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									       APPLIED SCIENCE

           Double Award
               GCSE
    Students‟ Guide (2006/2008)


This slideshow has been produced for the use of students following the
WJEC GCSE Applied Science course from September 2006. This is NOT a
revision guide but is a source for you to refer to and to help you improve the
skills which will be developed and tested on this course.
      There are four sections:-
      1. Introduction to the course

      2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills

      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society

      4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


It is important that you refer to the relevant sections when
you are doing work which will be marked by your teacher.
                              Main Menu
 1. Introduction

                            Applied Science


                             Double Award


Select a topic from those    WJEC / CBAC


you can see on the right     Assessments

of the screen to find out   Unit 1 and Unit 3

how the course is                Unit 2
structured.
                                Results


                             Final Grades

                            Use of ICT and
                            Word Processing
                                of work
                                               Main Menu
 1. Introduction

                                             Applied Science


                                              Double Award


APPLIED SCIENCE                               WJEC / CBAC

This is a science course that links the
                                              Assessments
science knowledge which you will learn
with the use of scientific equipment,
                                             Unit 1 and Unit 3
apparatus and materials. Science is not
just used by scientists and is relevant in        Unit 2
most places of work, in leisure activities
and in the home.                                 Results


                                              Final Grades

                                             Use of ICT and
                                             Word Processing
                                                 of work
                                              Main Menu
  1. Introduction

                                            Applied Science


                                             Double Award

DOUBLE AWARD
                                             WJEC / CBAC
At the end of the course you will be
assessed and awarded two GCSE grades         Assessments
from GG to A*A*. A* is the highest grade,
G is the lowest. Mixed grades such as       Unit 1 and Unit 3
A*A, AB, BC, CD, DE, EF AND FG are
also used.                                       Unit 2


                                                Results


                                             Final Grades

                                            Use of ICT and
                                            Word Processing
                                                of work
                                                                  Main Menu
    1. Introduction

                                                                Applied Science


                                                                 Double Award

WJEC / CBAC
                                                                 WJEC / CBAC
This is the name of the Awarding Body in
Cardiff. More information on the WJEC                            Assessments
and further materials can be obtained by
clicking the link below:-                                       Unit 1 and Unit 3


                                                                     Unit 2

www.wjec.co.uk
                                                                    Results
(You must be connected to the internet for this link to work)

                                                                 Final Grades

                                                                Use of ICT and
                                                                Word Processing
                                                                    of work
                                              Main Menu
   1. Introduction

                                            Applied Science


                                             Double Award

ASSESSMENTS
                                             WJEC / CBAC
There are three sections of work on which
you will be assessed. They are called        Assessments
UNITS.
                                            Unit 1 and Unit 3


Unit 1 = Developing Scientific Skills            Unit 2

Unit 2 = Science for the Needs of Society       Results

Unit 3 = Science at Work
                                             Final Grades

                                            Use of ICT and
                                            Word Processing
                                                of work
                                                                Main Menu
      1. Introduction

                                                              Applied Science


                                                               Double Award
ASSESSMENTS: Unit 1 and Unit 3
These are both tested by assessing your portfolio of           WJEC / CBAC
work. This means that the work that you do during the
course for each unit will be kept in some form of folder.
Your teacher will mark this work. The skills and               Assessments
techniques for these units are covered in separate
chapters in this slideshow.                                   Unit 1 and Unit 3

Portfolios have to be completed, marked and sent to the            Unit 2
WJEC in May of year 10 or year 11. Not all portfolios are
looked at and your teacher will send a range of portfolios
                                                                  Results
from the highest mark to the lowest mark. You will need
to sign the cover sheet for your portfolio, together with
your teacher, to confirm that all the work is entirely your    Final Grades
own. This has to be done to authenticate both the unit 1
portfolio and also the unit 3 portfolio.                      Use of ICT and
                                                              Word Processing
                                                                  of work
                                                                         Main Menu
       1. Introduction

                                                                       Applied Science


ASSESSMENTS: Unit 2                                                     Double Award

A written exam paper tests this unit. This will be based on the
science that you are taught in class. Each exam lasts for 1 hour        WJEC / CBAC
15 minutes. There are two tiers of papers:
Foundation (students expected to get a grade from G up to C)            Assessments
   Higher (students expected to get grades from D up to A*)
There are more easier questions in the Foundation paper; the           Unit 1 and Unit 3
hardest questions are in the Higher paper and include detailed
science that is not taught or tested at the Foundation tier. Your
teacher will advise you of the most suitable exam paper for you to          Unit 2
take.
Exam papers can be taken in January or June. You can resit an              Results
exam paper at the same tier or at a different tier IF you think that
you can improve your performance. It is the best mark that counts
– your performance/result will be given to you as a UMS mark.           Final Grades

                                                                       Use of ICT and
                                                                       Word Processing
                                                                           of work
                                                                                           Main Menu
      1. Introduction

                                                                                         Applied Science


RESULTS                                                                                   Double Award
All three units are reported to you as UMS marks.
The UMS is a special scale, particularly used in the Sciences,
                                                                                          WJEC / CBAC
where the mark given is related to the GCSE grade for that unit.

G = 20 on the UMS scale      Examples;                                                    Assessments
                             A mark of 20 is the lowest UMS mark for a G grade;
F = 30                       A mark of 40 is the lowest UMS mark for an E grade;
                             60 is the lowest for a C grade 80 is the lowest for an A
E = 40                       grade.
                                                                                         Unit 1 and Unit 3
D = 50                       What about the in-between marks?
                             The mark range of 60 to 69, for example, shows your
C = 60                       performance within the C grade region. 60 is the lowest
B = 70                       mark for a C grade 65 is half way up the C grade region
                             69 is the top of the C grade, but not as good as 70 which        Unit 2
A = 80                       is the bottom of the B grade region. This can show how
                             close or how far you are from the next grade. There is a
A*= 90                       similar spread of marks for each of the grades.
                                                                                             Results


                                                                                          Final Grades
You are allowed to resit an exam or resubmit your folder
(portfolio) for a second or third time especially when you know
                                                                                         Use of ICT and
that you can do better, by including some new (better) work.
                                                                                         Word Processing
                                                                                             of work
                                                                      Main Menu
        1. Introduction

                                                                    Applied Science


FINAL GRADES                                                         Double Award
At the end of the course the awarding Body will add up your three
UMS scores and award you GCSE grades from the table below,
                                                                     WJEC / CBAC
out of a maximum of 300.

 GG         60 – 74                FG          75 - 89               Assessments
 FF         90 – 104               EF         105 - 119
 EE        120 – 134               DE         135 - 149
 DD        150 – 164               CD         165 - 179             Unit 1 and Unit 3
 CC        180 – 194               BC         195 - 209
 BB        210 – 224               AB         225 - 239
 AA        240 – 254               A*A        255 - 269                  Unit 2
 A*A*      270 – 300
                                                                        Results
The results will be shown on your GCSE Certificate as; Applied
Science (Double Award) XY (where X and Y are the two awarded
grades)                                                              Final Grades

                                                                    Use of ICT and
                                                                    Word Processing
                                                                        of work

                                                                       Back to Unit 3
                                                                            Main Menu
       1. Introduction

                                                                          Applied Science


USE OF ICT AND WORD PROCESSING OF WORK                                     Double Award

All work for units 1 and 3 can be produced either written by hand
                                                                           WJEC / CBAC
or word-processed. There are NO extra marks to be gained
because it is word-processed or marks taken away because it is
handwritten. Marks are given based on the thoroughness and                 Assessments
detail that you produce, and are assessed against criteria which
are specific to Unit 1 and Unit 3 in particular.
                                                                          Unit 1 and Unit 3
If you have access to a computer and also the time to use it, then
you may prefer to use this method, especially if your writing is
very untidy. Sometimes with a long or difficult report it can be               Unit 2
useful to write a draft and then to edit it before finalising the work.
                                                                              Results
Some programmes such as Microsoft Excel are useful for
producing tables and also for drawing graphs. Provided that you
know how to use this type of program, then it could be helpful.            Final Grades
However hand drawn tables and graphs are both very
acceptable.
                                                                          Use of ICT and
           This completes the introduction section                        Word Processing
                                                                              of work
                                                       Main Menu
     2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                     Working safely
                  UNIT 1                              in science

    Developing Scientific Skills
                                                       Carrying out
                                                      practical tasks
In this unit you will learn about the skills
needed to carry out experiments and work in        Skill P: Carrying out
the laboratory.                                   risk assessments and
                                                   following instructions

You will learn about;
                                                  Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                    recording results
 A. Working Safely in Science
 B. Carrying out Practical Tasks This unit will
                                                    Skill A: Analysing
    be assessed by your folder (portfolio)
    work.                                             scientific data


                                                   Skill E: Evaluating
                           Choose an option           methods used
                                                           Main Menu
       2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                         Working safely
A. Working Safely in Science                              in science


  Scientific work can be dangerous, yet accidents          Carrying out
  among scientists are rare. This is because              practical tasks
  scientists are always aware of the hazards they
  deal with and the need to work safely.               Skill P: Carrying out
                                                      risk assessments and
                                                       following instructions
  You must be able to work safely and prevent
  accidents in the laboratory or wherever you are     Skill O: Obtaining and
  doing your scientific work.                           recording results

  You must also know what to do if an accident          Skill A: Analysing
  happens.
                                                          scientific data

  You will be taught the different aspects of this
                                                       Skill E: Evaluating
  topic in class, by doing some research and/or
                                                          methods used
  with homework.                               Next
                                                                Main Menu
        2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                              Working safely
There are three main areas in this topic;
                                                               in science

1. Hazards and Risks
2. First Aid                                                    Carrying out
                                                               practical tasks
3. Fire Prevention.
                                                            Skill P: Carrying out
   You will be assessed on how well and thoroughly         risk assessments and
   you cover each of the three areas above, as well as      following instructions
   the overall thoroughness of your report. On the next
   page is a list of the areas of safety that you will     Skill O: Obtaining and
   learn. You will need to include details of as much of     recording results
   these areas as you can in your report.
                                                             Skill A: Analysing
   Make a note of all the sources that you use and             scientific data
   how useful they are or not – look at the section on
   research.                                                Skill E: Evaluating
                                                               methods used
                                                   Next
                                                                                                      Main Menu
               2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


•     Identify and explain the potential hazards in scientific                                      Working safely
      workplaces                                                                                     in science
•     Details of the health and safety regulations
•     Identify hazard-warning signs; identifying and explaining
      biological, chemical and physical hazards, including                                            Carrying out
      radioactive risks.                                                                             practical tasks
•     Details of hazcards; their layout and use to identify chemical
      hazards in order to make recommendations / improvements                                     Skill P: Carrying out
      to working practices.                                                                      risk assessments and
•     Identify health and safety procedures to be followed.                                       following instructions
•     Identify the health and safety checks carried out in the
      workplace.
•     Explain the need for a risk assessments and how to produce                                 Skill O: Obtaining and
      them.                                                                                        recording results
•     Produce risk assessments for scientific activities.
•     What are hazards and what can be done to prevent them
      happening.                                                                                   Skill A: Analysing
•     Explain what emergency procedures are followed if accidents                                    scientific data
      do happen.
•     Know what safety measures are employed for biological,
      chemical and physical hazards including radio-active risks                                  Skill E: Evaluating
•     Explain how unwanted or waste materials are disposed of                                        methods used
      safely                                                                          Next
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                      Main Menu
               2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


•    Know what first aid facilities are available.                                                  Working safely
•    Know the basic first aid to give and also when it would be                                      in science
     dangerous to give first aid.
•    Explain why it is useful to have a first aid qualification and
     who provides this training.                                                                      Carrying out
•    Know what first aid training for staff has been carried out                                     practical tasks

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    Skill P: Carrying out
                                                                                                 risk assessments and
•    Describe what fire regulations apply in the workplace                                        following instructions
•    Describe the different types of fire extinguishers and smoke
     alarms explaining their uses and how to identify them.
•    Explain the need and functions of fire doors and sprinkler                                  Skill O: Obtaining and
     systems.                                                                                      recording results
•    What are the fire drill procedures; why are they important.
                                                                               Click to open a     Skill A: Analysing
Remember that this section is assessed                                         checklist that
                                                                               can be printed.
on the report that you write. You need to                                                            scientific data
write as much as you can about all of
the aspects of this topic. The guidelines
                                                                                                  Skill E: Evaluating
above can be used as a checklist of the
things which should be covered in your                                                               methods used
                                                                                      Next
report.
                                                                                          Main Menu
                2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                          Notional      Working safely
                Levels of Achievement                             Marks   grades
                                                                                         in science
S1a Carry out research into working safely in science, using       3-7
    two sources of information.
S1b Show a basic (limited) understanding of the issues
    researched.                                                    1st
                                                                          G, F
                                                                                          Carrying out
S1c Covers one aspect of working safely to a good standard.
                                                                  BAND                   practical tasks
S2a Carry out research into working safely in science, using at   9-13
    least four sources of information.
S2b Show a good understanding of the issues researched.                               Skill P: Carrying out
S2c Covers two aspects of working safely to a good standard.       2nd    E, D
                                                                                     risk assessments and
                                                                  BAND                following instructions
S3a Carry out research into working safely in science, using at
    least four sources of differing types. Indicating why they
                                                                  15-19
    were chosen.                                                                     Skill O: Obtaining and
S3b Show a detailed understanding of the issues researched.        3rd    C, B         recording results
S3c Covers three aspects of working safely to a good
    standard.                                                     BAND
S4a Carry out detailed research into working safely in science
    by identifying and using a wide range of sources and
                                                                  21-25                Skill A: Analysing
    information, and evaluating their usefulness
S4b Show a thorough in-depth understanding of the issues           4th    A, A*          scientific data
    researched.
S4c Covers all aspects of working safely in science thoroughly    BAND
                                                                                      Skill E: Evaluating
The criteria which are used to assess your report are shown above.
Your teacher will write the codes on your work. Use these lists to                       methods used
                                                                           Next
improve the portfolio and get the best marks possible.
                                                                                     Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                                   Working safely
Research                                                                            in science
    You should use as many sources as you can. A list of the sources
    that you have used is often written on a separate page at the end
    of a report. This is called a „bibliography‟. It is useful for the person        Carrying out
    who reads your report to see where the information has been                     practical tasks
    obtained from.

    The criteria S.1a, S.2a, S3a and S.4a are explained further below;           Skill P: Carrying out
S.1a At least 2 sources have been used                                          risk assessments and
S.2a At least 4 sources have been used and have been listed in a                 following instructions
    bibliography
S.3a More then 4 sources have been used. You have used a range of               Skill O: Obtaining and
    resources such as electronic (internet) and paper (books or                   recording results
    booklets) and listed them in your bibliography. You must also write
    about why they were chosen and explain how easy or difficult they
    were to use in order to get the information for your report.                  Skill A: Analysing
S.4a At least 6 sources have been used such as paper, electronic and
                                                                                    scientific data
    visits to industry (or visitors to school). You must produce work at
    least as good as S.3a above -You have written in detail justifying
    both your choice of sources and your evaluation of their                     Skill E: Evaluating
    usefulness.
                                                                                    methods used
                                                                      Next
                                                                       Main Menu
          2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                     Working safely
The Report                                                            in science
   It is important that you write about each of the three
   aspects;
   Hazards and Risks,                                                  Carrying out
   First aid and                                                      practical tasks
   Fire prevention.
   Refer back to the list before and tick off each point as you    Skill P: Carrying out
   complete it. Notice the dashed lines separating the three      risk assessments and
   aspects. If you only write about First aid or Fire              following instructions
   prevention, then your work will be restricted to the lowest
   band. Your teacher will be marking your work on ..             Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                    recording results
a) The overall coverage of the topics listed before and
                                                                    Skill A: Analysing
b) How thoroughly you have written about 1, 2 or 3 of the
   aspects.                                                           scientific data


   This is why it is important that you cover all the areas and    Skill E: Evaluating
   bullet points in the list.                                         methods used
                                                                 Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                               Working safely
B. Carrying out Practical Tasks                                 in science

You will carry out a range of practical tasks.
   A complete folder (portfolio) will have some work             Carrying out
   from each of the six practical areas;                        practical tasks

                  Microscopy                                 Skill P: Carrying out
                  Micro-organisms                           risk assessments and
                  Qualitative analysis                       following instructions
                  Quantitative analysis
                  Electrical properties                     Skill O: Obtaining and
                  Other Physical properties                   recording results

   Each one of these practical tasks will usually have an
                                                              Skill A: Analysing
   instruction sheet or worksheet or ‘standard operating
   procedure’ – these names all mean the same. They             scientific data
   should tell you what equipment you will need, how to
   set it up, and what you are to do step-by-step.           Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                methods used
                                                    Next
                                                             Main Menu
      2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


It is an Examination requirement that there is             Working safely
                                                            in science
evidence available for each of the six activities
above.
                                                             Carrying out
If any are missing then your portfolio can still            practical tasks
be assessed and a mark awarded; however it
will be lower because of the missing work.               Skill P: Carrying out
                                                        risk assessments and
                                                         following instructions
It is essential, if you are to do well, that you do
some work in each of the areas and that they            Skill O: Obtaining and
can be looked at in your portfolio.                       recording results

So that work does not get lost or misplaced,              Skill A: Analysing
your teacher may have a system to keep all
                                                            scientific data
work in school. If so, then this is being done to
prevent work getting lost or misplaced so that
                                                         Skill E: Evaluating
you get the best marks for this unit.
                                                            methods used
                                                 Next
                                                                           Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


How will I be assessed?                                                  Working safely
   In all of your practical tasks your teacher can mark your work         in science
   against the four sets of criteria;

     Carrying out a risk                 Your teacher will give you
                            Skill area                                     Carrying out
      assessment and
                                P        feedback on your                 practical tasks
   following instructions
                                         practical work. You may
  Obtaining and recording   Skill area   be given a mark for all of
          results               O        the four skill areas above    Skill P: Carrying out
                                         or any combinations. You     risk assessments and
                            Skill area   may just be told what the     following instructions
        Analysing               A        work is like and how it
                                         could be improved. Not       Skill O: Obtaining and
                            Skill area   all of your work has to be     recording results
       Evaluating               E        marked.

                                                                        Skill A: Analysing
 It is the best mark for each of these four areas                         scientific data
 that counts. Any other marks do not matter and as
 they will be your poorest marks then they can be
 ignored. So you have up to six chances (one for                       Skill E: Evaluating
 each of the practical areas) to get the best mark                        methods used
 you can in each skill area.
                                                                   Main Menu
          2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Skill P: carrying out risk assessments &                         Working safely
                                                                  in science
  following instructions.

   The grid below is used by your teacher to assess                Carrying out
   your work. You will notice that in each band of marks:         practical tasks


a) There is a risk assessment.                                 Skill P: Carrying out
   It is the quality and thoroughness of your risk            risk assessments and
   assessment that decides which band it is in.                following instructions


b) Your ability to follow instructions is being assessed.     Skill O: Obtaining and
    Did you read the instructions properly?                     recording results
    Was the equipment set up correctly?
    Were the correct measurements and/or observations           Skill A: Analysing
    recorded ?
                                                                  scientific data
   The difficulty or complexity of the experiment is
   designed by the teacher to suit your practical              Skill E: Evaluating
   abilities.                                                     methods used
                                                       Next
                                                                                   Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                                 Working safely
Levels of Achievement                                          Marks              in science
P1a Carry out risk assessments given extensive guidance or      4-7
treatment is very limited. P1b Follow instructions in simple
standard procedures, with guidance -one step at a time using                       Carrying out
simple laboratory equipment correctly and safely.                                 practical tasks

P2a Carry out risk assessments, though some guidance is        10-13
needed to cover basic safety satisfactorily. P2b Follow                        Skill P: Carrying out
instructions in simple standard procedures with little                        risk assessments and
guidance using simple laboratory equipment correctly and                       following instructions
safely.
P3a Carry out risk assessments; incomplete in places. P3b      16-19          Skill O: Obtaining and
Follow instructions in complex tasks, but guidance is                           recording results
needed. Appropriate laboratory equipment has been used
correctly and safely.
P4a A comprehensive risk assessment is produced without        22-25            Skill A: Analysing
needing any guidance. P4b Follow instructions in standard
                                                                                  scientific data
procedures in complex tasks, without any guidance.
Equipment of appropriate precision has been used correctly
and safely.                                                                    Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                                  methods used
                                                                       Next
                                                                              Main Menu
           2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                            Working safely
Starting the Practical work
                                                                             in science
     When you get your worksheet
1.   Read through the sheet carefully and check to see if there is
     anything you do not understand.
2.   Carry out a risk assessment for the activity                             Carrying out
     a) Use the sheet provided                                               practical tasks
     b) Write down the names of any chemicals that you will be using.
     c) Write down any equipment that could be a problem to use.          Skill P: Carrying out
     d) Write down any procedure, which could be difficult or awkward    risk assessments and
     to do, or is a hazard.                                               following instructions
     e) Write down any general laboratory rules IF they are relevant.
     f) Fill in the form carefully – write across the page and try and
     complete all the columns for each of the items you have written     Skill O: Obtaining and
     in the first column.                                                  recording results
     g) When you have finished the first item, rule across the page
     and then start the second one-Rule off afterwards after each one.
                                                                           Skill A: Analysing
     h) You may need to use a second page. (You may also need to
     rewrite the form if it is messy or difficult to understand.)            scientific data
     Remember that you are being marked on the suitability and
     thoroughness of the final risk assessment.
                                                                          Skill E: Evaluating
     i) WHEN it is completed get your teacher to sign it.
                                                                             methods used
                                                                Next
                                                                                  Main Menu
           2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                                Working safely
You can now start your practical work.                                           in science

  Do you need to get 2                    This is often a good idea
  or 3 sets of results?                   so that the observations
                                           or measurements you                    Carrying out
                                            are making are more                  practical tasks
                                                   reliable.

                                                                              Skill P: Carrying out
     The worksheet (Standard Procedure) may suggest                          risk assessments and
     that you do repeats. When you are doing the                              following instructions
     practical work you will need to record your
     observations and/or to take measurements. The
                                                                             Skill O: Obtaining and
     worksheet may provide a table for you to use or you                       recording results
     may have to make your own. It may be a good idea
     to do your measurements in rough to start with and
     then rewrite them later. How you present your                             Skill A: Analysing
     observations and measurements will be assessed –                            scientific data
     see section on Skill Area O - Obtaining and
     Recording Results.                                                       Skill E: Evaluating
    Click here for an example of a risk                                          methods used
                                                                      Next
 assessment form that you may be using.
                                                                                       Main Menu
          2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Terminology:-                                                                        Working safely
                                                                                      in science
  Emergency Procedures           Risk assessment – a statement of the
  - if something still goes           hazards, risks and safety
  wrong, then what do                 precautions for an experiment or
                                                                                       Carrying out
  you do?                             procedure
                                                                                      practical tasks
  A hazard is a danger. This could be             Safety Precautions
  one of the hazard warning signs, e.g.           – what can you do
                                                                                   Skill P: Carrying out
  corrosive, irritant, oxidising,                 to prevent
  explosive, flammable…. This danger              accidents and to                risk assessments and
  could be a result of how you are                reduce the risk?                 following instructions
  using apparatus or tools e.g. a knife
  could cut you if not used correctly –     Telling the teacher may not be
  so using a knife without care is the      the first thing to do – perhaps       Skill O: Obtaining and
  hazard.                                   there is an important action you        recording results
                                            should do first – your partner or
  The risk is how likely it is that a       friend can always go and tell the
  hazard can cause you harm and             teacher whilst you are doing this.      Skill A: Analysing
  what that harm is. Think – how            For example, what would you do
  would you be using your knife             if you got hold of a very hot             scientific data
  in a silly way that could make            tripod to put it away? Going to
  you cut yourself? And its effect          the teacher to report what you
  on you is getting cut.                    did is not the first thing that you    Skill E: Evaluating
                                            should have done.
                                                                                      methods used

                                                                                        Back to Unit 3
                                                                                        Main Menu
             2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


This is the table of criteria that your teacher will use:                             Working safely
                                                                                       in science
     Levels of Achievement                                          Marks
     O1a Make simple observations or measurements.                   4-7
                                                                                        Carrying out
     O1b Record the observations or measurements.
                                                                                       practical tasks
     O2a Make careful measurements.                                 10-13
     O2b Record them in a table and draw a graph/bar chart.                         Skill P: Carrying out
                                                                                   risk assessments and
     O3a Make careful and accurate measurements.                    16-19
                                                                                    following instructions
     O3b Record results in tables and graphs, using lines of best
     fit as appropriate to the pattern of data collected.
                                                                                   Skill O: Obtaining and
     O4a Make careful measurements in complex tasks.                22-25            recording results
     O4b Repeat measurements to obtain a good range of data in
     complex tasks.
                                                                                     Skill A: Analysing
   As you do more practical work it is expected that your skills                       scientific data
   will improve, and it is your best mark for each skill that
   counts. To give you information of what is expected you will
   need to read the following pages. There are details for each                     Skill E: Evaluating
   band / row as well as general information on this skill area.                       methods used
                                                                            Next
                                                                            Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


First Row – O.1a and O.1b.                                                Working safely
                                                                           in science

    water                    beaker
                                                                            Carrying out
                                            My observations…
                                                                           practical tasks


  Bunsen
                                                                        Skill P: Carrying out
                                tripod
                                                                       risk assessments and
                                                                        following instructions


                                                                       Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                         recording results

  Observations – diagrams must be done neatly and clearly.
  Use a sharp pencil, rub out any errors and label the                   Skill A: Analysing
  diagram if it would be useful to somebody else – it usually
                                                                           scientific data
  is! Remember to add a title as well. This would meet both
  O.1a and O.1b and 7 marks would be given.
  In order to meet the standard of the second row and higher            Skill E: Evaluating
  rows, you need to know about taking and recording
                                                                           methods used
  measurements, as well as presenting the data in tables,       Next
  charts and graphs.
                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Making Measurements and Recording accurately:                 Working safely
                                                               in science


                                                                Carrying out
  Taking readings is an important                              practical tasks

  aspect of scientific work. Anything                       Skill P: Carrying out
  that you measure should be                               risk assessments and
                                                            following instructions
  recorded and presented in an
  ordered and tidy fashion. Scientists                     Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                             recording results
  use TABLES to record details of
  their measurements or data                                 Skill A: Analysing
  collected.                                                   scientific data


                                                            Skill E: Evaluating
                                                               methods used
                                                    Next
                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Making Measurements and Recording accurately.                 Working safely
                                                               in science


                                                                Carrying out
                                                               practical tasks


                                                            Skill P: Carrying out
                                                           risk assessments and
                                                            following instructions


                                                           Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                             recording results


                                                             Skill A: Analysing
                                                               scientific data
  Tables have an outline shape – square or
       Rows
  rectangularand columns are drawn.
       (Within the table the rows can be left               Skill E: Evaluating
       out if lined paper is being used ).          Next
                                                               methods used
                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Making Measurements and Recording accurately.                 Working safely
                                                               in science
        Height         Mass           Time
         (cm)           (kg)           (s)                      Carrying out
                                                               practical tasks


                                                            Skill P: Carrying out
                                                           risk assessments and
                                                            following instructions


                                                           Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                             recording results


                                                             Skill A: Analysing
                                                               scientific data
  Headings are needed for columns, which give
  details of what was being measured and the
                                                            Skill E: Evaluating
  units.
                                                               methods used
                                                    Next
                                                                   Main Menu
        2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Example 1: Density Experiment                                    Working safely
                                                                  in science

  Object     Length     Breadth     Depth      Volume
              (cm)       (cm)       (cm)        (cm3)              Carrying out
                                                                  practical tasks
   Brass
   block       10.0       2.0         2.1          42.0
                                                               Skill P: Carrying out
                                                              risk assessments and
                                                               following instructions
   Notice that the units are written with the
   heading. This not only looks „cleaner‟, it also            Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                recording results
   saves you writing the unit for each value in that
   column of the table.
                                                                Skill A: Analysing
                                                                  scientific data
   Your measurements must be accurate; and how
   you record them can show how accurate you
                                                               Skill E: Evaluating
   have been.
                                                                  methods used
                                                       Next
                                                                         Main Menu
          2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Length:                                                                Working safely
                                                                        in science


                                                                         Carrying out
                                                                        practical tasks


 Measuring the length of a block with a ruler.                       Skill P: Carrying out
                                                                    risk assessments and
 Length = 10          no units have been given, so it                following instructions
                      could be in millimetres, centimetres
                      or anything.                                  Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                      recording results
 Length = 10 cm       this is better as the unit is given.
                                                                      Skill A: Analysing
 Length = 10.0 cm     this is much more accurate and
                                                                        scientific data
                      shows precision and skill. You are
                      now indicating that the length was
                      not 10.0 or 10.2 cm which is more              Skill E: Evaluating
                      precise.                                          methods used
                                                             Next
                                                                   Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Temperature:                                                     Working safely
                                                                  in science

          Some scales, as on a thermometer, have a
          wide gap between markings.                               Carrying out
                                                                  practical tasks
          It may be possible to estimate a mid-point
          between temperatures and record a                    Skill P: Carrying out
          temperature as 36.5°C instead of 36°C or 37°C.      risk assessments and
                                                               following instructions
          It would however be impossible to guess any
          other points such as 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8, as the 36.5   Skill O: Obtaining and
          is a best guess estimate only.                        recording results

          Don‟t forget to show what temperature scale           Skill A: Analysing
          you are using “ °C ” for the centigrade or
          Celsius scale.                                          scientific data


                                                               Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                  methods used
                                                       Next
                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Time:                                                         Working safely
                                                               in science

                         You need to be careful
                         when recording times as                Carrying out
                                                               practical tasks
                         there are 60 seconds in a
                         minute, so 10.5 minutes
                                                            Skill P: Carrying out
        Seconds          does not mean 10 minutes          risk assessments and
                         and 50 seconds.                    following instructions


                                                           Skill O: Obtaining and
    10.5 = 10 ½ minutes = 10 minutes 30 seconds.             recording results


    It is essential that you are clear when recording        Skill A: Analysing
    times, so make sure that your columns are                  scientific data
    correctly labelled.
                                                            Skill E: Evaluating
                                                               methods used
                                                    Next
                                                                              Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Charts and graphs:             9                                            Working safely
                                                                             in science
                               8
  Shoe     Number
  size                         7                                              Carrying out
    5         3                                                              practical tasks
                               6

   5½         5                5                                          Skill P: Carrying out
                      Number




    6         8                4
                                                                         risk assessments and
                                                                          following instructions
   6½         6
                           3
    7         4                                                          Skill O: Obtaining and
                           2                                               recording results
   7½         3
                           1
    8         1                                                            Skill A: Analysing
                           0
                                   5   5½   6      6½       7   7½   8
                                                Shoe size                    scientific data

In the first example the shoe size of children in a                       Skill E: Evaluating
class has been recorded in a simple table AND the
                                                                             methods used
data has been displayed in a simple chart.          Next
                                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Charts and graphs:             9                                              Working safely
                                                                               in science
This type of chart using
  Shoe      Number       8
vertical blocks is useful to
   size                  7                                                      Carrying out
display limited data, such as
                                                                               practical tasks
    5
shoe size, eye3  colour for
                         6

example. The height of5the
   5½          5
                                                                            Skill P: Carrying out
block is then a8 good visual
                      Number




    6                    4
                                                                           risk assessments and
display of the data recorded.                                               following instructions
   6½          6                    Types of Heating in our homes
                           3
                data could also
Lots7of similar 4                                                          Skill O: Obtaining and
                        2                                                    recording results
   usefully displayed as a pie
be 7½           3                        Gas
                                                      Oil
                                                      32%
chart e.g. percentages 1of               40%
    8           1
types of energy used in                                                      Skill A: Analysing
                        0                                  Solid
heating homes.             5   5½   6      6½        7
                                        Shoe Electricity
                                             size
                                                             7½
                                                           fuel
                                                           10%
                                                                      8
                                                                               scientific data
                                             18%


This would meet both the criteria O.2a and O.2b.                            Skill E: Evaluating
All the criteria in the second band are matched.                               methods used
                                                                    Next
13 marks would be awarded.
                                                                 Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                               Working safely
                                                                in science
         How do I get
          above the                                              Carrying out
        second band?                                            practical tasks


                                                             Skill P: Carrying out
    In order to meet the requirements for the third         risk assessments and
    band it is necessary to show that accurate data          following instructions
    has been taken (O.3a) and recorded in your own
    table and has been made into a graph with a line        Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                              recording results
    of best fit (O.3b).
                                                              Skill A: Analysing
Most scientific data is better displayed using a „line‟         scientific data
type of graph where there are two sets of data.
                                                             Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                methods used
                                                     Next
                                                                    Main Menu
           2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Example:                                                          Working safely
                                                                   in science
Students have been studying how the solubility of table salt
changes with temperature. The temperature of the liquid has
been measured and the amount of salt added in grams                 Carrying out
recorded.                                                          practical tasks


                                                                Skill P: Carrying out
                                                               risk assessments and
                                                                following instructions


                                                               Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                 recording results


                                                                 Skill A: Analysing
                                                                   scientific data

                         The results are as follows;
                                                                Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                   methods used
                                                        Next
                                                                Main Menu
         2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                              The temperature of the          Working safely
Temperature   Mass of salt                                     in science
                              water was changed and
    °C          grams
                              then salt was added.
                                                                Carrying out
    10            15                                           practical tasks
    19            26          Mass dissolved is the
                              dependant variable (this      Skill P: Carrying out
    28            38                                       risk assessments and
                              goes on the Y axis).          following instructions
    37            45
                                                           Skill O: Obtaining and
    48            54
                                                             recording results
    60            63
                                                             Skill A: Analysing
    73            76
                                                               scientific data
    86            78          Temperature is the
                              independent variable
    95            82                                        Skill E: Evaluating
                              (goes on the X axis)
                                                               methods used
                                                    Next
                                                                                                                 Main Menu
                                     2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                                                               Working safely
                                  Graph of mass of salt dissolved againts temperature in °C
                                                                                                                in science
                        100


                         90


                         80
                                                                                                                 Carrying out
                                                                                                                practical tasks
 Mass of salt (grams)




                         70


                         60
                                                                                                             Skill P: Carrying out
                         50
                                                                                                            risk assessments and
                         40                                                                                  following instructions
                         30


                         20                                                                                 Skill O: Obtaining and
                         10
                                                                                                              recording results
                          0
                              0      10     20     30    40     50     60    70     80    90          100

                                                         Temperature (°C)                                     Skill A: Analysing
                                                                                                                scientific data
There is a TREND in the results.
It is NOT a straight line, but is a curve, which flattens out at
                                                                                                             Skill E: Evaluating
higher temperatures. A „line of best fit‟ has been drawn.
                                                                                                                methods used
                                                                                               Next
                                                                  Main Menu
          2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


                                                                Working safely
The student has obtained both O.3a (for the accuracy             in science
of the results) and O.3b for both the quality of the table
and the graph.
                                                                  Carrying out
                                                                 practical tasks
As both criteria have been matched a mark of 14
would be awarded.                                             Skill P: Carrying out
                                                             risk assessments and
 Distance     Time 1     Time 2      Time 3    Average        following instructions
    (m)         (s)        (s)         (s)     time (s)
    1.2         3.2        3.5        3.3        3.33        Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                               recording results

In most scientific experiments the results should be
repeated and recorded in separate columns in the               Skill A: Analysing
table of results. The three or more sets of data can             scientific data
then be averaged – this immediately improves the
quality and reliability of your data.                         Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                 methods used
                                                                            Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


This is the table of criteria that your teacher will use:                 Working safely
                                                                           in science
  Levels of Achievement                                      Marks
  A1 Give a simple statement of findings.                      5
                                                                            Carrying out
                                                                           practical tasks
  A2a Give a clear conclusion consistent with the data.        7

                                                                        Skill P: Carrying out
  A3a Identify and explain patterns within the data.          9-11     risk assessments and
                                                                        following instructions
  A3b Draw conclusions which are consistent with the
       evidence.
                                                                       Skill O: Obtaining and
  A4a Manipulate data to draw detailed conclusions in        13-15
                                                                         recording results
       extended tasks.
  A4b Identify and explain relationships between variables
       in extended tasks.                                                Skill A: Analysing

In its simplest form analysis is a statement about the trend or            scientific data
pattern that you can see in your results.
You will probably have called this the conclusion in the past; some     Skill E: Evaluating
of the criteria statements do call this a 'conclusion'. It can be as
short as a single sentence though more likely could be several Next        methods used
paragraphs or even be a whole page of work.
                                                                                                                                                 Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Look at the last graph, which                                  100
                                                                         Graph of mass of salt dissolved againts temperature in °C
                                                                                                                                               Working safely
showed the mass of salt dissolving                              90                                                                              in science
                                                                80




at different temperatures. What




                                        Mass of salt (grams)
                                                                70


                                                                60




could you say from the graph and                                50


                                                                40
                                                                                                                                                 Carrying out
the data?                                                       30


                                                                20                                                                              practical tasks
                                                                10


                                                                 0
                                                                     0      10     20     30    40     50     60    70     80    90   100

                                                                                                Temperature (°C)

                                                                                                                                             Skill P: Carrying out
                                                                                                                                            risk assessments and
   "The amount of salt dissolving increased"                                                                                                 following instructions


                                                                                                                                            Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                                                                                              recording results
   This is a simple statement as the statement made is very brief.
   A.1a would be given for a 'simple explanation'.
                                                                                                                                              Skill A: Analysing
                                                                                                                                                scientific data


                                                                                                                                             Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                                                                                                methods used
                                                                                                                         Next
                                                                                                                                               Main Menu
           2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Look at the last graph, which                                100
                                                                       Graph of mass of salt dissolved againts temperature in °C
                                                                                                                                             Working safely
showed the mass of salt dissolving                            90                                                                              in science
                                                              80




at different temperatures. What




                                      Mass of salt (grams)
                                                              70


                                                              60




could you say from the graph and                              50


                                                              40
                                                                                                                                               Carrying out
the data?                                                     30


                                                              20                                                                              practical tasks
                                                              10


                                                               0
                                                                   0      10     20     30    40     50     60    70     80    90   100

                                                                                              Temperature (°C)

                                                                                                                                           Skill P: Carrying out
 "As the temperature increased the amount of salt                                                                                         risk assessments and
                                                                                                                                           following instructions
 dissolving increased. More salt dissolved at the
 highest temperature than at the lowest temperature -
                                                                                                                                          Skill O: Obtaining and
 salt is more soluble at 95°C than at 10°C"                                                                                                 recording results


                                                                                                                                            Skill A: Analysing
  Much more has been written and it is clearly stated. It is                                                                                  scientific data
  sensible and fits the trend or pattern - a brief reference
  has been made to the actual data. Several sentences
                                                                                                                                           Skill E: Evaluating
  have been written and this fits
  A.2a for a 'clear explanation'.                                                                                                             methods used
                                                             Next
                                                                                                                                                   Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Look at temperature increases the amount of salt dissolving also
 "As the the last graph, which                                   100
                                                                           Graph of mass of salt dissolved againts temperature in °C
                                                                                                                                                 Working safely
showed the mass of salt dissolvingincreased with the temperature.
 increases; the solubility of the salt has                        90                                                                              in science
                                                                  80


 However the rate of increase has started to decrease at temperatures
at different temperatures. What




                                          Mass of salt (grams)
                                                                  70




 above about 60°C - this is shown by the graph flattening out at the top.
                                                                  60




could you say from the graph and the liquid is saturated. As the
 Eventually no more salt will dissolve and
                                                                  50


                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                   Carrying out
the data? with the water the salt molecules dissolve; they become
 salt is mixed
                                                                  30


                                                                  20                                                                              practical tasks
dispersed amongst the water molecules. As the liquid gets hotter the
                                                                  10


                                                                   0
                                                                       0      10     20     30    40     50     60    70     80    90   100


water molecules move faster and water expands. There is now more                                  Temperature (°C)

                                                                                                                                               Skill P: Carrying out
space between the water molecules for the salt molecules and so more
                                                                                                                                              risk assessments and
and more salt dissolves as the temperature rises.
                                                                                                                                               following instructions
From my experiment I can state that the solubility of salt increases
gradually with temperature but is not directly proportional to the actual
temperature. The liquid will not become saturated until the                                                                                   Skill O: Obtaining and
temperature is higher than 100°C."                                                                                                              recording results


      It is also important that the conclusions that you have                                                                                   Skill A: Analysing
      made are correct. graph and in the table of results has
         The pattern in the                                                                                                                       scientific data
         been identified. An the data and graphs that you have
      This must follow fromattempt has also been made to
         explain In pattern - the two conclusions looked in
      produced.the this example student probablyhave been
                                                                                                                                               Skill E: Evaluating
      made and are correct.
         some science textbooks in order to get some
         information.                                                                                                                             methods used
                                                            Next
         A.3a awarded and so 11 marks
      A.3b is could be awarded here. are given.
                                                                                                                                                    Back to Unit 3
                                                                             Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


To evaluate, you need to look back at what you did in the experiment.      Working safely
You should consider the instructions given, the equipment and               in science
chemicals used. Were there any difficulties you had in doing the
experiment? All of this is relevant here.
                                                                             Carrying out
  Levels of Achievement                                       Marks
                                                                            practical tasks

  E1 Give a simple evaluation of an investigation,              3
                                                                         Skill P: Carrying out
     commenting on results or procedure used.
                                                                        risk assessments and
  E2 Give a clear evaluation of an investigation,               5        following instructions
     commenting on results and procedure used.

  E3a Give detailed evaluations of the procedure used.         7-8      Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                          recording results
  E3b Show how to improve the quality of the results of an
      investigation.
                                                                          Skill A: Analysing
  E4a Give detailed evaluations of an extended procedure.      9-10
  E4b Explain, with reasons, how improve the quality of                     scientific data
      the results in an extended procedure.
                                                                         Skill E: Evaluating
                                                                            methods used
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                                                                         Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Things to ask yourself:-                                               Working safely
                                                                        in science
 Can you explain clearly any
                               Could these have been improved by:
 problems that you had?
                               clearer worksheet?
                               better diagram(s)?                        Carrying out
                               different equipment?                     practical tasks
   What were the good points correct chemicals?
   in the experiment?                                                Skill P: Carrying out
                                  Would it have been possible       risk assessments and
                                  to get better results?             following instructions
     Could the results have
     been more accurate?
                                                                    Skill O: Obtaining and
                                     Were you able to repeat
                                                                      recording results
             If not, how could       the readings?
            you have repeated
            the work?                                                 Skill A: Analysing
                                                                        scientific data

      Would different equipment have made your
      results any better, or more accurate? Could you                Skill E: Evaluating
      rely on them any better?                                          methods used
                                                            Next
                                                                             Main Menu
            2. Unit 1 – Developing Scientific Skills


Lots of questions here. The work that you are doing will be so             Working safely
varied that it is impossible to provide more direct help. With              in science
experience you should be able to improve in this section. Your
teacher will be able to give you feedback either individually, in            Carrying out
groups or just as a class.                                                  practical tasks

Listen carefully - it might help to make notes of what is said.
                                                                         Skill P: Carrying out
You can refer to this when you do another piece of practical            risk assessments and
work and it may help you to get more marks. Remember that                following instructions
the evaluation must be your own work and not that of a group
or even the whole class!
                                                                        Skill O: Obtaining and
                                                                          recording results
The progression in the evaluation is similar to that in the analysis;

A.1a simple evaluation, commenting on results or procedure                Skill A: Analysing
A.2a clear evaluation, commenting on results and procedure                  scientific data
A.3a detailed evaluations

NOTE the simple to clear to detailed progression. Also the use of        Skill E: Evaluating
'or' and 'and'.
                                                                            methods used
    This completes the section on Unit 1
                                                                              Back to Unit 3
                                                       Main Menu
    3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




 When will I be
                                                       Preparation
  assessed?

                                                     Science content

Unit 2 exams are taken in January or June each
year. You can re-sit the exam if you think you
could do better.                                      How science/
                                                     Scientists work
Don't worry if your re-sit mark is
lower because your best mark counts.
                                                    Types of questions


                                             Next
                                                          Main Menu
     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




  How will I be
                                                          Preparation
   assessed?

                                                        Science content
You will sit an exam lasting 45 minutes.

If you sit the Foundation Tier Paper, the highest
grade you can get is C and the lowest grade is G.        How science/
                                                        Scientists work

If you sit the Higher Tier Paper, the highest grade
you can get is A* and the lowest grade is D.
                                                       Types of questions
Your result is reported as a UMS mark - see
section 1 (Introduction).
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                                                          Main Menu
     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




   If I sit the Foundation Tier paper,
   what is the highest grade I can                        Preparation
   get overall?


                                                        Science content
By the time your UMS marks for Units 1 and 2 are
added together, it is possible you could get a grade
B.
                                                         How science/
Both exam papers are out of a total of 48 marks.        Scientists work

   Paper       Section A   Section B       Total
 Foundation 36 marks       12 marks      48 marks
                                                       Types of questions
   Higher      24 marks    24 marks      48 marks

                                               Next
                                                                   Main Menu
      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




    Paper         Section A     Section B         Total
                                                                   Preparation
 Foundation 36 marks           12 marks        48 marks
    Higher       24 marks      24 marks        48 marks

Section A of the Foundation Tier paper will consist of low       Science content
demand questions targeted at grades G, F, E.

Section B of the Foundation Tier paper/Section A of the
Higher Tier paper will consist of standard demand                 How science/
questions targeted at grades D,C.                                Scientists work


Section B of the Higher Tier paper will consist of high
demand questions targeted at grades B, A, A*. The work
for this part of the exam paper is highlighted in bold in the   Types of questions
tables of content.
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                                                                      Main Menu
              3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




    Revising for the exam                 Why can't I
                                          remember                    Preparation
         Don't worry. It is not your       my work
         fault. It happens to               after
         everybody. It's your brain's     revising?
                                                                    Science content
         fault!
                               You forget 40% of what you
Recall




                               learn in 5 minutes.
                                                                     How science/
                               After 24 hours, you forget 80%.      Scientists work

                               Now you know that, you can do
                               something about it.
                                                                   Types of questions


                                         Time               Next
                                                            Main Menu
         3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
The trick is to review your work regularly. Then,           Preparation
instead of forgetting, your recall will be 'smoother'.
Recall




                                                          Science content




                                                           How science/
                                                          Scientists work




                                    Time
                                                         Types of questions


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                                                           Main Menu
     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
                                                           Preparation
Whatever you are learning now, review it after
                                   Calendar
• an hour;                         Calendar

• a day;                                                 Science content
• a week;
• two weeks;
• and then a month.                                       How science/
                                                         Scientists work
You will find you remember the work much better.
That is why leaving your revision to the last
minute does not work. If you only revise the night
                                                        Types of questions
before, by the time you get up, you will have
forgotten most of your work!
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                                                                      Main Menu
           3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




       Revising for the exam               But I can't
     That's your brain's fault again.
                                           revise for                 Preparation
     After about 20 to 30 minutes,       long before I
     you will start to lose               get bored!
     concentration, so your
     learning dips.                                                 Science content
Learning




                                                                     How science/
                                                                    Scientists work


                              It is time to stop, walk about and
                              do something else for a few
                                                                   Types of questions
                              minutes and then start again.

                            Time                            Next
                                                                        Main Menu
           3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




       Revising for the exam
                                                                        Preparation
     Split your learning into 20 to 30 minute chunks. Your
     learning will still dip but not as much as before, and
     actually, when you know a break is coming, your
     learning picks up again.
                                                                      Science content
Learning




                                                                       How science/
                                                                      Scientists work
                         Break




                                                                     Types of questions


                                                  Time        Next
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     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
                                                        Preparation
                      I don't have much
                         confidence,
                      because when I try
                       questions, I keep              Science content
                         getting them
                            wrong!
                                                       How science/
                                                      Scientists work
Making mistakes is OK as long as you
learn from them.
Get your teacher or a friend to check your           Types of questions
answers, and ask them to explain where
you have gone wrong and what you need
                                              Next
to do to get things right.
                                                                 Main Menu
     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
                            My friends do not                    Preparation
                           revise like me. Am I
                                 wrong?
                                                               Science content

No you are not. Students learn in different ways.

How do you learn and remember best?                             How science/
                                                               Scientists work


     By seeing?

                                                              Types of questions
                            By hearing?           By doing?

                  (Click the above to find out more)
                                                                                            Main Menu
      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




VISUAL LEARNERS                            Space „mind map‟
                                                                                            Preparation
You might find coloured mind
maps, diagrams, charts helpful.                     GALAXY

                                      GALAXY
•Use images that you can picture.                                      GALAXY

•You may find that these images                                                           Science content
come easily to you.                                  Big Bang
                                                                          Milky
•You may have to make your           GALAXY
                                                                          Way
images stand out more.
•Make sure new material is                                      Hydrog

obvious among all the other visual
                                                                en and
                                                                 dust
                                                                                           How science/
images you have floating around
                                                                 cloud
                                                                                          Scientists work
                                                    The
inside your head.                                  Solar
                                                  System

                                     Sun                     Mercury
                                                             Venus
                                                             Earth                Moon
                                                             Mars
                                               Planets
                                                             Jupiter                     Types of questions
                                                             Saturn
                                                             Uranus
                                                             Neptune


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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




AUDITORY LEARNERS
                                                         Preparation
You might find listening to tapes
you have prepared helpful.

Or you can talk with a revision
buddy who also likes to learn in                       Science content
this way.

Make the most of rhythm and
rhyme, jingles or parts of a song
                                                        How science/
                                                       Scientists work




                                                      Types of questions


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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




KINESTHETIC LEARNERS
                                                                     Preparation
If your this type of learner then you like hands-on work
in your learning activities.

Use physical objects as much as possible. Flashcards
can help you memorize information because you can                  Science content
touch and move them around.

Writing and drawing diagrams are physical activities, so
don't neglect these techniques.
                                                                    How science/
Perhaps use big sheets of paper and large colour                   Scientists work
markers for your diagrams. You then get more action
from the drawing.

Find ways to act out what you are learning.                       Types of questions


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     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
                            My friends do not                           Preparation
                           revise like me. Am I
                                 wrong?
                                                                      Science content

No you are not. Students learn in different ways.

How do you learn and remember best?                                    How science/
                                                                      Scientists work


     By seeing?

                                                                     Types of questions
                            By hearing?           By doing?

                  (Click the above to find out more)          Next
                                                              Main Menu
      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Revising for the exam
                                I have got too                Preparation
                                much to revise.
                                I'll never do it
You need to plan.               all.
                                                            Science content
Draw up a revision timetable and stick to it!

Block out time you will not use for revision.
                                                             How science/
                                                            Scientists work
Plan in your revision topics.

See what you can do now. Use the checklist of
the topics in the unit. Tick off the ones you can
                                                           Types of questions
do and know. The ones with no ticks are the
ones you need to revise.
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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Click on the following diagrams to open a personal
check list of what you should know.                                        Preparation




                                                                         Science content



        The Human Body   Man and the               Chemical and
        and Health       Environment               material behaviour     How science/
                                                                         Scientists work




                                                                        Types of questions

   Energy, electricity   The Surface and                   The Solar
   and radiations        Atmosphere of the Earth           System
                                                                         Main Menu
       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society



How science/scientists work
The written exam paper will test your knowledge of how science/          Preparation
scientists work. Some of the ways in which they work are:
   They come up with theories and opinions, e.g. smoking
    damages health.
   They make predictions, e.g. global warming will cause
    flooding.                                                          Science content
   They plan a task which they carry out safely (you will be
    used to making risk assessments from Unit 1).
   They gather evidence to test these theories, e.g. measuring
    the thickness of the ozone layer.
   Sometimes the evidence supports the theory, sometimes it            How science/
    does not, and sometimes there is not enough evidence to            Scientists work
    make a firm conclusion, e.g. will new drugs/immunisations
    be of benefit in curing some diseases or will side effects be
    more harmful.
   They analyse their data/results and make scientific models of
    how things behave, e.g. the expanding universe; comparing
    energy content of various fuels.                                  Types of questions
   New evidence will appear and models/theories may need to
    be revisited e.g. Pluto is no longer considered to be a planet.
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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




How science/scientists work
                                                                        Preparation

   Evidence is communicated in words, graphs, charts, tables,
    etc.

   The testing they carry out needs to be fair – same size           Science content
    samples; same conditions; change one thing to test and
    keep everything else the same.

   Sufficient evidence needs to be gathered so results are valid
    and reliable. This means that the sample should be large or        How science/
    experiments may need to be repeated.                              Scientists work
   They evaluate the methods they use to gather evidence and
    seek to make improvements.

   They look for connections between the things they change
    (variables).                                                     Types of questions


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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




How science/scientists work
   This shape graph shows           This shape graph shows                 Preparation
    a positive correlation            a negative correlation
    between the variables;            between the variables;



                                                                           Science content




                                                                            How science/
   This graph shows a uniform or     This graph shows a non-uniform      Scientists work
    linear connection between the      or non-linear connection between
    variables;                         the variables;



                                                                          Types of questions


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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




How science/scientists work
                                                                      Preparation

   Some scientific advances are controversial, so scientists
    need to understand public concerns and evaluate what
    impact these may have on other people or the environment.
    This will involve making judgements about risks and             Science content
    benefits, e.g. genetic engineering, cloning, mobile phone
    technology.


                                                                     How science/
Questions on how science works may involve situations unfamiliar    Scientists work
to you. However, enough information will be given for you to
answer the questions.

It will be very important that                                     Types of questions
you read this information carefully.
                                                        Main Menu
     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Types of questions
                          What type of                  Preparation
                          questions will I
                          have to do?
                                                      Science content
There will be many types of questions.
You will have probably been given past
papers by your teacher.                                How science/
                                                      Scientists work
Make sure you practice them so you
know what to expect on the day you
take the exam. Some question
examples are given later on.                         Types of questions


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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




Question tips              Are there any
                           tips that will                    Preparation

                           help me in the
                           exam?
 First of all, remember the exam is NOT a race.           Science content
 There are no extra marks for finishing first.
 When you are told to start the exam, don‟t pick up
  your pen straightaway. Spend a few minutes reading
  through the paper.                                        How science/
 If you see a question you like, do that one first. It    Scientists work
  helps to build your confidence.
 Each question will have a total mark. This is about
  how many minutes you should spend on that
  question.
 Read all the information in each question carefully.    Types of questions
  Many marks are lost by students who do not do this.

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      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




1. Calculations                          Question tips
                                                            Preparation
You will be given the equations you need to
complete a calculation in the instructions for the
question.
                                                          Science content
In the Foundation Tier paper and in section A of the
Higher Tier paper, you will be given the equation in
the form you need to work out your answer.
                                                           How science/
                                                          Scientists work
In Section B of the Higher Tier paper, you will need
to rearrange the equation to work out your answer.

                                                         Types of questions


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     3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




1. Calculations                       Question tips
                                                         Preparation
Example:-


                                                       Science content




                                                        How science/
                                                       Scientists work

Do not just write the answer in the space. You may
have made a mistake in your calculation. You will
get no marks. Show your working and you could         Types of questions
get a mark even if the answer is wrong.
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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society



2. Completing tables:
   Completing tables                               Question tips
Example                                                                  Preparation




                                                                       Science content




                                                                        How science/
                                                                       Scientists work
There are no dotted lines after the question, as the answers need
to be written on the dotted lines in the table. Many students don‟t
do as instructed. This also happens in questions where you are
asked to add things to diagrams.                                      Types of questions
BE CAREFUL – if there are marks at the end of a line, then
you should have given an answer somewhere.
Not all answers go on dotted lines!!!                    Next
                                                                         Main Menu
        3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




3. Graphs                                           Question tips
Example                                                                  Preparation




                                                                       Science content




                                                                        How science/
 On the foundation paper, you will always be given the scales         Scientists work
and labels on the axes.
 In section B of the higher paper, you will have to add your own
scales. Make sure you use a sensible scale that covers most of
the grid.
 Read the scale very carefully. Sometimes each tiny square is        Types of questions
worth 2, but students count it as only 1. Whatever you think each
tiny square is worth, count from one scale number to the next and
see if it works out. Try it now.                               Next
                                                                               Main Menu
        3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




3. Graphs                                                Question tips
Example                                                                        Preparation




                                                                             Science content




                                                                              How science/
Each tiny square on the x-axis is worth 2, and on the y-axis they            Scientists work
are worth 1. Did you get it right?
 Plot the points carefully and accurately.
 If appropriate, use a ruler to join the points with a straight line.
Many students do not use a ruler and lose a mark because of a
„wobbly‟ line.                                                              Types of questions
 Sometimes, you will be asked to join the points with a line of
best fit but it is obvious that it cannot be a straight line. In this
case, join the points with a smooth curve.                           Next
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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




4. Mark allocation                                Question tips
The marks at the end of a question give you an idea of                Preparation
how long your answer should be.

Examples

(b) Give two reasons why a power company should look for other      Science content
methods of producing electricity instead of by using coal.
                                                           [2]

Make sure you give 2 answers and not only 1. It is not a good        How science/
idea to give more than 2 answers here, because if you get one       Scientists work
wrong, it will cancel out a correct answer.

(a) Describe how you could reduce heat loss from buildings. [4]
                                                                   Types of questions
This question expects you to make 4 relevant points.


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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society



2. Completing tables: differences Question tips
5. Questions asking for
Example                                                               Preparation




                                                                    Science content


This will only give 1 mark, because both answers are about the
same difference i.e. whether they are a good or a bad conductor.     How science/
                                                                    Scientists work




                                                                   Types of questions


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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society



2. Completing tables: differences Question tips
5. Questions asking for
Example                                                               Preparation




                                                                    Science content



This will not be given any marks because the answer does not
say whether „They’ are metals or non-metals.                         How science/
                                                                    Scientists work
A better answer may say;
1. metals are conductors
2. metals are shiny
These answers are clear and would be worth the two marks.          Types of questions


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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




6. Using chemical symbols and                  Question tips
   formulae                                                         Preparation

There are certain elements you need to know the symbols for.
There are also certain compounds you need to know the formulae
for. You need to learn these.
                                                                  Science content




                                                                   How science/
                                                                  Scientists work




                                                                 Types of questions


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       3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




6. Using chemical symbols and                        Question tips
   formulae                                                                Preparation

Be careful when writing a symbol or formula. Not all the letters will
need to be capital letters. Some elements only have one letter as
their symbol; this is always a capital letter.
                                                                         Science content
            C = carbon              O = oxygen
            H = hydrogen            N = nitrogen
            S = sulphur             K = potassium
                                                                          How science/
When a symbol has two letters it is always a capital letter AND          Scientists work
a lower case letter;
           Cl = chlorine
           Na = sodium

If you write down capital letters where they are not needed, you        Types of questions
will not get a mark. For example;

  Lead is Pb not PB Sodium chloride is NaCl not NACL           Next
                                                              Main Menu
      3. Unit 2 – Science for the Needs of Society




7. Finally,                                Question tips
                                                              Preparation

…when you finish the last question, look back over the
rest of the paper. DO NOT leave any blank spaces. You
cannot get a mark for a blank space. Make a guess and
                                                            Science content
write something down. You never know, you may get a
mark and every mark counts.

                                                             How science/
                                                            Scientists work
    Good luck for your exam.
Though, if you prepare well enough you will not need any   Types of questions
luck.

     This completes the section on Unit 2
                                                                 Main Menu
          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



In this unit you will find out that science may be used to
the great benefit of industry and society.
                                                               Science in the
There are four sections in this unit:                            workplace

a. Science in the Workplace
b. Making Useful Products                                      Making useful
c. Electrical and electronic devices                             products
d. Monitoring Living Organisms
All of the work that you do in this unit will be kept in a      Electrical and
                                                                  electronic
folder (portfolio). It is this portfolio that will be marked       devices
to assess your performance. Each section is a
separate report and has an equal weighting of 25%
                                                               Monitoring living
(1/4) of the total. Each section is marked out of 25, so
                                                                  organisms
the maximum mark is 100.

If any report is missing from the portfolio then no
mark can be awarded for that report.                    Next
                                                             Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



The Awarding Body will compare the quality of your
work against standard work for A, C and F grade
students. Your final mark will be reported to you as a     Science in the
UMS mark – just like unit 1 and unit 2. For more details     workplace
see the Introduction section.

                                                           Making useful
                                                             products
As with all Applied Science reports, your work can be
handwritten or word-processed. No marks are given
                                                            Electrical and
for the use of ICT; however you may find this method          electronic
an easier way to draft, revise and print your work.            devices

You can use either method or a mixture of both. What       Monitoring living
matters is the quality of your work and how it matches
                                                              organisms
the assessment criteria.


                                                   Next
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          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



a. Science in the Workplace
This is a study of organisations that use science; their
                                                              Science in the
location, details about their workforce, the scientific         workplace
activities that take place and what they involve.
Information on the training, skills, qualifications and
career prospects of their employees is included,              Making useful
particularly at the higher bands.                               products
                                       Where do I get
                                              this
                                                               Electrical and
                                        information?             electronic
This can come from careers booklets, the internet
                                                                  devices
and other sources. Information from these sources
should be used as a basis for a report written
IN YOUR OWN WORDS. No marks are given for                     Monitoring living

internet sheets, copies of booklets, or even for                 organisms
photocopying other sources.
IT IS WHAT YOU DO WITH THE INFORMATION
THAT GETS THE MARKS.                                   Next
                                                               Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Throughout this section of the booklet the criteria
tables are copied for you to refer to. Also as much
description as possible is given so that you have an         Science in the
idea of exactly what you are expected to do to obtain          workplace
high marks for your portfolio work.
                                          What is my
                                                             Making useful
                                            teacher            products
                                            looking
                                              for?
Look at the criteria;                                         Electrical and
                                                                electronic
 Levels of Achievement                         Marks             devices
 W1a Produce a brief report on one              3-7
     organisation that uses science.                         Monitoring living
 W1b Describe simply where it is located.                       organisms
 W1c Describe what use of science is made in
     this organisation.
                                                      Next
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work




   What is the Brief
    Report (W.1a)                                             Science in the
                                                                workplace



                                                              Making useful
                                                                products
This is a report, or case study, of an organisation that
uses science. It is fairly general and it explains its
history, its products, its structure, branches and outlets.    Electrical and
You are setting the scene here for what comes later.             electronic
                                                                  devices


                                                              Monitoring living
                                                                 organisms



                                                     Next
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


      Describe where it is
        located (W.1 b).
                                                               Science in the
This is a description of where the organisation is               workplace
located, sufficient to enable a visitor or stranger to the
area to be able to find it. A simple statement that it is in
the „Maylords Shopping Centre‟ or a map such as                Making useful
multimap.com is insufficient on its own.                         products


Try this – give the description to your parent, a               Electrical and
                                                                  electronic
neighbour or any adult, and ask them if there is
                                                                   devices
sufficient information for them to get there. (Going by
taxi is NOT an option!)
                                                               Monitoring living

It would be useful to look ahead to W.2b on the next              organisms
page whilst you are doing this section of work. You are
advised to provide both a description and an
explanation.                                       Next
                                                Main Menu
      4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



        Describe what use of
       science is made in this
        organisation (W.1c).                  Science in the
                                                workplace



Your brief report (case study) will have      Making useful
                                                products
set the scene and contain details of
exactly what the organisation actually         Electrical and
does – together with other details.              electronic
                                                  devices


In order to consider what use is made of      Monitoring living

science you need to find out information         organisms

in two parts.
                                       Next
                                                               Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


         Describe what use of
        science is made in this
         organisation (W.1c).
These are;                                                   Science in the
                                                               workplace
1. A simple list of jobs in the organisation is needed. It
must include the major groups of employees. (Not all
the employees in a hospital are physiotherapists or          Making useful
                                                               products
neurosurgeons! Texaco Oil Refinery employs more
than lorry drivers; Airbus Industries does not just have
pilots!)                                                      Electrical and
                                                                electronic
2. What do these employees mentioned in part 1                   devices
above actually do? Some research is needed and
information must be available for all the groups of          Monitoring living
employees listed in part 1 above. They will have more           organisms
skills than just scientific ones but some information on
what they do, and how science comes into their work
is essential.                                       Next
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



The second band criteria are very similar to the first
band ones.
                                                               Science in the
                                                                 workplace
  Levels of Achievement                             Marks
  W2a Produce a case study on two                   9 - 13
                                                               Making useful
      organisations that use science.                            products
  W2b Explain why they are in these locations.
  W2c Describe clearly how the activities carried
                                                                Electrical and
      out in these organisations are related to                   electronic
      the science used.                                            devices


                                                               Monitoring living
 Look at the criteria carefully. The emphasis here is
                                                                  organisms
 on TWO organisations


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                                           Main Menu
    4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



 A case study on two
 organisations (W.2a)                    Science in the
                                           workplace



                                         Making useful
                                           products
A case study must be done for
each organisation.                        Electrical and
                                            electronic
                                             devices

You should have done one case            Monitoring living
study (brief report) for W.1a               organisms

already.
                                  Next
                                                                    Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


        Explain why they are in
         these location (W.2b)

                                                                  Science in the
The description done before for W.1b explains how you
                                                                    workplace
would get to the organisation. Not only is a description of the
location needed for each of the organisations but also an
explanation of why they are located in a particular place,
                                                                  Making useful
street and building.
                                                                    products
You will also need to add more detail to the description you
have already done for the first organisation for criteria W.1b.
                                                                   Electrical and
An example could be your own school; the description should          electronic
enable a stranger to find it.                                         devices
However to explain its location is rather different – „How and
why was the school built on its present site?‟ Was it a PFI       Monitoring living
(Private Finance Initiative), an amalgamation of schools
                                                                     organisms
or………… some detail is needed here.

Don‟t forget you need a description and an explanation for
both organisations.                                     Next
                                                              Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


  Describe clearly how the activities carried
  out in these organisations are related to
  the science used (W.2c) .
                                                            Science in the
                                                              workplace


In W.1c you should have already described the major         Making useful
jobs in one organisation and described what the               products
employees actually do.
                                                             Electrical and
First of all you now need to do all of this again but for      electronic
your second organisation and to the same quality of             devices
work – this means that you have gained W.1c for both
organisations.                                              Monitoring living
                                                               organisms
This covers the criteria up to the second band (row).
Much more work is needed for the third band and it
involves a lot more research and writing.
                                                     Next
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           4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



The third band criteria:-

                                                                     Science in the
 Levels of Achievement                                    Marks        workplace
 W3a Produce a detailed study of three organisations      15 - 19
      that use science.
 W3b Explain in detail why they are in these locations.              Making useful
                                                                       products
 W3c Identify the job titles and qualifications of the
      employees, for each of the organisations in their
      study. Describing the skills that the employees                 Electrical and
      need to enable them to do their job.                              electronic
                                                                         devices


                                                                     Monitoring living
 The emphasis here is on THREE organisations.
                                                                        organisms



                                                              Next
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       4. Unit 3 – Science at Work




    Produce a detailed study of three
  organisations that use science. (W.3a)
                                                           Science in the
                                                             workplace



The word „detailed‟ has been added therefore you           Making useful
                                                             products
must make sure that you write much more for all
three organisations. You may need to revisit the
first two organisations to make sure that it is better      Electrical and
than „brief‟.                                                 electronic
                                                               devices

This perhaps is a good example of where word
processed work would be an advantage as it is              Monitoring living

easier to draft and revise work that you have done            organisms
before.

                                                    Next
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       4. Unit 3 – Science at Work




  Explain in detail why they are in these
             locations. (W.3b)
                                                        Science in the
                                                          workplace



The description and explanation of the location that    Making useful
                                                          products
you have already done for two organisations has to
be done for this third organisation. When you have
done this, go back over your work to make sure           Electrical and
that you have included the „detailed‟ part of the          electronic
                                                            devices
requirement

– brief work is not acceptable at this level.           Monitoring living
                                                           organisms



                                                 Next
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       4. Unit 3 – Science at Work




Identify the job titles and qualifications of the
employees, for each of the organisations in their
                                                            Science in the
study. Describe the skills that the employees need
                                                              workplace
to enable them to do their job. (W.3b)


                                                            Making useful
                                                              products
For W.1c and W.2c you should have looked at the
major groups of employees to show how their work
                                                             Electrical and
was related to the science carried out in the                  electronic
organisations.                                                  devices


The actual job titles are now needed for each of the        Monitoring living
groups.                                                        organisms



                                                     Next
                                                            Main Menu
        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Then in addition, you need to add the qualifications
needed for each group of employees.
                                                          Science in the
Most employees have to have some education and              workplace
obtain particular qualifications in order to be
considered for a particular job. It may just be a
certain GCSE level in Maths and English, but it           Making useful
                                                            products
could be more and be even more specific as to the
subjects needed. Some jobs need GCSE level,
others GNVQ, AS/A2 or degree or …….                        Electrical and
                                                             electronic
                                                              devices
There are often other skills, other than exams, that
potential employees need in order to do their job
                                                          Monitoring living
efficiently and to the benefit of the company.
                                                             organisms
Some research is needed here.

                                                   Next
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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Make your list varied and try to cover a wide range
of jobs and qualifications – don‟t just go for the
„brain surgeon‟ – there are more people needed in          Science in the
                                                             workplace
a school than just a Head teacher!

For each job give,                                         Making useful
        Title                                                products
        Job description
        Qualifications needed
                                                            Electrical and
        Type of job                                           electronic
          (consider other details such as salary,              devices
           working conditions and hours of work.)
        How science is used in their job                   Monitoring living
                                                              organisms

This is the minimum needed for each job.
                                                    Next
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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Remember that pages downloaded from the
internet do NOT give you any marks.
                                                        Science in the
You need to present the information in your own           workplace
way whether it is word processed or handwritten or
a mixture of both.
                                                        Making useful
                                                          products


                                                         Electrical and
                                                           electronic
                                                            devices


                                                        Monitoring living
                                                           organisms



                                                 Next
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           4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


                                             What about the
                                             Top Band?
                                                                            Science in the
Levels of Achievement
                                                                              workplace
W4a Produce an in-depth study of THREE organisations – take
care to choose one local, one national and one international. You
may already have made sure that you have done this already for
W.3a. However the term „detail‟ has become „in-depth‟ so a high             Making useful
quality, thorough study is essential.                                         products


W.4b Describe in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the              Electrical and
locations of these organisations. Make sure that you have covered              electronic
the requirements for W.3b, then expand this by a detailed study of              devices
the advantages and disadvantages of each of the three locations.
This could be tabulated and written in paragraphs – it is the detail
that counts.                                                                Monitoring living
                                                                               organisms
W.4c In addition to identifying the job titles, qualifications and skills
needed by employees this has to be detailed. A good description of
how the skills, training and background are important to the
employees is required.
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



b. Making Useful Products
In this topic you will do experiments where you will
                                                            Science in the
produce different chemical substances. Your                   workplace
teacher will have chosen three different types of
reactions and there will be a worksheet for each of the
experiments.                                                Making useful
                                                              products
Before you do each experiment you will need to do a
risk assessment. The need for these will have
been explained in your unit 1 work.                          Electrical and
                                                               electronic
                                                                devices
These are important in all scientific activities – make
sure that you do one for each product and that they
                                                            Monitoring living
are included in your portfolio.
                                                               organisms
You will lose marks if they are not available.

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               4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



The criteria table for the first three bands is as follows…
                         Levels of Achievement                                    Marks

 C1a Produce a risk assessment.
                                                                                            Science in the
 C1b Follow instructions to obtain one chemical product, presenting it                        workplace
                                                                                    3-7
    in a labelled sample tube.
 C1c Take and record measurements of mass readings; e.g. initial and
                                                                                 1st BAND
    final mass.
                                                                                            Making useful
 C2a Produce two risk assessments                                                             products
 C2b Follow instructions to obtain two pure dry products using different types     9-13
 of chemical reaction, presenting them in fully labelled sample tubes.           2nd BAND
 C2c Use the raw readings to work out the actual yields for both products..
                                                                                             Electrical and
 C3a Produce three risk assessments.                                                           electronic
 C3b Obtain three pure, dry products using different types of chemical             15-19        devices
 reaction, presenting them in suitably labelled sample tubes.
 C3c Calculate the percentage yield of each product given the theoretical
                                                                                 3rd BAND
 yield and using the actual mass of product obtained.
 C3d For each reaction write a balanced chemical equation.
                                                                                            Monitoring living
                                                                                               organisms
 The main part of your assessment is to make each of
 the chemical products, dry them and then put them
 into a sample tube which you have labelled.     Next
                                                              Main Menu
         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



You will also be measuring the „actual yield‟ of the
substance.
A format may be provided on your worksheet; if not,         Science in the
then remember to be methodical and to write all               workplace
your measurements down.
   For example;                                             Making useful
           Mass of empty dish       =              g          products
           Mass of dish and product =              g
           Mass of product          =              g
                                                             Electrical and
 A table is unnecessary here as the data has been set          electronic
                                                                devices
 out in columns and is easy to follow, but if in
 doubt then use a table..
                                                            Monitoring living
 Provided that you have produced three products - all
 are dry, all in labelled tubes, and actual yields             organisms
 measured (and you have three risk assessments of
 course) - then your work will be in the third band.
 C.3a and C.3b are given.                            Next
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Percentage Yield (C.3c)
You will be expected to work out the percentage yield
using the following equation;                            Science in the
                                                           workplace

 percentage yield =         actual yield      x 100%
                          theoretical yield              Making useful
                                                           products

Your teacher will tell you the theoretical yield.
The percentage yield should be less than 100%.            Electrical and
                                                            electronic
IF NOT then there is a mistake somewhere. Go back
                                                             devices
through your work. Check all the numbers that you
have recorded as well as your working out.
                                                         Monitoring living
                                                            organisms



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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


             For each reaction
              write a balanced
             chemical equation
                   (C.3d)                                    Science in the
                                                               workplace


A balanced chemical equation has to be written down
                                                             Making useful
correctly for all three experiments. This is a symbol          products
equation and NOT a word equation.

IF you word process these you must make sure that             Electrical and
                                                                electronic
you get the equations completely correct; remember               devices
capital letters and lower case letters. Some numbers
are written in ordinary script (2) and others in subscript
                                                             Monitoring living
(as in CO2).
                                                                organisms
Take care here and if your computer skills are not
very good then consider writing the equations by
hand.                                              Next
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           4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


     AND the
    top band?

                                                                             Science in the
                                                                               workplace
 In addition to fulfilling all the criteria in the third band;
 For one of the three reactions
 C4a Describe and explain the factors that affect how quickly
 a reaction occurs.                                                          Making useful
 C4b Describe and explain the conditions which affect the        21 - 25       products
 yield of the products.
 C4c Describe and explain the type of reaction taking place.
 C4d Describe in detail the industrial importance of the                      Electrical and
 reaction.                                                                      electronic
                                                                                 devices

The work has to based entirely on one of the three                           Monitoring living
reactions that you have carried out.
                                                                                organisms



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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


     Describe and explain the factors that affect
     how quickly a reaction occurs (C.4a)

                                                              Science in the
It is not acceptable for a general essay to be written          workplace
about all of the factors that affect the rate of any or all
chemical reactions. This report MUST be based on one
of the reactions that you have carried out. Your report       Making useful
                                                                products
must be clear and have as much detail as you can
provide.
                                                               Electrical and
For the same reaction you need to „describe and                  electronic
                                                                  devices
explain‟;

     the conditions affecting the yield (C.4b);              Monitoring living
     the type of reaction taking place (C.4c), and              organisms
     the industrial importance of the reaction
      (and product made) for C.4d.
                                                      Next
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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work




Most chemical substances have uses in the
chemical industry. They may be used in the form            Science in the
that they are already in or they may be used in              workplace
another chemical process in order to produce
another substance.
                                                           Making useful
                                                             products
You may well find this information out using the
internet or textbooks or other sources. It is important     Electrical and
that you write the explanation for each section in your       electronic
own words.                                                     devices


As this is a top band statement then a high level          Monitoring living
report is essential – simple statements are not               organisms
satisfactory; more information is essential.

                                                    Next
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



c. Electrical and electronic devices
This section is in two parts;
                                                               Science in the
                                                                 workplace
          1. A report on making and assessing the
             effectiveness of one electrical or electronic
             device                                            Making useful
          2. A report on a second (different) electrical         products
             or electronic device.
                                                                Electrical and
Each report is completely separate from the other                 electronic
                                                                   devices
report. It is difficult to link the two sections together in
one report. You will meet again the use of „simple‟,
„clear‟, „detailed‟, „describe‟ and „explain‟, which were      Monitoring living
clarified before in the Analysis and Evaluation section           organisms
in unit 1. You can refer back to that section if you are
still unsure, though some guidance will be given here.
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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



1. Electrical or Electronic Device
Your school will have decided on the best way to do
this section. You may use actual components which       Science in the
                                                          workplace
you have to wire in or solder onto a board, you may
use a breadboard or even use pre-assembled boards
such a „microelectronics for all‟ or „Alpha‟ or other   Making useful
manufacturers‟ products.                                  products


                                                         Electrical and
                                                           electronic
                                                            devices


                                                        Monitoring living
Whatever you are using should not necessarily              organisms
prevent you from getting to the top of the second
band. This will become clearer when you look at the
bands and the criteria statements.
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            4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Look at the criteria in the first band.
 D1a Safely connect given components to make a simple
 electrical or electronic device and produce a risk                      Science in the
 assessment.
                                                                           workplace
 D1b Identify its component parts, giving simple descriptions   3-7
 of their functions.
 D1c Give a simple evaluation of the effectiveness of the
 device.                                                                 Making useful
                                                                           products
Using your worksheet you should be able to follow the instructions
safely and produce a risk assessment (D.1a)
                                                                          Electrical and
You need to identify the components that you are using and give a           electronic
simple (short/brief) description of what the components are doing            devices
in the circuit (D.1b)

You also need to give a simple evaluation. Did the device work?          Monitoring living
Did the device do what it was meant to do? What did you do to test
                                                                            organisms
it and what happened? (D.1c)

REMEMBER that you must satisfy all three parts in the first band
BEFORE you can be assessed at the next band!
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            4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



The criteria in the second band follow on from the first band.
 D2a Safely connect given components to make an electrical
 or electronic device.                                                       Science in the
 D2b Identify its component parts, giving clear descriptions of                workplace
 their functions.                                                 9 - 13
 D2c Give a clear evaluation of the effectiveness of the
 device.
                                                                             Making useful
                                                                               products
A simple device is acceptable for the first band D.1a, but a
more complicated device is required for D.2a.
                                                                              Electrical and
The quality of the „descriptions of its functions‟(D.2b) and                    electronic
                                                                                 devices
the „evaluation‟(D.2c) have to be much better than those
for D.1b and D.1c. You need to write much more for both
parts. It must be clear from your writing that you                           Monitoring living
understand exactly what the components do, and can say                          organisms
so. Short answers are not suitable – a paragraph or
several sentences should be sufficient. The evaluation
must also be clear and well written.
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           4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


2. A report on a second (different) electrical or
electronic device.
The third band is more demanding;
                                                                       Science in the
 D3a Select components, connect and test two electrical or
                                                                         workplace
 electronic devices and produce two risk assessments.
 D3b Explain the function of all the components for each     15 - 19
 device.
 D3c Evaluate the effectiveness of each device.                        Making useful
                                                                         products
One device will get your marks to the top of the second
band and in order to get higher marks you will need to
work on a second (different) device. The work that you do               Electrical and
with the second device is important as it is used to assess               electronic
                                                                           devices
the criteria in the third and possibly the fourth (highest)
band.
An electrical device will have a maximum mark at the top               Monitoring living
of the third band. Only an electronic device will allow                   organisms
marks to be given in the fourth band. This will involve you
in using actual electronic components and putting them
into circuits – electronic project boards or soldering are the
likely choices here.                                        Next
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          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


There has to be written evidence that you have chosen some
of the components yourself. For example, you may choose
the most suitable input and output components from a range,
to make your circuit work correctly. Identifying a resistor from   Science in the
its colour coding is too simple and is not a satisfactory match      workplace
to the statement for D.3a. You should say what you did with
each of the components and be able to justify your choice.
                                                                   Making useful
D.3b. You are now explaining the function of the                     products
components, and have to explain clearly, correctly and in
some detail exactly what each of the components is doing.
                                                                    Electrical and
You may obtain the information from various sources, and              electronic
then use it to write your explanations.                                devices
 D.3c. The effectiveness of the device has to be
 considered in much more detail than you did before with           Monitoring living
 the first device. You must describe clearly exactly how you          organisms
 have tested the device, the different conditions used and
 what effect they had on the function of the device. Does it
 still do exactly as you intended? Are further modifications
 needed? Any suggestions here?                             Next
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            4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


And the fourth band?
As always the criteria in the third band have to be
matched first. Almost certainly you will be assembling
                                                                           Science in the
the circuit using discrete components which may well                         workplace
involve soldering. You will have spent some time not
only choosing the most suitable components, but
possibly also trialling circuits to ensure that your final                 Making useful
circuit should be suitable for the brief given to you.                       products

 D4a Select components, safely assemble and test two
 devices, at least one of which is electronic.                              Electrical and
 D4b Explain in detail the workings and usefulness of each                    electronic
 device.                                                       21 – 25         devices
 D4c Give a detailed evaluation of the effectiveness of each
 device.
                                                                           Monitoring living
The statements speak for themselves. The term „detail‟                        organisms
refers both to the quality and quantity of your response
(work).
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            4. Unit 3 – Science at Work


d. Monitoring Living Organisms

This report will involve you in some practical work where you
are carrying out experiments into the development of living                Science in the
organisms. The term „development‟ covers aspects such as                     workplace
growth, responses and other measurable or observable
changes. As with all experiments which involve living
organisms such as plants or animals, you must show that you                Making useful
have taken appropriate care and consideration.                               products


                                                                            Electrical and
 Levels of Achievement                                          Marks         electronic
 L1a Follow instructions to monitor the growth or response of                  devices
     an organism under controlled conditions and produce a
     risk assessment.
 L1b Record relevant data in a suitable format.                 3-7        Monitoring living
 L1c Offer a simple explanation or simple evaluation of the                   organisms
     results obtained in the investigation.



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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Your teacher may well have produced a worksheet to tell you
what experiment you are going to do. A risk assessment must
be done. Provided that you have carried out the experiment
                                                                 Science in the
and have recorded relevant data, then you should have              workplace
satisfied L.1a and L.1b. Remember that at this stage you
should know exactly how to measure accurately and to
present the data in a suitable format – labelled tables. The
                                                                 Making useful
table should be your own and not copied from a worksheet,          products
blackboard or elsewhere.

From your data you will need to write an explanation (pattern,    Electrical and
                                                                    electronic
trend or conclusion) for your experiment, as well as an
                                                                     devices
evaluation (of the actual experiment method and apparatus).
Again you should have met this in unit 1 and have very few
problems here. A simple explanation OR a simple evaluation       Monitoring living
are needed for L.1c. The term „simple‟ meaning a brief/short        organisms
statement has been met before.


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          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



 L2a Explain the conditions controlling the growth or
     response of the organism.
 L2b Give a clear explanation of the results obtained   9 – 13     Science in the
     in the investigation.                                           workplace
 L2c Give a clear evaluation of the investigation.

For L.2b the explanation and for L.2c the evaluation               Making useful
                                                                     products
must be clearer and given in much more detail than for
L.1c. What you write must also be correct and be
based on the data that you obtained.                                Electrical and
                                                                      electronic
                                                                       devices
Remember that the explanation (L.2b) and the
evaluation (L.2c), if present, must be written to a
                                                                   Monitoring living
higher standard that that acceptable for L.1c. Again the
key word is „clear‟.                                                  organisms



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          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Look at the third band criteria.
L3a Produce a plan of a procedure (including a risk
                                                                   Science in the
    assessment) in order to carry out a second                       workplace
    (different) investigation into the growth and/or
    response of organisms.
L3b Carry out the plan for the second (different)
                                                       15 – 19
                                                                   Making useful
    investigation.                                                   products
L3c Record clearly and accurately the results of the
    second investigation.
                                                                    Electrical and
                                                                      electronic
The most important difference is that you now have to                  devices
produce your own plan for an investigation.
It could be completely different from what you have already        Monitoring living
done or it could be related to your first experiment. What it
                                                                      organisms
cannot do is to be a direct copy or slightly amended version
of what you have done before. This will be obvious from your
portfolio how similar or different your own plan is.
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          4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



L.3a Produce a plan in order to carry
out an investigation                                                Science in the
Producing a suitable plan is a high level skill. The plan must        workplace
include details of the apparatus to be used, the method to be
followed, the results to be taken and also details of how to
record the data. This is almost the same process that your          Making useful
teachers go through when they devise and produce their own            products
worksheets – this will also apply to published worksheets
where several drafts are probably done before a final
acceptable version is produced.                                      Electrical and
                                                                       electronic
You may have your own ideas or suggestions may be made                  devices
to you. What is important is the quality and thoroughness of
the plan that you produce. This plan must be in sufficient
                                                                    Monitoring living
detail that you could give it to somebody else and there would
be sufficient detail for them to carry it out. During this course      organisms
you will have used lots of worksheets or standard operating
procedures, so you should be capable of producing a high
quality plan yourself.
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         4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Do not forget;

       State what equipment you will use                     Science in the
       How will it be set up?                                  workplace
       Will a diagram help?
       Step by step write down exactly what is to be done.
       What measurements are to be taken?                    Making useful
       A risk assessment must be produced.                     products


                                                               Electrical and
                                                                 electronic
The test that can be used is..                                    devices

 “is there sufficient information and
                                                              Monitoring living
detail to enable another person to                               organisms
carry out the experiment”.
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           4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



Carrying out your plan will be assessed for L.3b.

The recording of the results clearly and accurately in a clear        Science in the
organised format is assessed for L.3c                                   workplace

The criteria in the fourth band are entirely related to this
experiment which you have planned and carried out. At this            Making useful
stage you should be able to understand what is required from            products
you.

 L4a Make conclusions from the evidence obtained in the                Electrical and
     second investigation.                                               electronic
 L4b Explain the conclusions in depth using appropriate                   devices
     scientific knowledge and understanding.
                                                          21 – 25
 L4c Give a clear evaluation of the second
     investigation.
                                                                      Monitoring living
                                                                         organisms



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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



L.4b Explain conclusions in depth using scientific
knowledge and understanding
                                                            Science in the
In this section you need to do some research to find          workplace
the science behind your work. You need to look at
books, leaflets, or the internet for example, in order to
                                                            Making useful
obtain your information. This can then be put into your       products
own words as part of your report to explain the
conclusions you made in detail.
                                                             Electrical and
                                                               electronic
                                                                devices


                                                            Monitoring living
                                                               organisms



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        4. Unit 3 – Science at Work



L.4c Give a clear evaluation of the second
investigation
                                                          Science in the
This is not very different from work that you have done     workplace
before. The evaluation looks back at the carrying out
and the quality / reliability of your results. The term
                                                          Making useful
„clear‟ should have been met many times before in this      products
course.

                                                           Electrical and
     No wonder that these                                    electronic
                                                              devices

    requirements are in the                               Monitoring living

          fourth band!                                       organisms



     This completes the section on Unit 3

								
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