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Safe on First Driving Risk on Second Incident Report on Third and who just came in at home! It more than a game P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Construction Site Safety • The game starts here with safety on first • First thing on your mind • First thing talked about • First thing reviewed in your paper work P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada IMPROVING SAFETY PERFORMANCE Can be accomplished in part by identifying the root causes of injuries and fatalities P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada STANDARDS WITH THE MOST CITATIONS • Scaffolding • Hazard Communication • Fall Protection • Lockout/Tagout • Respiratory Protection • Electrical • Machine Guarding P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada SOURCES OF FALLS • Off roof • Collapse of scaffolding • Off scaffolding • Collapse of structure • Through floor opening • Off ladder • Off structure • Through roof opening • Off edge of open floor • Off beam support* P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada SOURCES OF “STRUCK BY” FATALITIES • Falling object • Run over by heavy equipment • Crane boom or load • Run over by private vehicle • Trench cave-ins* P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada SOURCES OF “CAUGHT IN BETWEEN” FATALITIES • Trench cave-ins • Heavy equipment • Overturning heavy equipment machinery • Moving part of heavy equipment* P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada SOURCES OF ELECTROCUTIONS • Direct contact with live wire (20%) • Crane boom with power line (14%) • Materials hit power line • Ladder contact with power line* P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Other • Drowning • Explosion • Fire • Natural Causes • Self Inflicted Injury* P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Site formation and site layout • Matters concerning site formation – Lifting appliances – Moving equipment – Site access – Temporary electricity supply – Traffic control P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Safe working environment and good housekeeping • Remove or flatten out projected nails on timber • Adequately ventilation and sufficiently lighting should be provided in workplace • Stack and handle building materials properly • Handle chemicals or toxic substances properly • Remove oil stains or puddles of water on floor P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Fire prevention • Fire triangle – A fire can be ignited in the presence of all three elements, namely fuel, heat, and air • Common causes of fire – Defective electrical equipment and wiring – Smoking or use of naked flame – Improper use or storage of flammable liquid such as thinner and paint – Excessive storage of waste and construction debris – Equipment not properly maintained leading to overheating – Sustain electrically overload P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada ERP Fire Control • Methods of Fire Fighting – Isolation – Suffocation – Cooling • Fire Extinguishers P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Safety Hints – Understand escape route – Keep fire doors closed and escape routes clear – Use proper containers with lid for flammable liquids – Switch off the supply mains for any electrical equipment when not in use – Handle flammable liquids at a safe distance from sources of ignition – Do not obstruct access to fire fighting equipment – Do not hang clothes over or near heating appliances – Check before and after using blow lamps, welding and cutting equipment – Obey “No smoking” signs P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Electrical safety • Hazards – Electric shock – Burns – Fire and explosions • Common causes of accidents – Electrical faults – Poor insulation – Faulty electrical equipment connects to power supply outlets – Improper use of plugs and multi-adaptors – Socket outlets are not protected by RCD – Humid and wet working environment – No or loosen earthing P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Precautionary Measures – Adequate insulation of the electrical equipment and associated accessories shall be provided – Adequate earthing shall be provided – Double-insulated tools shall be used – Insulated gloves, boots and mats shall be used – Regular inspection and routine maintenance of all electrical installation and equipment shall be carried out by REW • Safe use of portable electrical equipment – Use tools of 110V with appropriate plugs and sockets – Check whether the tools are properly earthed (Double insulated tools do not require earthing) P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Do not allow connection a portable electrical tool to a lighting socket – Power cables should be kept off the floor – Switch off and disconnect the power supply to the tools when the tools are not in use – Regularly inspect and maintain portable electrical tools P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Safety in excavation • Hazards – Displacement of earth – Falling objects – Existing underground utilities – Fall of persons – Ingress of water and mud – Toxic or flammable gases P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Precautionary measures Precautionary measures – Planking work should be done prior to carry out excavation work Planking work should be done prior to carry out excavation work – Provide emergency escape – Heavy vehicle, load or plant should be placed off the edge of excavation – Suitable fencing of adequate strength must be provided along the edge of the excavation – All the excavation work should be carried out under supervision – Excavation and trenches must be regularly inspected by a competent person – Identify the location of all underground utilities before the commencement of the excavation work. – Dewatering system must be used where necessary P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Manual lifting and handling • Common types of injuries – Hernia – Torn back muscles – Slipped disc – Cuts, bruises, crush injuries and sometimes laceration to fingers, hands and forearms – Crush injuries to the toes – Cut and bruises to legs and feet P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Basic principles of manual lifting – Correct hold – Back straight – Chin tucked in – Correct position of feet – Arm close to body – Use body weight P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Manual handling procedures – Wear gloves – Wear safety boots or shoes – Make a trial lift of a few inches – Keep clear your way – Take up position. One foot slightly advanced pointing in the direction you intend to move – Bend the knees; back muscles should be relaxed Bend the knees; back muscles should be relaxed – Have a secure grip of the load – Lift. Keep the back straight, arms close to body, leg muscles taking the load P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Step off in the direction that the advanced foot is pointing – Load held close to the body – Do not carry a load that obstructs your view – Avoid twisting the trunk whilst lifting or carrying a load P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Safety in scaffolds, working platforms and ladders • Work at height – Any person who is working at a level liable to fall a distance of more than 2 metres • Potential hazards – Fall from scaffold – Fall of person due to collapse of scaffold – Fall from working platforms, gangway, lift shaft and stairway – Falling objects P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Safe use of scaffold – A scaffold must be erected, maintained, and dismantled by a competent person – The scaffold must be inspected by a competent person pursuant to the provisions in the Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations – All working platforms on the scaffold must be at least 400mm wide, with guard rails of adequate strength to a height between 900mm and 1150mm above the platform. In addition, toeboards of 200mm high must be fitted around the working platform – Suitable means (e.g. ladders) must provided to ensure safe access to and egress from the scaffold P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Safe use of ladder – Use ladder of sufficient length or extensible ladder only – Check ladders regularly and before use – Use ladders on firm and level ground only – Set ladders at a slope of 4 to 1 – Never place ladders where there are danger of moving vehicles, overhead cranes or electricity lines – Face the ladder when climbing or descending P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Personal protective equipment • Principles – Suitable design and materials to protect the worker from the anticipated hazards – Proper use of the equipment – Clean after use and proper maintenance • Types of personal protective equipment – Head protection • Under the construction sites (safety) regulations, all persons entering and remaining in a construction site must wear suitable safety helmets. Safety helmets can protect us against:- – Falling objects; and – Bumping hazards P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Eye protection • Eye protectors can protect workers against eye injuries and be either one of the following types:- – An approved eye protector – An approved shield; or – An approved fixed shield – Ear protection • Short exposure to extremely loud noise, such as explosion can result in instant deafness. Regular exposure to high noise levels over a long period of time may result in permanent hearing loss. The damage is irreversible. There are two common types of ear protectors: – Ear muffs; and – Ear plugs Ear plugs P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Hand protection • Hand gloves should be made of different materials for different purposes – Cotton – for general purposes – Leather – for anti-abrasion – Rubber/PVC – for chemical resistance and electrical installation – Steel – for anti-abrasion and cut protection – Foot protection (Safety footwear) • The safety footwear should have the following features: – Steel cap protects toes from striking against objects or falling objects – Steel sole protects against projected nails or being pierced by sharp objects – Anti-slippery – Waterproof – Some footwear is designed for special purposes, e.g. electrical insulation or resistance to hot materials Some footwear is designed for special purposes, e.g. electrical insulation or resistance to hot materials P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Respiratory protection • In order for the workers work in the poor air quality or adverse environment, some respiratory is designed to suit different conditions – Dust respirators: for dusty working environment – Canister respirators: for working atmosphere filled with contaminants – Air-line breathing apparatus: for oxygen deficient or toxic environment Self-contained breathing apparatus: for oxygen deficient or toxic environment – Safety belts and safety harnesses • The following points should be noted before using the safety belts or harnesses: – Wear the equipment according to the manufacturer’s instructions – Select and check suitable anchorage points for the equipment, or use an independent lifeline with fall arresting device P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Safety for work in confined spaces • Potential hazards – Fire or explosion Fire or explosion – Lack of oxygen – Harmful vapour, gas and fume – Excessive heat – Free flowing solids or liquids P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Precautionary measures – Provide instructions, training and advice to all workers – Ensure certified workers enter or work in the confined space – Use of approved breathing apparatus and other necessary personal protective equipment – Formulate and implement emergency procedures to deal with any serious and imminent danger to workers inside confined space – Purge, cool and ventilate the confined space to ensure it is a safe workplace – Prevent ingress of hazardous gas, vapour, dust and fume Prevent ingress of hazardous gas, vapour, dust and fume – Test to ensure absence of any hazardous gas and no deficiency of oxygen in the confined space – ensure a persons is stationed outside the confined space to maintain communication with the workers inside – Provide life saving and resuscitation equipment P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Safety in lifting operations • Common accidents occurred during lifting operations – Collapse of cranes – Jibs failed – Fall of persons – Objects struck by crane – Persons or objects struck by the swinging load – Falling objects – Crane contacting live overhead lines P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Safety precautions – Inspection of lifting equipment once every week by a competent person – Examination of lifting equipment once every 12 months by a RPE of mechanical or marine engineering discipline – Examination of lifting gear once every 6 months by a registered professional engineer of mechanical or marine engineering discipline – Lifting equipment must be securely rested on solid ground – All crane operators, slingers and signalers must be well trained – Ensure all loads to be lifted are within safe working limit of the lifting equipment P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Check the safe load indicator is working properly – Avoid overwinding or allowing the hoist rope to run too far off the drum – Loads must be vertically lifted and not slewed over persons – Loads must be correctly slung – Loads must not be left suspended P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Use of cartridge-operated fixing tools • Potential hazards – Penetration through a work surface – Recoil of the tool causing the operator to lose balance while working at height – Ignition of flammable or explosive vapour – Excessive noise level when it is being operated – Electric shock or explosion from electric cable damaged P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Common safety precautions in using cartridge- operated fixing tool – Be fully trained in the use of the tool – Before handling, ensure the equipment is not loaded – When the equipment is loading, point it in a safe position away from everybody – Never point the equipment at any other person – Never put your hand over the end of the barrel – Check type and thickness of material into which you are firing – Always allow at least 75mm from the edge of the concrete or brickwork on which you are working – Never use the tool on hard and brittle work surface such as glass, cast iron or marble etc P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Always hold the equipment at right angle to the job when firing – Wear protective goggles when using cartridge- operated fixing tool – In a misfire, wait at least one minute before unloading – Keep equipment clean and efficient – Always unload the spent cartridge after using the equipment and never had it loaded when it is being carried on transportation purposes P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Working with chemicals • Potential hazards – Chemicals commonly used in industries are divided into 7 categories, namely: flammable, toxic, irritant, corrosive, explosive, oxidizing and harmful. These chemicals can enter into our bodies through inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion • Safety information – Material safety data sheets – Labels on tanks and receptacles of the chemical giving the chemical/common name of the substance, the hazard symbol, the risks associated in working with the chemical, and the precautionary measures to be taken P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Safety hints Safety hints – Chemicals to be contained in proper receptacles or tanks to avoid leakage and spillage – Chemicals to be properly stored – Chemicals to be used in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions – Efficient ventilation must be maintained when using chemicals – No smoking and no eating when handling and using chemicals – Workers to wear suitable personal protective equipment, e.g. eye goggles, face mask, respirators, aprons, gloves, boots, etc – Emergency stations e.g. eye wash stations, to be provided P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Working under noisy environment • Common industrial noise sources – Machinery noise – Noise generated from operations, e.g. piling, drilling – Fan noise • Interpretation – “Daily personal noise exposure” means the level of daily personal noise exposure of an employee – “First action level” means a daily personal noise exposure of 85dB(A) – “Peak action level” means noise reaching a peak sound pressure level of 140mdB or peak sound pressure of 200Pa – “Second action level” means a daily personal noise exposure of 90dB(A) P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Potential hazard – Prolonged exposure to high noise level will result in permanent hearing loss, and the damage is irreversible • Noise Assessment – Noise assessments must be conducted by a trained and competent person when workers are likely to be exposed to a first action level or above or to a peak action level or above – The purposes of a noise assessment are • to identify which of his employees are likely to be so exposed • to provide the employer with information with regard to the noise to which his employees may be exposed – Where there has been a significant change in the work, further assessment must be made – The employer is to submit all assessment reports to the Labour Department within 28 days after their completion P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Noise control – Reduce noise emission by engineering measures, e.g. fitting of mufflers or silencers etc – Designate ear protection zone – Isolation of workers, e.g. the construction of noise attenuation control booth – Labeling of noisy portable equipment (second action level) – Wearing of approved hearing protectors by workers exposed to a second action level – Audio-metric tests before employment and periodically after employment P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Prevention of pneumoconiosis • Introduction – Pneumoconiosis is a collective term for dust diseases of the lungs. Under the Pneumoconiosis (Compensation) Ordinance, its meaning is confined to 2 kinds of diseases, namely silicosis and asbestosis • Silicosis – Silicosis is caused by the prolonged inhalation of excessive fine particles of dust which contain free silica. This fine dust particles penetrate deep into lungs where they set up a reaction with the lung tissues resulting in a slow and gradual destruction of the tissue cells. As a consequence, the efficiency of an affected person’s lung becomes progressively impaired P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada – Symptoms • Workers may suffer from shortness of breath following exertion • The breathlessness becomes worse and may eventually occur even when the worker is at rest – Preventive measures • Control the dust content in the working environment by the provision of efficient local exhaust and dust suppression systems • Isolate the worker from the dusty processes e.g. by providing a fully enclosed control room or cabin • Maintain good housekeeping of the workplace • Provide personal protective equipment to workers exposed to dust hazards • Subject these workers to periodic medical examinations P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Asbestosis – Asbestos dust can become airborne in any process involving the handling and working with raw asbestos and machining of asbestos products – Hazards • Asbestosis • Lung cancer – Preventive measures • Substitute the use of asbestos by less hazardous material • Segregate the hazardous process • Provide efficient dust control system • Keep good housekeeping in the workplace P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada • Workers must be briefed about the hazards associated with their work • Workers must wear protective clothing and approved respiratory equipment • No drinking, eating or smoking in the work area • Separate ablution and changing facilities must be provided • Wastes must be safely and properly disposed of P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada SOP Development Considerations • Maintenance Operations • Safety and protection plans such as: – Fire Prevention Plan – Ground Pre-accident Plan • Past accidents – Lessons learned – Preventive measures 48 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Protective Railings Elevated platforms (4 feet and above) should be equipped with proper railings and work platforms Correct OSHA required platform and railings 29 CFR 1910 General Industry 49 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Hazardous Substances Ensure: • Proper storage, storage containers, and markings • Inventory listing of all hazardous materials • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are located in area • Signs are posted 50 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • Must be maintained in the work area where hazardous chemicals are stored or used • Post an inventory list of all chemicals on-hand and MSDS 51 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Know What’s Stored Secondary containment needed? Hazardous substance? 52 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Roof Leaks • May be common, yet still present a multitude of problems – Slippery work surfaces – Electrical hazards – Health hazards – Pests 53 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Exhaust / Carbon Monoxide • Carbon monoxide poisoning may result from exhaust gases • Avoid operating vehicles in a maintenance facility • Use ventilation system • Conduct annual carbon monoxide tests AR 385-10, 11-4k 54 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Mezzanine Storage Areas • Structure must be approved by a building official • Post sign showing the load limit and date inspected Non-approved structure 55 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Electrical No Cover Broken Cover Exposed Wiring 56 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Electrical Panels • Each circuit on the panel must be clearly identified and prominently labeled 57 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Electrical Ground Protection Symbol for double insulated Plug with ground prong 58 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Housekeeping and General Requirements Violations result in hazards 59 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Exits Must provide quick, safe egress 60 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Hard to Reach Safety Board 61 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Blocked Emergency Eyewash Station 62 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Blocked Again eyewash station 63 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Requirements for Emergency Eyewash Stations • Work areas that may require Emergency Eyewash Stations include: – Battery charging areas – Spraying operations – High dust areas – Dipping operations – Hazardous substances dispensing areas 64 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Eyewash Stations Accessibility • Locate as close to the hazard as possible – Be on the same floor as the hazard – Not separated by a partition from the hazardous area – Easily seen by workers • Ensure path is unobstructed between the workstation and the hazard 65 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada First Aid Kits Ensure safe for use • Inspect contents regularly • Discard outdated items • Refill kit – Complete – Current Check Exp. Dates 66 Display Signs “A picture is worth a thousand words” 67 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Personal Protective Equipment First-line leaders should be involved in personal protective equipment (PPE) selection for their personnel 68 Personal Protective Equipment • When PPE is necessary • What PPE is necessary • How to don, remove, adjust, and wear PPE • The limitations of the PPE • Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE 69 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Enabling Learning Objective D Action: Identify hazards of specialized equipment and procedures. Condition: Given the name and/or photo of equipment or procedure used within maintenance facilities. Standard: Recommendations must be provided with hazard identification. 70 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Machine Guarding • Recognize and control hazards • Protect from exposure to unguarded or inadequately guarded machines to avoid: – Amputations – Lacerations – Crushing injuries – Abrasions – Death 71 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Machine Guarding Hazards Not Guarded Faulty Guarding 72 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Securing Abrasive Wheel Machines Must be bolted to a surface area – work bench or floor 73 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Air Compressors • Require scheduled maintenance – Drain water to help protect relief valve – Avoid dangerous pressure levels • Locate outside if possible (noise hazard) 74 Compressed Air • Air receiver shall be equipped with an indicating pressure gage – Do not allow air pressure to exceed 30 pounds per square inch (PSI) – 30 PSI is the maximum for cleaning 75 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Compressed Air Continued • Use rubber or other insulating material for hose lines to blow out equipment • Do not use compressed air for cleaning floors • Do not direct air toward others or self 76 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Fork Lifts • Train and certify operators • Do not modify or make attachments • Examine for defects • Know the capacity of the truck • Wear seatbelts • Ensure reverse alarm works • Avoid traveling with elevated load 77 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Welding Requirements • Obtain hot work permit before welding operations • Area must be deemed safe for welding • Place shield to protect those passing by the area • PPE includes gloves, apron boots head shield with protective lens 78 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Welding Operations • Know what materials are being welded • Certain metals produce fumes that produce a serious health threat to the welder • Wear respiratory protection as needed • No contact lens 79 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Compressed Gas Storage • Storage areas must be clearly marked and properly secured • Separate cylinders by hazard class – Flammable gas – Nonflammable gas – Poison gas 80 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Cleaning Solvents • Use approved, environmental safe cleaning solvents – Not highly toxic or flammable – Consult applicable TM • Ensure MSDS for solvent used is available • Wear required PPE 81 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Working with Batteries Continued • Charge batteries in a well-ventilated, clean, and uncluttered area – Wear chemical splash goggles or a full face shield • Filling Storage Batteries – Wear acid-resistant gloves, chemical-splash goggles, rubber aprons, and rubber boots with non-slip soles – If available, use a fume hood 82 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Storing Batteries • Batteries must have secondary containment to prevent acid leaks • If stored outdoors, they must have overhead cover Improper Storage 83 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Lockout – Tagout • Affixed to energy isolating devices • Prevent start up or release of stored energy in order to prevent injury to employees • Prevent activating equipment while it is being worked on 84 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada Conclusion Follow the standards! Protect yourself and others! Get the job done safely! 85 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
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