Ladders what can you say about them

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					Ladders what can you say about
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            LOTS
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CAUSES OF LADDER ACCIDENTS

COMMON CAUSES OF LADDER ACCIDENTS:
   Complacency about the danger of ladder usage.
   Falling material.
   Struck by vehicle.
   Improper climbing.
   Misstep/slip of foot.
   Ladder slipping at top.
   Ladder slipping at base.
   Dizziness and loss of balance.
   Fatigue, lack of sufficient strength.
   Unsafely ascending or descending.
   Carrying bulky items while climbing.
   Ladder resting against movable objects.
   Unexpected opening of unblocked door.
   Ladder touching live electrical conductors.
   Poor vision, hearing and exposure to noise.
   Moving, tilting, shifting weight while climbing.
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                     RISK REDUCTION

RISK REDUCTION IN LADDER SAFETY:
   To reduce ladder fall risks:
      Set up ladders correctly.
      Match tasks to appropriate ladders.
      Climb and descend ladders properly.
      Frequently inspect and maintain ladders.




                                                                               This ladder is being used at
                                                                               the proper angle, and
                                                                               appears to be stable and
                                                                               secure.




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GENERAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

ALL EMPLOYERS MUST:

 Establish a Written Program.
 Address Ladder Safety Issues.
 Conduct Ladder Safety Training.
 Conduct Regular Ladder Inspections .
 Provide the Proper Ladder for the Job.
 Conduct Work Area Hazard Surveillance.
 Address Inspection, Cleaning, Maintenance and Storage.



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      EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
ALL EMPLOYERS MUST:
 Provide Ladders For Safe Access to Work Areas.
 Provide Ladders That Are Suitable for the Intended Use.
 Establish and Maintain a Ladder Safety Program.
 Ensure Ladders Are Properly Maintained.
 Provide Ladder Safety Training.




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       EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES
ALL EMPLOYEES MUST:
 Use Ladders In Accordance With Safety Instructions.
 Receive Training In Ladder Safety.
 Guard Against Damage to the Ladders.
 Immediately Report Suspect Ladders.
 Report Any Trouble With or Malfunction of the Ladders.
 Notify His/Her Supervisor Of Unserviceable Ladders.




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    TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
THE EMPLOYER MUST PROVIDE TRAINING:

 Training Must Establish Proficiency.
 Explain The Operation, Capabilities, and Limitations.
 Training Must be Conducted Prior to Job Assignment.
 Explain The Reason Ladder Safety Training is Needed.
 Explain Why a Particular Ladder is used for a specific Job.
 Explain Proper Use, Maintenance and Storage of Ladders.
 Explain The Nature, Extent and Effects of Ladder Usage.



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RETRAINING REQUIREMENTS

REQUIRED WHEN THERE IS A:

   Close-Call Event.
   Program Related Injury.
   Change in Job Assignment.
   New Hazards in the Job.
   New Types of Ladders or Equipment.
   New Hazard Control Methods.
   Failure in the Safety Procedures.
   Reason to Doubt Employee Proficiency.

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     LADDER SAFETY TRAINING IS IMPORTANT

A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP:

   Reduce fatalities.
   Reduce injury and illness rates.
   Acceptance of high-turnover jobs.
   Workers feel better about their work.
   Reduce workers’ compensation costs.
   Elevate OSHA compliance to a higher level.




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                LADDER HAZARDS

Hazards associated with ladder use:
• Ladders with missing or broken parts.
• Using a ladder with too low a weight rating.
• Using a ladder that is too short for purpose.
• Using metal ladders near energized electrical equipment.
• Using ladders as a working platform.
• Allowing Objects to fall from ladders.




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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS

COMMON LADDERS USED IN THE WORKPLACE:

   Non-self-supporting Ladders                       Self-supporting Ladders
                                                              5 Types
      Two Types




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 COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS

STRAIGHT LADDER
   Must have slip-resistant feet.
   30 foot maximum length.
   Wood, metal, fiberglass.




PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
 Only one worker allowed on the ladder at a time.
 Condition of slip resistant feet.
 Condition of rung connection points.




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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS

EXTENSION LADDER
   Two or more sections.
   Upper section on top.
   Approved for only one worker.
   Use with minimum section overlap.
   Wood, metal, fiberglass.

PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
   Only one worker allowed on the ladder at a time.
   Condition of pulleys and ropes.
   Condition of spring loaded braces.
   Condition of slip resistant feet.
   Condition of rung connection points.

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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS
STANDARD STEPLADDER
 Flat steps, hinged back.
 Use on firm level footing.
 Metal, wood, fiberglass.
 Approved for only one worker.
 Metal spreader or locking arms.
 No work from top step.
 20 feet maximum length.

PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
   One worker allowed on the ladder at a time.
   Condition of spreaders and pivot points
   Condition of slip resistant feet
   Condition of rung connection points
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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS
                                            (Continued)




TWO-WAY STEPLADDER
   Similar to standard.
   Steps on both sides.
   20 feet maximum length.
   Approved for two people.



PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
   Condition of spreaders.
   Condition of pivot points.
   Condition of slip resistant feet.
   Condition of rung connection points.


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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS
                                         (Continued)




PLATFORM LADDER
   Special purpose.
   < 20 feet to platform.
   Approved for only one worker.
   Stable platform is highest working height.


PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
   Condition of platform.
   Condition of spreaders.
   Condition of pivot points.
   Condition of slip resistant feet.
   Condition of rung connection points.

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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS
                                        (Continued)



ORCHARD LADDER

   Special purpose for pruning and harvest
    use.
   One person
   16 feet maximum.
   Wood, metal, fiberglass.
   DO NOT stand on top step.

PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS
   Condition of spreaders
   Condition of pivot points
   Condition of slip resistant feet
   Condition rung connection points

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COMMON PORTABLE LADDERS
                                          (Continued)


TRESTLE LADDER

   Two sections, hinged.
   Used in pairs to support planks or staging.
   Angle of spread = 5.5 inches per foot of length.
   20 feet maximum length.
   Spreaders required.

PRINCIPLE SAFETY CONCERNS

   Condition of spreaders.
   Condition of pivot points.
   Condition of slip resistant feet.
   Condition rung connection points.
   Condition of surface and supports is critical.
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                      LADDER INSPECTION
INSPECTION ITEMS INCLUDE:


 Inspect ladders before each use.
 Inspect for structural defects.
   Check all fittings, they MUST be tight.
   Ensure that all support braces are intact.
   Check to see if the non-skid safety feet are in place.
   Ensure spreaders or other locking devices are in place.
   Ensure all rungs and steps are free of oil, grease, dirt, etc.
   REMEMBER: DO NOT use broken ladders.

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           LADDER DISPOSAL

IF THE LADDER FAILS YOUR INSPECTION:
 Condemn defective ladders from service for repair or
  destruction.
 Tag unserviceable ladders "Dangerous, Do Not Use.“
 Dispose in accordance with local procedures.
 Notify your supervisor that a replacement should be
  ordered.




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                  OPERATION AND USE

BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS:
 Ladders are a high source of injury in the workplace.
 Visual inspections are required before use.
 No one may use the top two steps on any ladder.
 Step-ladders must be used in the open & locked position.
 Extension ladders must extend 3ft above highest surface.
 Recommend all ladders be tied off to a stable anchor point when possible.




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              OPERATION AND USE
                                         (Continued)




OPERATION AND USE:
   When ascending or descending, you must face the ladder.
   Platforms: Never used in a horizontal position.
   Footing: Always positioned with secure footing.
   Lashing: Lashed, or held in position by a safe means.
   Positioning: Always positioned so as to prevent slipping,
   One Person: Only one person is allowed on the ladder at a time.
   Splicing: Short ladders will not be spliced together to obtain length.
   Never place ladders in front of unblocked doors opening toward the ladder.
   Never place ladders on boxes, or unstable bases to obtain additional height.
   Never use ladders in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds.
   REMEMBER: 1:4 Pitch Ratio.


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             OPERATION AND USE
                                 continued

OPERATION AND USE:
 Portable ladders will be used at a pitch where the horizontal
  distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is one-
  quarter of the working length of the ladder (the length along the
  ladder between the foot and the top support).




                        2 feet


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                OPERATION AND USE
                                   continued

CRITICAL SAFETY TIPS:
 Place ladder on a clean slip free level surface.
 Place the straight ladder base 1/4 the height of the ladder from the
  wall.
 Roof or elevated surface: Extend the ladder 3-4 feet above the top
  support.
 Anchor or secure the top of the ladder when the 3-4 foot extension is
  not possible.
 Use tool belts or hand lines to carry objects.
 Never allow more than one person on a ladder.
 Do not lean out from the ladder in any direction.
 Do not allow others to work under a ladder in use.
 If you have a fear of heights – don’t climb a ladder.


 THE ABOVE TIPS COMPRISE COMMON WAYS THAT EMPLOYEES ARE INJURED
                          USING LADDERS.
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                 OPERATION AND USE
                                      continued


CARE AND MAINTENANCE:
   Ladders must be inspected prior to use.
   Ladders will be maintained in serviceable condition at all times.
   Rungs will be kept free of grease and oil.
   The joint between the steps and side rails must be tight.
   Frequently lubricate metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys, etc.
   All hardware and fittings must be securely attached.
   Ensure movable parts operate freely without binding or undue play.
   Frayed or badly worn rope must be replaced.
   Ensure safety feet and other auxiliary equipment are serviceable.




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                OPERATION AND USE
                                   continued


 LADDER PROHIBITIONS:

 Single rail (“T” Style) ladders are prohibited from use.
 Tops of ordinary stepladders will not be used as steps.
 Portable rung ladders without nonslip bases or feet may not be
  used.
 Nonslip bases are not intended as a substitute for care in ladder
  placement.
 Ladders too short to extend 3 feet above the point of support may
  not be used.
 Remember: The bracing on the back legs of step ladders is
  designed solely for increasing stability and not for climbing.



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                METAL LADDERS

OPERATION AND USE:
   Metal ladders may not be used when work is performed on or
    near electric circuits.
   No new metal ladders will be purchased for use with electrical
    work.
   All metal ladders removed from service for any reason will be
    replaced with fiberglass ladders or ladders approved for
    electrical work.




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                         LADDER RATINGS
LADDER LOAD RATINGS:

 There are four industry-standard load-capacity
  ratings for ladders:
      Type III, Light Duty / Household Use (200 pound load capacity).
      Type II, Medium Duty, Commercial Use (225 pound load capacity).
      Type I, Heavy Duty, Industrial Use (250 pound load capacity).
      Type IA, Extra Heavy Duty/Professional Use (300 pound load capacity).




           WHICH LADDER IS RIGHT FOR THE WORK YOU
                       TYPICALLY DO?
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                         LADDER RATINGS
                                       continued
TYPES OF PORTABLE LADDERS:
 Portable stepladders longer than 20 feet must not be used or
  supplied.
 There are four industry-standard load-capacity ratings for ladders:



    - TYPE I - INDUSTRIAL STEPLADDER, 3 TO 20 FEET
      -- For heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors, and industrial use.
    - TYPE II - COMMERCIAL STEPLADDER, 3 TO 12 FEET
      -- For medium duty, such as painters, offices, and light industrial
         use.
    - TYPE III - HOUSEHOLD STEPLADDER, 3 TO 6 FEET
      -- For light duty, such as Light household use.



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                  LADDER STORAGE

PROPER STORAGE CAN MEAN SAFER LADDERS:
 Store ladders on sturdy hooks.
 Store in such a way as to prevent warping or sagging.
 Store ladders in areas where they cannot be damaged.
 Do not hang anything on ladders that are in a stored condition.
 Store in an area that will prevent damage from sun, rain or
  snow.




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             RULES OF LADDER SAFETY
REMEMBER THE RULES FOR LADDER SAFETY:
 Select the right ladder for the job.
 Inspect ladder before you use it.
 Stay off the top 3 rungs!
 Set up the ladder with care.
 Climb and descend ladders cautiously.
 Face ladder and hold on with both hands.
 Check shoes and rungs for slippery surfaces.
 Use safe practices when working on a ladder.
 Carry tools on belt or raise and lower with hand line.
 Reposition the ladder as often as necessary to maintain safety.
 Never over-reach too far to either side or rear to maintain balance.
 Never climb higher than the second step from top on a stepladder
 Never climb higher than the third from the top on a straight
  ladder.
 Never attempt to move, shift, or extend ladder while in use.


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          Major Types of Ladders




   Step Ladder                                                 Fixed Ladder




Extension Ladder                                                 Others
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             Ladder Selection
• Weight limits? (light, medium, heavy duty)
• Type of material
  – Wood
  – Metal
  – Fiberglass




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                      Weight Limits
• Total weight = your weight + weight of materials
• Determines whether you use light, medium, or heavy duty

        Type I -- industrial step ladder for
        heavy duty, such as utilities,
        contractors and industrial use
        Type II -- commercial step ladder for
        medium duty, painters office, light
        industrial
        Type III – Household – light duty




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                 Type of Material
• Wood
   – Heavier than aluminum or fiberglass
   – Can rot
   – Electrically non-conductive
• Metal
   – Must not be used when working on or near electrical wires
   – Lightweight
• Fiberglass
   – Strong, lightweight, electrically non-conductive
   – More expensive than wood or metal

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        Maintenance & Inspection
•   Good condition
•   Tight joints/fittings secured
•   Moveable parts operate freely
•   Safety feet in good condition
•   Plum; no “rocking”
•   Rungs free of grease, other debris



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        Maintenance & Inspection

   Broken or missing steps, rungs or
    cleats
   Broken or damaged side rails
   Other faulty equipment such as
    missing feet, damaged connections,
    broken rivets
   Don’t paint wooden ladders
   “Dangerous, Do Not Use!”

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                 Making the Climb
• Always face the ladder
• 3-point contact
• Never use the top 2 steps
  on a step ladder
• Belt buckle rule
• Transporting the ladder
   – Fold up the ladder
   – Carry horizontal to ground
   – Assistance
• Paint shelf weight limit on
  step ladders


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Ladder Storage
                                  • Store ladders for easy
                                    access and inspection.

                                  • Store vertically if possible.
                                    If not possible, store
                                    horizontally supporting
                                    ladder at several points to
                                    avoid sagging

                                  • Protect ladder from heat,
                                    weather and corrosive
                                    materials


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• Do not leave
  ladders
  where they
  may create a
  tripping or
  fall hazard
  for others



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Ladder Transport

• Lift ladder using
  leg muscles, not
  back
• Carry holding
  ladder close to
  body




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When carrying
 ladder:
• Balance center of
  ladder on your
  shoulder
• Position so front
  end of ladder is
  above your head
  and back end is
  near the ground




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When ascending and descending stairs, carry ladder with one
hand and hold stair rail with the other hand
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                       • Set ladder down when
                         opening and closing
                         doors


                       • Take special care when
                         negotiating corners or
                         turning around




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• When it is necessary
  for two people to
  carry a ladder, both
  should be on the
  same side of ladder
  and both people
  should walk in step.
• Spikes, hooks or
  ladder feet should
  face toward the rear
  when ladder is being
  carried

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