a night audit:
 Monitor financial procedures; and
 Complete financial reports.

The Australian Approach

Introduction to the Australian VET framework
Australia has sought to create an internationally competitive workforce by providing a more
universal system of vocational education (Mulcahy, 2000). This encompasses both initial
vocational preparation for work and continuing training for the existing adult work force.

The Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) is the Australian Government’s statutory
authority providing a national and industry-led focus for vocational education and training
(VET).

Training packages provide the central system ‘architecture’ of VET in Australia. These
training packages specify the competencies that must result from the provision of learning
services, industry requirements for assessment, and the qualifications that result from
competence. Vocational education and training in Australia is an industry-led system, through
the leadership of an industry ANTA board and through the development of industry-
recognised training packages by representative bodies.

ANTA brings together Australian Government, and state and territory governments to provide
the policy and regulatory frameworks for the VET system. Governments implement the
national training framework (NTF) to enable consistency, quality and national recognition of
provider services.

The historical context
The 1974 Kangan Report on ‘Needs in Technical and Further Education’ (TAFE) defined the
roles and the mission of what is now known as the TAFE system. Training began to change
with more preparatory and pre-vocational training and a slowing growth in the traditional
heartland of trade and technical training. In the 1980s, the service industries continued to
expand at the expense of the mining, manufacturing and construction industries - TAFE’s
traditional territory. Networks of private training providers, largely providing training to the
service sector, were also emerging. A number of reports pointed to the need for the training
system to be driven by the needs of the individual and industry so that the economy as a
whole could prosper.

In the early 1990s a number of reports examined an expansion of training systems, increasing
young people’s participation in training and consolidating the national system. Consensus
developed across Australia that substantial reform and a unified national effort was required.



                                                                                              8
In 1992, the competency-based training framework was introduced, geared to the attainment
and demonstration of skills to meet industry-specified standards. All states, territories and the
Australian Government agreed to the establishment of ANTA and a cooperative federal
system of vocational education and training with strategic input by industry.

In 1994, the Fitzgerald Report into the implementation of the national system led to some of
the current elements of today’s VET system, including concepts of best practice and user
choice, states and territories taking responsibility for accreditation and standards endorsement
and a stronger and more coherent industry training advisory structure. In 1996 the NTF was
introduced and developed as a more flexible and industry-responsive framework. The NTF is
focussed upon a set of national competency-based training packages designed to match
training with employer and employee. The Australian model gives priority to outcomes. Its
key features include:
 Specified training and assessment outcomes;
 Industry involvement in defining these outcomes;
 Competency standards as the expression of these outcomes; and
 Training programs based upon industry competency standards.

The national VET system is designed to respond to industry, individual and community
needs, focusing on capturing the best advice possible from industry; meeting client needs; and
clearer, higher quality standards, all within a nationally consistent, quality VET system. In a
rapidly changing global work and social environment, improvement must be continuous.

Training packages
Training packages are sets of nationally endorsed standards and qualifications for recognising
and assessing people's skills. A training package describes the skills and knowledge needed to
perform effectively in the workplace. Training packages are developed by industry through
national industry advisory bodies, recognised bodies or by enterprises to meet the identified
training needs of specific industries or industry sectors. Training packages undergo a quality
assurance process and are then endorsed by the National Training Quality Council (NTQC)
and placed on the National Training Information Service (NTIS).

Australian qualifications framework
The Australian qualifications framework (AQF) is a single, coherent framework for
qualifications from Senior Secondary Certificates through to Doctoral Degrees. The
framework links together all these qualifications and is a highly visible, quality-assured
national system of educational recognition which promotes lifelong learning and a seamless
and diverse education and training system. All qualifications are nationally recognised.
Within the framework, there are six VET qualifications available: Certificates I, II, III and IV;
Diploma and Advanced Diploma.

Tourism Training Australia
Tourism Training Australia (TTA) is the leading national industry training advisory
association for the tourism sector. It provides leadership in tourism training for Australia and
meets on a regular basis with industry leaders, federal government representatives, registered
training organisations, industry associations and other key stakeholders.

TTA was established in 1982 to develop a flexible and effective training system for the
tourism and hospitality industry. The organisation brings together a large number of training



                                                                                                9
partners, including industry, government, unions, private and public training providers,
industry associations, universities and students/trainees.

Training packages
TTA has developed training packages for the hospitality and tourism sector. Training
packages are sets of nationally-endorsed competency standards and qualifications for
recognising and assessing people's skills. A training package describes the skills and
knowledge needed to perform effectively in the workplace, without prescribing how training
should take place. Achievement of these skills and knowledge can result in nationally-
recognised qualifications. Training packages are frameworks which enable employers,
employees and training providers to customise training and assessment to meet their specific
needs. Qualifications can be achieved through training programs, both on and off-the-job or
assessment of skills already acquired at work or through life (recognition of prior learning).
Training packages are developed by TTA, through extensive consultation with the tourism
and hospitality sectors, the tourism training network in each state and territory, training
organisations, union representatives, and state and federal government agencies. Training
packages are formally reviewed every three years - a major review and update of the tourism
and hospitality packages was endorsed in January 2002. Additional modifications may be
made at other times, as required. The tourism and hospitality industry has three training
packages which cover the entire industry (see Appendix 2). These are:
 Hospitality
 Tourism
 Caravans.

Training and qualifications are available for all jobs in the industry (including travel agents,
tour guides, cooks, food and beverage attendants, housekeepers and conference/meetings
organisers), providing career paths, job opportunities and flexible ways of achieving a
recognised national qualification (see Appendix 2).

National qualifications
National qualifications reflect all jobs within industry sectors. They range across six levels,
from Certificate I to Advanced Diploma, depending on the particular industry sector and jobs,
and consist of frameworks of required standards for job outcomes. Each qualification has a
prescribed core plus electives which may be selected from relevant industry areas, allowing
maximum flexibility.

Competency standards
Competency standards set down the specific knowledge and skills required for successful
performance in the workplace and the required standard of performance. They are organised
into units, each with a code and title. The standards for hospitality and tourism cover both
general areas common to all sectors (eg. communication, leadership and occupational health
and safety), and sector-specific areas (Appendix 2).




                                                                                             10
List of Sources

Alto, R. Isaacs, R. Knight, B. and Polestico, R. (2000) Training Systems in South East Asia
NCVER, Leabrook

APEC Tourism Working Group (2002) Tourism Occupational Skill Standard Development in
the APEC Region – Stage III APEC Singapore

CEDEFOP (1991) Occupations in the Hotel Tourist Sector within the European Community.
A Comparative Analysis CEDEFOP, Berlin

Hayton, G. and Loveder, P. (1992) How to Do a Skills Analysis and Skills Audit TAFE,
Adelaide

International Labour Office (2003) Employment and Human Resources in the Tourist Industry
in Asia and the Pacific ILO, Geneva

International Labour Office - Hotel, Catering and Tourism 1998, HOTOUR, Available at:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ent/hotour/

Kramer, R. McGraw, P. and Schuler, R. S. (1997) Human Resource Management in Australia
Longman, Melbourne

McCormick, E. J. (1997) Job Analysis Amacom, New York

Mulcahy, D (2000) Turning the Contradictions of Competence: Competency-based Training
and Beyond Journal of Vocational Education and Training 52 (2) 259-280

Nankjervis, A. R. Compton, R. L. and McCarthy, T. E. (1999) Strategic Human Resource
Management Nelson, Melbourne

Stone, R. J. (1998) Human Resource Management John Wiley, Brisbane

UNESCO (2004) Improving Access, Equity and Relevance in Technical Vocational Education
and Training UNESCO, Bangkok




                                                                                        11
Glossary Of Terms

Competence
The ability to perform the activities within an occupation or function to the standard expected
in employment (Hayton and Loveder, 1992).

Refers to a person's ability to perform a task to an externally-agreed standard, whether set by
the organisation or some third party (Kramar et al, 1997).

Competencies
Derived from key job roles and are usually described in terms of their context (eg. a 'range
statement') and specified performance criteria (Kramar et al, 1997).

Competency
An underlying characteristic of a person that leads to or causes effective performance (Stone,
1995).

A characteristic or trait that results in effective performance on the job (Nankervis et al,
1999).

Competency standard
The specification of the knowledge and skill and the application of the knowledge and skill
across industries or within an industry to the standard of performance required in employment
(Australian National Training Authority).

An activity performed under specified conditions to a specified standard of performance in
the work place. It comprises two main parts: element of competency; and performance criteria
(Hayton and Loveder, 1992).

Occupation
Jobs of a general class, on an across the board basis without regard to organisational lines.
Thus one can refer to the occupation of say a waiter, wherever people engage in these
activities (McCormick, 1979).

Job
A group of positions, which are identical with respect to their major or significant tasks, and
sufficiently alike to justify their being covered by a single analysis (McCormick, 1979).

Position
The tasks and duties for any individual (McCormick, 1979).

Duty
A rather loose term for a large segment of work performed by an individual. It typically
represents one of the distinct major activities involved in the work performed, and consists of
several tasks that are or may be related (McCormick, 1979).

Task
A discrete unit of work performed by an individual. It usually comprises the logical and
necessary step in the performance of a duty and typically has an identifiable beginning and


                                                                                            12
ending. Tasks typically consist of a specific action verb, and a brief indication of what is acted
upon. A task is more readily identified in the case of work activities that involve some
specific physical activity than in the case of activities that are more mental in nature
(McCormick, 1979).

Skill
The ability to perform a certain physical or mental task.

Certification
Formal validation procedure, at the end of a standardised process of assessment, of
knowledge, know how, and/or skills.




                                                                                               13
The Australian Tourism Qualifications Framework

Hospitality:
Commercial cookery                      Patisserie
Food and beverage                       Kitchen attending
Gaming                                  Hospitality security
Commercial catering                     Hospitality management
Housekeeping                            Asian cookery

Tourism:
Tourist attractions and theme parks     Retail travel
Wholesale operations                    Meetings and events
Visitor information services            Tour operations and tour guiding

Caravans:
Caravan park operations                 Recreational vehicle servicing
Caravan park supervision and            Recreational vehicle and accessories
management                              retailing
Recreational vehicle manufacturing


     TOURISM QUALIFICATIONS: NATIONAL CODES AND TITLES

    Indigenous Culture Qualification
                 Certificate I in Tourism (Australian Indigenous Culture)
    THT10102
    Cross-Industry Tourism Qualifications (Cert II - III)
    THT20502 Certificate            II        in          Tourism           (Operations)
    THT31002 Certificate III in Tourism (Operations)

    Sector-Specific Tourism Qualifications (Cert III - IV)
    THT30202 Certificate III in Tourism (Retail Travel Sales)
    THT30302 Certificate III in Tourism (International Retail Travel Sales)
    THT30502 Certificate III in Tourism (Tour Wholesaling)
    THT30602 Certificate III in Tourism (Visitor Information Services)
    THT30702 Certificate III in Tourism (Attractions and Theme Parks)
    THT30902 Certificate III in Tourism (Guiding)
    THT40302 Certificate IV in Tourism (Guiding)
    THT40402 Certificate IV in Tourism (Natural and Cultural Heritage)

    Meetings and Event Management Qualifications
    THT30102 Certificate III in Meetings and Events
    THT50202 Diploma of Event Management

    Cross-Industry Tourism Qualifications (Cert IV - Advanced Diploma)
    THT40102 Certificate IV in Tourism (Sales & Marketing)
    THT40202 Certificate IV in Tourism (Operations)


                                                                                           14
THT50102     Diploma of Tourism (Marketing and Product Development)
THT50302     Diploma of Tourism (Operations Management)
THT60102     Advanced Diploma of Tourism Management

Hospitality Qualifications: National Codes and Titles
Hospitality Operations Qualifications (Cert I - IV)
THH11002 Certificate I in Hospitality (Operations)
THH21802 Certificate II in Hospitality (Operations)
THH33002 Certificate III in Hospitality (Operations)
THH42602 Certificate IV in Hospitality (Supervision)

Kitchen Operations Qualifications (Cert I - IV)
THH11102 Certificate I in Hospitality (Kitchen Operations)
THH22002 Certificate II in Hospitality (Kitchen Operations)
THH21702 Certificate II in Hospitality (Asian Cookery)
THH31502 Certificate III in Hospitality (Commercial Cookery)
THH32902 Certificate III in Hospitality (Catering Operations)
THH31602 Certificate III in Hospitality (Patisserie)
THH33102 Certificate III in Hospitality (Asian Cookery)
THH41302 Certificate IV in Hospitality (Commercial Cookery)
THH42502 Certificate IV in Hospitality (Catering Operations)
THH41402 Certificate IV in Hospitality (Patisserie)
THH42702 Certificate IV in Hospitality (Asian Cookery)

Cross Industry Qualifications (Cert IV - Advanced Diploma)
THH51202 Diploma of Hospitality Management
THH60202 Advanced Diploma of Hospitality Management

CARAVAN INDUSTRY QUALIFICATIONS: NATIONAL CODES AND TITLES

Recreational Vehicle Manufacturing (Cert II - IV)
THC20199 Certificate II in Recreational Vehicle Manufacturing
THC30199 Certificate III in Recreational Vehicle Manufacturing
THH40199 Certificate IV in Recreational Vehicle Manufacturing

Recreational Vehicle Servicing (Cert II - IV)
THC20299 Certificate II in Recreational Vehicle Servicing
THC30299 Certificate III in Recreational Vehicle Servicing
THC40299 Certificate IV in Recreational Vehicle Servicing

Recreational Vehicle and Accessories Retailing (Cert II - IV)
THC20399 Certificate II in Recreational Vehicle and Accessories Retailing
THC30399 Certificate II in Recreational Vehicle and Accessories Retailing
THC40399 Certificate IV in Recreational Vehicle and Accessories Retailing

Caravan Parks (Cert I - Diploma)
THC10199 Certificate I in Caravan Park Operations


                                                                            15
THC20499   Certificate II in Caravan Park Operations
THC30499   Certificate III in Caravan Park Operations
THC40499   Certificate IV in Caravan Park Operations
THC50199   Diploma of Caravan Park Management




                                                        16
Examples Of Malaysian National Occupancy Skill Standards (Noss)

  Tourist Guide
  L5       Tiada Tahap 4 & 5
           (No Level 4 & 5)
  L4       L-201-3                          Tiada Tahap 3
           Pemandu       Pelancong     Alam (No Level 3)
           Semulajadi
           (Nature Guide)
           (07-10-99)
  L3       Tiada Tahap 1 & 2                    L-202-2
           (No Level 1 & 2)                     Pemandu Pelancong Alam Semulajadi
                                                Setempat
                                                (Localise Nature Guide)
                                                (07-10-99)
                                                Tiada Tahap 1
                                                (No Level 1)

           Jualan                                Operasi Konvensyen
           (Sales)                               (Convention Operations)
   L5      L-180-5                               Tiada Tahap 4 & 5
           Pengurus Jualan (Pengembaraan)        (No Level 4 & 5)
           (Sales Manager (Travel))
           (02-04-98)
   L4      L-180-4
           Eksekutif Jualan (Pengembaraan)
           (Sales Executive (Travel))
           (02-04-98)
   L3      L-180-3                               L-140-3
           Penyelia Jualan (Pengembaraan)        Penyelia Konvensyen
           (Sales Supervisor (Travel))           (Convention Supervisor)
           (02-04-98)                            (12-04-96)
   L2      L-180-2                               L-140-2
           Penyelaras Jualan (Pengembaraan)      Penyelaras Konvensyen
           (Sales Coordinator (Travel))          (Convention Coordinator)
           (02-04-98)                            (12-04-96)
   L1      L-180-1                               L-140-1
           Kerani Jualan (Pengembaraan)          Kerani Konvensyen
           (Sales Clerk (Travel))                (Convention Clerk)
           (02-04-98)                            (12-04-96)


Perhotelan (Hotel)
            Perhotelan - Pengemasan           Kaunter Hadapan    Perhotelan      -
            (Hotel - Housekeeping)            (Front Office)     Concierge
                                                                 (Hotel          -
                                                                 Concierge)
   L5      L-150-5                            L-160-5            Tiada Tahap 5
           Eksekutif Pengemasan               Pengurus   Kaunter (No Level 5)
           (Executive Housekeeper)            Hadapan            (06-07-2000)


                                                                                     17
     (19-07-96)                       (Front       Office
                                      Manager)
                                      (25-10-96)
L4   L-150-4                          L-160-4               L-203-4
     Penolong Pengemasan              Pengurus Bertugas     Chef Concierge
     (Assistant Housekeeper )         Kaunter Hadapan       (06-07-2000)
     (19-07-96)                       (Front Office Duty
                                      Manager)
                                      (25-10-96)
L3   L-150-3                          L-160-3               L-203-3
     Penyelia Pengemasan              Penyelia Kaunter      Concierge
     (Housekeeping Supervisor)        Hadapan               Supervisor
     (28-11-95)                       (Front       Office   (06-07-2000)
                                      Supervisor)
                                      (25-10-96)
L2   L-120-2                          L-160-2               L-203-2
     Atendan Kanan Bilik              Pembantu Kaunter      Concierge
     (Senior Room Attendant)          Hadapan               Coordinator
     (28-11-95)                       (Front       Office   (06-07-2000)
                                      Assistant)
     L-121-2                          (25-10-96)
     Atendan Kanan Kawasan Awam
     (Senior Public Area Attendant)
     (28-11-95)

     L-122-2
     Atendan Kanan Linen
     (Senior Linen Attendant)
     (28-11-95)
L1   L-120-1                          Tiada Tahap 1         L-203-1
     Atendan Bilik                    (No Level 1)          Concierge    Bell
     (Room Attendant)                                       Service
     (28-11-95)                                             (06-07-2000)

     L-121-1
     Atendan Kawasan Awam
     (Public Area Attendant)
     (28-11-95)

     L-122-1
     Atendan Linen/Jurujahit
     (Linen Atendant/Seamstress)
     (28-11-95)




                                                                                18
         Masakan                Pembakar         Pastri             Makanan &
         (Cooking)              Roti             (Pastry)           Minuman
                                (Bakery)                            (Food &
                                                                    Beverages)
L5       L-040-5            Tiada Tahap 4 & 5                       L-050-5
         Eksekutif Penyedia (No Level 4 & 5)                        Pengurus Makanan
         Makanan                                                    & Minuman
         (Executive Chef)                                           (Food & Beverage
         (02-04-98)                                                 Manager)
                                                                    (02-04-98)
L4       L-040-4                                                    L-050-4
         Penolong Eksekutif                                         Pengurus
         Penyedia Makanan                                           Bahagian
         (Assistant Executive                                       Makanan &
         Chef)                                                      Minuman
         (02-04-98)                                                 (Food & Beverage
                                                                    Outlet Manager)
                                                                    (02-04-98)
L3       L-040-3                L-100-3          L-110-3            L-050-3
         Penyelia/Ketua         Ketua            Ketua Seksyen      Penyelia Makanan
         Seksyen Penyediaan     Penyedia Roti    Penyedia Pastri    & Minuman
         Makanan                (Chief Baker)    (Chef         De   (Food & Beverage
         (Chef De Partie)       (28-11-95)       Partie - Pastry)   Supervisor)
         (19-12-94)                              (28-11-95)         (28-04-94)
L2       L-040-2                L-100-2          L-110-2            L-050-2
         Penyedia Makanan       Penyedia Roti    Penyedia Pastri    Kaptan Makanan
          (Cook)                (Baker)           (Pastry Cook)     & Minuman
         (19-12-94)             (28-11-95)       (28-11-95)         (Food and
                                                                    Beverage Captain)
                                                                    (28-04-94)
L1       L-040-1                L-100-1          L-110-1            L-050-1
         Pembantu Penyedia      Pembantu         Pembantu           Pramusaji
         Makanan (Commis)       Penyedia Roti    Penyedia Pastri    (Food & Beverage
         (19-12-94)             (Junior Baker)   (Commis            Waiter)
                                (28-11-95)       Pastry)            (28-04-94)
                                                 (28-11-95)

Source: http://www.mohr.gov.my/eNOSS/




                                                                                        19
Singapore Functional Maps And Job Functions

Singapore Hotel
S/N Ref.              Document Title                        Job Function
1 HTL-F-0499          Hotel Functional Map                  -
2 HTL-001-3-0599      Service Guestroom                     Provide housekeeping
                                                            services
3   HTL-002-2-0599    Provide Western-style food and        Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage service                      service
4   HTL-003-2-0699    Prepare basic hot kitchen dishes      Prepare food
5   HTL-004-3-0699    Service public areas and back of the Provide housekeeping
                      house                                 services
6   HTL-005-2-0699    Handle guest arrivals ( non-group) Deliver front office service
7   HTL-006-2-0999    Prepare basic pastries                Prepare food
8   HTL-007-2-0999    Process room reservations (non-       Deliver front office service
                      group)
9   HTL-008-2-0999    Supervise guestroom cleaning and Provide housekeeping
                      servicing                             services
10 HTL-010-3-0200     Set up for banquet services           Deliver food and beverage
                                                            service
11 HTL-011-1-0200     Provide concierge services            Deliver front office service
12 HTL-012-2-0200     Provide Chinese-style food and        Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage service                      services
13 HTL-013-2-0200     Prepare alcoholic and non alcoholic Prepare beverage
                      beverages
14 HTL-014-3-0200     Perform laundry valet services        Provide housekeeping
                                                            services
15 HTL-015-3-0200     Maintain linen and uniform room       Provide housekeeping
                      service                               services
16 HTL-016-2-0200     Prepare simple salads, cold           Prepare food
                      dressings/sauces and sandwiches
17 HTL-017-2-0200     Prepare simple soups, vegetables      Prepare food
                      and potato dishes
18 HTL-018-2-0200     Carry out table side carving and food Deliver food and beverage
                      service                               service
19 HTL-019-2-0200     Provide wine service                  Deliver food and beverage
                                                            service
20 HTL-020-3-0200     Provide bell services                 Deliver front office service
21 HTL-021-3-0200     Serve food and beverage in a          Deliver food and beverage
                      banquet function                      service
22 HTL-022-2-0200     Perform hosting duties in a food and Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage outlet                       service
23 HTL-023-2-1000     Provide food and beverage room        Deliver food and beverage


                                                                                           20
                      services                               service
24 HTL-024-2-1000     Prepare pasta dishes                   Prepare food
25 HTL-025-2-1000     Handle front office posting and        Deliver front office service
                      settlement transactions
26 HTL-026-3-1000     Provide ware-washing services          Deliver food and beverage
                                                             service
27   HTL-027-2-1000   Prepare basic sauces and derivations Prepare food
28   HTL-028-2-1000   Handle guest arrivals (group)          Deliver front office services
29   HTL-029-2-1000   Process room reservations (group) Deliver front office services
30   HTL-030-3-1000   Thorough clean guestroom               Provide housekeeping
                                                             services
31 HTL-031-3-1000     Thorough clean public areas            Provide housekeeping
                                                             services
32 HTL-032-2-1000     Carry out outlet cashiering duties     Provide food and beverage
                                                             services
33 HTL-033-2-1000     Handle switchboard and related         Deliver front office services
                      services
34 HTL-034-2-1000     Provide business centre services       Deliver front office services
35 HTL-035-1-0201     Prepare elaborate hot kitchen dishes Prepare food
36 HTL-036-2-0201     Prepare coffee-house-style dishes of Prepare food
                      Chinese origin
37 HTL-037-2-0201     Prepare coffee-house-style dishes of Prepare food
                      Malay/Indian origin
38 HTL-038-2-0201     Supervise Western-style food and       Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage service                       services
39 HTL-039-2-0201     Handle front office cashiering         Deliver front office service
40 HTL-041-1-0201     Prepare pates, terrines and galantines Prepare food
41 HTL-042-2-0201     Carry out tableside food preparation Deliver food and beverage
                      and service                            service
42 HTL-044-1-0201     Supervise front desk operations        Deliver front office services
43 HTL-046-2-0201     Provide Japanese-style food and        Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage service                       services
44 HTL-047-2-0201     Supervise public area cleaning and Supervise operations
                      servicing
45   HTL-050-2-0201   Prepare basic cakes                    Prepare food
46   HTL-051-1-0201   Supervise room reservation services Deliver front office services
47   HTL-052-2-0301   Prepare fermented baked products       Prepare baked products
48   HTL-053-1-0301   Supervise food production              Prepare food
49   HTL-054-2-0401   Supervise Chinese-style food and       Deliver food and beverage
                      beverage service                       services
50 HTL-055-2-0401     Prepare compound salads                Prepare food
51 HTL-056-2-0401     Perform butchery in a commercial Prepare food



                                                                                             21
                     kitchen
52 HTL-057-1-1101    Organise food production operation    Prepare food
53 HTL-058-2-1101    Prepare simple desserts (Western)     Prepare food
54 HTL-059-1-1101    Supervise provision of switchboard    Deliver front office services
                     and related services
55 HTL-060-2-1101    Supervise room service                Deliver food and beverage
                                                           services
56 HTL-061-2-1101    Supervise bar services                Deliver food and beverage
                                                           services
57 HTL-062-2-1101    Supervise service of food and         Deliver food and beverage
                     beverage in a banquet                 services
58 HTL-064-2-1101    Supervise Japanese-style food and     Supervise operations
                     beverage service
59 HTL-066-2-0202    Carry out tableside food and      Deliver food and beverage
                     beverage (F&B) flambé and service services
60 HTL-067-2-0402    Supervise ware-washing services   Deliver food and beverage
                                                       services
61 HTL-068-2-0402    Supervise banquet set-up          Deliver food and beverage
                                                       services


Travel
S/N Ref.             Document Title                        Job Function
1 TVL-F-1200         Travel Functional Map                 -
2 TVL-001-2-1200     Provide FIT outbound travel           Provide travel services
                     package
3   TVL-002-3-1200   Provide GIT outbound travel           Provide travel services
                     package
4   TVL-003-3-1200   Handle ticketing reservation          Provide ticketing services
5   TVL-004-3-1200   Provide FIT inbound travel package    Provide travel services
6   TVL-005-2-1200   Provide GIT inbound travel package    Provide travel services
7   TVL-006-2-0501   Prepare and handle arrival of FIT     Provide tour guiding services
                     tourists
8   TVL-007-2-0501   Prepare and handle arrival of GIT     Provide tour guiding services
                     tourists
9 TVL-008-2-0501     Conduct a tour                        Provide tour guiding services
10 TVL-009-2-0501    Prepare and handle departure of FIT   Provide tour guiding services
                     tourists
11 TVL-010-2-0501    Prepare and handle departure of GIT   Provide tour guiding services
                     tourists
12 TVL-011-2-0501    Handle cruise package (outbound)      Provide travel services
13 TVL-012-2-0501    Handle cruise package (inbound)       Provide travel services
14 TVL-013-3-0501    Handle call centre sales of travel    Sell travel products and


                                                                                           22
                        products and services                 services
15 TVL-014-3-0501       Handle e-commerce sale of travel      Sell travel products and
                        products and services                 services
16 TVL-015-3-0501       Handle walk-in customer sales of      Provide tour operations
                        travel products and services
17 TVL-016-2-0302       Organise meetings                     Provide corporate functions
                                                              and events
18 TVL-017-2-0302       Organise incentive travel             Provide corporate functions
                                                              and events
19 TVL-018-2-0302       Organise conventions                  Provide corporate functions
                                                              and events
20 TVL-019-2-0302       Organise exhibitions                  Provide corporate functions
                                                              and events
21 TVL-020-1-0302       Maintain accounting system            Manage finance
22 TVL-021-1-0302       Maintain cost control                 Manage finance
23 TVL-022-1-0302       Evaluate financial performance        Manage finance


Level   Competence                                                   Example
NSC 3   Competence in the performance of a range of varied work      Waiter performing a
        activities, most of which are routine and predictable.       table or tray service
NSC 2   Competence in the performance of a significant range of      Waiter performing
        varied work activities performed in a variety of contexts,   buffet service
        some of which are complex or non-routine. There is some
        individual responsibility or autonomy, and collaboration
        with others.
NSC 1   Competence in the performance of a broad range of varied     Restaurant captain
        work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts,     ensuring service
        most of which are complex or non-routine. There is           reliability for
        considerable responsibility and autonomy, and control or     customers
        guidance of others.




                                                                                             23
An example of a skills standard for a waiter in a restaurant




An example of a skills standard for a housekeeper in a hotel




                                                               24

								
To top