الجهاز القومى لتنظيم الإتصالات

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					Telecommunications Services
    Users Guide in A.R.E.

                 Prepared by:
      Consumers' rights protection Dept,
      Executive President Affairs Sector
    National Telecom Regulatory Authority
   The National Telecom Regulatory Authority (NTRA):

Who are we?
      The National Telecom Regulatory Authority (NTRA) was established in
1998. The legislative and regulatory framework of the NTRA was defined as
per Egypt Telecom Law No. 10 for the year 2003. The NTRA is a national
authority competent for regulating and managing the ICT. It has set forth
fundamental principles, including, compliance with transparency, free
competition, universal service, Users’ rights protection and non-monopolistic
practices. The NTRA aims to ensure that telecom operators provide
telecommunication services to all telecommunication users at affordable
prices and high quality. Moreover, it aims to upgrade services in order to
keep abreast of the latest technologies and stupendous developments in ICT

      Thereupon, and in implementation of the NTRA’s main goals, the
Consumers Rights Protection Committee (CRPC) was formed in August 2004.
It allows all the telecom services users to communicate and interact directly
with all telecom users through awareness campaigns and various measures.
The CRPC comprises 14 members who are notable public figures and is
chaired by Dr. Amr Badawi, the Executive President of the NTRA. The
Committee holds regular meetings.

      In order to activate and fulfill the right of every user to be provided with
a high quality of service, get clear and all-inclusive information and obtain
health and environmental parameters, the NTRA established the Call Center.
The NTRA’s Call Center receives complaints, inquiries and technical
complaints of service failure from all users in the A.R.E., via the hotline #
(155) and free number(08003330333). It acts as a second level of examining
and solving such complaints in case the subscriber does not have his problem
solved by the service provider. The NTRA’s Call Center exerts all efforts to
respond immediately to the user’s complaints, investigate and solve them as
soon as possible. It conveys the complaint to the concerned service provider

to examine it and try to find a solution. Then the Call Center will contact the
user to inform him of the procedures that have been taken to solve his

      The Call Center receives complaints and inquiries on a daily basis from
8 am to 7 pm (Sunday- Thursday) and from 10 am to 7 pm (Friday -
Saturday). To know the latest and most important ICT news on the local and
international levels in addition to all issues related to telecom market in the
A.R.E., you can visit the NTRA’s website You can also
address the NTRA using the following address:

The Smart Village, B4, K 28 Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, Giza, A.R.E.,

Tel; (+202) 35344000

Fax: (+202) 35344155


                       Fixed Telephony Services

     Service Definition:
       -   Service Provider: Telecom Egypt.

    Services include:
       o Residential, commercial and governmental lines.
       o Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
       o Value-added services.
       o Fax services.
       o Services To Manage Your Calls (such as the Caller ID, etc.)

       -   Call Types:
       o Local.
       o National (other governorates).
       o International.
       o VoIP.

Main Definitions:
   Understanding Your Fixed Line Telephone Bill:

What are the charges of local phone service?
       Telephone charges typically fall into three categories: installation
costs, fixed recurring charges, and usage-based charges. Installation costs
are one-time charges paid for the launch of service.

    The basic local service charge is a fixed recurring charge (subscription)
that you pay to receive a dial tone (the tone that denotes that you are able to
place and receive telephone calls). As for the Usage-based charges, they
depend on the number of service units that you buy during a billing period -
e.g. minutes of calling per month. Currently, Telecom Egypt (TE) sets these
charges with the approval of the NTRA. You can call TE's customer service,
or visit its website to find out its price lists. In addition, you can refer to the

Egyptian Directory to find out information about the service and rates.

   How can I control my phone bill?
    -   Read your phone bill carefully. Review charges for extra features, such
        as Call Waiting and Caller ID. Cancel those you do not use. Take
        special notes of your comments on the international calls. Consider the
        number of local calls you make and the time you make them. You may
        find that you can reduce your talking time and unimportant calls in the
        future and thereby, save money.
    -   Use the Call Barring Service through the secret code.
    -   Use the Prepaid Calling Cards (Al-Ahly, Al-Arabia, Egypt TeleCard,
        and Telecom Egypt).
    -   Use a telephone set with a help key.

        Reviewing your phone bill each month is highly important. It can show
you exactly the details of the calls that you made and the services that have
been provided to you for the charges and fees you pay. In addition, it will help
you identify any errors or frauds, preventing their reoccurrence in the future.
Phone bills can be challenging to understand, so the following information
helps to explain the most common charges and fees. In addition, this
information can help you make well-informed decisions.

    Some charges and fees have been approved as per regulatory
frameworks and regulations, while others are billed pursuant to the operator's
discretion. For example, the user must pay taxes, whereas charges for
services (such as, call waiting and other value-added services) are optional,
though the charges for those must be paid in case you subscribe to them.
 The charges or fees included in the Bill are as follows:
    -   Firstly: Local Bill:
         o Subscription: it is the basic fees for the telephone line. The
             NTRA approves this subscription.

       o Taxes: it comprises the sales or commercial taxes that are set
           forth in your bill. It is charged at certain percentage of your total
           bill and payment is mandatory for all consumers.
       o Deposit: it is paid by the users who make a high volume of
           international calls. An initial deposit is required, with a percentage
           of the average total bill that will be issued each quarter thereafter.
       o Internet: these are the Internet charges set forth in your bill. They
           are equal to the cost of calls you make to your Internet Service
           Provider (ISP). The Internet charges are unrelated to any ISP
           subscription you may incur. You can be charged for using the
           internet at the rate of a call provided by the ISP without paying a
           monthly subscription. You can choose your ISP from many ISPs
           who provide the dial-up service. This service is provided via the
           voice services of your fixed line.
       o Calls from fixed phones to Mobile ones: These are calls made
           from your fixed residential phone to mobile phones. They are
           charged at a different rate from those charged for calls to other
           fixed line phones.
       o Administrative Charges: Administrative charges are assessed
           as per the default fine for late payment of a bill. If a bill is not paid
           within a certain period of time, a fine will be forced and will be
           calculated as a percentage of the total bill.

  -   Secondly, National Charges and International Charges:
Do you make many International calls? At what time of the day do you
make most of your calls?
How long are your calls?
      Both national and international calls are charged at prices that are
 approved and regulated by the NTRA. These charges are usually higher
 during the day (from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm “peak”) than in the evenings (from
 8:00 pm to 8:00 am “off-peak”) for calls made to mobile phones and
 international calls. The daytime period for national calls is from 8:00 am to
 11:00 pm and the evening period is from 11:00 pm to 8:00 am.

       An itemized account of your calls is provided in your bill, including the
number of calls, call durations, and related administrative fees and

Review your monthly phone bills to determine your calling patterns, such as:
    - The areas you are calling.
    - The number of calls made each month.
    - At what time of the day you make most national calls?
    - The durations of your calls.

       Once you understand your calling patterns, identify calling habits that
are excessive or unnecessary. If you are unclear about charges, ask your
operator what the rates are for different times of the day or for different times
of the day or the week.

-    Thirdly: Fixed Line Value-added Services:
    Telecom Egypt provides many value-added services to the fixed line and
    these services suit all the needed usages. They include the following:
    o Caller ID: it enables the subscriber to know the number of the person
       calling him.
    o Call Waiting: it enables the subscriber not to miss his calls as he can
       receive two calls on the same line at the same time.
    o Do Not Disturb: this service is used when the subscriber does not want
       to receive any calls. They will be transferred to a voice mail message.
    o Three-Way Calling        Service: this service enables the subscriber to
       have one call with more than one person wherever they are at the
       same time.
    o Follow Me: this service enables the subscriber to receive his calls on
       any fixed or mobile phone wherever he is.
    o Call Barring: It enables the subscriber to control his bill by preventing
       any person other than him from using his phone without his permission.
       The subscriber bars calls by using a personal code that is provided
       through this service.

   o Receiving Only Service: it enables the subscriber to use the phone line
       to receive calls only.
   o Peace of Mind: it enables the customer to know who's calling him
       before answering him through the Caller’s ID service.

In addition, there are “Services to Manage Your Calls” that enable the
Customer to control his bill through the Call Barring Service that enables him
to bar calls to certain numbers.

       This package provides the customer with a number of solutions that
allow him to have high telephony efficacy and manage his calls and bills. This
package comprises the following: the Caller ID, Call Waiting, three-way
Calling, Do Not Disturb, Follow Me services.

   -   Fourthly: other fees:
          Voicemail.
          Phonogram.

      Conditions of Disconnection Notice:
Can the phone company disconnect my service without notice?
       No. Before the phone company can disconnect your service, you must
be informed In advance. If you are disconnected without prior notification,
immediately contact the company to discuss why you are being disconnected.

       You are responsible for paying your telephone bills on time and in full.
However, if you are facing disconnection due to nonpayment, discuss
payment plan options with your provider. Many phone companies are willing
to provide payment options, while continuing to provide you with phone
service. Generally, if you do not pay your bill within the time specified, a fine
will be added to your bill. If you do not pay your bill after a further period, the
service will be disconnected. If you receive a disconnection notice, contact the
phone company immediately and ask about the following:
      The reason for receiving the notice.
      The alternative payment measures that can taken in case you are

      facing disconnection due to non-payment.

  There are cases in which the service provider can disconnect service
without notifying the subscriber, such as:
     The telephone equipment is faulty or a life-threatening situation exists.
     The company has detected fraudulent or unauthorized use of the line
      and believes that the consumer is responsible.
     The NTRA has ordered the disconnection.

     Service Reconnection:
  Once you have learned why the service was disconnected, you can
apply for reconnection. The company may charge a reasonable
reconnection fee or require a deposit but it must not exceed charges
approved by the NTRA (You may call the NTRA via the hotline #(155) in
order to know the approved charges ). The Company must reconnect your
service as soon as it is reasonably possible after payment of any
appropriate charges or deposits. If your service has been disconnected by
mistake, the company must restore service immediately at its own

                      Mobile Telecom Services
   Service Providers:
    - Mobinil.
    - Vodafone Egypt.
    - Etisalat Misr.

   Mobile Services Tariff Systems:

        Mobile Service Providers (Mobinil, Vodafone Egypt, and Etisalat Misr)
    provide many mobile services whether pre-paid calling services, or
    postpaid services that provide the subscriber with many rate plans and
    options that suit the nature and pattern of the subscriber’s usage.

 Prepaid Calling Cards:

        Mobile Service Providers provide many tariff plans with regard to the
Prepaid Calling Cards that suit the low-volume users. Chief among the most
significant features of the prepaid Calling Cards are the following:

    -   There is no monthly bill.
    -   There is no monthly subscription.
    -   You do not have to pay deposits for the services.
    -   The subscriber can subscribe to all services (such as roaming, placing
        international calls…)

       The Monthly Subscription:
    The Monthly Subscription Systems were laid down to meet all the needs of
the large-volume users of mobile service. The disparity between the users’
usage should be taken into consideration, as there are discounts on the
monthly subscription (fees) in case the volume of usage increases.

    There are many offers provided among each company’s rate plans (you
can call each company’s customer service center to know them). Also, there
are many special offers provided to companies and corporations as the fees
and monthly subscription in case the user purchases many lines. As new
entrants compete in telecom market, new options will be offered.
   3G Mobile Services:
    Recently, the mobile Operators existing in the A.R.E. have launched their
    3G mobile services therein. The 3G mobile services allow the transmission
    of data at a high speed and quality. Moreover, through the 3G mobile
    services, consumers can use their mobiles to access the Internet, watch
    movies, exchange big folders, hold video conferences and log on to the
    websites   the   consumers     like.    Chief   among   the   most   important
    characteristics of the 3G network is its ability to transmit data at high speed
    namely, 384/Kbt per second.

   How to reduce my mobile charges?
    In this respect, you should know that the main goal of using the mobile
    telephony is to have quick communication with people especially in
    emergency cases and not to make calls for long duration, as this
    would affect your expenditures negatively.

   What to look for in a Mobile Provider?
Choosing a mobile phone provider can be confusing. As more companies
compete to provide telecommunications services, there will be more plans
and pricing options offered. Often consumers do not realize what they are
buying and using. They agree to a contract that binds them to a service for a
set period of time. On choosing a mobile provider, you should take into
consideration the quality of service, the rate and services plans that it offers

On choosing a mobile provider, you should look for companies that clearly
state how much the user will pay for a certain amount of talk-time. Some
companies offer prepaid packages but with different arrangements, such as
a set number of minutes for a set amount. In some cases there are prepaid
minutes and any additional calls are charged per minute. Post-pay service
may also be available, in which case all calls are charged per minute with
only a low subscription fee required.

Sometimes it is cheaper to buy a plan with a higher monthly charge that
includes a large number of minutes Instead of paying a lower fee, plus per-
minute charges. However, if you don’t use your mobile phone often, look for a
provider     that   offers   discounted    per-minute    costs   without   pre-pay

In general, before choosing you should raise a question: what type of
service that suits me?

Firstly, you should know your usage pattern and the services you need in the
light of many packages and different services. This will affect the charges that
you will pay for these services. Moreover, you can choose the offer that suits
you best by answering some questions such as:
            What kind of calls you usually place? (local-international)
            In case of international calls, which country do you place your calls
            How many times do you place your calls?
            At what times of the day do you usually place your calls?
            What is the average duration of your calls?
            What are the value-added services do you need?

Your previous bills might help you in getting these information. After you know
them and determine what you need, find out the offers and choose what suits

       Roaming:
- What is a Roaming Service?
It means using your mobile line outside your country by placing calls on the
service provider’s network in the visited country. Instead of getting billed by
the service provider’s network in the visited country, the local service provider
will be billed for your calls charges and the latter will include these charges in
your bill.

You should take into consideration the rates of roaming services in case you
are traveling outside your prescribed calling area. The rates of roaming
services outside the country might be high compared to the rates of the local
and international calls. So you have to refer to the service provider before
leaving Egypt and ask him about the service rates and the possibility of
selecting special rates for the international calls service.

Before using the roaming service you should check the following:
    o Do you need your mobile telephone during your journey?
    o Are you aware of the various roaming services provided by various service
     providers in the visited country? (You can get all information from the local
     service provider.)
    o How can you use the service in the visited country?
    o How can you use your calling services (voicemail, barring code) and what
     are the rates of each of them?
    o Is the SMSs service available?
    o Is it more economical for you to buy a pre-paid line from the service
     provider of the country you intend to visit instead of using the international
     roaming service?

        How can I reduce the money spent on my calls on using the
         roaming service?
Through your local service provider, look for a service provider (of the visited
country) who offers low rates. Try to place your calls at times other than the
peak hours (off-peak).
Remember that you will be charged for all calls on using the international
roaming service whether they are outgoing from/ ingoing to your mobile
phone. That’s why you should choose the calls you would answer, taking into
consideration that most of the time the rate of the ingoing minute is lower than
the rate of the outgoing minute.

    Quality of Mobile Services:
The local phone service providers in Egypt must comply with various service

specifications that are regulated by the NTRA as these specifications are
related to the network coverage and service standards. Nevertheless, you
should know that the coverage will not be available all the time. The NTRA
will monitor the quality of the service provided by all service providers
throughout the country.

The NTRA has laid down service standards by which all mobile providers
should abide. Through specialized experts and engineers, the NTRA monitors
the service quality standards of each company periodically. Mobile phone
operators may promise coverage in the populated areas of Egypt, but may not
provide continuous coverage in remote locations.

If you feel your mobile operator is not providing adequate service you should
contact the provider. Be sure to review your service agreement for any
guarantees or exceptions in service conditions.

Remember that when you are not satisfied with the solution provided by the
service provider you can call the hotline #155 of the NTRA’s Customer Care
Center to give you assistance at any time.

      Mobile Handsets
The mobile handsets industry has been developing rapidly. As the popularity
of mobile phones increase and technology advances, more and more
handsets are available, offering a variety of features from ring tones, to text,
and video messaging and Internet access.
The choices can be bewildering, so before you choose the make, style, and
color, you should consider some questions:
       -   What is the price of the handset?
       -   Can you understand the features and menus, and are they in the
           Arabic language?
       -   Can you use it outside Egypt?
       -   Does it offer access to the Internet?
       -   Do you want one that can take photos?

      -   Are you paying for features or technology that you are not going to
          use, or that are not yet available such as handsets that are third-
          generation {3G} compatible but the service has not been available

Handsets in Egypt have SIM cards, which stands for "Subscriber Identity
Module." The SIM card stores data that identifies you aim the phone user and
stores your phone numbers. It is a thin piece of plastic that is generally
inserted into the back of the phone and can be easily removed and
transferred between compatible handsets. It is a valuable device and should
be treated with care. The warranties of handsets generally do not cover
batteries or damage due to misuse.

                       Internet and Data Services

      Dial-up:
   It is the service used with the same traditional speed and tariff of national

      Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL):
   The Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Lines (ADSL) was launched in 1998.
   According to this technology, it is not necessary to convert data from
   digital   to   analog   and   then   convert   them    again   to   digital   via
   telecommunication lines.

   Data can be transmitted as they are without going through operations and
   procedures that waste time and speed. This enabled telephony services
   companies to benefit from all the capabilities of the copper line in
   transmitting and download very large files at speeds faster than the dialup
   used to date.

   In addition, this technology may use the bands not used in telephone lines
   to transmit data at high speed to subscribers without affecting the
   telephony service of the fixed line. This means the usage of the telephony
   line in placing calls and getting connected with the internet at the same

The NTRA has approved a new form of the Broadband Internet Initiative
ADSL with the aim of increasing the number of subscribers. The NTRA gave
international consortiums the opportunity to be awarded the licenses for
installing and operating international submarine cables, hence preventing the
international companies that provide Egypt with the service from monopolizing
the international connection with the Internet. Consequently, the connection
rates will be far less in the future than the current rates. This will be reflected
positively on reducing the broadband internet subscription for the subscribers

as there are many offers that suit all subscribers. The available offers are as
            - Open monthly subscription as per the needed speed.
            - A reduced monthly subscription with a specified
              download speed as this type targets the common user.

      The Service Provider:
   The Companies Providing the ADSL Service:
   TE Data, Nile Online, Link dotNet, Raya, Nour, Yalla Masr, EgyNet, Mina
The internet service provider provides the user with the
service and connects him with the internet.

 How to choose ADSL service provider?
 ADSL service provider, you should be concerned with:
   -   Service Quality.
   -   Price and performance level.
   -   Customer service and installation (in addition to the service provider’s
   -   Billing details and accuracy in addition to varying collection procedures.
   -   Security: including the back-up data (that will be used in case of
       emergency), measures that will be taken as protective of internet
       viruses in addition to password management

 If you do not have any information about the service providers, you
 should search for such information by:
       - Going online and checking the websites of the DSL Providers doing
           business in Egypt for details on their service packages.
       - Asking friends, family, or colleagues If they have any experience with
           ADSL service providers.
       - Checking with the NTRA (see Contact Information at the end of this
           Handbook) to ensure that they are properly licensed and can offer
           the service in your area.

You have to review the options provided by the ISPs to reach the
Customer Service Department as the phone numbers, websites, e-
mail addresses of various complaints and inquiries as the technical
issues, products, services, sales, bills in addition to the Customer
Service number and e-mail address.

Do you know that?!

      The illegal use of the ADSL on the telephone line:

Sharing the ADSL line is a re-provision of ADSL service by the telephony line
subscriber and this is illegal as per telecommunications law no. 10 for the
years 2003 concerning the re-provision of telecommunication services to
anyone other than the Licensees.

Sharing the ADSL line is the usage of the line for uses other than those of the
leased property. This violates the contract concluded between the telephony
line subscriber and Telecom Egypt as it stipulates that the line usage should
be restricted to the leased property only. So, Telecom Egypt is entitled to
revoke the contract of the subscriber.

Also, Sharing the ADSL line decreases the quality of the service provided to
the line subscriber and those who share the line with him because the
capacity allocated to the service of one user will be divided among all users
sharing the same telephone line and central office.

For sharing the ADSL line makes the subscriber under the punishment by law
in case those who share it commit any cyber crimes or contraventions. This is
because all inquiries will accuse the subscriber and no one will be able to
determine the person who is liable for these crimes apart from those who
share the line.
Sharing the ADSL line overburdens the subscriber with the payment pf the
bills for the services provided to him and were utilized by anyone sharing with
him the ADSL line without paying the bills such as Video on Demand or VoIP
which will be widely spread in the near future.

                            Prepaid Calling Cards

   Service Definition:
    Making calls using prepaid cards for mobile service and from payphones is
widespread in the A.R.E... Since their introduction in the Egyptian market few
years ago, the prepaid calling cards have become more reliable and user-
friendly. They are especially useful if you do not have a telephone, a long
distance subscription on your home phone, or if you are looking for an
effective way to manage your costs.

       The service providers:
           -   Al Ahly;
           -   Egypt Telecard;
           -   Telecom Egypt (Marhaba Prepaid cards);
           -   Arab Telecom.

       What should you consider when choosing a prepaid card?
    When shopping for a prepaid calling card, you should consider a variety of
card providers, talk to your family and friends, and consider the following:
           -   The quality of the provided service.
           -   Reliability (how far the user can rely on it and trust its provided
           -   Customer satisfaction guarantees.
           -   Accessibility of Customer Services.

    Not all prepaid cards are the same. In fact, some cards have very different
rate plans and some offer special rates of particular calling areas or for
different times of the day and week. That is why you should read the fine print!
Moreover, before you buy the card, you should find answers to the following

   -   What is the published cost per minute? And what is the difference
       between it and the rates of the national calls service provided to you
       over your residential phone?
   -   Are there any minimum charges applied when the call does not
   -   Are there additional charges for the outgoing calls made from different
       types of phones, such as pay phones and private phones?
   -   Are charges billed by intervals? (For example, calls may be billed by 5-
       minute intervals so if you make a 3-minute call, you may be billed for 5
   -   Are there any fees that have not been announced?
   -   Is there a toll-free customer service number?
   -   Can you add more minutes to the card, and if so, how?
   -   When does the card expire?

      How to use Your Calling Card:
   Follow the instructions on the card carefully. If you have problems with the
card or have questions about it, call the customer service number provided on
the back of the card.

                           Public Payphones
                           (Telephone Booths)

    Service Definition:
       Public Payphones were established to enable the citizens to optimize
their benefit from telephony services, whether local, national, or international.

      Service Providers:
          -   Telecom Egypt.
          -   Nile Company (Nile Payphones-Ringo Payphones).
          -   Minatel Company.

       In case you have any complaint or inquiry related to public payphones,
you can call the Customer Service Center number written on the cards of
each company or the number written on the booths.

                          Phone Service Fraud
    Monitor your phone bill closely and do not accept new services until you
understand all the terms and conditions of the agreement. Do not fall victim to
illegal phone service solicitations (known as "scams") otherwise you will pay
for services you never ordered or agreed to. Two common scams are known
as "slamming" and "cramming”.

       Slamming:
What is Slamming?
        Slamming is the unauthorized transfer of your telephone service from
one Operator to another. This happens more often with long distance
telephone service, but could also occur with local phone service as
competition increases.
    This type of Phone Service Frauds is committed when the rates charged
by the unauthorized Operator are higher than those charged by the original

   Cramming:
What is cramming?
        Cramming occurs when charges are added to your bill for services that
you neither requested nor used. Many different types of services can be
added, or "crammed," These are often "value-added" services, such as voice
mail, three-way calling, call forwarding, and other services. There is another
case of cramming is when calls are billed at rates higher than the announced
ones. This includes toll-free calls that are later charged as long distance calls,
or flat-rate Internet dial-up services that are later billed as long distance calls.

       Authorization:
    A telecom Operator providing local or long distance service must be able
to prove that it has obtained the user’s permission or authorization before
making any changes to the procedures or arrangements related to the service
or bills. These include the following:
    -   Any changes to the local or long distance service.

   -   Any changes to the bill that have not been mentioned in the original

   The service provider can obtain the user’s permission or authorization to
make the changes provided that:
   -   The service provider has obtained a contract signed by the user
       permitting it to make such changes.
   -   The service provider has obtained a voice authorization recorded from
       the phone line that will be changed.

      Toll Fraud:
   Toll fraud is the unauthorized use of the user’s phone service by people
 who trick him into paying for expensive toll calls or long distance calls.
 Some impostors make random calls to the user’s phone and ask him to
 call them back on a long distance number. There are other forms of toll
 fraud that takes place when the user is lured into calling long distance
 numbers through advertisements and other promotions, which may
 promise interesting information and entertainment services such as calls to
 TV shows outside the A.R.E., or any other attractive advertisements. If you
 want to know the location of a given phone number, check with your
 service provider. You can also ask your ISP to provide you with a call
 barring service.

   Telemarketing and Privacy
      How to avoid unwanted solicitations?
   Many users are annoyed at receiving telemarketing calls, especially
those that intrude on them during inconvenient times of the day.
Fortunately, the user can take some measures to reduce the frequency of
these calls.

      How can the user stop unwanted sales calls?
   The user may ask the companies that make telemarketing calls to him to
remove him from their calling lists. In addition, he must tell the caller that he is
not interested in his offers and that he does not want to receive further
solicitation calls.

   Moreover, the user can submit this request in writing and states clearly
that he does not want to receive any more solicitations from such
companies. If the company persists, the user can contact the NTRA to
record his complaint in the Call Center. As a precautionary measure, the
user must ensure that any company that has obtained from him his
contact information will not give that information to other companies.
Removing the user’s name from any public phone directory can also
reduce the number of telemarketing calls.
        Protection and Disclosure:
   If the user is interested in an offer made over the phone, few
guidelines can help protect him from fraud. He has to do the following:
   -   He should not agree to buy anything before reviewing all the product
       information. The company should send the user their offer in writing
       through the mail so that he can verify the information and the
       company’s representatives who are marketing the products over the
   -   He should abstain from providing any personal information, such as his
       credit card numbers, banking information, and home addresses.
       Moreover, he should abstain from sending cash to any of the
       company’s representatives or salesmen who might require "immediate"
   -   He should ask for all the institutional information about the company in
       order to determine that its business is legal.
   -   He should ask for proof-of-purchase documentation or insist on paying
       only after he receives the offered product or services.

                            Health and Safety

       The NTRA’s competences in this concern:
The Telecommunications Regulation Law No. 10 for the year 2003 states
in Article 6 that:

“The NTRA shall have the competence for setting the technical rules for
health and environmental safety that should be followed when installing,
operating and using Telecommunication Networks and following up on its
execution and operation in accordance with the standards set in agreement
with the ministries and the concerned entities in the State. Such standards
shall be issued by resolutions from the concerned ministers and the heads of
the aforementioned entities. These decrees shall be published in the official
Egyptian Gazette “al-Waqa'e al-Misrya”.

   The NTRA faces the health and environmental effects of the telecom
    equipment and systems by:
    -   Issuing specifications and conditions of the telecommunication
        networks installations in A.R.E.
    -   Laying down the health and environmental standards of the
        telecommunication equipment used in A.R.E.

    As per the NTRA’s responsibility and competence set forth in article (6) of
    Telecommunications Law No. 10 for the year 2003, the NTRA emphasized
    the fact that there is no harm whatsoever caused by the mobile phone
    stations and affect the human being’s health in case they are in conformity
    with the Egyptian codes and standards.

    There has been a lot of debate lately about their effect on health. Many
    viewpoints depended on some statistics that did not represent scientific
    facts. In this respect, we would highlight the following facts:

      The Mobile Phone Radio Base Stations operate within the frequency
       band 900 MHz-1800 in the scope of the non-ionized electromagnetic

      In order to effectuate the State’s keenness to protect the health of the
       human being, the Ministry of Communications and Information
       Technology (MCIT), in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and
       Population, and Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, formed a
       Specialized Committee to study the effect of the human being’s
       exposure to the electromagnetic waves emitted from Mobile Phone
       Radio Base Stations and towers and put the regulations needed to
       install these networks among masses of population. The Committee
       concluded that the Specialized International Organizations working in
       this concern, at the top of which was the World Health Organization
       (WHO), has laid down the allowed limits of the flux density of the power
       emitted from the electromagnetic wave and to which the human being
       can be safely exposed. It ranges between 0.40 and 0.57 mW/cm2 at a
       distance ranging between 3.47 and 4.47 meters (the safe distance).
       Moreover, the Committee approved the power flux density as
       amounting to 0.40 mW/cm2 at a distance of 6 meters, taking into
       consideration the maximum safety limits and thresholds in order to
       observe the social aspect.

   As per the aforementioned study, the three concerned ministries laid down
   Protocols that include the Egyptian Code in order to regulate and control
   the installation of the mobile stations among masses of population. The
   needed administrative measures were taken so that these stations would
   not be operated except after the NTRA, through its specialized engineers,
   inspects these stations and make the measurements needed for ensuring
   their abidance by the Protocols and issues conformity certificates to them

The Egyptian Specifications of the Macro Cells Stations are as follows:
          The antennae are 15 to 50 meters high from the ground level.

            Only one antenna should be installed on a mast and three antennae
             should be installed at the same level on the same mast provided
             that the distance between each level and the other 4 meters.
            The distance between any two towers of the base transceiving
             stations should not be less than 12 meters on the roof of the
            It is prohibited to install antennae on top of roofs that are not
             protected by reinforced concrete ceilings.
            The maximum magnetic power is 0.4 mW/cm 2 at a distance of 6
             meters (the safe distance).
            It is prohibited to install antennas on the roofs of hospitals lest there
             will be any radio interference with the medical equipment.
            The distance between the antennas’ main beam and the schools’
             fences should not be less than 20 meters.

The safety measurements used and approved by different international
entities are as follows:

                                                          (MW/CM2)      DISTANCE(M)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)                     0.57             3.7
National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation                0.4              4.5
Protection ...(ICNRP)
World Health Organization (WHO)
The National Council on Radiation Protection and            0.57             3.7
Measurements (ICNRP)
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)     0.57             3.7
American National Standardization Institute ( ANSI)         0.57             3.7
The Egyptian standards and specifications as per the        0.4               6
Protocol of stations roll-out

On making a comparison between the international and Egyptian
specifications, we will find out that the Egyptian Code and standards are
stricter than the international protocols in order to make all the precautions
needed to protect the Egyptian citizen’s health.

It is worth mentioning in this respect that in the report issued by the Supreme
Council of Education and Scientific Research and Technology, page 240-241,
the third paragraph titled: “The Clinical Observations of the Health Impact of
Electromagnetic Emissions” stipulated the following: “Many scientific clinical
researches agreed that it has not been proven that the exposure to the
electromagnetic emissions less than 0.5 mW/cm2 has any harmful effect on
the human being’s health.

As per the field measures and studies of the stations ever since their
installation in 1996 until now, the average power flux density is 0.0003
mW/cm2 , that is, less thousand-fold than the internationally acknowledged

It is evident from all the afore-mentioned facts that any notions and claims that
do not depend on scientific facts might raise the concerns of the public, hence
creating a public tendency to antagonize this technology. This will affect
negatively telecommunications development and investments volume in this

                              Satellite Services

      Satellite Services:
   -   Satellite Services (VSAT):
Service Definition:
          The Service Provider:
           - Alkan.
           - Egyptian Satellite Co. (ESC).
           - Egypt Sat.
           - Africa Wave.

        As per this service, some small base stations are connected for the
           exchange of telephone calls or transmit data. In addition, they are
           connected to the PSTN:

          Voice Services:
       Through this service, one can place a telephone call:
           -   Between the Network-based stations.
           -   Between any of the Network’s stations and any other subscriber who
               is not subscribing to that network through the telephone services
               provided through the PSTN Centrals by connecting one or more of the
               network’s stations with some telephone exchanges and programming
               the network so that it allows either a limited number of / all locations to
               place international calls.
           -   Telephone service cards installed on TES™ can be used in
                      Hand Set
                      PBX
                      Central Office.

      Data Transmission service:
                  Allows the user to place international calls at a rate of:
                   -   64 kilobits/sec in case of transmitting Synchronous data.
                   -   Kilobit/sec in case of transmitting Asynchronous data.

                    -      Data can be exchanged between one location and any
                           other   locations    by   any   means    of   transmission
                           (Synchronous or Asynchronous) by using the same
                    -      Data are transmitted pursuant to all protocols.
                    -      TES™ network can be used in connecting LANs existing
                           in two different locations and form WAN so that the data
                           are exchanged between these two locations at a speed
                           amounting to 64 kilobit/sec by using a Router in each of
                           the two locations that will be connected to each LAN in
                    -      TES equipment.

      Fax Service:
- A VCU card can be used after adding an FIM to it in the Fax service as per
Group III.
- By adding an FIM to the VCU card, the telephony service card in data
transmission (VBD) at a speed of 9.6 kilobit/sec.

      Desktop Video-Conferencing:
TES™ Network can provide this service between any two different locations
of the network at the rate of 384 kb/sec.
      Global Mobile Personal Communications Services (GMPCS)
       Service Definition:
              Service Provider:
             -   Al Thuraya
             -   Global Star.
             -   Iridium
   -   Al Thuraya Services:
                Al Thuraya provides GMPCS to the users in 106 countries.
                The scope of mobile phones usage is extended through the dual
                 compatibility of the (satellite/GSM) equipment hence providing
                 the Roaming capabilities in the populated areas where the

              providers of the GSM system and the remote areas that are not
             The dual compatibility of Al Thuraya equipment provides
              integration between the terrestrial and satellite
              telecommunications services.
             GMPCS provided by Al Thuraya the following:
                          o Voice: similar in quality to the GSM mobile services.
                          o Fax: at 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 kilobits/second.
                          o Data transmission: at 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 kilobits/second.
                          o Messages: GSM service for SMSs.
                          o Positioning system: within 100 m band as per the

   Wireless Telecommunications:
Wireless Telecommunication Services:
1. Terrestrial Wireless Networks:
     All companies, hotels and governmental entities are licensed to use
     these services that include:
     -       Radio Equipment (UHF, VHF, HF).
     -       Microwave equipment and networks.
     -       Satellite Communication Equipment
     -       Global Positioning System (GPS).
     -       Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT)
     -       Service of News Gathering (SNG).
     -       INMARSAT
     -       Radio LANs
             o WLAN
             o WI-MAX
             o Sound and Voice transmission equipment.
         - AVL systems and licenses are issued to be installed on vehicles
             of some entities pursuant to its activity (such as ambulance
         - Wireless equipment for amateurs as they use the frequencies
             allocated internationally to amateurs.

2. Wireless Equipment operating aboard aircrafts and Balloons:
The companies operating in aviation field after obtaining the approval of
the civil aviation authorities (National Company for Aviation Services).

3. Wireless Equipment operating aboard maritime Units:
    Licenses are issued to motorboats, trawlers and ships with their
    various types after obtaining the competent authorities in the Maritime
    Transport Authority (Maritime Safety Authority) and this equipment

-   Radio equipment (HF, VHF & DSC).

-   The Maritime Safety Systems Equipment, including:

            Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB).

            NAVTEX equipment for receiving the maritime signals.

            INMARSAT stations.

            SART equipment for radar search and rescue.

            Lifeboats’ equipment:

             -    GPS equipment.

             -    Maritime radar equipment.

             -    AIS

4. Wireless Equipment Operating aboard Nile Boats (Nile Distress

    Licenses are issued to the Nile boats in the navigational watercourse of
    the Nile after obtaining the approvals of the competent authorities
    (Water Surfaces Police and Civil Defense) and include:
         -       The Digital Selective Calling equipment (HF DSC).
         -       GSP equipment.

5. Services for wireless equipment importers:
        -       The NTRA issues permits to the importers of wireless equipment at
                no cost.
        -       The NTRA issues the customs releases to the importers of the
                wireless equipment at no cost.

6. The Wireless Trucking service (TETRA):
               Service Definition:
            -       Service Provider: Middle East Radio Communications (MERC).
            -       TETRA provides voice calls with high efficiency and does not
                    need a large number of frequencies compared to the subscribers’
            -       This system can classify equipment into separate groups
                    achieving high immunity against interferences between these
                    groups hence attaining secrecy.
            -       The system comprises a control, center and a number of the base
                    stations widely-spread in a number of governorates.
               Types of equipment:
                -    Hand-held equipment (GP240).
                -    Car equipment (LCS2000).
                -    Fixed station LCS2000

       Current Coverage Areas:
Greater Cairo, 6th October City, Ameryya, Alexandria, Abu Qeer, Salam City,
10th Ramadan City, Ismailia, Suez, Port-Said, Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada,
Luxor, Marsa Matrouh, Damietta, Gharbyya, Monoufia, Sharqyya, Borg El
Arab, Sadat City, Alameen.

7. Wireless TETRA System:
               Service Definition:
                -    Service Provider: Middle East Radio Communications (MERC).
                -    TETRA is a digital Wireless Trucking system of public access
                     mobile radio networks. It works pursuant to ETSI specifications

        and depends on the usage of limited frequencies to serve a
        large number of subscribers with the possibility of reusing the
        same frequencies in other places.
    -   This system can classify equipment into separate groups
        achieving high immunity against interferences between these
        groups hence attaining secrecy.
    -   The system comprises a control, center and a number of the
        base stations widely-spread as per the stages of system
   Types of equipment:
    -   Hand-held equipment (1 W).
    -   Car equipment (3 W).
    -   Fixed station (3 W).
   Current Coverage Areas:
    -   First Phase: Greater Cairo (service commencement with the
        beginning of 2006).
   Possible Applications:
    -   Voice communications.
    -   Transmitting and receiving short messages ((Packet data –
        Short Data).
    -   AVL.
    -   Transmitting fingerprints.
    -   Transmitting and receiving files.
    -   Bar Code Reader

                               Type Approval

       In order to maintain the highest quality and efficacy of the equipment
       available in the Egyptian market and the protection of the networks of
       telecom services providers, the NTRA issues the equipment Type
       Approval Certificates as per their conformity with the internationally
       acknowledged technical standards approved in the A.R.E… These
       certificates include a verification of the equipment’s conformity with the
       technical standards and criteria of health and electromagnetic
       emissions issued by the international competent organizations. These
       organizations include the European Telecommunications Standards
       Institute (ETSI), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), etc.
       that verifies their conformity through tests, certificated and the findings
       of experiments of international specialized labs (TUV, Babt,…).
       Examples of these standards and criteria are as follows:

          • The standards approved by the NTRA (ETS 300342) as issued
             by the ETSI and deals with:
          - Electromagnetic Emissions.
          - Electrical Discharge.
          - Avoidance of interferences.

          •      Safety standards and criteria (EN60950) and deal with:
          -      Avoidance of Electric Leakage (Hazards).
          -      Electric Insulation and firefighting.

What are the equipment that require the obtainment of the NTRA’s Type
Approval Certificate?

In fact, all the telecommunication equipment used in Egypt require the
obtainment of the NTRA’s Type Approval Certificate. The equipment include
the following:
      Terminal Equipment:
     1. All types of Telephone Sets (fixed-Mobile).
     2. Fax machines (Voice Connection Unit).
     3. LPU (Line Protection Unit).

       4. Card/Pay Phone sets.
       5. All types of Public/Private exchanges.
       6. GSM mobile stations & Handsets.

        Radio Communication Apparatus:
       1. Radio Trans/Receive equipment.
       2. Satellite Communication equipment.
       3. Wireless Telephone Sets.
       4. Radars.

 All wired/wireless Telecom and IT equipment that are used internally and

Note: You can get a list of the equipment from the NTRA’s website

On which entity the Type Approval procedures are applied?
The telecommunications regulations and rules regulating telecom services are
applied on any entity doing commercial business or company that provides
the Egyptian market with telecommunication equipment, including:

This includes:
   •    Any    local   manufacturer     who     manufactures     or   assembles
        telecommunications equipment or the manufacturer’s authorized agent.
   •    Any international/foreign entity (person or manufacturing entity, a
        company’s representative, agent, Type Approval Entity…etc.).
   •    Any locally registered agency acting on behalf of any overseas entity.
   •    Egypt is in the preparatory phase that precedes the issue of a list of
        local telecom equipment. That is why the NTRA shall go on applying
        the following standards:

          Specifications                               Organization

Telecom / Radio                             The European Telecommunications
                                            Standards Institute (ETSI), Federal
                                            Communications Commission
                                            (FCC), International
                                            Telecommunication Union (FCC)
Electromagnetic Conformity(EMC),            The International Electro technical
                                            Commission (ETSI),European
Electromagnetic Isotopes (EMI)
                                            Committee for Electronically
                                            Standardization (CENELEC)ASA
Safety/Health                               The International Electro technical
                                            Commission (ETSI),European
                                            Committee for Electronically
                                            Standardization ( CENELEC), ASA,
                                            UL, Federal Communications
                                            Commission (FCC)

Type Approval Applications:
  1- Fill the application form on
  2- Importing/Manufacturing license issued by the NTRA (for local
     manufacturing or importing companies or any local agency acting on
     behalf of any overseas entity).
  3- The original catalogue that explains in detail the system description
     (Should provide a basic understanding of the system, its operation
     philosophy and system technology, in addition to the technical data and
     specifications of the equipment).
  4- The manufacturing country’s declaration of its conformity with the
     specifications or testing reports submitted from accredited test labs
     (TUV, Cetecom, Babt,…..etc.) with regard to telecommunications/radio,
     Electromagnetic Conformity EMC, Electromagnetic Isotopes EMI, in
     addition to the equipment’s safety & health standards.
  5- A certificate of origin issued by the manufacturing entity.
  6- The type approval processing fees will be paid by either a certified
     check that will be submitted to the NTRA’s Executive President or a
     bank transfer. Then a fax will be sent to the NTRA to prove that you
     paid the fees to the NTRA immediately after paying them.

   7- For terminal equipments (as fixed telephone sets, mobile sets, wireless
       telephone sets…... etc.), two equipment (samples) should be submitted
       for testing.
             Note that our lab test results are for own use in approving the
              issue of the type approval certificate.
             5% are added as bank transfer fees until the entity ensures that
              the amount has been completely transferred to our account.
              Also 5% are added in case the applicant needs the original Type
              Approval Certificate to be sent thereto by courier.

   1. The Type Approval Certificate shall be issued once the NTRA verifies
       the equipment Brand & Model and the following:
   •   The applicant’s abidance by the Type Approval rules and regulations.
   •   The conformity of the telecom equipment with all the relevant
   2. The Type Approval Certificate identifies the certificate holder, the
       certified equipment, and the standards with which the equipment
       conforms, in addition to the manufacturer or the manufacturing entity.
   3. The Type Approval Certificate shall be awarded unconditionally
       provided that no modifications have been made to the approved
   4. The Type Approval Certificate does not authorize the usage of the
       approved equipment in offering telecomm services to others and is
       restricted to private use only. The approved product should not be used
       in any activity that needs the obtainment of a license or permits
       according to Telecom Regulation Law No. 10 for the year 2003.

Conditions & Regulations of the Obtainment of the Import Permit of
Telecom Equipment and Tools for Trading:

Without prejudice to the right of any entity in issuing other needed permits or
licenses, that entity should do the following:

      1. Fulfill the data of the entity that requested the obtainment of the
         permit as per the preset form.
      2. Specify the equipment and tools that should be imported and they
         should conform to the approved models.
      3. Abstain from importing terminal used equipment.
      4. Review every batch and approve it before it clears customs.
      5. Submit a true copy of each batch’s certificate of origin.
      6. Submit a copy of the importation certificate.
      7. Provide a maintenance center for the imported equipment and tools
         provided that the center is accredited, otherwise there is an
         agreement with the agent to provide agrees with the agent to
         provide aftermarket service, and customer service so that the NTRA
         makes periodical inspection of these centers to monitor the
         equipment maintenance and customer service.

N.B. The licensing, fees and admin charges forms are available on the
NTRA’s website. You can obtain them also through your communication with
the NTRA.

                    Consumers’ Bill of Rights
     1. To be safe and protected from hazards to their health and
        environment resulting from their exposure to the used technology
     2. To select their services and their providers (vendors)
     3. To complain to the service provider, take a ticket number from the
        service disc to follow it, or escalate it to NTRA as a second tier
     4. To receive clear data on the service (conditions-prices)
     5. To raise technical awareness on various telecom services
     6. To have the phone numbers of the emergency services and call
        center declared
     7. To get compensation for the failed service or the service that does
        not meet the consumer’s expectation
     8. Terminating the service, without paying any compensation to the
     9. To enjoy universal access
     10. To have his/her information protected
     11. To get service quality that comply with the international standard
     12. To obtain accurate, understandable and monthly bills for products
        and services they authorize or purchase, without paying additional
     13. To be protected from harmful practices committed by the operators
        such as spreading misleading data
     14. Citizens with special needs have the right to have access to special

Consumers’ Obligations:
        1. The consumers should abstain from signing contracts with
           unauthorized bodies, which are not licensed to provide telecom
        2. The consumers should report any violation to law

3. The consumers should not violate the contractual stipulations or
     conditions of service provision
4.    The consumers should not misuse or cause any harm to the
     infrastructure used in telecommunication services provision and
     they should abide by the legal and legitimate means of
5.    The consumers should report any stolen line.

                           NTRA Call Center

NTRA Call Center is a second line for receiving complaints concerning
telecommunication services. It receives user complaints when he / she feel
desperate to solve them with telecommunication service providers/operators.
This Center endeavors to accomplish satisfactory solutions for all users’
complaints, pursuant to Telecom Law no 10/ 2003.

NTRA Call Center receives complaints regarding telecommunication services

         Telecommunication users; any telecommunication service user,
          including but not limited to, fixed services, mobile services,
          Internet, mobile phones, pay phone, prepaid cards, international
          calls, satellites and all other communication services users.
         Users’ inquiries about any Telecommunication service.

NTRA Call Center scope of work

NTRA Call Center receives:

         Technical complaints related to providing telecommunication
          services (fixed, mobiles and/or Internet)
         Complaints related to paying bills and telecommunication services
          methods of payment
         Complaints related to companies selling mobile phones.

Investigating complaints received by the center

General rules for handling complaints

         For a written complaint, the center confirms its reception by three
          days starting from the day the complaint is received.
         The center sends the complaint to the concerned service operator
          or provider, asking for detailed and fast explanation regarding this
          complaint, and the procedures accomplished to solve this problem.
         For technical complaints, such as failures, level of service, payment
          bills and methods of payment, NTRA call center tries to solve them

           within 10 days. As for complaints that require sending technical
           teams for making some measurements and the like, especially
           complaints related to leakage coverage, or demands for measuring
           mobile base stations for ensuring their compliance with health and
           environmental regulations, the center commits itself to solve them in
           21 days maximum.
          For complaints outside NTRA scope of work, NTRA Call Center
           informs the user explaining why this complaint is outside its scope
           of work. In case of user acceptance, the Call Center may send the
           complaint to the service provider or operator recommending its
           solving, and informing NTRA of what happened concerning this
          If the user is not yet satisfied with the solution reached with the
           service provider or operator, he/she shall send a letter containing
           his / her complaint to the NTRA Executive President to review the

Receiving complaints

NTRA Call Center receives complaints in one of the following manners:

      Written complaints.
      Short No. 155 or toll-free No. 08003330333.
      By E-mail
      Fax: 02- 35344333

Steps for complaints investigation

NTRA call center investigates the complaint depending on the data
submitted by the user and the reply submitted by the service provider
or operator. For ensuring fast and active investigations, NTRA Call
Center observes obtaining detailed information of the complaint(s)

          Complaining person name, phone number(s), and e-mail if any.
          Complaint details, comprising service provider/operator, its phone
           numbers, some details concerning the body to which the complaint

    was submitted to, complaint number that he / she obtained from the
   The user shall notify NTRA Call Center of any papers or
    agreements that may be of importance. This includes the contract
    signed by the user and the operator or service provider according to
    which the user receives the service, any agreements stating the
    level of service, and/or any receipts proving that the user has paid
    for the service provided, especially in financial disputes and bills
   NTRA Call Center registers the complaint in Complaints Database,
    giving the complaining person with a reference number for follow
   The Center transfers the complaint to the concerned service
    provider or operator for investigation and explanation. The said
    service provider or operator is required to state procedures taken to
    solve this problem and the reason why a satisfactory solution is not
    reached. In case the complaint contains a legal dispute lying within
    NTRA scope of work, the Center may transfer it to the Legislation
    Sector in NTRA. In addition to this, the Center may also transfer
    some complaints to the Regulatory Sector, if the complaint contains
    what may breach the license issued for the service provider or
   NTRA Call Center takes the appropriate procedure, after receiving
    the service provider or operator reply. This includes; (A) forcing the
    service provider or operator to solve the problem if the user is
    correct, (B) explaining the matter for the user in case he / she is not
    correct due to some shortage in data about the service provided
    and its conditions, or (C) reaching a compromise between the user
    and the service provider or operator, if both of them fail to submit a
    cogent evidence delineating their situations.
   NTRA Call Center tries also to persuade users to be more elastic,
    understanding in accepting apology and compensation as a means
    to solve his/her problem.

Complaint investigation results are:

         Official apology from the service provider or operator.
         Satisfactory explanation for problem reasons, measurements taken
          to solve it, and a guarantee that this will not happen again in the
         A materialistic compensation in situations requiring it, according to
          the contract signed by the user and the service provider or operator.
         Service provider or operator's commitment that this problem will not
          happen again in the future, in complaints regarding service
          provider's or operator's misconduct.
         For repeatedly received complaints regarding a specific service or
          operator, which makes it a common complaint, NTRA intervenes to
          draw the service provider's or operator's attention to this problem. In
          some cases, NTRA may recommend changing of some the
          operator's working policies, to ensure solving this problem and
          stopping it. This may involve regulatory intervention on a large scale
          for setting some rules to provide a satisfactory service for all users.
         For some users who are not aware of a specific service or terms of
          providing this service, NTRA refers this subject to Consumer
          Protection Department for holding an awareness campaign
          concerning this service, terms of it's providing, and user rights for
          the operator or service provider concerning this service.

Relation with operators and service providers

NTRA correlates with operators and service providers with some
agreements that define:


Introduction                      2
Fixed Telephony services          4
Mobile Telecom Services          10
Internet Data & Services         16
Prepaid Calling Cards            19
Public Payphones                 21
Phone Service Fraud              22
Health & Safety                  25
Satellite Services               29
Type Approval                    35
Consumers' Bill of Rights        40
NTRA's Call Center               42


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