Chemistry Laboratory Report for Determination of Formula Unit for Zinc Chloride by skk51796

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									                           AP CHEMISTRY 2010/2011

Classroom Requirements:
    2 inch three-ring binder for this class only
    1 ½ inch three-ring Laboratory binder/portfolio
    Loose leaf paper
    Pencil and pen
    Graphing Calculator
    1 gallon of distilled water

Provided by School/Required for Class:
    Zumdahl “Chemistry” Textbook
    Zumdahl Study Guide
    Zumdahl Experimental Chemistry

    Attendance and tardies will be dealt with per the LNHS Student Handbook.

Homework assignments must be clearly identified by page number, assigned questions,
and date. Answers must be outlined with a box, excluding theory questions.

Test Corrections/Re-Test:
Re-tests are available on all chapter tests within 5 days of receiving a test grade. An
average of the two grades will be recorded. Students will not be able to re-test unless all
homework assignments, labs, and study guide questions have been completed. Students
only receive 1 re-test per semester. Please choose wisely.

Students are expected to abide by all laboratory safety regulations. Safety glasses,
gloves, and aprons will be required for most lab experiments (provided by the school).

For every day that an assigned lab report is late, the student will lose 10 percent. If a
student is missing more than one lab each quarter, they will receive an “incomplete” until
this deficiency is rectified. Once graded labs are returned, late labs will have a 50 percent
reduction in points.

Laboratory Notebook (Binder)
A laboratory notebook is required to organize students’ graded lab reports. It should not
be brought to class daily, but will be checked and graded at the end of each quarter.
Missed Notes, Homework, Assignments, Labs:
Students are responsible for missed notes, homework, and assignments due to absence.
This make-up work must be completed within (5) school days. Any exemptions will be
dealt with by Administration.

School Rules:
Students are also required to abide by LNHS rules, including but not limited to:
   1.      No electronic devices (CD players, cell-phones, pagers, etc….)
   2.      No profanity
   3.      No playing cards

On-line Assignments:
Students will be assigned on-line homework through the Quest program provided by the
University of Texas. The student’s link to Quest is:
Information       is      also     located     on        Ms.       Carroll’s      website:

Course Evaluation:
      Semester One
      Reporting Period No. 1                 37.5 %                50 % Total
      Reporting Period No. 2                 37.5 %
      Mid-term AP Chemistry Exam             25 %

       Semester Two
       Reporting Period No. 3                50 %                  50 % Total
       Reporting Period No. 4                50 %

Reporting Period Grade Evaluation:
      Labs/Lab Notebook                                            20 %
      Homework assignments                                         12 %
      Online Assignments                                           12 %
      Chapter Tests                                                43 %
      Quizzes                                                      13 %

Contact Information:
E-mail Address:
Phone Number: 704-799-9555, Extension 411
AP Chemistry – Course Syllabus
Class Profile:
AP Chemistry is a year-long, 90 minute course.

A typical week is organized to provide:
     3-4 days of lecture focused on the key objectives listed in the syllabus, including
       teacher demonstrations
     1-2 days of lab activity. Labs may exceed one 90 minute class, depending on the
       requirements of the specific lab activity. In addition, some sections/objectives are
       more conducive to lab activity than others and will have more lab activity.

AP Chemistry Objectives:
The AP Chemistry course is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry
usually taken during the first college year. For some students, this course enables them to
undertake, as freshmen, second-year work in chemistry sequence at their institution or to
register in courses in other fields where general chemistry is a pre-requisite. For other
students, the AP Chemistry course fulfills the laboratory science requirement and frees
time for other courses.

AP Chemistry should meet the objectives of a good general chemistry course. Students
in such a course should attain a depth of understanding of fundamentals and a reasonable
competence in dealing with chemical problems. The course should contribute to the
development of the student’s abilities to think clearly and to express their ideas, orally
and in writing, with clarity and logic. The college course in general chemistry differs
qualitatively from the usual first secondly school course in chemistry with respect to the
kind of laboratory work done by students. Quantitative differences appear in the number
of topics treated, the time spent on the course by students, and the nature and the variety
of experiments done in the laboratory.

The AP Chemistry course is designed to be taken only after the successful completion of
a first course in high school chemistry (Chemistry 1). Surveys of students who take the
AP Chemistry Exam indicate that the probability of achieving a grade of 3 or higher is
significantly greater for students who successfully complete a first course in high school
chemistry prior to undertaking the AP course. Thus, it is STRONGLY recommended
that credit in a first-year chemistry course be a prerequisite for enrollment in an AP
Chemistry class. In addition, the recommended mathematics prerequisites for an AP
Chemistry class is the successful completion of a second-year algebra course.
AP Chemistry Topics:
1.   Structure of Matter                                  (20 percent)
     a)     Atomic theory and atomic structure
     b)     Chemical bonding
     c)     Nuclear chemistry
2.   States of Matter                                     (20 percent)
     a)     Gases
     b)     Liquids and solids
     c)     Solutions
3.   Reactions                                            (35 – 40 percent)
     a)     Reaction types
     b)     Stoichiometry
     c)     Equilibrium
     d)     Kinetics
     e)     Thermodynamics
4.   Descriptive Chemistry                                (10 – 15 percent)
     a)     Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
     b)     Relationships in the periodic table
     c)     Introduction to organic chemistry
5.   Laboratory                                           (5 – 10 percent)
     a)     Making observations of chemical reactions
     b)     Recording data/Communicating effectively the results
     c)     Calculating/interpreting results based on the quantitative data obtained.
     Unless otherwise noted, each laboratory will be “hands-on” and will involve:
            a)     physical manipulation of equipment and materials in order to
                   make relevant observations and collect data
            b)     use the collected data to form conclusions and verify hypotheses
            c)     communicate and compare their results and procedures
                   (informally to classmates and in a formal, written report to the

   1.     Text – “Chemistry” by Zumdahl (6th Edition), ancillaries and supplements
   2.     The College Board Science Achievement Tests/Past AP Exams
   3.     Video/Internet Resources (APEX, Glencoe, Zumdahl Interactive 6.0)
   4.     Additional advanced chemistry texts (Brown et al, Hill et al, Holt Modern
          Chemistry, Glencoe Chemistry Matter and Change)
   5.     HM Class Prep with HM Testing v6.1
   6.     Princeton and Cole AP Chemistry Test Preparation
                        AP CHEMISTRY COURSE OUTLINE

This course is given in terms of the Zumdahl Chemistry textbook (6th Edition). The
problems at the end of the chapters are very challenging and serve as an excellent tool for
students to use to truly comprehend the material. The problems also indicate the depth of
coverage required for each topic.

Introduction:                                                       1 day
                                                                    (Aug 25)

Predictive Assessment:                                              1 day
                                                                    (Aug 26)

Unit 1: Review of Chemistry I Honors Topics                         August 27 –
              (Chapters 1-5, 11)                                    October 15

Chemical Foundations:                                               1 day
     Measuring and units                                            (Aug 27)
     Use of significant figures
     Dimensional analysis
     Classification of matter
     Lab: Identification of Unknown Substances (60 minutes)

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions:                                         1 day
      Early history of chemistry                                    (Aug 30)
      Law of Conservation of Mass
      Law of Definite Proportion
      Law of Multiple Proportions
      Dalton’s Atomic Theory
      Avogadro’s Hypothesis
      Early experiments to characterize atomic structure
      Modern view of the atom
      Introduction to the Periodic Table
      Naming compounds

Stoichiometry:                                                    5 days
       Atomic mass, moles and molar mass                          (Aug 31, Sep 1-3, 7)
       Percent composition of compounds
       Empirical formula determination
       Chemical equations and stoichiometric calculations
       Limiting reagent, theoretical yield, percent yield
       Lab: Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Compound by the
       Decomposition of a Metallic Oxide and the Formation of a Metal Sulfide (120
       Lab: Conservation of Mass Lab (60 minutes)
       Lab: Iron Tango Lab (limiting reactant/percent yield) (75 minutes)
         Lab: Synthesis of Zinc Iodide Lab (limiting reactant/percent yield) (60 minutes)
         Lab: Determination of the Percent of Water in a Hydrate (60 minutes)

         REVIEW (CHAPTERS 1 – 3)                                Sep 8
         (All Reviews include past AP questions, Zumdahl Study Guide questions)
         TEST 1 (CHAPTER 1 – 3)                                 Sep 9 (Thursday)
         MID-QUARTER REPORT                                     September 28

Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry:             10 days
      Composition of solutions                                  (Sep 10, 13-17,
      Precipitation                                             20-23)
      Acid/base reactions
      Oxidation/reduction reactions (time permitting)
      Stoichiometry problems involving solution chemistry
      Predicting Reactions**** (continual)
      Lab: Analysis of an Unknown Chloride (120 minutes)
      Lab: Reactions, Predictions, and Net Ionic Equations (240 minutes)

Gases:                                                              7 days
         Pressure                                                   (Sep 24, 27-30,
         Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Gay-Lussac                 (Oct 1,4)
         Ideal Gas Law
         Gas Stoichiometry
         Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
         Kinetic Molecular Theory
         Effusion and diffusion
         Real gases/atmosphere
         Lab: Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas (120 minutes)
         Lab: Charles’ Law Experiment (30 minutes)
         Demo: Atmospheric pressure, Boyle’s Law

Properties of Solution:                                       6 days
      Energies of solvation                                   (Oct 5-8, 11,12)
      Factors affecting solubility
      Vapor pressures and Raoult’s Law
      Boiling-point elevation and freezing-point depression
      Osmotic pressure
      Colligative properties
      Lab: Colligative Properties Lab(45 minutes)
      Lab: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point (90 minutes)

         REVIEW (CHAPTERS 4, 5, 11)                                 Oct 13, 14
         TEST (CHAPTERS 4, 5, 11)                                   Oct 15 (Friday)
         REPORT CARDS (QUARTER 1)                                   November 4
Unit 2: Atomic Structure and Bonding:
             (Chapter 7, 8, part of 9)                           Oct 18 – Nov 12

Atomic Structure and Periodicity                                  9 Days
      Electromagnetic radiation                                   (Oct 18-22, 25-28,)
      Planck, photon, E=mc2                                       (Nov 1)
      Dual nature of light
      DeBroglie equation
      Continuous vs. line spectra
      Bohr atom
      Modern view of the atom (wave function and probability)
      Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      Quantum numbers
      Orbital shapes and energies
      Electron spin, Aufbau Principle, Pauli Principle
      History of Periodic Table
      Periodic trends
      Alkali metal properties
      Lab: Flame Test for Metals (45 minutes)
      Lab: Spectral tubes/Diffraction grating to view spectra (45 minutes)

Bonding: General Concepts:                                        7 Days
      Types of bonds                                              (Nov 2-5, 8,9)
      Electronegativity, electron affinity, & ionization energy
      Bond polarity and dipole moment
      Electron configuration and sizes of atoms and ions
      Formations of ionic compounds
      Ionic character of covalent bonds
      Model of covalent bond energies
      Bond energies, enthalpy, and chemical reactions
      Localized electron bonding model
      Lewis structures
      Exceptions to octet rule
      VSEPR model
      Lab: Molecular Model Lab No. 1(building structure using a molecular model kit,
      identifying bonding type, drawing Lewis Structure, identifying molecular shape
      and molecular force) (60 minutes)
      Lab: Molecular Model Lab No. 2 (Exceptions to the Octet Rule – uses toothpicks
      and Styrofoam balls to create structure)(60 minutes)

       REVIEW (CHAPTER 7-9)                                      Nov 10
       TEST (CHAPTER 7-9)                                        Nov 12 (Friday)
       MID-QUARTER REPORT                                        December 7
Unit 3: Chemical Equilibrium                                    Nov 15 – Jan 14
             (Chapters 13-15)

Chemical Equilibrium:                                          5 days
     Equilibrium condition                                     (Nov 15-19)
     Equilibrium constant
     Kp (pressure)
     Heterogeneous equilibria
     Solving equilibrium problems
     Le Chatelier’s Principle
     Lab: Stresses Applied to Equilibrium Systems (Le Chatelier’s Principle) (90 min)
     Lab: Determination of Equilibrium Constant for a Chemical Reaction (120 min)

Acids and Bases:                                                 12 Days
       Nature of acids and bases                                 (Nov 22,23,29,30,
       Acid strength                                             Dec 1-3, 6-10)
       pH scale
       Calculating pH of strong and weak acid solutions
       Bases and base strength
       Polyprotic acids
       Acid/base properties of salts and oxides
       Lewis acid/base
       Solving acid/base problems
       Lab: Stresses Applied to Equilibrium Systems (Experiment 26) (150 minutes)
       Lab: Hydronium Ion Concentration and pH (90 minutes)
       Lab: Determination of an Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka (50 minutes)
       Lab: Determination of a Base Dissociation Constant, Kb (50 minutes)
       Lab: Determination of an Unknown Concentration by Acid/Base Titration (60
       Lab: Titration of Weak Acid/Strong Base, Strong Acid/Strong Base, Weak
       Base/Strong Acid (4 days) – calculations, graphs, experimental procedure
       Lab: Soda Lab (50 minutes)

Application of Aqueous Equilibria                              11 Days
      Acid or base solutions with common ion                   (Dec 13-17, Jan 3-7,
      Buffered solutions                                       (Jan 10)
      Buffer capacity
      Titrations and pH curves
      Choosing an appropriate indicator for titrations
      Solubility equilibria and solubility product
      Precipitation behavior as pH is varied
      Equilibria involving complex ions
      Lab: Oh, What a Buffer it is!!! (60 minutes)
      Lab: Determination of the Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid (90 minutes)
      Lab: Determining the Ka of an Indicator (60 minutes)
      Lab: Ksp of Ca(OH)2
       REVIEW (CH. 13-15)                                       Jan 11-12)
       TEST (CH. 13-15)                                         Jan 13 (Thursday)
       SEMESTER 1 REPORT CARDS                                  February 1

Unit 4: Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry
             Chapter 6, 16, and 17)                             Jan 26 – Mar 4

Thermodynamics:                                                    7 days
     Nature of Energy                                              (Jan 26-28, 31)
     Three Law of Thermodynamics                                   (Feb 1-3)
     State functions
     Work, heat, and internal energy
     Enthalpy and calorimetry
     Hess’s Law
     Standard Enthalpies of Formation
     Present and future energy sources
     Lab: Observing Heat Changes (30 minutes) – mixing/observation of three
     thermochemical reactions, identification of endothermic or exothermic,
     identification as physical or chemical change.
     Lab: Determining the Specific Heat of an Unknown Metal – the specific heat
     capacity of a nail will be experimentally determined by measuring the
     temperature change of water and of the nail after it has been heated to
     approximately 850 degrees Celsius in a Bunsen burner (45 minutes)
     Lab: Thermochemistry and Hess’ Law – three different combinations of acids
     and bases are made. All of the reactions are exothermic. The temperature
     change of each reaction will be measured and the enthalpy will be calculated.
     The reactions are chosen so that subtracting the chemical equation for the second
     reaction from that of the first reaction will give the chemical equation for the
     third reaction. Consequently, according to Hess’ Law, subtracting enthalpy of
     the second equation for the first should lead to the enthalpy of the third;
     therefore, verifying Hess’ Law. (90 minutes)
     Lab: Measuring Energy Changes (Heat of fusion) – to determine the temperature
     and heat changes that occur when ice melts. A heating curve will be obtained in
     Part A and measurements will be taken in Part B to determine the experimental
     heat of fusion (60 minutes)

Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy:                          6 days
      Spontaneous processes and entropy                         (Feb 4, 7-11)
      Free Energy
      Entropy changes and chemical reactions
      Free energy and chemical reactions
      Dependence of free energy on pressure
      Free energy and equilibrium
      Free energy and work
Electrochemistry:                                                    12 days
       Galvanic cells                                                (Feb 14-18,21-25,
       Standard reduction potentials                                 Mar 1,2)
       Cell potential, electrical work, and free energy
       Cell potential and concentrations
       Commercial electrolytic processes
       Lab: Electrochemical Cells –several different half-cells are prepared and
       connected to find the voltages generated. The values are used to contract a table
       of “relative” electrode potentials. Also, the change in concentration of one of the
       solutions will be observed to see how this affects cell potential. Thirdly, we will
       determine the solubility product of silver chloride.
       Lab: Determination of Iron by Redox Titration (use potassium permanganate as
       a titrant in the analysis of an unknown sample containing iron). (120 minutes)

       REVIEW (CHAPTER 6, 16, 17)                                  March 3
       TEST (CHAPTER 17)                                           March 4 (Friday)
       MID-QUARTER REPORT                                          March 1

Unit 5: Rate Kinetics
             (Chapter 12)                                          7 days

       Reaction rates                                             (Mar 7-11,14,15)
       Rate laws
       Determining rate laws
       Integrated rate laws
       Reaction mechanism
       Lab: Temperature and Reaction Rates – inquiry lab – what effect does
       temperature have on the rate of a chemical reaction? (60 minutes)
       Lab: Introduction to Reaction Rates – investigate how changing the temperature
       of the reactants or how changing the concentration of potassium hydroxide will
       affect the rate of reaction of methylene blue (60 minutes)
       Demo: Iodine Clock reaction

Unit 6: Nuclear Chemistry
             (Chapter 21)                                          5 days

       Nuclear stability and radioactive decay                     (Mar 16-18,21,22)
       Kinetics of radioactive decay
       Nuclear transformation
       Detection and uses of radioactivity
       Thermodynamic stability of the nucleus
       Nuclear fission and fusion
      Effects of radiation

      REVIEW (CHAPTER 12/21)     Mar 23/24
      TEST (CHAPTER 12/21)       Mar 25 (Friday)
      REPORT CARDS (QUARTER 3)   April 7

Unit 7: Review for AP Exam       25 days
                                 (Mar 28-31,
                                 Apr 4-8,11-15,18-21,
                                 May 2-6,9,10)
                         AP CHEMISTRY YEAR PLAN

UNIT                                                               DATE
               Introduction/Safety                                 Aug 25

               Predictive Assessment                               Aug 26

Unit 1:        Review of Chemistry 1 Honors Topics                 Aug 27– Oct 15
               (Chapters 1-5, 11)

Unit 2:        Atomic Structure and Bonding                        Oct 18 – Nov 12
               (Chapters 7, 8, part of 9)

Unit 3:        Chemical Equilibrium                                Nov 15 – Jan 14
               (Chapters 13-15)

Unit 4:        Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry                 Jan 26 – Mar 4
               (Chapters 6, 16, and 17)

Unit 5:        Rate Kinetics                                       Mar 7 – Mar 15
               (Chapter 12)

Unit 6:        Nuclear Chemistry                                   Mar 16 – Mar 25
               (Chapter 21)

Unit 7:        Review for AP Exam                                  Mar 28– May 10

               AP Chemistry Exam                                   May 10, 2010

Unit 8:        Organic Chemistry/Extra Labs                        May 12 – Jun 10

I have read and understand all of the information explained above! I will turn the portion
in below the dotted line and keep the rest to serve as the first pages in my three-ring

               Name                          Signature                     Date
Parent:        ___________________           ________________              ______
Guardian       Name                          Signature                     Date
               ________________              _______________
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