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Lubricants and Lubrication, Second Edition

Description:    This completely revised second edition incorporates the latest data available and reflects the
                knowledge of one of the largest company's active in the business. The authors take into account
                the interdisciplinary character of the field, considering aspects of engineering, materials science,
                chemistry, health and safety. The result is a volume providing chemists and engineers with a clear
                interdisciplinary introduction and guide to all major lubricant applications, focusing not only on the
                various products but also on specific application engineering criteria.

                About the Author
                Theo Mang gained his diploma in mining engineering in 1963, and his doctorate in chemical
                engineering from the University of Clausthal, Germany, in 1967. Since 1998 he has been Professor
                at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the RWTH, Aachen. He began working in the field of
                lubricants at Fuchs in Mannheim in 1967, becoming head of the technical department in 1980 and a
                member of the Executive Board of the global Fuchs Group from 1983 until 2001, responsible
                initially for technology and later for group purchasing and human resources. Professor Mang is a
                recipient of the Georg-Vogelpohl-Award of the German Society of Tribology and has 80 publications
                to his name.

                Wilfried Dresel received his diploma in chemistry in 1972 from the University of Karlsruhe, and his
                doctorate in 1976 in carbosilane chemistry. He began his industrial career the following year in the
                field of preparative organic and pharmaceutical chemistry, and between 1979 and 1983 worked for
                a small company on lubricants for fine mechanical instruments. Dr. Dresel joined Fuchs in 1984,
                where he is responsible for the development of lubricating greases, initially on a national, and
                subsequently on a global basis. He has authored 35 scientific papers and contributions to books.



Contents:       List of Contributors.

                 Preface, Foreword 2nd Edition.

                 AWord of Thanks.

                 List of Abbreviations.

                 1 Lubricants and their Market (Theo Mang).
                 1.1 Preface.
                 1.2 Lubricant Sales.
                 1.3 The Lubricants Industry.
                 1.4 Lubricant Systems.

                 2 Lubricants in the Tribological System (Theo Mang).
                 2.1 Lubricants as Part of Tribological Research.
                 2.2 The Tribological System.
                 2.3 Friction.
                 2.4 Wear.

                 3 Rheology of Lubricants (Theo Mang).
                 3.1 Viscosity.
                 3.2 Influence of Temperature on Viscosity (V–T Behavior).
                 3.3 Viscosity–Pressure Dependency.
                 3.4 The Effect of Shear Rate on Viscosity.
                 3.5 Special Rheological Effects.
                 3.6 Viscosity Grades.

                 4 Base Oils (Theo Mang and Georg Lingg).
                 4.1 Base Oils–A Historical Review and Outlook.
4.2   Chemical Characterization of Mineral Base Oils.
4.3   Refining.
4.4   Base Oil Manufacturing by Hydrogenation and Hydrocracking.
4.5   Boiling and Evaporation Behavior of Base Oils.
4.6   Base Oil Categories and Evaluation of Various Petroleum Base Oils.

5 Synthetic Base Oils (Wilfried Dresel).
5.1 Synthetic Hydrocarbons.
5.2 Halogenated Hydrocarbons.
5.3 Synthetic Esters.
5.4 Polyalkylene Glycols.
5.5 Other Polyethers.
5.6 Other Synthetic Base Oils.
5.7 Comparison of Synthetic Base Oils.
5.8 Mixtures of Synthetic Lubricants.

 6 Additives (J&uuml
rgen Braun).
 6.1 Antioxidants.
 6.2 Viscosity Modifiers.
 6.3 Pourpoint Depressants (PPD).
 6.4 Detergents and Dispersants.
 6.5 Antifoam Agents.
 6.6 Demulsifiers and Emulsifiers.
 6.7 Dyes.
 6.8 Antiwear (AW) and Extreme Pressure (EP) Additives.
 6.9 Friction Modifiers (FM).
 6.10 Corrosion Inhibitors.

7 Lubricants in the Environment (Rolf Luther).
7.1 Definition of CEnvironmentally Friendly Lubricants’.
7.2 Current Situation.
7.3 Tests to Evaluate Biotic Potential.
7.4 Environmental Legislation 1: Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh).
7.5 Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling (GHS).
7.6 Environmental Legislation 2: Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC).
7.7 Environmental Legislation 3: Regular use.
7.8 Environmental Legislation 4: Emissions.
7.9 Standardization of Environmentally Compatible Hydraulic Fluids.
7.10 Environmental Seal.
7.11 Base Fluids.
7.12 Additives.
7.13 Products (Examples).
7.14 Safety Aspects of Handling Lubricants (Working Materials).
7.15 Skin Problems Caused by Lubricants.

8 Disposal of Used LubricatingOils (Theo Mang).
8.1 Possible Uses of Waste Oil.
8.2 Legislative Influences on Waste Oil Collection and Reconditioning.
8.3 Re-refining.

 9 Lubricants for Internal Combustion Engines (Manfred Harperscheid and J&uuml
rgen Omeis).
 9.1 Four-stroke Engine Oils.
 9.2 Two-stroke Oils.
 9.3 Tractor Oils.
 9.4 Gas Engine Oils.
 9.5 Marine Diesel Engine Oils.

10 Gear Lubrication Oils (Thorsten Bartels).
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Requirements of Gear Lubrication Oils.
10.3 Tribology of Gears.
10.4   Gear Lubrication Oils for Motor Vehicles.
10.5   Multifunctional Fluids in Vehicle Gears.
10.6   Gear Lubricants for Industrial Gears.
10.7   Cost-to-benefit Ratio of Gear Lubrication Oils.

11 Hydraulic Oils (Wolfgang Bock).
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 Hydraulic Principle–Pascal’s Law.
11.3 Hydraulic Systems, Circuits, Components.
11.4 Hydraulic Fluids.
11.5 Hydraulic System Filters.
11.6 Machine Tool Lubrication.
11.7 Summary.
12 Compressor Oils.
12.1 Air Compressor Oils (Wolfgang Bock and Georg Lingg).
12.2 Refrigeration Oils (Wolfgang Bock).

13 Turbine Oils (Wolfgang Bock).
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Demands on Turbine Oils – Characteristics.
13.3 Formulation of Turbine Oils.
13.4 Turbine Lubricants – Specifications.
13.5 Turbine Oil Circuits.
13.6 Flushing Turbine Oil Circuits.
13.7 Monitoring and Maintenance of Turbine Oils.
13.8 Life of (Steam) Turbine Oils.
13.9 Gas Turbine Oils –Application and Requirements.
13.10 Fire-resistant, Water-free Fluids for Power Station Applications.
13.11 Lubricants for Water Turbines and Hydroelectric Plants.

 14 MetalworkingFluids (Theo Mang,C armen Freiler and Dietrich H&ouml
rner).
 14.1 Action Mechanism and Cutting Fluid Selection.
 14.2 Friction and Wear Assessment Method for the Use of Cutting Fluids.
 14.3 Water-miscible Cutting Fluids.
 14.4 Neat Cutting Fluids.
 14.5 Machining with Geometrically Defined Cutting Edges.
 14.6 Machining with Geometric Non-defined Cutting Edges.
 14.7 Specific Material Requirements for Machining Operations.
 14.8 Metalworking Fluid Circulation System.
 14.9 Coolant Costs.
 14.10 New Trends in Coolant Technology.

15 Forming Lubricants.
15.1 Sheet Metal Working Lubricants (Theo Mang,F ranz Kubicki,Achim Losch and Wolfgang Buss).
15.2 Lubricants for Wire, Tube, and Profile Drawing (Theo Mang and Wolfgang Buss).
15.3 Lubricants for Rolling (Theo Mang and Wolfgang Buss).
15.4 Solid Metal Forming Lubricants (Solid Forming, Forging and Extrusion) (Theo Mang and
Wolfgang Buss).

16 Lubricating Greases (Wilfried Dresel and Rolf-Peter Heckler).
16.1 Introduction.
16.2 Thickeners.
16.3 Base Oils.
16.4 Grease Structure.
16.5 Additives.
16.6 Manufacture of Greases.
16.7 Grease Rheology.
16.8 Grease Performance.
16.9 Applications of Greases.
16.10 Grease Market.
16.11 Ecology and the Environment.
16.12 Grease Tribology.
            17 Solid Lubrication (Christian Busch).
            17.1 Classification of Solid Lubricants.
            17.2 Characteristics.
            17.3 Products Containing Solid Lubricants.
            17.4 Industrial Uses of Products Containing Solid Lubricants.

             18 Laboratory Methods for TestingLubricants (Siegfried Noll and Roman M&uuml
            ller).
             18.1 Introduction.
             18.2 Density.
             18.3 Viscosity.
             18.4 Refractive Index.
             18.5 Structural Analyses.
             18.6 Flash Point.
             18.7 Surface Phenomena.
             18.8 Cloud Point, Pour Point.
             18.9 Aniline Point.
             18.10 Water Content.
             18.11 Ash Content.
             18.12 Acidity, Alkalinity.
             18.13 Aging Tests.
             18.14 Hydrolytic Stability.
             18.15 Corrosion Tests.
             18.16 Oil Compatibility of Seals and Insulating Materials.
             18.17 Evaporation Loss.
             18.18 Analysis and Testing of Lubricating Greases.
             18.19 List of Equivalent Standardized Methods for Testing Lubricants.

            19 Mechanical–Dynamic Test Methods for Lubricants (Thorsten Bartels).
            19.1 Tribological System Categories within Lubricant Tests.
            19.2 Simple Mechanical–Dynamic Lubricant Test Machines.
            19.3 Performance Tests for Gear Oil Applications.
            19.4 Performance Tests for Roller Bearing Applications.
            19.5 Performance Tests for Synchronizer Applications.
            19.6 Performance Tests for Automatic Transmissions.
            19.7 Performance Tests for Continuously Variable Transmissions.
            19.8 Performance Tests for Hydraulic Fluid Applications.
            19.9 Other Standardized and Non-Standardized Test Methods and Test Machines for Lubricants.
            19.10 Interpretation and Precision of Lubricant Tests.
            References.
            Subject Index.



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