Classical Approaches to Management by knr16823

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									Classical Approaches


 COMM 254: Organizational
    Communication
Some Background...
 All were developed in the early 1900s
 Basic assumptions regarding people and
  motivation:
     People are primarily motivated by economic
      forces
     Employees need direction and control to
      effectively fulfill their duties
Machine Metaphor Commonalities

  Specialization
  Standardization/Replaceability
  Predictability
Scientific Management
 Frederick Taylor, American engineer
 Focus on “work” design rather than
  “organizational” design
Basic Principles of Scientific
Management
 Production and management as
  "science“
 One best way and piece rate
  compensation standards discovered
  through time-and-motion studies
 First-class workers selected and trained
 Clear distinction between management
  and worker types
General Management (Henri Fayol)

 Elements of Management
     Planning: Looking ahead to determine the
      best way to achieve organizational goals.
     Organizing: Arranging and evaluating
      human resources.
     Command: Setting out employee tasks.
     Coordination: Harmonizing separate
      activities.
     Control: Assessing fit between goals and
      activities.
General Management (Henri Fayol)

 Principles of Management
   Organizational Structure (p. 6)
   Organizational Power (p. 8)
   Organizational Reward (p. 8)
   Organizational Attitude (p. 9)
General Management
and Bureaucracy
 General Management
   HenriFayol
   French industrialist

 Bureaucracy
   Max Weber
   German university professor
Fayol and Weber:
Some Commonalities
 Division of labor
 Hierarchy
 Position over individual
 Rules (Rational-legal authority)
 "Universalism" -- equity
Fayol and Weber: Some Important
Differences
 The primary goal of the theory:
 Fayol: Provide a prescriptive model for
  organizational effectiveness

 Weber: Lay out the features of an abstract or
  “idealized” organizational form (the
  bureaucracy)
Fayol and Weber: Some Important
Differences
 How to establish and maintain order and
 compliance:
 Fayol: Clear rules and structure balanced with
  fair remuneration, fair discipline, a good dose
  of kindness, and the development of a sense
  of unity
 Weber: Clear rules and structure reinforced by
  an inflexible, predictable system and
  impersonal work relationships
Fayol and Weber: Some Important
Differences
 Decision making strategies:
 Fayol: Centralized (restricted to upper levels of
  management) or decentralized depending on
  the situational demands

 Weber: Centralized only
Organization as Machine: A Video
Illustration
Classical Approaches: A View of
Communication
  Content  Task
  Direction  Downward vertical
        Exception: Fayol’s bridge
  Channel  Written preferred
  Style  Formal

								
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