"An Overview of Cellulose Nanotechnology Research And"
Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industry: A Federal Perspective Theodore H. Wegner Assistant Director USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory October 19, 2005 Presentation Overview Nanotechnology Overview Federal/Public Perspectives on: Forests Forest Products Federal Government role in advancing Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industry Definition of Nanotechnolgy Scale: 1 nm – 100 nm (1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter) Creating nanoscale size materials does not mean nanotechnology is involved Material must have unique properties (e.g. electrical, physical, chemical, optical) that are different that the bulk properties Achieving those unique properties must be repeatable and controllable Intersection of Scientific Disciplines is where the greatest advances are occurring Nanomaterials Opportunities Nanomaterials offer the potential for unprecedented material performance that could • Solve major societal problems (e.g. energy, medicine, environment, manufacturing, communications, computing, security, and forest management (?)) • Energize the economy for decades - Revitalize existing businesses (e.g. forest products) - Boost competitiveness globally - Create entirely new industries The race for global leadership in nanotechnology is underway “New” Materials from “Old” Materials Source: October 2004 Lux Research Report Materials Use in the United States The United States is the Largest Producer of Industrial 450 Wood 100 400 90 350 80 70 300 Non-Tropical Percent of Millions of 60 Cubic 250 Tropical Total World 50 Production Metres 200 40 150 30 100 20 50 10 0 0 USA Brazil Chile Finland China Czech Rep Germany Spain France Turkey Japan India Austria Canada Poland Belarus Russian Fed Malaysia Romania Australia Portugal Sweden Indonesia South Africa New Zealand Cellulose Synthesis and Material Production: Nature Working Across a Length Scale >1010! Cellulose nanofiber bundles 6 Assembly proteins (rosette) which produces ~28nm cellulose nanofibers www.ita.doc.gov/td/forestprod/ jupiter.phys.ttu.edu/corner/1999/dec99.pdf Candace Haigler and Larry Blanton, Cellulose: “You're surrounded by it, but did you know it was Source: Jeffery Catchmark , Penn State University there?” Federal Forest Management Issues Strategic Issues America’s Forests are a Major Strategic National Asset (748 Million acres--31 Billion m3 of Wood- -Growth to harvest over 2:1) Publicly owned and managed—318 million acres Privately held—430 million acres America’s Forests provide Vital Ecological Services Carbon Sequestration Clean Water Animal Habitat Recreation Stewardship and Sustainable Management and Use of America’s Forests is critical to meeting America’s strategic needs for Materials, Products, Energy, and Jobs Impact of Global Competition Domestically produced shares of the U.S. market have declined for most wood products Paper & 85% Paperboard 80% OSB & 96% Plywood 75% 1990 Softwood 75% 2002 Lumber 63% Household 78% Furniture 50% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Threats to America’s Forests Unmanaged recreation Invasive species Fire and fuels Loss of open space – Fragmentation and parcelization Over 49 million acres burned over last 10 years at a cost of $8.2 Billion for fire suppression •397 million acres at risk •Cost for fuels reduction $177 billion on all ownerships (CC 2 & 3) •8.7 Billion tons (OD) (CC 2 & 3) About 3/4 of America’s private forests are in the East. 2/3 of America’s forests are east of the Mississippi River Percentage of watersheds with private forests that are projected to shift from rural to urban by 2030 Forests supply over 50 percent of freshwater flow in the lower 48 States America Needs a Strong Forest Products Industry Outlet for forest biomass that needs to be removed to reduce fuel load and improve forest health & condition Forest biomass sales offset the cost of forest management on public lands Helps prevent conversion of privately –held forestland to non-forest uses Makes use of a National strategic asset to provide jobs, fuel the economy, and meet the needs of people for material needs Nanotechnology can help reinvent the forest products industry Technology is the major driving factor for growth at every level of an economy and is a key factor in enabling competitive advantage in the market place New, higher profit products, based upon pioneering, innovative technology creation, are needed Lighter weight, stronger, multifunctional materials from wood New products New markets New functionalities Federal Role in Nanotechnology R&D Support sustainable forestry and sustainable forest products as a positive economic, social, and ecological force within the Nation Promote, conduct, and support high risk, fundamental nanotechnology research Acquire and maintain state of the art Federal R&D nanotechnology facilities and provide access to unique and cost effective research facilities and capacities with other partners to move the US forest-based economy forward Source of R&D Funds 2003 3% 3% Industry 30% Federal Government University 64% Non-Profit 2003 R&D Spending $283 Billion All R&D in the United States Source: National Science Foundation Percentage of R&D Funding By Activity--2003 Percent of $283 Billion Spending 60 57 50 40 24 30 19 20 10 0 Basic Research Applied Research Development Source: National Science Foundation Who Does the R&D? 2003 Research and Development Activities by Categorical Group 90 80 70 60 Percent Federal 50 University 40 Non-Profit 30 Industrial 20 10 0 Basic Applied Development Research Research Source: National Science Foundation The National Nanotechnology Initiative Mihail Roco Clayton Teague Forest Service Chris Risbrudt Ted Wegner Source : Roco 2004 NNI Centers and User Facilities Electron Transport in Molecular NSF Centers– 17 Nanostructures - Columbia DOD – 3 Templated Synthesis & Assembly Nanoscale Systems in Info. at the Nanoscale – U Wis-Madison DOE NSRCs – 5 Technologies – Cornell NASA – 4 Molecular Function at NanoBio Nanoscience in Biological & Interface – U Penn Environmental Engineering – NCI – 3-5 (FY2005+) Rice High-Rate Nanomanufacturing – Extreme UV Science and Integrated Nanopatterning & Technology – Northeastern Detection – Northwestern Colorado State Nanoscale Systems & Their Affordable Nanoeng . of Polymer Scalable & Integrated Device Applications – Biomedical Devices – Ohio State Nano Manufacturing - Harvard UCLA Integrated Nanomechanical Directed Assembly of Nanoscale CEM Systems – UC-Berkeley Nanostructures – Manufacturing Systems NNIN Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst Center - UIUC Probing the Nanoscale – Stanford Nanobiotechnology Learning & Teaching in Nano S&E – (STC) - Cornell NCN Northwestern 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cell Mimetic Space Nanophase Materials Institute for Exploration - UCLA Sciences - ORNL Nanoscience - NRL Intelligent Bio-Nanomtls & Molecular Foundry Structures for Aerospace - LBNL Institute of Soldier Vehicles – Tex A&M Integrated Nanotechnologies – MIT Bio-Inspection, Design, & Nanotechnologies - SNL Nanoscience Innovation Processing of Multifunctional Nanoscale Nanocomposites - Princeton Materials - ANL in Defense - UCSB 5/08 Nanoelectronics & Computing - Functional Purdue Nanomaterials - BNL Nanotechnology Workshop For the Forest Products Industry October 17 - 19, 2004 www.nanotechforest.org Vision Statement from Workshop To sustainably meet the needs of present and future generations for wood-based materials and products by applying nanotechnology science and engineering to efficiently and effectively capture the entire range of values that wood-based lignocellulosic materials are capable of providing. Key Stakeholders Forest Products Industry Universities Federal Departments/Agencies NNI/NSET/PCAST/OSTP---OMB National Science Foundation DOE Basic Sciences DOE National Laboratories NIST USDA CSREES USDA Forest Service Next Steps Increase linkages with existing nanotechnology research community National Nanotechnology Initiative (Roco) NSET Participation—USDA Forest Service Presentation January 11, 2005 (Risbrudt & Perine) National Science Foundation NSF-NSE Conference (December 13 – 15, 2004) Workshop on ―Defining the Opportunities, Challenges & Research Needs for Nano- biomaterials Derived from Lignocellulosics‖ (PPERA/SWST) (September, 2005) Next Steps-continued Build support for forest products sector nanotechnology research --Ongoing Industry Government (USDA FS & CSREES, DOE (Laboratories & Basic Energy Sciences) Academia (SWST, PPERA & others) Forest Service Continued participation on NSET President’s Supplemental Budget Listing FY2007 Next Steps-continued Develop and Implement Forest Service R&D nanotechnology Program – IQ 2006 Develop a NNI Forest Products Industry Steering Committee involving all major stakeholders – 2006 Industry (AF&PA Agenda 2020 & others) Academia (SWST, PPERA & others) Government (USDA FS & CSREES, DOE BES & DOE National Labs, NIST) Develop Consensus on Nanotechnology R&D priorities for the Forest Products Industry (FPI) –IQ2006 Next Steps-continued Link the FPI R&D community to the existing nanotechnology R&D community – Ongoing 2nd International Conference on Nanotechnology in Construction--November 2005 Organize an ―International Conference on Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry‖–April 26 – 28, 2006 (TAPPI, Atlanta, GA) Develop a portfolio of short-, mid-, and long-term R&D focused on the areas most critical to commercial production of nanomaterials and nanoproducts Seek to establish a federally funded $40 - $60 million per year R&D program for the FPI Thank you for your attention