Chicago Style Research Proposal Technical proposals • A written offer to undertake a project by pma73527

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									         Technical proposals
• A written offer to undertake a project for
  designing, creating something new or for
  changing or modifying an existing
  procedure, method , system or structure
  within a specified period of time.
• Types
• Structure

                                               1
            TYPES

Solicited      Unsolicited


SALES       RESEARCH
                        2
             Sales proposal
• Sent outside the company to potential
  clients or customers
• Also known as business proposals




                                          3
          Research Proposal
• Academic in nature, mostly solicited
• May appear in a foreign language also
• Basic format remains the same




                                          4
             Characteristics
• Demonstrate to appropriate decision makers
  that their needs would be met with
• Keep in view the customer’s convenience,
  financial gain and prestige
• Anticipate any possible reasons for rejection
  and provide suggestions to overcome them.
• Use plain direct and unambiguous
  expressions
                                              5
                Purposes
• To construct parking
  slots,buildings,bridges,highways
• To survey area for possible water sources
• To modernize the office procedures of a
  company
• To train international managers for work in
  foreign countries,etc.

                                                6
                  Structure


Prefatory
Main body
Supplementary parts




                              7
                        Prefatory


Title page
Draft contract
Executive summary
Table of contents
List of illustrations




                                    8
                 Main body

Introduction
Technical section
Management section
Cost estimate
Conclusion




                             9
                Supplementary


Appendix
Sources and References




                                10
                   Title page


•   Incorporate the title
•   Name of the person or company
•   Name of the person submitting the proposal
•   Date




                                             11
                 Draft contract


Quick summary
  Topic
  Proposer details
  Duration
  Cost
    1st year/ subsequent years



                                  12
                Continued
• Rough draft of the contract proposed
• Finalized after the acceptance of the
  proposal




                                          13
                Executive summary

Back ground
Purpose
Scope
Infrastructure facilities
Technical details
Significance
Re-emphasis


                                    14
                  Continued
• A Concise version of the detailed proposal
• Gives a brief background need for taking up this
  project)
• Summarize the objectives ,how they will be met,
  procedures adopted
• Ends with a reemphasis of proposals strengths
• Length varies 100-300 based on the complexity


                                                     15
                     Introduction


Problem statement (clearly specifies the need for
  investigation)
Purpose, scope
Technical overview
Methodology (procedures adopted to carry out the
 project)
Significance
Structure
                                                    16
                      Technical section

• System overview (Technical description)
• Analysis of existing situation
• Possible design solutions
• Proposed solution
• Sources of information
• Methodology



                                            17
             Management section

 Chains of command (org. charts)
 Corporate / employee credentials
 Schedules (work, implementation, reporting,
  maintenance, delivery, completion, payment,
  forecast)
 Gantt chart, Milestone chart
 Team organization
 Company profile



                                                18
                  Cost Estimate

 Important
 Funding (if internal)
 Break up (equipment details, man power expenses
  miscellaneous / consumables)
 Match with draft contract




                                               19
                    Conclusion



Re-emphasize strengths
Assure the reader




                                 20
                        Appendix



• Credentials details
• Supporting technical documents
• Illustrations




                                   21
           DOCUMENTATION


STYLES
• MLA (Modern Language Association)
• APA (American Psychological Association)
• Chicago style
• IEEE style




                                             22
          Details for Documentation


• Author/s ( whether editor/s)
• Year
• Title of the book/article , Edition if any
• Name of Journal/Newspaper/Magazine,
  Volume No. Page no.
• Place of Publication
• Name of Publishers
                                               23
           WORKS CITED/REFERENCES



Berst,Jesse. “ Berst Alert.” ZD Net 30 Jan.1998.
           <http://www.zdnet.com/anchordesk/story_1716.html>
Corporate Credit Union Network. A Review of the Credit Union
          Financial System. Kansas City: U.S.Central. 1998.

Kroll Jack. “T.Rex Redux.” Newsweek 26 May 1997:74-75

Tibbets, Charlene and A.M.Tibbets.Strategies:A Rhetoric and
          Reader.Glenview:Scott and Company.1988.



                                                               24
          Oral presentation
• Mend your speech a little
  Lest it may mar your fortune.
                     William Shakespeare




                                           25
           TYPES OF ORAL
           PRESENTATION
•   Reading from the text
•   Memorizing
•   Impromptu
•   Extemporaneous




                            26
         Requirements of Oral
            Presentation
•   Knowing your purpose
•   Audience awareness
•   Use of visual aids
•   Presentation plan




                                27
        Audience awareness
• Size up your audience
• Speak directly
• Converse with them with conviction &
  sincerity
• Dramatize certain aspects
• Give a personal touch
• Use humor if possible
                                         28
          Use of Audio visuals
•   Integrate the aid with your op
•   Use it when your reach the relevant point
•   Make your aids accessible
•   Interpret the aids
•   Stand on one side and use the pointer
•   Aids should be specific

                                                29
                  Contd.
• Avoid crowding your aid
• Keep speaking
• Keep writing in case you are using black
  board




                                             30
             Presentation plan
•   Plan and prepare beforehand
•   Bring animation and spontaneity
•   Lift your head and look at the audience
•   Consult your notes when needed
•   Cite references, quotations etc.
•   Use note cards

                                              31
                    Contd.

•   Have sympathy for the crowd
•   Avoid reading your presentation
•   Avoid memorizing
•   Avoid giving a long introduction
•   Signal the end of your presentation



                                          32
                   Contd.
• Avoid verbal fireworks
• Avoid frowning
• Ignore the smiles /whispers of listeners




                                             33
      Dividing your presentation
•
    Introduction
    Capture listeners’ attention and get them
    involved
    Identify yourself and establish your
    credibility
    Preview your main points

                                                34
            BODY
• LIMITED NUMBER OF POINTS
• EXPLAIN AND GIVE DETAILS
• KEEP YOUR PRESENTATION SIMPLE
  AND LOGICAL




                                  35
        CONCLUSION
• DON’T END LIMPLY
• REVIEW ALL THAT YOU SAID
• ENCOURAGE QUESTIONS




                             36
           Use of connectives
• Transitions:end of one thought and indication of
  the beginning of another, such as,after having said
  that……it is time now;in addition to
• Internal previews:indicating what the speaker
  takes up next,such as, we shall discuss its impact
• Internal summary:recalling what has been said so
  far.e.g.in short
• Signposts:indicating where the presenter is in his
  presentation,e.g.the first feature,the second,

                                                    37
    REMEBERTHE FOLLOWING
•   Prepare thoroughly
•   Rehearse repeatedly
•   Time yourself
•   Request a lectern
•   Check the room and gadgets
•   Practice stress reduction

                                 38
        Tips to remember during
              presentation
•   Begin with a pause
•   Present your first sentence from memory
•   Maintain eye contact, correct posture, use gestures
•   Pay attention to facial expressions and Time
•   Control voice and vocabulary
•   Put the brakes on
•   Move naturally
•   Use visual aids
                                                      39
                Contd.
• Avoid digressions
• Summarize your main points




                               40
       After your presentation

Distribute handouts
Encourage questions
Repeat questions
Reinforce main points
keep control
Admit if you are unable to answer some question
End with a summary and appreciation
                                                  41
      Business writing:purposes
•   Making /answering an enquiry
•   Placing an order
•   Demanding or refusing credit
•   Selling goods and services
•   Accepting/refusing a project
•   Responding to complaints

                                   42
                 Contd.
• A business letter is a form of
  communication written by an authorized
  person of an organization.




                                           43
                      Letter

• A Business letter must appeal to the reader’s
  interest and induce in him the proper mood.
• “If he is rude be specially courteous. If he is
  muddle-headed be specially lucid. If he is pig-
  headed be patient.If he is helpful be appreciative.
  If he convicts you of a mistake acknowledge it
  freely and even with gratitude”.
•                             Sir Ernest Gower

                                                    44
         Points to remember
• Before expressing a thought, roll it in your
  mind to avoid ambiguity.
• Choose short, common and concrete words.
• Avoid jargon and slang.
• Arrange your words according to the rules of
  grammar.
• Write short and simple sentences.
• Divide your ideas into small and distinct
  paragraphs.
                                                 45
        Structure and Layout of
                Letters
•   Elements
•   Heading
•   Date
•   Difference
•   Inside address
•   Attention line
•   Salutation
•   Subject
                                  46
•   Body
                Contd.
•   Complimentary Close
•   Signature
•   Identification marks
•   Enclosure




                           47
     Principles of Letter Writing


•   Courtesy and Consideration
•   Directness and Conciseness
•   Avoid Verbosity
•   Avoid Participial endings
•   Positive and Direct Statements
•   Clarity and Precision

                                     48
      Styles of Business Letters
•   Indented Style
•   Block Style
•   Complete Block Style
•   Semi Block Style
•   Hanging Indented Style



                                   49
               Indented style
•   Oldest form
•   Each element indented to four spaces
•   Closed punctuation
•   Salutation on the left
•    Date line & Complimentary close to the
    right

                                              50
           BLOCK STYLE
• Date line, complimentary close and
  signature aligned with the right margin
• All other parts to the left
• Double spacing
• Mixed punctuation



                                            51
         Complete block style
• All parts of the letter aligned with the left
  margin
• Indentation not required
• Open punctuation
• Appears imbalanced and heavy on the left



                                                  52
             Semi block style
•   Like the block style
•   Date line on the right
•   Paragraphs are indented
•   Easier to read
•   Mixed punctuation



                                53
               To sum up

• Draft your business letters the way your
  organization wants it
• Know the popular practice
• Full block format is much in use.




                                             54
       Hanging indented style
• Like block style
• First line of each paragraph aligns with the
  left margin
• All other lines indented four to five spaces
• Not so popular
• Mixed punctuation

                                                 55

								
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