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					    Organization and
      Structure of
     Government in
Lecture no. 14
1) Organization is arrangement of personnel for
facilitating the accomplishment of some agreed
purposes, through allocation of functions and
responsibilities. (L.D.White)
2) Organization means a planned system of
cooperative effort in which each participant has a
recognized role to play and duties and tasks to
perform. (H. Simon, Smithburg, and Thompson)
3) Organization is form of every human association
for the attainment of a common purpose. (James D.
Thus organization is a group of people working
together interdependently to achieve a common
Principles of Organization
Hierarchy is a chain of command and literally it means control of the higher
over lower. It refers to the levels in organization.
Span of Control
It means how many persons are being attended or supervised by an
Unity of Command
It refers to the reporting to immediate boss by an employee (According to
Henri Fayol, an employee should receive orders from one supervisor
Integration vs Disintegration
It means the connecting of one or more parts with the whole of the
organization structure, by keeping them under the boss or
department which is under the control of boss. Whereas,
disintegration means breaking up or causing to break into small parts
or groups or identities. And, these parts are usually independent.
It means the transferring of authority from higher to lower to facilitate the
work of organization.
Centralization vs Decentralization
Centralization refers to the concentration of authority at the top whereas
decentralization refers to the dispersal of authority among a number
of individuals or units.
Organization of Federal
Government in Pakistan
“Rules of Business-1973” define the function of ministries, ministers and also secretaries
and also the methodology of conducting the administrative and other businesses of the
Federal Government.
Central Secretariat: For the proper functioning of the Federal Government and the
administering the subjects falling within the jurisdiction of federation , there are
ministries, divisions, attached departments, subordinate offices, autonomous and semi-
autonomous bodies. The detail is as under:
Ministry: A ministry is a division or group of divisions constituted into a ministry or it may
comprise one or more divisions for the conduct of business of Federal Government in a
specified sphere as declared by the Government. Each ministry is headed by a Cabinet
Minister and a Secretary is the administrative incharge of the ministry.
Division: It also performs functions like Ministry to formulate policies and to ensure their
implementation. It is headed by a Minister for State and administrative incharge is
Secretary or Additional Secretary.
Attached Department: An attached department in the Federal Government has a direct
relation with Ministry or Division. These departments provide assistance to the Ministry
in the formulation and execution of the policies and they are under the control of
Ministry or Division.
Subordinate Offices: Each attached department has many subordinate offices, which are
known as “field offices”. They are under the attached department and perform specific
duites. They are responsible for the execution of all the filed activities of attached
departments. They are headed by an administrator or Director.
Autonomous/Semi Autonomous Bodies: Certain Ministries or Divisions have a number of
autonomous, semi-autonomous bodies representing the trend of decentralization for
arriving at speedy decisions. The main sectors, under which these bodies are working
are Finance, Education and Banking.
Transaction of Business at
      Federal Level
 Prime Minister: At the top of the hierarchy of Federal Government is Prime Minister,
 who has authority and responsibility for the transaction of the business.
 Federal Minister: A Federal Minister or Minister for State is to assist the Prime Minister
 in the formulation of public policy.
 Secretary: A Secretary in-charge of Ministry or Division is a senior civil servant, and
 administrative head of his ministry or division. He has to assist his Minister or
 Minister for state in policy formulation, keep the Minister generally informed of the
 working of the Ministry or Division.
 Additional Secretary: Additional Secretary is also a senior civil servant and assists
 Secretary in a ministry, some time, he works as incharge of the division and
 performs the functions like a Secretary in the ministry.
 Joint Secretary: Joint Secretary is junior to the Additional Secretary, In Ministry he
 works at the third level of administrative hierarchy; while in Division, he assists
 the additional secretary in charge as second in command. He performs the duties
 as assigned by Secretary/Additional Secretary.
 Deputy Secretary: A division/ministry is divided into wings and a wing is further
 divided into sections. Administrative head of a group of sections is called Deputy
 Section Officer/Under Secretary: Section officer is the incharge of a section. He is an
 officer at the lowest ebb of the hierarchy. He controls the officials of his section
 i.e. assistant, clerks, record keepers, steno-typist etc.

 For further details, you can refer to the “Manual of Secretariat Instructions”.
 Provincial Organization
The work procedures of a provincial government in
Pakistan are in many ways similar to those at
centre. There are provincial secretariat attached
offices. The working of these organizations are
similar as that of federal organizations with some
modifications and adjustments.
Chief Minister: At the apex of the province is Chief
Minister, whose chief staff is the Chief Secretary.
CM is the head of provincial cabinet and controller
of provincial ministries.
Chief Secretary: He is the senior civil servant and is
the official head of the provincial secretariat. To
enable him to perform his functions properly, there
is a secretary in every department, then additional
secretary, deputy secretary and section officer.
     Local Government

Under present devolution scenario, province is
territorially divided into districts, which are
again subdivided into subdivisions or tehsils.
Administrative Structure in District
    Administrative Structure in Tehsil

In every tehsil there shall be a Tehsil Municipal Administration
which shall be a body corporate and consist of a Tehsil
Nazim, Tehsil Municipal Officer, Tehsil Officers, Chief Officers
and other officials of the Local Council Service and officials
of the offices entrusted to the Tehsil Municipal
Administration. Whereas in every town in a City District there
is a Town Municipal Administration which is a body corporate
and consist of the Town Nazim, Town Municipal Officer, Town
Officers, Chief Officers and other officials of the Local
Council Service and officials of the offices entrusted to the
Town Municipal Administration.

Administrative Structure in Union

 At the lower tier, the Union Administration, which is a body
 corporate, covers the rural as well as urban areas across the
 whole district. It consists of Union Nazim, Naib Union Nazim

 and three Union Secretaries and other ancillary staff