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The Movie Poster

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                MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Although considered a relatively new
    medium to most, the movie industry
    has been in existence for over 100
    years. It has not only survived but
    prospered through a century of almost
    insurmountable obstacles and
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Today, movies are a billion dollar
    industry. The movie poster, in all of its
    sizes and forms, has been the
    backbone on which this industry was
    built. Movies and their posters have
    grown side-by-side since the late
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   During the late 1800's,
    many inventors
    experimented with
    devices that would
    make pictures appear to
    move. The Belgian
    scientist, Joseph
    Plateur, invented the
    phenakistoscope in
                              Joseph Plateur
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   This device consisted of two disks a few
    inches apart on a rod. Plateau placed
    painted pictures of a person or thing on
    the edge of one of the disks, each picture
    being slightly advanced. The other disk
    had slots, so when both disks were rotated
    at the same speed, the pictures appeared to
    move as they came into the view of the

Entertainment advertisement
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   History of the Movie Poster

                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   From the very beginning movie posters were
    a part of commerce, designed to get patrons
    to the box office.
   In 1890 a Frenchman named Jules Cheret is
    credited with producing the very first movie
    poster, a lithograph designed to promote a
    short film entitled “Projections Artistiques”.
                             THE MOVIE POSTER
   History of the Movie Poster
       Five years later, a movie poster for the Lumiere
        Brothers’ “Arrival of a Train” in 1895 was the
        first to depict an actual scene from the film.
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   However, up until the early 1910s, the
    majority of early film posters were nothing
    more than simple “broadside” style signs
    with little more than block text.
                    MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
A typical poster for an early
Edison film contained little
more than the movie’s title
and the words “Another
Edison Photoplay”.
                       MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Up to this point in film history, there were no
    "movie stars." Most of the actors in the early
    films choose to remain anonymous. It was
    to the benefit of all involved with early films
    to keep their movie's participants unknown.
       Legitimate stage actors preferred to remain
        unknown, embarrassed that anyone would find out
        that they participated in this new medium.
       Movie producers were secure in knowing that they could
        control the medium as long as the movie participants
        remained unnamed.
                    MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   By the year 1910, however, things began to change.
    As early as 1908, studios began receiving mail
    addressed to nameless actors.
   Movie producers, fearing that giving the identity of
    the stars would cause them to demand more
    money, continued to insist on anonymity.
   But the studios were soon faced with the reality that
    movie goers wanted to know the names of the
    actors and actresses.
   This would become quite evident thanks to the stunt
    perpetrated on the industry by Carl Laemmle, owner of
    IMP studio.
                       MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
The first Publicity Stunt
Mr. Laemmle managed to steal one Florence Lawrence from a rival
  movie studio. To this point, Ms. Lawrence was known to her fans
  as the "Biograph Girl“. In what could be considered one of the
  first publicity stunts pulled off by a movie studio, a rumor was
  started, purportedly by Mr Laemmle himself, that the adored
  "Biograph Girl" was dead.

In order to set the record straight, Mr. Laemmle published a full
   page ad in a St. Louis newspaper stating that he had "nailed a
   lie" and would be presenting Ms. Lawrence in St. Louis. When
   more people showed up to see Ms. Lawrence than had come to
   see then President Taft (who had the highest approval rating
   in US History!) who was visiting St. Louis one week earlier, the
   studio owners had to acquiesce, and no longer would movie
   actors and actresses be kept anonymous.
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   It was at this point that producers
    recognized that the real selling tools
    were not the movies but the "stars" that
    graced their screens. Suddenly, posters had
    to be designed with consideration given to
    the stars and their "pecking order."
                   MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Posters now had to reflect the size and status of
    the “leading lady" and "leading man”. Soon the
    public could recognize one's "star status" simply
    by looking at a movie poster.
   The size of the print and the placement were easy
    indicators as to just how "big" a particular star
   Movie contracts would now include clauses
    relating to the size and placement of names on
    the movie poster and other advertising
   Actors and actresses had now become powers
    to be reckoned with.

                   MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   The early 1920's were considered the golden age
    of the silent movie. Grand movie palaces soon
    replaced the movie theatre, and the crude
    posters of old gave way to more splendid,
    artistically aesthetic movie posters.
   Well known commercial artists were
    commissioned by many studios to design movie
    poster "portraits" of leading stars.
   Unfortunately, the American studios did not
    allow the artists to sign their posters, as
    commercial artists were allowed to do on
    European movie posters.
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   These new posters no longer depicted
    scenes -- the posters were designed with
    portraits of the stars, the movie title and
    the stars' names.
   There was an occasional slogan or two, but
    the emphasis was now placed on the
    movie's "stars."
   Most of the studios had their advertising
    offices in New York, and this is where most
    of the posters originated from.
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   It was during this time, (actually started in
    1919) that the National Screen Service
    ("NSS") first made its appearance. NSS
    began competing with the studios' lucrative
    business of creating and distributing
   Trailers were the film clips of coming
    attractions that would be shown after a
    feature presentation - thus the term
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Next to movie studios, the National Screen
    Service ("NSS") had the most direct and
    profound impact on the movie paper
    advertising industry.
   From 1939 until the mid-1980’s, the NSS
    was the "control center" for almost 90% of
    the movie paper distributed.
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   By the 1920's, a new printing process was
    developed. Known as photogelatin or heliotype,
    this new process was used primary on smaller
    sized card stock items, such as lobby cards,
    inserts and window cards.
   Evolving from one color to three (YELLOW, PINK
    and BLUE), this process was used for materials
    meant to be viewed closely.
   These items were not as effective when viewed
    from a distance.
   One-sheets and larger paper continued to be
    printed via stone (and later aluminum plate)
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   By the 1950's, the "fan magazines" also
    made its appearance during this time period.
   Photoplay and Movie Mirror were two of the
    pioneers in this area, and their magazines
    were replete with color photographs of all
    major movie stars.
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Movie companies adopted this style of
    advertising, and soon movie posters
    began to look more like color
    photographs, using tinted photographs
    and large stock lettering.
   With the number of cars on the roads,
    posters were designed to be seen from long
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   In the 60’s, movies posters progressed, the
    posters began to reflect the changing
    attitudes toward violence and sex.
   The use of photographs were replacing the
    painted artwork common in the early years.
                    MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   The movies posters of the 1970's continued the
    use of photography. Drawing and painting styles
    were still being used occasionally, and artists like
    Richard Amsel, Frank Frazetta and Bob Peak lent
    their names to some of the more popular film
    posters of this era.

   Movie posters were now being printed on a clay-
    coated paper which gave them a glossy finish
    smooth to the touch.
         Examples of how
             KEY ART
    Is used in movie marketing
                       MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
                                              Richard Amsel

Budgeted $35 mil       1974                      1982
Made: Approx $40 mil   Budgeted $6 mil           Budgeted $15 mil
                       Made: Approx $12 mil      Made $23 mil
                       MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
                                    Bob Peak

Budgeted $31.5
Made: Approx $40 mil
          Drew Struzan
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   By the 1980's, the National Screen
    Service lost its control over the movie
    paper industry, leaving only three regional
    offices remaining in operation.

   This fact, along with the advent of the multi-
    screen complexes, the lineup of advertising
    materials available to theatres changed
                    MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Prior to this time, most theatres had just one
    screen and one feature movie. More advertising
    space was dedicated to each movie, with theatre
    lobbies covered with various sizes of posters for
    one movie.
                      MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   With more screens and more movies, the advertising
    space in the theatre lobby now had to be divided
    equally among all films being shown. As a
    consequence, movie studios opted to phase out of
    some of these "old standards" and introduced a more
    versatile "mini sheet" which could be produced in any
    smaller size.

   This "mini" sheet could take the place of any of the
    smaller sizes, since there is no standard size. Its just
    smaller than 27 x 40!
   The "mini" sheet
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   The video rental market, which began
    gaining popularity during the 1985, has
    given movie producers another avenue for
    increasing profits.

   No longer do movie studios have to rely on
    theatre box office receipts to make money.
    Video rental income now figures heavily in
    weighing the success or failure of a film.
                   MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Since video rentals also rely on advertising,
    a new line of video materials were
    introduced. Video posters, which appear to
    be similar to the theatre one sheets, are
    distributed to video rental outlets for display.

   Many studios issue a number of materials
    strictly for their video market, making it a
    viable profit alternative for movie studios.
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   The rise of the video resulted in the
    demise of reissues/re-releases.

   Instead of re-releasing a film to the
    theatres, movie studios simply released
    them on video cassette.
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY

   Reissues/Re-releases.
   Many of today's studios have opted
    to use the "mini" sheet. Since the
    mini sheet is not a standard size, it
    can be used to replace many of the
    old favorites, like inserts, half
    sheets (horizontal poster),
    window cards.
   Inserts
                 MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   Stand-ees, mobiles and counter displays
    are also very popular. Video advertising
    materials are also still widely used. In
    addition, posters made for cable TV and
    network television movies have also been
                  MOVIE POSTER HISTORY
   A standee is any type of display that
    basically "stands on its own or is able to be
    displayed with little or no outside support”.

   A standee can range from a small counter
    top standing display to a larger than life
    lobby size display, and anything in between
   Standees
                                  THE MOVIE POSTER
   The Movie Poster (modern)
       Traditional Size:
            27x40 (41) double print size
            Full Sail size 24x36
       Poster Types:
            PRE-RELEASE: Usually has general release date
             (not exact unless a holiday specific)
            RELEASE: Theatrical Distribution
            RE-RELEASE: After Awards or Re-released
            VIDEO: DVD/Video. (Usually different key art and
                  THE MOVIE POSTER
   Release:
       Key Art
                                      THE MOVIE POSTER
   Release:
       Talent
       Key Crew
            Industry: ExP, Producer, Writer, Composer, Editor,
             Director, and sometimes DP
            Full Sail: Director(s), Writer, UPM/PC, DP/Gaffer, PD/AD, 1st
             AD/2nd AD, and Casting Director
       Tagline
       Webpage
       Rating (MPAA)
       Release Date
       Specialty Items (THX, 3-D, etc)
       Synergy (Book, Soundtrack, etc)
                 THE MOVIE POSTER
   Re-Release
                  THE MOVIE POSTER
   DVD & Video
The Full Sail Movie Poster
                FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 1:

     Go over the script with the students

      at a Production Meeting 8.
                 FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 2:

     Discuss the key idea and a few

      scenes that depict the “essence” of
      the film.

       Develop a few conceptual designs on
        the look of the poster.
                FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 3:

     If the "essence" of the story can be

      captured in one of the stills on the
      set, then go over which title text style
      would enhance the mood of the
                 FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 4:

     If this "essence" of the story can be

      captured in one of the stills on the

       Plan which day of production to shoot
        the key art.
                FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 5:

     If the “key art”, that will become the

      poster needs to be shot in a studio
      setting, go over what kind of lighting,
      make-up, talent, and art department
      will be needed for a studio photo
                  FULL SAIL MOVIE POSTER
   Creation of the Poster:
     Step 6:

     Pick a range of dates for the photo


       Coordinate the best date with the
        talent, needed gear and/or location.

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