safety on construction sites

					         Safe on First
    Driving Risk on Second
   Incident Report on Third
and who just came in at home!
       It more than a game



        P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
          Construction Site Safety
•   The game starts here with safety on first
•   First thing on your mind
•   First thing talked about
•   First thing reviewed in your paper work




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     IMPROVING SAFETY
       PERFORMANCE
Can be accomplished in part by identifying the
root causes of injuries and fatalities




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      STANDARDS WITH THE
        MOST CITATIONS
•   Scaffolding
•   Hazard Communication
•   Fall Protection
•   Lockout/Tagout
•   Respiratory Protection
•   Electrical
•   Machine Guarding

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        SOURCES OF FALLS
•   Off roof
•   Collapse of scaffolding
•   Off scaffolding
•   Collapse of structure
•   Through floor opening
•   Off ladder
•   Off structure
•   Through roof opening
•   Off edge of open floor
•   Off beam support*
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    SOURCES OF “STRUCK BY”
         FATALITIES
•   Falling object
•   Run over by heavy equipment
•   Crane boom or load
•   Run over by private vehicle
•   Trench cave-ins*




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    SOURCES OF “CAUGHT IN
     BETWEEN” FATALITIES
•   Trench cave-ins
•   Heavy equipment
•   Overturning heavy equipment machinery
•   Moving part of heavy equipment*




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            SOURCES OF
          ELECTROCUTIONS
•   Direct contact with live wire (20%)
•   Crane boom with power line (14%)
•   Materials hit power line
•   Ladder contact with power line*




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                             Other
•   Drowning
•   Explosion
•   Fire
•   Natural Causes
•   Self Inflicted Injury*




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  Site formation and site layout
• Matters concerning site formation
  – Lifting appliances
  – Moving equipment
  – Site access
  – Temporary electricity supply
  – Traffic control




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 Safe working environment and good
            housekeeping
• Remove or flatten out projected nails on
  timber
• Adequately ventilation and sufficiently lighting
  should be provided in workplace
• Stack and handle building materials properly
• Handle chemicals or toxic substances properly
• Remove oil stains or puddles of water on floor


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                  Fire prevention
• Fire triangle
   – A fire can be ignited in the presence of all three elements,
     namely fuel, heat, and air
• Common causes of fire
   – Defective electrical equipment and wiring
   – Smoking or use of naked flame
   – Improper use or storage of flammable liquid such as
     thinner and paint
   – Excessive storage of waste and construction debris
   – Equipment not properly maintained leading to overheating
   – Sustain electrically overload

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             ERP Fire Control
• Methods of Fire Fighting
  – Isolation
  – Suffocation
  – Cooling
• Fire Extinguishers




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• Safety Hints
  –   Understand escape route
  –   Keep fire doors closed and escape routes clear
  –   Use proper containers with lid for flammable liquids
  –   Switch off the supply mains for any electrical
      equipment when not in use
  –   Handle flammable liquids at a safe distance from
      sources of ignition
  –   Do not obstruct access to fire fighting equipment
  –   Do not hang clothes over or near heating appliances
  –   Check before and after using blow lamps, welding and
      cutting equipment
  –   Obey “No smoking” signs
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                Electrical safety
• Hazards
  – Electric shock
  – Burns
  – Fire and explosions
• Common causes of accidents
  – Electrical faults
  – Poor insulation
  – Faulty electrical equipment connects to power supply
    outlets
  – Improper use of plugs and multi-adaptors
  – Socket outlets are not protected by RCD
  – Humid and wet working environment
  – No or loosen earthing

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• Precautionary Measures
   – Adequate insulation of the electrical equipment and associated
     accessories shall be provided
   – Adequate earthing shall be provided
   – Double-insulated tools shall be used
   – Insulated gloves, boots and mats shall be used
   – Regular inspection and routine maintenance of all electrical
     installation and equipment shall be carried out by REW
• Safe use of portable electrical equipment
   – Use tools of 110V with appropriate plugs and sockets
   – Check whether the tools are properly earthed (Double insulated
     tools do not require earthing)



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– Do not allow connection a portable electrical tool
  to a lighting socket
– Power cables should be kept off the floor
– Switch off and disconnect the power supply to the
  tools when the tools are not in use
– Regularly inspect and maintain portable electrical
  tools




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            Safety in excavation
• Hazards
  – Displacement of earth
  – Falling objects
  – Existing underground utilities
  – Fall of persons
  – Ingress of water and mud
  – Toxic or flammable gases



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• Precautionary measures Precautionary measures
   – Planking work should be done prior to carry out excavation work
     Planking work should be done prior to carry out excavation work
   – Provide emergency escape
   – Heavy vehicle, load or plant should be placed off the edge of
     excavation
   – Suitable fencing of adequate strength must be provided along the
     edge of the excavation
   – All the excavation work should be carried out under supervision
   – Excavation and trenches must be regularly inspected by a competent
     person
   – Identify the location of all underground utilities before the
     commencement of the excavation work.
   – Dewatering system must be used where necessary

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     Manual lifting and handling
• Common types of injuries
  – Hernia
  – Torn back muscles
  – Slipped disc
  – Cuts, bruises, crush injuries and sometimes
    laceration to fingers, hands and forearms
  – Crush injuries to the toes
  – Cut and bruises to legs and feet

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• Basic principles of manual lifting
  – Correct hold
  – Back straight
  – Chin tucked in
  – Correct position of feet
  – Arm close to body
  – Use body weight



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• Manual handling procedures
  – Wear gloves
  – Wear safety boots or shoes
  – Make a trial lift of a few inches
  – Keep clear your way
  – Take up position. One foot slightly advanced pointing in
    the direction you intend to move
  – Bend the knees; back muscles should be relaxed Bend the
    knees; back muscles should be relaxed
  – Have a secure grip of the load
  – Lift. Keep the back straight, arms close to body, leg
    muscles taking the load

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– Step off in the direction that the advanced foot is
  pointing
– Load held close to the body
– Do not carry a load that obstructs your view
– Avoid twisting the trunk whilst lifting or carrying a
  load




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 Safety in scaffolds, working platforms
               and ladders
• Work at height
  – Any person who is working at a level liable to fall a
    distance of more than 2 metres
• Potential hazards
  – Fall from scaffold
  – Fall of person due to collapse of scaffold
  – Fall from working platforms, gangway, lift shaft
    and stairway
  – Falling objects

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• Safe use of scaffold
   – A scaffold must be erected, maintained, and dismantled by
     a competent person
   – The scaffold must be inspected by a competent person
     pursuant to the provisions in the Construction Sites (Safety)
     Regulations
   – All working platforms on the scaffold must be at least
     400mm wide, with guard rails of adequate strength to a
     height between 900mm and 1150mm above the platform.
     In addition, toeboards of 200mm high must be fitted
     around the working platform
   – Suitable means (e.g. ladders) must provided to ensure safe
     access to and egress from the scaffold

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• Safe use of ladder
  – Use ladder of sufficient length or extensible ladder
    only
  – Check ladders regularly and before use
  – Use ladders on firm and level ground only
  – Set ladders at a slope of 4 to 1
  – Never place ladders where there are danger of
    moving vehicles, overhead cranes or electricity
    lines
  – Face the ladder when climbing or descending
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   Personal protective equipment
• Principles
   – Suitable design and materials to protect the worker from
     the anticipated hazards
   – Proper use of the equipment
   – Clean after use and proper maintenance
• Types of personal protective equipment
   – Head protection
      • Under the construction sites (safety) regulations, all persons
        entering and remaining in a construction site must wear suitable
        safety helmets. Safety helmets can protect us against:-
          – Falling objects; and
          – Bumping hazards


                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
– Eye protection
   • Eye protectors can protect workers against eye injuries and
     be either one of the following types:-
       – An approved eye protector
       – An approved shield; or
       – An approved fixed shield
– Ear protection
   • Short exposure to extremely loud noise, such as explosion
     can result in instant deafness. Regular exposure to high
     noise levels over a long period of time may result in
     permanent hearing loss. The damage is irreversible. There
     are two common types of ear protectors:
       – Ear muffs; and
       – Ear plugs Ear plugs


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
– Hand protection
    • Hand gloves should be made of different materials for different purposes
        –   Cotton – for general purposes
        –   Leather – for anti-abrasion
        –   Rubber/PVC – for chemical resistance and electrical installation
        –   Steel – for anti-abrasion and cut protection
– Foot protection (Safety footwear)
    • The safety footwear should have the following features:
        –   Steel cap protects toes from striking against objects or falling objects
        –   Steel sole protects against projected nails or being pierced by sharp objects
        –   Anti-slippery
        –   Waterproof
        –   Some footwear is designed for special purposes, e.g. electrical insulation or
            resistance to hot materials Some footwear is designed for special purposes,
            e.g. electrical insulation or resistance to hot materials



                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
– Respiratory protection
   • In order for the workers work in the poor air quality or
     adverse environment, some respiratory is designed to suit
     different conditions
       – Dust respirators: for dusty working environment
       – Canister respirators: for working atmosphere filled with
         contaminants
       – Air-line breathing apparatus: for oxygen deficient or toxic
         environment Self-contained breathing apparatus: for oxygen
         deficient or toxic environment
– Safety belts and safety harnesses
   • The following points should be noted before using the safety
     belts or harnesses:
       – Wear the equipment according to the manufacturer’s instructions
       – Select and check suitable anchorage points for the equipment, or
         use an independent lifeline with fall arresting device


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Safety for work in confined spaces
• Potential hazards
  – Fire or explosion Fire or explosion
  – Lack of oxygen
  – Harmful vapour, gas and fume
  – Excessive heat
  – Free flowing solids or liquids




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• Precautionary measures
   – Provide instructions, training and advice to all workers
   – Ensure certified workers enter or work in the confined space
   – Use of approved breathing apparatus and other necessary personal
     protective equipment
   – Formulate and implement emergency procedures to deal with any serious
     and imminent danger to workers inside confined space
   – Purge, cool and ventilate the confined space to ensure it is a safe
     workplace
   – Prevent ingress of hazardous gas, vapour, dust and fume Prevent ingress
     of hazardous gas, vapour, dust and fume
   – Test to ensure absence of any hazardous gas and no deficiency of oxygen
     in the confined space
   – ensure a persons is stationed outside the confined space to maintain
     communication with the workers inside
   – Provide life saving and resuscitation equipment


                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
      Safety in lifting operations
• Common accidents occurred during lifting
  operations
  – Collapse of cranes
  – Jibs failed
  – Fall of persons
  – Objects struck by crane
  – Persons or objects struck by the swinging load
  – Falling objects
  – Crane contacting live overhead lines

                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
• Safety precautions
   – Inspection of lifting equipment once every week by a
     competent person
   – Examination of lifting equipment once every 12 months by
     a RPE of mechanical or marine engineering discipline
   – Examination of lifting gear once every 6 months by a
     registered professional engineer of mechanical or marine
     engineering discipline
   – Lifting equipment must be securely rested on solid ground
   – All crane operators, slingers and signalers must be well
     trained
   – Ensure all loads to be lifted are within safe working limit of
     the lifting equipment

                      P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
– Check the safe load indicator is working properly
– Avoid overwinding or allowing the hoist rope to
  run too far off the drum
– Loads must be vertically lifted and not slewed
  over persons
– Loads must be correctly slung
– Loads must not be left suspended



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 Use of cartridge-operated fixing tools
• Potential hazards
  – Penetration through a work surface
  – Recoil of the tool causing the operator to lose
    balance while working at height
  – Ignition of flammable or explosive vapour
  – Excessive noise level when it is being operated
  – Electric shock or explosion from electric cable
    damaged


                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
• Common safety precautions in using cartridge-
  operated fixing tool
   – Be fully trained in the use of the tool
   – Before handling, ensure the equipment is not loaded
   – When the equipment is loading, point it in a safe position
     away from everybody
   – Never point the equipment at any other person
   – Never put your hand over the end of the barrel
   – Check type and thickness of material into which you are
     firing
   – Always allow at least 75mm from the edge of the concrete
     or brickwork on which you are working
   – Never use the tool on hard and brittle work surface such as
     glass, cast iron or marble etc

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– Always hold the equipment at right angle to the
  job when firing
– Wear protective goggles when using cartridge-
  operated fixing tool
– In a misfire, wait at least one minute before
  unloading
– Keep equipment clean and efficient
– Always unload the spent cartridge after using the
  equipment and never had it loaded when it is
  being carried on transportation purposes

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          Working with chemicals
• Potential hazards
   – Chemicals commonly used in industries are divided into 7
     categories, namely: flammable, toxic, irritant, corrosive,
     explosive, oxidizing and harmful. These chemicals can
     enter into our bodies through inhalation, skin absorption
     and ingestion
• Safety information
   – Material safety data sheets
   – Labels on tanks and receptacles of the chemical giving the
     chemical/common name of the substance, the hazard
     symbol, the risks associated in working with the chemical,
     and the precautionary measures to be taken

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• Safety hints Safety hints
   – Chemicals to be contained in proper receptacles or tanks to
     avoid leakage and spillage
   – Chemicals to be properly stored
   – Chemicals to be used in accordance with the manufacturers’
     instructions
   – Efficient ventilation must be maintained when using chemicals
   – No smoking and no eating when handling and using chemicals
   – Workers to wear suitable personal protective equipment, e.g.
     eye goggles, face mask, respirators, aprons, gloves, boots, etc
   – Emergency stations e.g. eye wash stations, to be provided




                       P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
 Working under noisy environment
• Common industrial noise sources
   – Machinery noise
   – Noise generated from operations, e.g. piling, drilling
   – Fan noise
• Interpretation
   – “Daily personal noise exposure” means the level of daily
     personal noise exposure of an employee
   – “First action level” means a daily personal noise exposure
     of 85dB(A)
   – “Peak action level” means noise reaching a peak sound
     pressure level of 140mdB or peak sound pressure of 200Pa
   – “Second action level” means a daily personal noise
     exposure of 90dB(A)


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• Potential hazard
   – Prolonged exposure to high noise level will result in permanent
     hearing loss, and the damage is irreversible
• Noise Assessment
   – Noise assessments must be conducted by a trained and competent
     person when workers are likely to be exposed to a first action level or
     above or to a peak action level or above
   – The purposes of a noise assessment are
       • to identify which of his employees are likely to be so exposed
       • to provide the employer with information with regard to the noise to
         which his employees may be exposed
   – Where there has been a significant change in the work, further
     assessment must be made
   – The employer is to submit all assessment reports to the Labour
     Department within 28 days after their completion


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• Noise control
  – Reduce noise emission by engineering measures, e.g.
    fitting of mufflers or silencers etc
  – Designate ear protection zone
  – Isolation of workers, e.g. the construction of noise
    attenuation control booth
  – Labeling of noisy portable equipment (second action
    level)
  – Wearing of approved hearing protectors by workers
    exposed to a second action level
  – Audio-metric tests before employment and
    periodically after employment

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    Prevention of pneumoconiosis
• Introduction
   – Pneumoconiosis is a collective term for dust diseases of
     the lungs. Under the Pneumoconiosis (Compensation)
     Ordinance, its meaning is confined to 2 kinds of diseases,
     namely silicosis and asbestosis
• Silicosis
   – Silicosis is caused by the prolonged inhalation of excessive
     fine particles of dust which contain free silica. This fine
     dust particles penetrate deep into lungs where they set up
     a reaction with the lung tissues resulting in a slow and
     gradual destruction of the tissue cells. As a consequence,
     the efficiency of an affected person’s lung becomes
     progressively impaired

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– Symptoms
   • Workers may suffer from shortness of breath following exertion
   • The breathlessness becomes worse and may eventually occur even
     when the worker is at rest
– Preventive measures
   • Control the dust content in the working environment by the
     provision of efficient local exhaust and dust suppression systems
   • Isolate the worker from the dusty processes e.g. by providing a
     fully enclosed control room or cabin
   • Maintain good housekeeping of the workplace
   • Provide personal protective equipment to workers exposed to dust
     hazards
   • Subject these workers to periodic medical examinations


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• Asbestosis
  – Asbestos dust can become airborne in any process
    involving the handling and working with raw asbestos
    and machining of asbestos products
  – Hazards
     • Asbestosis
     • Lung cancer
  – Preventive measures
     •   Substitute the use of asbestos by less hazardous material
     •   Segregate the hazardous process
     •   Provide efficient dust control system
     •   Keep good housekeeping in the workplace

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• Workers must be briefed about the hazards associated
  with their work
• Workers must wear protective clothing and approved
  respiratory equipment
• No drinking, eating or smoking in the work area
• Separate ablution and changing facilities must be
  provided
• Wastes must be safely and properly disposed of




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 SOP Development Considerations
• Maintenance Operations
• Safety and protection plans such
  as:
  – Fire Prevention Plan
  – Ground Pre-accident Plan
• Past accidents
  – Lessons learned
  – Preventive measures

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                   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                           Protective Railings

   Elevated platforms
   (4 feet and above)
   should be equipped with
   proper railings and work
   platforms
                                                           Correct OSHA required platform and
                                                                         railings



29 CFR 1910 General Industry                                                                    49
                               P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
        Hazardous Substances
Ensure:
• Proper storage, storage
  containers, and markings
• Inventory listing of all
  hazardous materials
• Material Safety Data Sheets
  (MSDS) are located in area
• Signs are posted

                                                            50
                P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
  Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

• Must be maintained in the
  work area where hazardous
  chemicals are stored or
  used
• Post an inventory list of all
  chemicals on-hand and
  MSDS

                                                             51
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
    Know What’s Stored




                                             Secondary containment needed?
Hazardous substance?




                                                                             52
              P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                  Roof Leaks
• May be common, yet still
  present a multitude of
  problems
  – Slippery work surfaces
  – Electrical hazards
  – Health hazards
  – Pests


                                                             53
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       Exhaust / Carbon Monoxide
• Carbon monoxide poisoning may
  result from exhaust gases
• Avoid operating vehicles in a
  maintenance facility
• Use ventilation system
• Conduct annual carbon monoxide
  tests

AR 385-10, 11-4k
                                                               54
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      Mezzanine Storage Areas

• Structure must be
  approved by a
  building official
• Post sign showing
  the load limit and
  date inspected
                                                            Non-approved
                                                              structure

                                                                           55
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               Electrical



No Cover
                                                       Broken Cover




                Exposed Wiring                                        56
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             Electrical Panels

• Each circuit on the
  panel must be
  clearly identified
  and prominently
  labeled




                                                            57
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    Electrical Ground Protection

         Symbol for double insulated




Plug with ground prong


                                                                     58
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Housekeeping and General Requirements




      Violations result in hazards
                                                         59
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                    Exits
Must provide quick, safe egress




                                                    60
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Hard to Reach Safety Board




                                                  61
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Blocked Emergency Eyewash Station




                                                      62
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Blocked Again
                  eyewash station




                                             63
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Requirements for Emergency Eyewash
              Stations
• Work areas that may require Emergency
  Eyewash Stations include:
  – Battery charging areas
  – Spraying operations
  – High dust areas
  – Dipping operations
  – Hazardous substances
    dispensing areas

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                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
   Eyewash Stations Accessibility
• Locate as close to the hazard as possible
  – Be on the same floor as the hazard
  – Not separated by a partition from the hazardous
    area
  – Easily seen by workers
• Ensure path is unobstructed between the
  workstation and the hazard


                                                             65
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                 First Aid Kits
Ensure safe for use
• Inspect contents regularly
• Discard outdated items
• Refill kit
  – Complete
  – Current

                               Check Exp. Dates

                                                  66
          Display Signs
“A picture is worth a thousand words”




                                                       67
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Personal Protective Equipment
First-line leaders should be involved in
personal protective equipment (PPE)
selection for their personnel




                                           68
     Personal Protective Equipment
•   When PPE is necessary
•   What PPE is necessary
•   How to don, remove, adjust, and wear PPE
•   The limitations of the PPE
•   Proper care, maintenance, useful life and
    disposal of the PPE


                                                             69
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
    Enabling Learning Objective D
Action:
  Identify hazards of specialized equipment and
  procedures.
Condition:
  Given the name and/or photo of equipment or
  procedure used within maintenance facilities.
Standard:
  Recommendations must be provided with hazard
  identification.
                                                             70
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            Machine Guarding
• Recognize and control hazards
• Protect from exposure to unguarded or
  inadequately guarded machines to avoid:
  – Amputations
  – Lacerations
  – Crushing injuries
  – Abrasions
  – Death

                                                              71
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    Machine Guarding Hazards




Not Guarded

                                              Faulty Guarding

                                                                72
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 Securing Abrasive Wheel Machines

Must be bolted to a
surface area – work
bench or floor




                                                        73
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                Air Compressors
• Require scheduled
  maintenance
  – Drain water to help protect
    relief valve
  – Avoid dangerous pressure
    levels
• Locate outside if possible
  (noise hazard)

                                  74
              Compressed Air
• Air receiver shall be equipped with an
  indicating pressure gage
  – Do not allow air pressure to exceed 30 pounds per
    square inch (PSI)
  – 30 PSI is the maximum for cleaning




                                                             75
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             Compressed Air
                                                            Continued

• Use rubber or other insulating
  material for hose lines to blow
  out equipment
• Do not use compressed air for
  cleaning floors
• Do not direct air toward others
  or self


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                   Fork Lifts
•   Train and certify operators
•   Do not modify or make attachments
•   Examine for defects
•   Know the capacity of the truck
•   Wear seatbelts
•   Ensure reverse alarm works
•   Avoid traveling with elevated load

                                                           77
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        Welding Requirements
• Obtain hot work permit before
  welding operations
• Area must be deemed safe
  for welding
• Place shield to protect
  those passing by the area
• PPE includes gloves, apron boots
  head shield with protective lens
                                                            78
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          Welding Operations
• Know what materials are being
  welded
• Certain metals produce fumes
  that produce a serious health
  threat to the welder
• Wear respiratory protection as
  needed
• No contact lens
                                                            79
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       Compressed Gas Storage
• Storage areas must be clearly
  marked and properly secured
• Separate cylinders by
  hazard class
  – Flammable gas
  – Nonflammable gas
  – Poison gas


                                                            80
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            Cleaning Solvents
• Use approved, environmental safe
  cleaning solvents
  – Not highly toxic or
    flammable
  – Consult applicable TM
• Ensure MSDS for solvent
  used is available
• Wear required PPE

                                                             81
                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
         Working with Batteries
                                                              Continued
• Charge batteries in a well-ventilated, clean,
  and uncluttered area
  – Wear chemical splash goggles or a full face shield
• Filling Storage Batteries
  – Wear acid-resistant gloves, chemical-splash
    goggles, rubber aprons, and rubber boots with
    non-slip soles
  – If available, use a fume hood


                                                                          82
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         Storing Batteries
• Batteries must have secondary
  containment to prevent acid leaks
• If stored outdoors, they must have
  overhead cover




          Improper Storage

                                                        83
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              Lockout – Tagout

• Affixed to energy isolating
  devices
• Prevent start up or release
  of stored energy in order to
  prevent injury to employees
• Prevent activating equipment
  while it is being worked on



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      Conclusion
   Follow the standards!

Protect yourself and others!

 Get the job done safely!




                                                  85
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