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					October 2005


Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                                                                     Casualty Risk Control Manual




Contents

Preface ............................................................................................................. 0-1

1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 1-1


Risk Management Administration Program
2. Risk Management/Safety Committee........................................................ 2-1
       Purpose ............................................................................................................................2-1
       Policy...............................................................................................................................2-1
       Risk Management Steering Committee..........................................................................2-2
       Advisory Committees .....................................................................................................2-3
       Department Safety Committees......................................................................................2-5
       Risk Management/Safety Committee Best Practices.....................................................2-6
   Appendix 2-A         Campus Risk Management Activities Model......................... 2-9
   Appendix 2-B         Sample Safety Policy Statement .......................................... 2-11
   Appendix 2-C         Risk Management Options and Analysis ............................ 2-13
       Pareto Analysis .............................................................................................................2-14
   Appendix 2-D         Continuous Improvement Process Steps and Tools .......... 2-15
       Overview of the Continuous Improvement Process ....................................................2-16
       Continuous Risk Improvement Process .......................................................................2-17
       Cause and Effect Diagram ............................................................................................2-17
       Brainstorming................................................................................................................2-18
       Nominal Group Technique ...........................................................................................2-18
       Process Mapping ...........................................................................................................2-19
       Force Field Analysis .....................................................................................................2-20
       Work Plan......................................................................................................................2-20
       Additional Resources ....................................................................................................2-21
       Continuous Improvement Work Plan Form .................................................................2-23

3. Accident Reporting and Investigation ...................................................... 3-1
       Introduction .....................................................................................................................3-1
       Policy...............................................................................................................................3-1
       Accident Reporting and Investigation ............................................................................3-1
   Appendix 3-A         Non Vehicle Accident Investigation Report Form ................ 3-5




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     Appendix 3-B                   Vehicle Accident Investigation Report Form ........................ 3-7
     Appendix 3-C                   EIIA Sample Property and Casualty Claims Reporting
                                    Information .............................................................................. 3-9
     Appendix 3-D                   EIIA Cause Codes—Workers Compensation ...................... 3-13
     Appendix 3-E                   EIIA Cause of Loss Codes—Automobile Liability .............. 3-15
     Appendix 3-F                   EIIA Cause Codes—General Liability .................................. 3-17

4. Benchmarking Forms ................................................................................ 4-1
       Introduction .....................................................................................................................4-1
   Appendix 4-A      EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Four-Year
                                    Institutions .............................................................................. 4-3
         Risk Management/Safety Committee.............................................................................4-5
         Fall Prevention ................................................................................................................4-9
         Manual Material Handling............................................................................................4-11
         Office Ergonomics ........................................................................................................4-13
         Vehicle Safety ...............................................................................................................4-15
         Property Risk Control ...................................................................................................4-17
     Appendix 4-B      EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Two-Year
                       Institutions, Seminaries and Preparatory Schools ............. 4-21
         Risk Management/Safety Organization (For Smaller Institutions) .............................4-23
         Fall Prevention (For Smaller Institutions) ....................................................................4-25
         Manual Material Handling (For Smaller Institutions) .................................................4-27
         Office Ergonomics (For Smaller Institutions)..............................................................4-29
         Vehicle Safety (For Smaller Institutions).....................................................................4-31
         Property Risk Control (For Smaller Institutions) .........................................................4-33
     Appendix 4-C      EIIA Best Practices Departmental Self-Evaluation ............. 4-37
         Departmental .................................................................................................................4-39

5. Departmental Safety Inspections and Control Procedures .................... 5-1
       Introduction .....................................................................................................................5-1
       Policy...............................................................................................................................5-1
       Follow-up on Non-Conformities ....................................................................................5-3
       Recordkeeping ................................................................................................................5-3
   Appendix 5-A         Sample Dining Services Department Safety Checklist......... 5-5
   Appendix 5-B         Sample Housekeeping Department Safety Checklist ........... 5-7
   Appendix 5-C         Sample Athletic Department Checklist.................................. 5-9
   Appendix 5-D         Sample Physical Plant Safety Checklist .............................. 5-11
   Appendix 5-E         Sample Office Safety Checklist............................................ 5-13




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6. New Employee Orientation ........................................................................ 6-1
       Introduction .....................................................................................................................6-1
       General Orientation.........................................................................................................6-1
       Departmental Orientation ...............................................................................................6-2
   Appendix 6-A      Sample New Employee Orientation Checklist ...................... 6-5


Strategic Risk Control Programs
7. Fall Prevention ........................................................................................... 7-1
       Purpose ............................................................................................................................7-1
       Policy...............................................................................................................................7-1
       Organization and Leadership ..........................................................................................7-1
       Administrative Considerations .......................................................................................7-2
       Design Considerations ....................................................................................................7-3
       Interior Design Considerations .......................................................................................7-3
       Exterior Design Considerations ......................................................................................7-3
       Interior and Exterior Design Considerations..................................................................7-4
       Care and Maintenance of Walking Surfaces ..................................................................7-4
       Housekeeping ..................................................................................................................7-4
       Groundskeeping ..............................................................................................................7-5
       Training and Assessment Form Development ...............................................................7-6
   Appendix 7-A         Sample Fall Prevention Training Outline and Handout
                            Materials .................................................................................. 7-7
         Target Audience ..............................................................................................................7-7
         Objectives ........................................................................................................................7-7
         Introduction .....................................................................................................................7-7
         Tripping ...........................................................................................................................7-8
         Slipping ...........................................................................................................................7-9
         Falls ...............................................................................................................................7-10
         Summary .......................................................................................................................7-11
         Slip/Trip/Fall Hazard Assessment ................................................................................7-11
         Slip/Trip Hazards and Controls ....................................................................................7-11
         Table 7-A-1 Some Acceptable Combinations of Stair Riser and Tread
          Dimensions....................................................................................................................7-13
     Appendix 7-B           Sample Slip/Fall Hazard Assessment Form ........................ 7-15

8. Working From Heights ............................................................................... 8-1
      Introduction .....................................................................................................................8-1



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         Scope and Application ....................................................................................................8-1
         Program Description .......................................................................................................8-1
         Roles and Responsibilities ..............................................................................................8-3
     Appendix 8-A      Ladder Safety .......................................................................... 8-5
         Introduction .....................................................................................................................8-5
         Portable Ladders .............................................................................................................8-5
         Fixed ladders ...................................................................................................................8-7
     Appendix 8-B      Sample Scaffold Use Program ............................................... 8-9
         Introduction .....................................................................................................................8-9
         Scope and Application ....................................................................................................8-9
         Primary Hazards............................................................................................................8-10
         Preventing Scaffold Collapses ......................................................................................8-10
         Preventing Falls and Injury/Damage from Falling Items ............................................8-11
         Preventing Injury from Contact with Other Hazards ...................................................8-11
     Appendix 8-C      Sample Manlift Safety Program ........................................... 8-13
         Introduction ...................................................................................................................8-13
         Scope and Application ..................................................................................................8-13
         General Safety Guidelines ............................................................................................8-13
         Management Guidelines ...............................................................................................8-14
     Appendix 8-D      Sample Scaffold Inspection Form ....................................... 8-15
     Appendix 8-E      Sample Manlift Inspection Form .......................................... 8-17
     Appendix 8-F      Sample Ladder Inspection Form.......................................... 8-19

9. Manual Material Handling .......................................................................... 9-1
       Introduction .....................................................................................................................9-1
       Policy...............................................................................................................................9-1
       Organization and Leadership ..........................................................................................9-1
       Training ...........................................................................................................................9-2
       Lifting Best Practices ......................................................................................................9-2
       Job/Task Evaluation ........................................................................................................9-3
       Eliminating and Reducing Exposures ............................................................................9-4
       Manual Material Handling Equipment ...........................................................................9-5
       Back Belts .......................................................................................................................9-5
       Training and Information Web sites ...............................................................................9-5
   Appendix 9-A         Sample Manual Material Handling Risk Factor
                                    Checklist.................................................................................. 9-7




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10. Office Ergonomics ................................................................................... 10-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................10-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................10-1
        Organization and Leadership ........................................................................................10-1
        Training .........................................................................................................................10-2
        Workstation Adjustment ...............................................................................................10-2
        References .....................................................................................................................10-7
    Appendix 10-A Office Ergonomic Workstation Checklist ............................ 10-9

11. Tool and Equipment Safety ..................................................................... 11-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................11-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................11-1
    Appendix 11-A Sample Power Tool Safety Program .................................... 11-3
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................11-3
        Scope and Application ..................................................................................................11-3
        General Guidelines on Power Tools.............................................................................11-3
        Electrical Safety for Power Tools.................................................................................11-5
        Handheld Drills and Drill Presses ................................................................................11-5
        Band Saws .....................................................................................................................11-6
        Table Saws ....................................................................................................................11-7
        Chain Saws ....................................................................................................................11-7
        Fueling Safety for Power Engines ................................................................................11-8
        Golf Carts ......................................................................................................................11-9
        Lawnmowers .................................................................................................................11-9
        Weedeaters ..................................................................................................................11-11
        Hedge Trimmers .........................................................................................................11-12
        Snow Blowers .............................................................................................................11-13
        Snow Plows .................................................................................................................11-14
        Trailers.........................................................................................................................11-15
        Air Conditioners..........................................................................................................11-15

12. Vehicle Safety ........................................................................................... 12-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................12-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................12-1
        Vehicle Program Organization and Leadership ...........................................................12-1
        Training .........................................................................................................................12-2
        Vehicle Safety Policies and Procedures .......................................................................12-3
    Appendix 12-A Seat Belt Usage..................................................................... 12-9




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    Appendix 12-B Sample Fleet Administration Policy .................................. 12-11
        Introduction .................................................................................................................12-11
        Driver Selection ..........................................................................................................12-11
        Driver Evaluation and Training ..................................................................................12-12
        Vehicle Control and Operations .................................................................................12-13
        Vehicle Maintenance ..................................................................................................12-14
        Accident Reporting and Investigation ........................................................................12-15
        Summary .....................................................................................................................12-18
    Appendix 12-C Sample Insurance Automobile Loss Notice ...................... 12-19
    Appendix 12-D Sample Driving History Form ............................................. 12-21
    Appendix 12-E Sample Driving History/Motor Vehicle Records Point
                        Valuation Guideline ............................................................ 12-23
    Appendix 12-F Motor Vehicle Record (MVR) Retrieval Vendors ............... 12-25
    Appendix 12-G Sample Vehicle Pre/Post Trip Inspection Form ................ 12-27
    Appendix 12-H Sample Insurance Card ...................................................... 12-29
    Appendix 12-I       Cellular Phone Usage and Policy ...................................... 12-31
        Introduction .................................................................................................................12-31
        Institutions Could Be Held Liable ..............................................................................12-31
        Consider Implementing a Policy ................................................................................12-32
        Resources ....................................................................................................................12-33
    Appendix 12-J The Rollover Propensity of Fifteen-Passenger Vans ....... 12-35
        Introduction .................................................................................................................12-35
        USDOT Consumer Advisory .....................................................................................12-35
        Analysis of the Research Note....................................................................................12-35
        Consortium Member Response ..................................................................................12-37
    Appendix 12-K Automobile Coverage—General Rules of July 1, 1999..... 12-41
    Appendix 12-L Safety Tips for Driving with a Trailer ................................. 12-43
        General Handling ........................................................................................................12-43
        Braking ........................................................................................................................12-43
        Acceleration and Passing ............................................................................................12-44
        Downgrades and Upgrades .........................................................................................12-44
        Backing Up..................................................................................................................12-44
        Parking ........................................................................................................................12-44
    Appendix 12-M Transportation of K through 12 Children .......................... 12-47




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Advanced Risk Control Programs
13. Hazard Communication ........................................................................... 13-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................13-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................13-1
        Program Elements .........................................................................................................13-2
    Appendix 13-A Sample Hazard Communication Program ........................... 13-3
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................13-3
        Documentation ..............................................................................................................13-4
        Container Labeling........................................................................................................13-5
        Training .........................................................................................................................13-7
    Appendix 13-B Sample Hazard Communication Training Manual .............. 13-9
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................13-9
        Chemical Hazards and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) .....................................13-9
        Working With and Around Hazardous Materials ......................................................13-14
        Promoting Safety ........................................................................................................13-14
        Labeling.......................................................................................................................13-15
        Toxicology ..................................................................................................................13-15
        Types of Toxic Hazards ..............................................................................................13-16
        Routes of Exposure .....................................................................................................13-19
        Measurement of Toxicity............................................................................................13-19
        Corrosive Hazards .......................................................................................................13-20
        Chemical Reactivity Hazards .....................................................................................13-21
        MSDS Quiz .................................................................................................................13-24
    Appendix 13-C Sample Acknowledgement for Receipt of Hazard
                     Communication Training Form .......................................... 13-25
         Written Hazard Communication Program .................................................................13-25
     Appendix 13-D Hazardous Waste Guidelines ............................................. 13-27

14. Laboratory Standard ................................................................................ 14-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................14-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................14-1
        Scope .............................................................................................................................14-2
        Chemical Hygiene Plan Requirements .........................................................................14-2
    Appendix 14-A Sample Chemical Hygiene Plan ........................................... 14-7
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................14-7
        Scope and Application ..................................................................................................14-7
        Responsibilities .............................................................................................................14-7




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         Institutional Activities...................................................................................................14-8
         Laboratory Chemicals ...................................................................................................14-9
         Personal Protective Equipment...................................................................................14-13
         Housekeeping ..............................................................................................................14-14
         Chemical Spills, Releases and Accidents...................................................................14-15
         Medical Surveillance ..................................................................................................14-15
         Employee/Student Training ........................................................................................14-16
     Appendix 14-B Sample Laboratory Safety Inspection Form ..................... 14-19
         Instructions for Sample Laboratory Safety Inspection Form.....................................14-24
     Appendix 14-C Sample Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Program............... 14-33
     Appendix 14-D Self-Assessment Guide ...................................................... 14-33

15. Compressed Gas Cylinders .................................................................... 15-1
       Introduction ...................................................................................................................15-1
       Basic Guidelines for Handlers ......................................................................................15-1
       Cylinder Storage ...........................................................................................................15-2
       Cylinder Handling and Use ..........................................................................................15-2
       Poisonous Gases............................................................................................................15-4

16. Bloodborne Pathogens ............................................................................ 16-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................16-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................16-1
        Program Requirements .................................................................................................16-1
        Training and Information Web Sites ............................................................................16-2
    Appendix 16-A Sample Exposure Control Plan ............................................ 16-3
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................16-3
        General Provisions ........................................................................................................16-3
        Exposure Determination ...............................................................................................16-3
        Methods of Compliance................................................................................................16-4
        Personal Protective Equipment.....................................................................................16-6
        Housekeeping ................................................................................................................16-8
        Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-Exposure Evaluation..............................................16-9
    Appendix 16-B Sample Personal Protection Investigation Form .............. 16-15
    Appendix 16-C Sample Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Form ................. 16-17
    Appendix 16-D Sample Post-Exposure Evaluation Form .......................... 16-19
    Appendix 16-E Sample Authorization for the Release of
                                   Employee/Student Medical Record Information ............... 16-21
     Appendix 16-F                 Sample Acknowledgement of Receipt of Training Form .. 16-23




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17. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Hazard Analysis ................ 17-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................17-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................17-1
        Hazard Assessment .......................................................................................................17-2
    Appendix 17-A Sample Certification of Hazard Assessment ...................... 17-7
    Appendix 17-B Sample Work Area Personal Protective Equipment
                           Requirements Form ............................................................ 17-11
     Appendix 17-C Sample Eye, Face and Head Protection Policy ................. 17-13
         Introduction .................................................................................................................17-13
         Eye and Face Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.133) ................................................17-13
         Head Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.135) ..............................................................17-14
     Appendix 17-D Personal Protective Equipment—Eye, Face and Head
                           Acknowledgement of Training Form ................................. 17-17
     Appendix 17-E Sample Foot and Hand Protection Policy ......................... 17-19
         Introduction .................................................................................................................17-19
         Foot Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.136) ...............................................................17-19
         Hand Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.138) .............................................................17-20
     Appendix 17-F Sample Personal Protective Equipment—Foot and
                           Hand Acknowledgement of Training Form ....................... 17-23
     Appendix 17-G Sample Respiratory Protection Program .......................... 17-25
         Introduction .................................................................................................................17-25
         Policy...........................................................................................................................17-25
     Appendix 17-H Ceramics Dust Hazards ...................................................... 17-27
         Clay .............................................................................................................................17-27
         Glazes ..........................................................................................................................17-27
     Appendix 17-I         Sample Authorization for the Release of
                           Employee/Student Medical Record Information ............... 17-29
     Appendix 17-J Sample Authorization for the Release of Employee/
                           Student Medical Record Information to Authorized
                           Representative ..................................................................... 17-31

18. Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) ................................... 18-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................18-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................18-1
        Program Requirements .................................................................................................18-1
    Appendix 18-A Sample Lockout/Tagout Program ........................................ 18-3
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................18-3
        Policy.............................................................................................................................18-4
        General Safety Guidelines ............................................................................................18-4



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     Appendix 18-B                 Sample Survey for Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices....... 18-9
     Appendix 18-C                 Sample Receipt of Training Acknowledgment .................. 18-11
     Appendix 18-D                 Authorized Employee Lockout/Tagout Time Schedule .... 18-13
     Appendix 18-E                 Sample Periodic Inspection Certification Form ................ 18-15

19. Electrical Safety ....................................................................................... 19-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................19-1
        Scope and Application ..................................................................................................19-1
    Appendix 19-A Sample Electrical Safety Program ....................................... 19-3
        Purpose ..........................................................................................................................19-3
        Application ....................................................................................................................19-3
        Scope .............................................................................................................................19-4
        Responsibilities .............................................................................................................19-5
        Safety Department ........................................................................................................19-5
        Departmental Responsibilities ......................................................................................19-5
        Contractors ....................................................................................................................19-5
        Training .........................................................................................................................19-6
        Installation Requirements .............................................................................................19-7
        Free from Recognized Hazards ....................................................................................19-7
        Labeling of Disconnects ...............................................................................................19-7
        Guarding of Live Parts ..................................................................................................19-8
        General Wiring Design and Protection ........................................................................19-8
        Requirements for Temporary Wiring ...........................................................................19-9
        Open Conductors, Clearance from Ground ................................................................19-10
        Entrances and Access to Workspace ..........................................................................19-10
        Working Space Around Electric Equipment ..............................................................19-11
        Selection and Use of Work Practices .........................................................................19-11
        Working on Electrical Systems ..................................................................................19-12
        Energized Parts ...........................................................................................................19-12
        Working On Or Near Exposed De-energized Parts ...................................................19-12
        De-energizing Equipment ...........................................................................................19-13
        Re-energizing Equipment ...........................................................................................19-14
        Overhead Power Lines ................................................................................................19-14
        Vehicles and Mechanical Equipment .........................................................................19-15
        Illumination .................................................................................................................19-16
        Confined or Enclosed Work Spaces ...........................................................................19-16
        Conductive Materials and Equipment ........................................................................19-16
        Housekeeping ..............................................................................................................19-17




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                Interlocks .....................................................................................................................19-17
                Portable Electrical Equipment and Extension Cords .................................................19-17
                Electric Power and Lighting Circuits .........................................................................19-19
                Test Equipment and Instruments ................................................................................19-19
                Flammable or Ignitable Materials ..............................................................................19-20
                Safeguards for Personnel Protection ..........................................................................19-20
                Protective Equipment ..................................................................................................19-20
                General Protective Equipment and Tools...................................................................19-23
                Alerting Techniques ....................................................................................................19-24
                First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Requirements ........................19-24
                Other Safety Hazards ..................................................................................................19-24

20. Confined Space Entry .............................................................................. 20-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................20-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................20-1
        Program .........................................................................................................................20-1
    Appendix 20-A Sample Permit Required Confined Space Entry
                       Program ................................................................................. 20-3
         Introduction ...................................................................................................................20-3
         Identification of Confined Spaces ................................................................................20-3
         Training Requirements .................................................................................................20-6
         Annual Review..............................................................................................................20-9
     Appendix 20-B Sample Confined Space Air Monitoring Program............. 20-11
         Introduction .................................................................................................................20-11
         Requirements ..............................................................................................................20-11
     Appendix 20-C Acknowledgment of Receipt of Training for Confined
                       Space Air-Monitoring Program .......................................... 20-13
     Appendix 20-D Sample Confined Space Entry Permit ............................... 20-15
     Appendix 20-E Confined Space Characterization Form ............................ 20-17

21. Automatic Emergency Defibrillator Guidelines ..................................... 21-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................21-1
        Locations .......................................................................................................................21-1
        Who Can Use an AED? ................................................................................................21-1
        Under What Conditions May an AED be Used? .........................................................21-2
        What if the Patient Does Not Regain Consciousness?.................................................21-2
        Legal Aspects of Using an AED ..................................................................................21-2
        Maintenance of AEDs...................................................................................................21-3
        Summary .......................................................................................................................21-3



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22. Service and Construction Contractor Safety ......................................... 22-1
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................22-1
        Policy.............................................................................................................................22-1
    Appendix 22-A Sample Contractor Safety Program ..................................... 22-3
        Service Contractors .......................................................................................................22-3
        Construction Contractors ..............................................................................................22-5
    Appendix 22-B Contractor Selection Guidelines.......................................... 22-9
        Introduction ...................................................................................................................22-9
        Evaluating a Contractor ................................................................................................22-9
    Appendix 22-C Working with Contractors .................................................. 22-13
        Introduction .................................................................................................................22-13
        Contractor Guidelines .................................................................................................22-13
        Working with Contractors—Insurance Guidelines....................................................22-14
    Appendix 22-D Asbestos Awareness .......................................................... 22-17
        Potential Health Effects Related to Asbestos .............................................................22-17
        Areas Where Asbestos May be Present......................................................................22-19
        Activities Involving Potential Exposure.....................................................................22-19
        Minimizing Potential Exposure ..................................................................................22-20




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  Preface




Since this manual is dedicated to preserving and protecting the health and safety of the
staff, students, employees and visitors of your institution, it is fitting to include a policy
statement on safety at its beginning. Therefore, we are presenting our sample Safety
Policy Statement first, to demonstrate our commitment to continued safe operations on
your campus.
    “It is the policy of Educational Institution Insurance Administrators(EIIA) that risk
    management shall be of primary importance in all phases of its operation and
    administration. It is the intention of EIIA to assist member institutions in providing
    safe and healthy living and working conditions and to establish safe practices for all
    visitors, faculty, staff, students and administrators of our member institutions.
    The prevention of accidents is a goal and objective at all levels EIIA and its
    operations. It is the basic requirement that each employee make the safety of all
    visitors, faculty, staff, students and administrators an integral part of their regular
    management function. It is equally the duty of each employee to accept and follow
    established safety procedures and regulations.
    To meet the safety goals and objectives of EIIA, safety committees have been
    established to address occupational safety concerns. All EIIA employees of the
    institution are encouraged to become actively involved in safety, providing assistance
    and recommendations to the safety committee where needs are recognized.
    When an accident occurs, everyone is affected in some manner. Please work
    responsibly. Safety is everyone’s responsibility.

__________________________
President, EIIA




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  Section 1




Introduction
We are all aware of the impact that workers compensation, general liability and auto
liability incidents can have on the campus community. From the time of an individual‘s
first step on campus, be it the president, faculty member, staff person, hourly employee,
student, parent, alumni or a visitor, the campus experience should be safe and accident free.
EIIA, in cooperation with Marsh, has developed this casualty risk control manual to
provide a source of basic information to assist in establishing, improving and maintaining
an effective campus casualty risk control program. The manual is based upon the policies
and practices of organizations such as the National Safety Council, OSHA, Underwriters
Laboratories (UL), insurance and insurance brokerage companies and the shared
experiences of consortium institutions as noted by the EIIA staff.
This manual provides a general overview of those areas that should be included in a
casualty risk control program. The implementation of this information will aid in the
development of an ongoing campus program that will prevent, avoid, reduce, transfer or
separate (PARTS) loss exposures that may be present on campus. These risk management
options are further explained in Appendix 2-C.
While accidents have many causes, human error often contributes to the chain of events
leading to an accident. The establishment of campus programs to address the human
element aspects of casualty risk control is recommended.
The manual is organized to provide a background on the various elements of a casualty
risk control program. It is through an active casualty risk control program that steps can
be taken to manage loss exposures on campus. By completing the EIIA Best Practice
Self-Evaluation Forms included within this manual, each consortium member can identify
the areas where it will need to focus its efforts during the next twelve-month period.
Annually thereafter, a re-evaluation should be completed, scores reviewed and new goals
established for the next twelve-month period.




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This manual may not address all situations that may arise concerning casualty risk control
on your campus. When confronted with matters that are beyond the scope of this manual,
EIIA, insurance company and brokerage engineering groups are available for assistance.
The collaborative effort of these organizations can provide valuable assistance in solving
unique loss prevention problems.
EIIA is committed to assisting your ongoing loss prevention efforts, to protect students,
employees and assets. While each individual is responsible for working in a safe manner
and maintaining his or her aspect of the institution‘s operations, the administration is
ultimately responsible for the operations under their direction.




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Risk Management
Administration Program




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 Section 2




Risk Management/Safety Committee

  Purpose
  Establishing a Risk Management/Safety Committee is one of the first steps an
  institution must take to reach and maintain its commitment to address safety, health
  and regulatory compliance issues. Vice presidents, deans and directors all need
  assistance in their constant efforts to prevent accidents. A Risk Management/Safety
  Committee establishes a highly visible foundation from which to address institution
  related safety, health and regulatory compliance issues.
  Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for institutions to establish Risk
  Management/Safety Committees only to see them lose focus and become inactive
  after one or two years. There are a number of possible reasons this occurs. After
  organizational matters are resolved, committees typically focus their efforts on one or
  two specific topics (OSHA compliance, for example). When this happens,
  representatives with no interest in the topic stop attending meetings and the downward
  spiral begins. Continuity is often a problem when the Campus Safety Officer changes
  jobs or leaves the institution. The Risk Management/Safety Committee organization
  discussed in this chapter supports the longevity and effectiveness of risk management
  and safety activities on campus.

  Policy
  A Risk Management/Safety Committee should be established for each campus. The
  committee should include representation from numerous institutional departments,
  meet regularly and have clearly defined functions and responsibilities.
  EIIA has developed a suggested organizational chart (found in Appendix 2-A) for the
  Campus Risk Management/Safety Committee entitled the Campus Risk Management
  Activities Model. Using this model will help your institution focus attention in the
  areas where the consortium has experienced the greatest financial losses over the past




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    several years. Loss prevention activities within these areas will improve the
    probability of reducing your institution‘s financial loss from claims.
    The campus risk management activities model is a three-tiered approach to safety. It
    includes:
    –      Risk Management Steering Committee
    –      Advisory Committees
    –      Department Safety Committees
    The following outlines the advantages, membership and functions and responsibilities
    of each tier.

    Risk Management Steering Committee
    The Campus Risk Management Steering Committee oversees risk management/safety
    activities on campus.

           Advantages
           The advantages of having a Steering Committee include the following:
               Allows for continuity when there is a change in personnel
               Involves individuals with authority to participate in the risk management
                process and to correct unsafe conditions without further approval
               Conveys the idea that risk management/safety is not just one person‘s job

           Membership
           The Steering Committee does not need a large membership. It is suggested that
           selected members of the President‘s Council and others with key safety-related
           responsibilities be the primary participants of the committee. An example of
           Steering Committee membership may include:
               President
               Provost
               Academic Dean
               Business Officer
               Campus Chemical Hygiene Officer
               Director of Physical Plant
               Director of Student Affairs
               Campus Safety Officer




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    Functions and Responsibilities
    The Steering Committee should meet at least quarterly. The activities of the
    Steering Committee should include the following:
       Formulating and revising general safety policies
       Directing and reviewing the activities of the Advisory Committees to assure
        the effectiveness of efforts
       Setting budgets for risk management/safety committees
       Reviewing and acting on loss prevention consultant‘s reports
       Distributing quarterly claim reports
       Reviewing loss reports and lag time for claims
       Overseeing the development of programs that promote safety on campus
       Recognizing and rewarding the efforts of advisory and department committees
    Minutes from the meetings should be distributed to all members of the President‘s
    Council, Deans and Department Heads.
    Best Practice Self Evaluation forms, included with this manual (see Chapter 4),
    can be used to measure the scope of the institution‘s progress and identify areas
    that need additional attention.

Advisory Committees
Various Advisory Committees should be formed to assess the efforts of the Risk
Management Steering Committee. Each Advisory Committee focuses on resolving
safety issues related to one risk management/safety topic that affects multiple
departments such as fall prevention or vehicle safety. The institution may have any
number of Advisory Committees. Based on the consortium‘s historical loss
experience, it is suggested at minimum, that the attention of these committees be
focused in the following areas:
–   Fall Prevention
–   Manual Material Handling
–   Office Ergonomics
–   Driver/Vehicle Safety
–   Property Conservation (See EIIA Property Conservation Manual. 2004 edition)
Best Practice Self Evaluation forms have been developed and are included within this
manual (see Chapter 4) for each of these subject areas. These will provide basic
guidelines for controlling the associated exposures within each of these areas.
In addition, there are a number of regulatory compliance issues that may require the
formation of Advisory Committees such as:




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    –      Laboratory Safety/Chemical Hygiene
    –      Bloodborne Pathogens
    –      Hazard Communications
    –      Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)
    –      Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    –      Confined Space Entry
    Information to assist the Advisory Committees regarding these issues has also been
    included within this manual.
    Other areas outside the scope of this document that may benefit from the formation of
    Advisory Committees are:
    –      Employment Practices
    –      Sexual Misconduct
    –      Sexual Harassment
    –      Substance Abuse

           Advantages
           The advantages of having Advisory Committees are:
               Broader participation on campus in the risk management process
               Allows the Advisory Committee members to focus on a single topic in which
                they have an interest
               Multiple committees can simultaneously address a variety of issues
               Correcting safety issues within the committee‘s scope of authority gives
                credence to the committee‘s purpose/mission

           Membership
           Membership should be selected from campus departments with an interest in the
           topic. Positions should be rotating with one fourth to one third of the members
           rotating each year. Advisory Committees should report their activities to the
           Steering Committee. Each campus department should participate on at least one
           Advisory Committee. When a department has a representative on more than one
           committee, different individuals should participate. This will expose more
           individuals to the loss prevention effort.




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   Functions and Responsibilities
   Initially, each of these committees may need to meet semi-monthly until the
   appropriate loss prevention efforts are under control. The activities of an Advisory
   Committee should include the following:
      Implementing and maintaining of best practices as outlined within this manual
      Implementing and maintaining of regulatory compliance programs as outlined
       in this manual
      Formulating and recommending revisions of safety policies to the Steering
       Committee
      Reviewing loss reports and injury records as they relate to the committee‘s
       area of accountability
      Developing training programs required under the committee‘s area of
       accountability
      Distributing to the Steering Committee minutes from the committee‘s
       meetings

Department Safety Committees
Each Department Safety Committee focuses on resolving safety issues that are
directly related to that department and supports the activities of the Advisory
Committees. Suggested focus should be on areas that will reduce the probability of
claims resulting in financial loss and areas of regulatory compliance.

   Advantages
   The advantages of having Department Safety Committees are:
      Greater participation on campus in the risk management process
      Allows a department to address topics unique to the department that may not
       be fully covered by an Advisory Committee

   Membership
   Membership should be selected from within the department. Positions should be
   rotating with one-fourth to one-third of the members changing each year.
   Department Safety Committees should report their activities to the Steering and
   Advisory Committees.

   Functions and Responsibilities
   Department Safety Committees should meet monthly. The activities of the
   Department Safety Committees should include the following:




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               Formulating and recommending revisions of safety policies to the Steering and
                Advisory Committees
               Reviewing loss reports and injury records related to their department
               Reviewing and responding to safety issues as they arise
               Overseeing and developing programs that promote safety within their
                department
               Inspecting selected areas for hazards that need correction
               Investigating accidents and recommending the means of preventing recurrence
               Implementing training programs required under the department‘s area of
                accountability
               Recommending changes or additions to protective equipment or devices for
                the elimination or control of hazards within their department
               Distributing to all members of the Steering and Advisory Committees minutes
                from the meeting of the Department Safety Committees

    Risk Management/Safety Committee Best Practices

           Safety Policy Statement
           A Safety Policy Statement, signed by the institution‘s President, should be issued
           to all departments establishing support for the campus risk management/safety
           effort and for the activities of the Campus Risk Management/Safety Committees.
           The Safety Policy Statement helps to establish safety as a value at the institution.
           A sample Safety Policy Statement has been provided in Appendix 2-B.

           Campus-wide Representation
           At many institutions, the Risk Management/Safety Committee has traditionally
           been housed within the Physical Plant Department where most labor-intensive
           activities take place. However, safety related issues/exposures are found within all
           campus departments (i.e., lifting, computer use, slip/fall exposures, driving, etc.)
           For this reason, it is important that each department is involved in the safety
           process through representation and participation at the Advisory Committee level.

           Functions and Responsibilities
           The functions and responsibilities of the Campus Risk Management Safety
           Steering Committee, Advisory Committees and Departmental Safety Committees
           should be established in writing. Doing so will help to establish the scope of the
           committees‘ activities and responsibilities and will minimize overlapping
           responsibilities.




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The functions and responsibilities listed in the previous section should be utilized
as a guide in establishing specific functions and responsibilities relevant to the
individual institutions.

Written Goals
In addition to functions and responsibilities, committees should establish written
goals. In doing so, the committees not only establish a clear focus, but an
objective measure of success. The goals should be established based on priority
risk management/safety issues at the institution.
The goals established should BE SMART
   Specific—who, what, why, where, when, how much
   Measurable—in quality and/or quantity
   Achievable—challenging but reachable/achievable
   Relevant—aligned with risk management/safety issues of concern to the
    institution
   Time Limited—timeframe established for completion
It is suggested that the Continuous Improvement Process be utilized by the
committees to identify and address priority safety issues on campus. This process
includes the following steps:
1. Define the Improvement Opportunity
2. Analyze the Problem
3. Set the Performance Goal
4. Formulate the Plan
5. Implementation
6. Follow-up and Continuous Improvement
Each step of this Continuous Improvement Process, including the tools to be used,
can be found in Appendix 2-D.

Regularly Scheduled Meetings
In order to maintain focus and the continuity of effort, it is essential that committee
meetings be held on a regular basis. Meetings should be held, at minimum,
quarterly for the Risk Management/Safety Steering Committee, semi-monthly for
the Advisory Committees and monthly for Departmental Safety Committees.
   Budgeted—budgeted monies for safety/loss control projects
   Equitable—no one department gets all the benefits




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 Appendix 2-A




Campus Risk Management Activities Model



          Risk Management/Safety Steering Committee


                                Advisory Committees



                                       Manual Material
   Driver Safety                                                         Fall Prevention
                                         Handling




                   Office Ergonomics                       Property




                             Departmental Committees




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   Appendix 2-B




Sample Safety Policy Statement

It is the policy of (institution name) that risk management shall be of primary importance
in all phases of the campus life and administration. It is the intention of the
college/university‘s administration to provide safe and healthy living and working
conditions and to establish safe practices for all visitors, faculty, staff, students and
administrators of this college/university.
The prevention of accidents is a goal and objective at all levels of the institution and its
operations. It is a basic requirement that each employee make the safety of all visitors,
faculty, staff, students and administrators an integral part of their regular job function. It
is equally the duty of each employee to accept and follow established safety procedures
and regulations.
To meet the safety goals and objectives of this institution, a Safety Committee has been
established to address campus safety concerns. All employees of the institution are
encouraged to become actively involved in safety, providing assistance and
recommendations to the Safety Committee when and where needs are recognized.
When an accident occurs, everyone on campus is affected in some manner. Please work
responsibly. Safety is everyone‘s responsibility.

__________________________
(Institution President)




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    Appendix 2-C




Risk Management Options and Analysis

The following are explanations of the five risk management options. These options are
not mutually exclusive; more than one option may be used to address a loss exposure.
You may also use different options for the same exposure under different circumstances.
The examples are provided to give a better understanding of the option and may not be
related to an attached case study.
    Prevent the risk—Consortium College tries to identify risks and take measures to
     prevent losses from occurring.
     Example: Before allowing new drivers to use its vans, Consortium College checks to
     make sure the potential driver has a valid driver‘s license, has a good driving record
     and has completed a van driver training program. By taking these preventive
     measures, Consortium College is making sure its drivers are aware of the basics of
     safe driving.
    Avoid the risk—Consortium College realizes the risks of some activities simply
     outweigh their benefits and that sometimes there is an alternative method of doing
     something. In both situations, Consortium College simply avoids the risk.
    Reduce the risk—Consortium College must try to minimize any loss that does occur.
     Example: Sprinkler systems do not prevent a fire, but they do reduce the damage
     caused by a fire by controlling the flame spread.
    Transfer the risk—If Consortium College does not have control of an activity, then
     the college should hold the controlling party responsible for the risk. Consortium
     College should use written contracts to document the transfer.
     Example: Consortium College owns several pianos that need to be moved since
     functions requiring pianos are held in various locations on campus. Consortium
     College recognized that pianos are very heavy and several of its employees have
     severely injured their back moving pianos. To avoid further injury to its employees,
     Consortium College now contracts with a moving company to move the pianos.



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   Separate the risk—(usually with property exposures) Exposures should be separated
    so the entire lot is not destroyed by one occurrence.
    Example: If computer backup files are stored off campus, a fire in the main Computer
    Services area will not destroy the backup copy.

    Pareto Analysis
    The Pareto Analysis is used to display the relative importance of problems/issues.
    It can be used
    – As a starting point for problem solving
    – To monitor success
    – To help identify the basic cause(s) of a problem
    The name of the analysis derives from the Pareto Principle (―80 percent of the trouble
    comes from 20 percent of the problems‖). Teams will find that most trouble comes
    from the ―vital few‖ problems.

         Steps
         1. Select the unit of measure (e.g., frequency, severity/cost, etc.).
         2. Select time period to be studied (if necessary).
         3. Gather necessary information (e.g., loss runs, survey results, etc.).
         4. List the categories from left to right on the horizontal axis in order of
            decreasing frequency or severity/cost.
         5. Draw a rectangle above each category whose height represents the
            frequency/severity in that classification
         25




         20




         15



                                                                     A c c id e n t T y p e
         10




            5




            0
                S lip s /F a lls   S tr u c k b y    V e h ic le
                                                    A c c id e n t




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 Appendix 2-D




Continuous Improvement Process Steps and Tools

This Appendix will briefly describe some of the tools that can be used in the continuous
improvement process. The analysis tools are useful in identifying priority issues,
problems and possible solutions. The planning tools are useful in organizing and
executing the formulated plans.

Step             Purpose             Process/Tools                      Outcome

Define the       To identify the     Collect information
improvement      priority issue(s)    Loss Runs
opportunity      “The Big Rocks”      Best Practices Benchmarking
                                      Sort Information
                                      Pareto Analysis
Analyze the      To gain a full   Analyze contributing factors          Identification of problem
problem          understanding of  Cause & Effect                      source(s)
                 the problem       Identify barriers to progress
                                   Force Field Analysis
Set the          To focus effort     Review information collected       A goal that is:
performance                          above with those impacted           Specific
goal                                  Obtain input, create ownership    Measurable
                                      Write the goal                    Achievable
                                                                         Relevant
                                                                         Time limited
Formulate “The   To identify         Generate ideas                  “The Plan”
Plan”            solutions and        Brainstorming
                 create a work        Form Consensus
                 plan that            Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
                 incorporates the     Identify necessary steps
                 risk management      Process map
                 options (PARTS)      Work plan




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Step              Purpose             Process/Tools               Outcome
Implement “The    To achieve          Communicate the plan        Implementation
Plan”             desired results      Obtain buy-in
                                       Kick-off
Continuous        To determine if      Monitor                   Continuity of the
Improvement       there is room for    Measure                   process
                  improvement          Modify


    Overview of the Continuous Improvement Process
    The continuous improvement process is a methodology that can be used to identify
    and resolve problems in an efficient and effective manner. Continuous Risk
    Improvement (CRI) provides a comprehensive and systematic approach to identify
    and analyze risk-related problems. The CRI methodology builds acceptance for
    change, develops viable solutions and promotes long-term implementation success.
    Continuous Risk Improvement uses a team approach. The individuals working as part
    of the process:
    –    Identify the opportunity,
    –    Analyze the problem,
    –    Design the best solution,
    –    Execute and implement the solution, and
    –    Measure the results.
    The process creates an environment of continuous improvement. The CRI
    methodology achieves success by focusing your loss prevention efforts, enhancing
    internal capabilities and increasing commitment to change.




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Continuous Risk Improvement Process



                                                                 IDENTIFY
                                                                   OPPORTUNITY
                                                                 Mutually explore the situation
                                                                   and form initial hypothesis of
                                                                    cause(s) of the problems::
                       MEASURE RESULTS
                                                                  Identify nature & impact of the
                       Measure & monitor performance and           opportunity/problem
                         continuously improve:
                                                                  Quantify costs & operational performance
                       Implement performance measurements          impact
                        Track performance short & long-term
                                                                  Discuss improvement expectations and initial
                        Evaluate outcomes                         performance measures
                        Enhance measures & improvement           Obtain expertise, resources and commitment
                         solutions as needed                               to change


                                                     Commitment                                       ANALYZE
                                                                                         Search for the most likely cause(s),
        EXECUTE/IMPLEMENT SOLUTIONS
        Create and manage change:
                                                        CRI                                  refine and test the hypothesis:
                                                                                       Collect quantitative & qualitative data
                                                      Process
                                                                                   
         Ensure stakeholder participation
                                                                                      Develop performance measures
         Develop action plans
                                                     Measurement                      Interpret data & analyze gap
         Anticipate & plan for potential
                                                                                       between “what is” and “what
          problems                                                                     could be”
         Implement the change
                                                                                      Use analytical tools to determine
                                                                                        and verify most likely cause
                                                        DESIGN/SELECT
                                                         BEST SOLUTION                Assess support for solution
                                             Identify the “best” solution, the risks      development
                                            involved and the commitment to change:
                                         Refine/integrate measures of success with
                                          solution criteria
                                         Generate alternative solutions and determine
                                          impact on stakeholders
                                         Identify risks (up & down) for each solution
                                         Determine “best” solution vs.. criteria
                                         Assess commitment to solution




Cause and Effect Diagram
The cause and effect diagram is a helpful tool for analyzing possible contributing
factors (causes) to a problem (the effect). Keep in mind that for every problem there
may be multiple contributing factors.
The diagram is used to sort the potential causes into major categories such as people,
equipment, policy and procedures and environment. Alternative headings may be used
depending on the nature of the operation.

   Steps:
   1. Select the problem to be analyzed and place it in the ―effect‖ box in the right
      side of the diagram.
   2. Select the appropriate cause categories (e.g., people, equipment,
      policy/procedures and environment) and list them on the diagram.
   3. Brainstorm possible contributing factors under each heading.
   4. For each contributing factor, continue to ask, ―How could this factor have
      caused the effect?‖ until the root cause is identified.




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         Diagram:


                    People                  Policy and Procedures




                                                                              Effect



                  Equipment                      Environment



    Brainstorming
    Brainstorming is used to generate as many ideas as possible from all members of a
    committee/team in a short period of time.
    It can be used in two basic ways:
    –    Structured: Every person must offer an idea as his or her turn arises or pass. This
         helps generate participation from everyone in the group.
    –    Unstructured: Group members give ideas as they come to mind. This may create a
         more relaxed atmosphere, but risks domination by more vocal members of the
         group.

         Rules
               Never criticize
               Write down every idea
               Do not discuss other than for clarification
               Do it quickly

    Nominal Group Technique
    Nominal Group Technique is a tool that can be used to narrow the issues down to a
    manageable number. It also provides all members of the team/committee an equal
    voice in the decision-making process (problem selection/corrective action).

         Steps:
         1. Have issues written on a board or flipchart (from brainstorming exercise).
         2. Confirm that all members understand the issues.



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   3. Combine similar issues.
   4. Number each issue.
   5. Narrow down to 50 percent of the items listed by allowing each member that
      many votes (e.g., if there are 10 items listed, each member gets five votes).
   6. Continue process until the list is narrowed down to the desired number of
      items.

Process Mapping
A process map is a pictorial representation of the steps in a process. It can be used to
help team members better understand what is wrong with an existing process or agree
on a new and improved process. It is also a very useful tool in planning projects.

   Steps:
   1. Define the boundaries of the process to be analyzed or developed. The level of
      detail of the analysis needs to be clearly defined to help team members
      understand the process and identify problem areas. Otherwise, this can become
      an unmanageable exercise.
   2. Involve individuals with knowledge of the current, or expertise in the needed,
      process.
   3. Draw the process as it actually exists and/or draw the process as it should
      flow.
   4. If comparing the existing to the desired, look for the differences. This is
      usually where the problems can be found.

         Start




                   Process Step




                                  Decision




                                                Stop




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    Force Field Analysis
    Force Field analysis identifies the potential driving forces (that support change) and
    the restraining forces (that impede change). It puts the issues on the table so that
    discussion and analysis can take place.

         Steps:
         1. Draw a ―T‖ on a flipchart or board and label the left column ―Driving Forces‖
            and the right column ―Restraining Forces.‖
         2. Brainstorm and list issues in each column.
    Stressing the positive often results in reinforcement of the negative. For example,
    when someone is told repeatedly that something is bad for him or her, their resistance
    is often strengthened and they do even more of what is bad for them. It is most
    effective to address the restraining forces. In other words, eliminate the barriers to
    progress.

     Driving Forces                       Restraining Forces




    Work Plan
    The Work Plan is a useful tool for short-term planning of single events or simple
    projects. It helps the team organize the tasks required to reach a predetermined goal.

         Steps:
         1. Identify what needs to be accomplished.
         2. Identify the final step that indicates the end of the project or activity.
         3. Identify the starting point or first step.
         4. Brainstorm the individual activities that must take place between the starting
            and ending points.
         5. Prepare the grid listing:




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       -   All steps required in sequence
       -   The individual(s) responsible
       -   Target completion dates
       -   Special instructions
       (See Work Plan Form on next page.)

Additional Resources
Resources for additional reading on the topics discussed in this appendix.
–   The Memory Jogger, Goal/QPC
–   The Memory Jogger Plus+, Goal/QPC




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Continuous Improvement Work Plan Form

Issue/Goal:
                                                   Target   Date
Steps/Actions Needed   Individual(s) Responsible   Date     Completed   Comments/Special Instructions




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 Section 3




Accident Reporting and Investigation

  Introduction
  When an accident occurs, it often appears that its cause was someone failing to follow
  prescribed procedures. The injured person is perceived as either being ―careless‖ or
  not paying attention to the task at hand. Corrective measures include admonitions to
  ―be more careful‖ or ―get help.‖
  In truth, there are many reasons why accidents occur. The purpose of investigating
  accidents is to identify the root cause(s) of the accident, to identify exactly why it
  happened, so that we can develop effective measures to reduce or eliminate the
  possibility of recurrence.
  In this manual section, you will find guidelines and procedures for investigating
  accidents, as well as a report form for reporting the results of your investigation. The
  most important thing to remember is that you are looking for facts, not fault.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for coordinating accident
  investigations at the institution. This includes incidents and accidents that injure
  individuals on campus, those that result in property damage and ―near misses.‖

  Accident Reporting and Investigation

     Introduction
     When an accident occurs, people may be injured and property may be damaged.
     In order to treat the injuries promptly and prevent further damage, it is essential
     for the occurrence to be reported as soon as possible. This manual section
     describes the procedures for reporting and investigating an accident.




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           Management Responsibilities
           1. Department heads have designated first level responders, who have current
              first aid certification and know when to call for higher-level emergency
              medical treatment.
           2. Department heads have communicated to all their employees a reporting
              chain, from the first level of management up through to the department head
              and Administration.
           3. Department heads will review all emergency response procedures with their
              staffs at least annually. These procedures cover both natural disasters
              (tornado, hurricane, earthquake) and man-made events (hostages, civil strife,
              bomb threat).
           4. The institution‘s designated representative will notify the injured person‘s next
              of kin as appropriate.
           5. If the injury requires hospitalization, the institution will make arrangements to
              have the spouse or other family member transported to the hospital, to reduce
              the possibility of an excited family member being involved in an accident
              while driving to the hospital.

           Accident Reporting
           1. Any witness to an incident in which there is a personal injury or property
              damage should notify his/her immediate supervisor as soon as possible by the
              best available means.
           2. If the injury appears to be life-threatening or there is a possibility of
              significant additional damage, notify Campus Security or 911.
           3. Offer assistance and comfort to the best of your ability and take such actions
              as you can to prevent additional injuries.
           4. Note details of the event for later reporting.
           5. The department head should notify Administration, including the Risk
              Manager and Campus Safety Director, of all injuries involving a student, staff,
              faculty member or a member of the public.
           6. The risk manager will notify the affected insurance companies within 24
              hours, even if all the information on the incident is not available. (See current
              mandatory reporting requirements on the claim reporting card (Sample in
              manual))
           7. The campus safety manager will notify a regulatory body (such as OSHA) if
              appropriate, after conferring with Administration.
           8. If a statement is to be made to the press, the designated institutional
              representative should first confer with Administration.




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Accident Investigation
It is essential that all significant accidents be investigated. There are several
reasons for this:
1. Identify the cause(s) so that appropriate changes can be made to prevent future
   occurrences.
2. Prepare a legal defense as necessary.
3. Demonstrate administration‘s commitment to maintaining a safe campus
   environment.

Procedures
1. The supervisor of the person injured (or the driver of the institution vehicle
   involved in the accident) will complete the accident investigation report.
2. Begin the investigation as soon as possible. Ensure that the injured person has
   gotten any necessary medical treatment.
3. When notified of the accident, ―freeze‖ the site as much as possible. ―Freezing
   a site‖ means that nothing is disturbed; everything is left just as it was at the
   time of the accident
4. When you get to the site, get the ―big picture‖ first. Take pictures or make
   diagrams as appropriate.
5. Separate the injured person and any witnesses to keep their stories from
   contaminating each other. Talk with the injured person at the scene if possible.
6. Interview each witness separately and privately. Try to put each one at ease.
   The purpose of the investigation is to find facts, not assign blame.
7. Ask open-ended ―W‖ questions: Who, what, when, where, why and how. Try
   to develop facts, not opinions.
8. Ask for suggestions on how to prevent future accidents of this type. Develop
   your conclusions and then start your report (refer to the sample report form at
   Appendix 3-A).
9. Enter the personal data of the injured person as applicable. Describe the extent
   of injuries or property damage as you understand it to be at this time.
10. List the hospital/clinic and treating doctor so that they can be contacted for
    further information. If the injured employee has been cleared to return to work
    (RTW), indicate this fact in the space provided.
11. Describe what happened. (Example— ―Employee struck by truck in
    driveway.‖ Based on your investigation, in a logical sequence of events
    describe how the accident occurred.) Describe what the employee was doing
    just prior to the accident. Identify specific corrective measures that should be
    implemented to prevent recurrence.




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           12. Keep a copy of the completed accident investigation form for review by
               interested third parties (EIIA, insurance carriers, governmental agencies, et al).




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 Appendix 3-A




Non Vehicle Accident Investigation Report Form
Name:                                             Department:
Job Title:                                         ID Number/SSAN
 M  F Age:                   Date of Hire:                  Home Phone No.:
Address:
Extent of Injuries:

Describe any Property Damage:

Treatment Facility:                               Treating Doctor:
RTW Status:
Where is the damaged property now?
Time of Incident:                              Time Supervisor Notified:
What Happened?




How did it happen?




What was the employee doing just prior to the incident?




What management controls were deficient?
      Equipment:  Selection       Arrangement                 Use            Maintenance


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       Materials:  Selection        Placement/Storage          Handling        Use
          People:  Selection        Placement                  Training        Leading
What specific measures should be taken?



How will this improve operations?



What have you already done?



Investigated by:                                                      Date:
Reviewed by:                                                          Date:
Add any additional details necessary to describe the incident, how it occurred and what should be
done to prevent recurrence:




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  Appendix 3-B




Vehicle Accident Investigation Report Form
Name:                                            Department:
Job Title:                                        ID Number/SSAN
 M  F Age:                  Date of Hire:                  Home Phone No.:
Address:
Extent of Injuries:
Describe Property Damage:

Treatment Facility:                              Treating Doctor:
RTW Status:
Where is the damaged property now?
Time of Incident:                             Time Supervisor Notified:
What Happened?



How did it happen?



What was the employee doing just prior to the incident?

What management controls were deficient?
      Equipment:  Selection         Arrangement              Use           Maintenance
       Materials:  Selection        Placement/Storage        Handling      Use
         People:  Selection         Placement                Training      Leading
What specific measures should be taken?



How will this improve operations?


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What have you already done?



Vehicle Involved:                       License No.:                         Unit No.:
Driver:                                   Student       Faculty       Staff       Other
Passenger(s):

Purpose of Trip:
Destination:                                            Departure Time:
Road Conditions:
Weather Conditions:
Traffic Conditions:
Other People Involved:
Extent of Injuries:
Other Vehicle(s)/Property Involved:
Extent of Damage:
Investigated by:                                                    Date:
Reviewed by:                                                        Date:
Add any additional details necessary to describe the incident, how it occurred and what should be
done to prevent recurrence:




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 Appendix 3-C




EIIA Sample Property and Casualty Claims Reporting
Information




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                                         As of September 1, 2005
                         EIIA Property and Casualty Claims Reporting
   Workers’ Compensation


    General Liability
    Sexual Misconduct Liability
                                      The Travelers Insurance Company
                                             1-800-832-7839
                                                                             24hour 800 number Hotline:
                                                                       Your location Code is: XXXX000X
   Auto Liability &                                                   Refer to department codes
      Auto Physical Damage                                             listed on the reverse
   Property                           Report Claims to GAB/Robins North America Inc.:
                                             1-800-825-2043            Mr. David Reger, GAB, Chicago, IL
   Boiler & Machinery
                                      FAX: 1-312-454-1930            email: regerd@gabrobins.com
                                            Refer to Policy Number: 00000000
                                            and Policy Period:        March 1, 2005 through March 1, 2006

                                       Please also email the claim information to EIIA and to Marsh USA, Inc.:
                                             Larry Deger       ldeger@eiia.org
                                             Dennis Reardon          dreardon@eiia.org
                                             Michael C. Marcum michael.c.marcum@marsh.com


                                   
                                              Incident Emergency Response:                          To File a Claim:
   Environmental / Pollution                                                                   Claim forms are available
                                          AIG Environmental Pier II Program - 24hour
                                                                                                In the Risk Management /
                                                 Hotline / Message Center:
                                                                                                     Claims section at
                                                      1-877-743-7669                                   www.eiia.org
                                              Emergency Response Assistance
                                                  (Please also notify one of the EIIA Contacts in the box below.)
   Employee Dishonesty
        / Crime                        Refer to Policy Instructions - AND - Report Claims to EIIA:
   Cyber Liability


    Non-Owned Aircraft Liability
    Special Events Liability
                                           1-800-537-8410
                                       FAX: 1-312-648-5511
                                                                       Larry Deger (ext. 204)
                                                                       email: ldeger@eiia.org
   Director’s & Officers                                       -or-
     / Educators Legal Liability                                       Anthony Waller (ext. 206)
   Underground Storage Tanks                                          email: awaller@eiia.org
   Foreign Liability




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 Appendix 3-D




EIIA Cause Codes—Workers Compensation

Miscellaneous                          24 Outside—Paved Surface—Not
                                          Weather
 1 Mental Anguish/Stress
                                       25 Outside—Unpaved Surface
 3 Elevator, escalator, dumb waiter
                                       26 Outside—Not on Ground
 4 Horseplay
                                       Chemical/Illness/Heat or Cold
 6 Alcohol, Drugs
                                       27 Cleaning Chemicals
Slips and Falls
 9 Stage/Platform/Dock                 28 Lab Chemicals

10 Ladder/Scaffolding/High Lift/Step   29 Pesticides, Insecticides
   Stool                               30 Paint
11 Furniture                           31 Other Chemicals
12 Inside—Stairs/Ramps                 32 Air Temperature Extreme
13 Washroom/Restroom                   34 Food Poisoning
14 Inside—Liquid, Grease, Food         35 Airborne Particles in General Air
15 Walk in Cooler/Freezer              36 Lightning
16 Tripped over object                 38 Contact w/Animal/Insect
17 Inside—Different Level              39 Bodily Fluids/Needle
18 Inside—Same level                   40 Contact w/Plants
21 Outside—Stairs/Ramps—Weather
22 Outside—Stairs/Ramps—Not
   Weather
23 Outside—Paved Surface—Weather

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Sport Event/Performing Arts               73 Loading/Unloading a Vehicle
43 Playing Sports/Performing Arts         74 Hitching a Trailer
44 Instructing Sports/Arts                75 Moving Furniture/Mattress
45 Watching Sports/Arts                   76 Removing Trash
Inattention                               77 Handling Hot Object
50 Window Accident                        78 Injured by Part of Object being
                                             Moved
51 Door Accident
                                          79 Other Employee at Fault
52 Drawer Accident
                                          80 Slip, Trip, Fall while Carrying
53 Struck by Item Falling from Shelf,
   Counter                                81 Lifting, Carrying, Pushing, Pulling,
                                             Reaching
54 Step on/Kick Object
                                          82 Throwing, Tossing, Passing
55 Striking a Fixed object
                                          83 Shoveling, Digging
56 Collision with Another Person
                                          84 Using a Cart
Using Equipment
                                          Security
58 Trimming Trees, Shrubs
                                          88 Assault/Robbery of Employee
59 Working with Electrical Systems
                                          89 Enforcing Security
60 Working on a Boiler
                                          Noise
61 Working Overhead
                                          90 Noise
62 Maintaining/Installing an Object
                                          Transportation
63 Using Office Equipment
                                          93 Golf Cart/Unlicensed Vehicle
64 Using a Knife
                                          94 Bicycle
65 Using a Riding Mower
                                          95 Entering/Exiting Vehicle
66 Using a Power Lawn Mower,
   Weedeater                              96 Vehicle Accident
67 Welding                                Coding
68 Using a Manual Hand Tool/Utensil       98 Liberty Mutual—Not translated
69 Using Powered Hand Tool,               99 Liberty Mutual—Not coded
   Appliance
70 Using Cleaning Equipment
Manual Material Handling
72 Lifting, Carrying a Ladder


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 Appendix 3-E




EIIA Cause of Loss Codes—Automobile Liability

Impaired Insured Vehicle (IV) Driver    22 Disregard of Traffic Sign/Signals
 1 Unauthorized Use                     23 Failure to signal Intentions
 2 Accident involved Alleged use of     24 Unsafe Following Distance
   Drugs/Alcohol
                                        25 Unsafe Lane Change
 3 Vehicle Accidentally Set in Motion
                                        26 Diverted Attention
Insured Vehicle (IV) Driver Error—
                                        27 Unsafe Condition of Vehicle
Parking
                                        28 Overloading
10 Unsafe Parking
                                        29 Unsafe Speed—for Ice/Rain/Snow
11 Unsafe Backing
                                        30 Unsafe Speed—for Road
12 Unsafe Starting
                                           Type/Gravel, etc.
Insured Vehicle (IV) Driver Error—
                                        31 Unsafe Speed—Clear Weather
On Road
                                        34 Snow Plow
13 Unsafe Turning
                                        35 Tire Blowout
14 Unsafe U-Turn
                                        36 Struck by Train—Not Stalled
15 Unsafe Passing
16 Driving in Wrong Lane
17 Misjudging Clearance (height)
18 Driving off the Road
19 Loss of Control—not Ice
20 Unsafe Ramp Merging
21 Assuming Right of Way


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Other Vehicle Error                       62 Fire, Explosion, Electrical
48 Insured Vehicle Hit While Parked       63 Riot, Civil Commotion
49 Insured Vehicle Hit On Road Not In     64 Acid Spill
   Rear
                                          65 Animal/Bird
50 Insured Vehicle Hit in Rear On
                                          66 Solar Heat
   Road
                                          Trailer
Struck By
                                          76 Drop trailer, jackknife
53 Struck by Road Debris
                                          Coverages
55 Struck by Falling Objects—All
   Other                                  83 Third party vendor Employee,
                                             Volunteer
Vandalism, Theft
                                          Entering/Exiting Vehicle
57 Vandalism
                                          95 Entering/Exiting Vehicle
58 Theft—Vehicle Unlocked/Key not
   in Ignition                            Unknown Cause of Damage
59 Theft—Vehicle Unlocked/Key in          96 Unknown Cause of Damage
   Ignition
                                          Coding
60 Theft—Vehicle Locked
                                          98 Liberty Mutual—Not translated
Environment
                                          99 Liberty Mutual—Not coded
54 Struck by Falling Tree Limb
61 Wind, Hail, Water




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 Appendix 3-F




EIIA Cause Codes—General Liability


Miscellaneous Codes                          21 Outside – Steps, Stairs, Ramps,
                                                Weather Related
    1 Unauthorized Use
                                             22 Outside – Steps, Stairs – Not
    2 Pollution
                                                Weather Related
    3 Day care (not sexual misconduct)
                                             23 Outside – Paved Surfaces –
    4 Elevator, escalator, dumb waiter          Weather Related
    5 Fatality                               24 Outside – Paved Surfaces – Not
                                                Weather Related
Falls/Slips
                                             25 Outside – Unpaved Surfaces
    7 Bleachers
                                             26 Jumping, leaping, bounding
    8 Banister, Fence, Railing
                                           Improper Activity
    9 Stage, Podium
                                             27 Alleged ADA violation
  10 Ladder, Scaffolding, High Lift
                                             28 Failure to Warn/Secure
  11 Furniture
                                             29 Alleged Hazing
  12 Inside – Steps, Stairs, Ramps – all
                                             30 Quarreling, arguing, fighting,
  13 Inside – Restroom/Washroom – all
                                                assault
  14 Inside – Liquid, grease, etc. on
                                             31 Horseplay
     surface
                                             32 Incident involving alleged use of
  16 Inside – Tripped over object
                                                alcohol, drugs
  17 Inside – Different level
                                             33 Robbery
  18 Inside – Same level
                                             34 Wrongful entry, theft


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   35 Corporal punishment                     57 Mobile equip, Golf Car, Cushman,
                                                 Bike, Snowplow
   36 Unreasonable Force, False Arrest
                                              58 Entering/exiting a motor vehicle
   37 Alleged age discrimination
                                              59 Struck or Injured by object carried
   38 Alleged improper security
                                                 by others
      provided
                                              60 Injured by/against fixed object
   39 Alleged wrongful, unjust employee
      termination                             61 Struck by injured by falling/flying
                                                 object
   40 Alleged libel, slander, defamation
                                              62 Struck by or collision with another
   41 Alleged sexual harassment
                                                 person
   42 Alleged sexual misconduct
                                              63 Contact with electricity
   43 Alleged sexual assault / rape
                                              64 Struck by security gate
   44 Alleged sexual discrimination
                                              65 Falling tree branch, ice, snow
   45 Alleged race discrimination
                                              66 Mowing/edging debris
   46 Alleged medical malpractice –
                                              67 Dumpster
      Institution‘s Health Services,
      Athletic Trainer                      Exposure to / Burn
   47 Professional Health Care – Student      75 Fire / explosion
      Practicum
                                              76 Chemical exposure
   48 Professional Liability –
                                              77 Hot liquid (including hot water
      Counseling
                                                 and steam)
   49 Professional Liability – Alleged
                                              78 Hot object
      failure to educate
                                              79 Poor ventilation/Sick building
Struck by / Injured By / Collision With /
                                                 syndrome
Contact
                                              80 Water
   50 Window
                                              81 Paint
   51 Door – not in restroom
                                            Coverages
   52 Glass – not a window
                                              82 Field Trip participant
   53 Restroom/Washroom Facilities
      including Doors                         83 Third party/Vendor Employee,
                                                 Volunteer
   54 Furniture
                                              84 Other Contractual liability
   55 Using equipment – for personal
      benefit                                 85 Employee Benefits liability
   56 Using equipment – for institution       86 Pesticide Application
      benefit
                                              87 Watercraft / Snowmobile

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Noise
  90 Noise
Sport Event /Performing Arts
  93 Struck by ball, hammer, or other
     athletic equipment
  94 Swimming Accident
  95 Injured with playing sports
  96 Weight room / exercise equipment
Coding
  98 Liberty Mutual – Not translated
  99 Liberty Mutual – Not coded




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 Section 4




Benchmarking Forms

  Introduction
  Based on loss experience from consortium members over a period of a number of
  years, several areas emerged as key accident or loss drivers at consortium campuses.
  In order to attempt to address these issues at the base causes, EIIA and Marsh Risk
  Consulting developed benchmarking materials for several key exposures on campuses
  to allow each institution to measure its policies and procedures against best practices
  developed for these risk areas. The benchmarking will assist each institution in
  identifying those areas where they are meeting the best practices and also identify
  those areas where improvement is needed.
  The following appendices contain the benchmarking forms developed by EIIA and
  Marsh Risk Consulting that address best practices in the following areas:
  –   Risk Management/Safety Committees
  –   Fall Prevention
  –   Manual Material Handling
  –   Office Ergonomics
  –   Driver/Vehicle Safety
  –   Property Risk Control
  Appendix 4-A contains the forms for four-year institutions.
  Appendix 4-B contains the forms for two-year institutions, seminaries and preparatory
  schools.
  Appendix 4-C contains the departmental benchmarking form.




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    Appendix 4-A




EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Four-Year
Institutions
    Risk Management/Safety Committee
    Fall Prevention
    Manual Material Handling
    Office Ergonomics
    Vehicle Safety
    Property Risk Control




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EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Four-Year Institutions
Risk Management/Safety Committee
Institution:

Evaluated by:                              Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has a safety policy statement, establishing support for the Risk
Management/Safety Committee, been issued to all departments?
4   The Safety Policy Statement has been completed and signed by the president or
    other top administrator and has been distributed to all departments on campus.
3   The Safety Policy Statement has been completed and signed by the president or
    other top administrator and will be distributed to all departments.
2   The Safety Policy Statement is in draft form.
1   In planning stage—documented in meeting minutes or otherwise.
0   No progress has been made other than discussion of a Safety Policy Statement.
Are all departments on campus represented on the Risk Management/Safety
Committee (or have some liaison with the committee)?
4   100 percent of those applicable. (all departments not contracted out).
3   75 percent of those applicable.
2   50 percent of those applicable.
1   25 percent of those applicable or Physical Plant only.
0   No organized safety committee at any level.
Have the committee’s functions and responsibilities been established in writing?
4   The functions and responsibilities are documented in writing.
3   The functions and responsibilities are in final draft form.
2   The functions and responsibilities are in the developmental stage as documented
    in meeting minutes or otherwise.
1   Meeting minutes document the discussion of functions and responsibilities.
0   No evidence to suggest that thought has been given to establishing committee
    functions and responsibilities.




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     Are Risk Management/Safety Committee meetings being held on a minimum
     quarterly basis?
     4     Quarterly
     3     Three times per year
     2     Two times per year
     1     Annually
     0     None in past year
     Have Risk Management/Safety Committee Goals been established in writing?
     4     Goals that are measurable and within the control of the committee have been
           documented in writing and are reviewed to determine if they have been met.
           (Note: A 25 percent reduction in falls or a 50 percent reduction in strain injuries are not
           controllable goals. Likewise, increasing safety awareness is not measurable. On the other hand,
           training 80 percent of all authorized drivers in defensive driving is both measurable and
           controllable. (See additional examples of measurable and controllable goals listed below.)
     3     Measurable, controllable goals have been established but not reviewed to
           determine if they have been met.
     2     Measurable, controllable goals have been established in draft form by the
           committee.
     1     Meeting minutes indicate that possible measurable, controllable goals have been
           discussed.
     0     Goals have either not been established or are not measurable and controllable.




                                            Total Points Earned

                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
            (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)


    Examples of measurable, controllable goals:
    –      Train at least one individual within a specified number of departments in fall
           prevention.
    –      Develop customized fall hazard assessment forms for each department or a
           specified percentage of departments.
    –      Complete fall hazard assessments in a specified number of departments on a
           specified basis.
    –      Complete manual material handling training within specified number of
           departments.


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–   Evaluate a specified number of jobs that have resulted in previous back injuries or
    strains utilizing the Risk Factor Checklist.
–   Train a specified number of computer users in the proper adjustment of computer
    workstations.
–   Conduct computer workstation surveys within a specified number of departments.
–   Train a specified number of drivers in defensive driving utilizing the CD-ROM
    training program.




Please feel free to provide comments on the reverse side.
Check if comments. _________




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Comments:




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EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Fall Prevention
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                 Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or group/subcommittee been assigned to oversee the fall prevention
effort on campus?
4 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices as documented in meeting minutes.
3 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the scheduling stage as
    documented in meeting minutes.
2 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the planning stage as documented
    in meeting minutes.
1 Evidence within Risk Management/Safety Committee minutes that the assignment of an
    individual or group to address this effort is being considered.
0 No one has been assigned and there is no evidence that such an assignment is being
    considered.
Does at least one individual within each department receive fall prevention training
annually?
4 100 percent
3 75 percent with the remaining scheduled. Or one individual from each department
    receives this training every two years.
2 50 percent with the remaining scheduled. Or one individual from each department
    receives the training every three years.
1 25 percent or Physical Plant only.
0 No training.
Have customized fall hazard assessment forms been developed for each department on
campus?
4 A separate, customized form has been developed for each department on campus. (Note:
    Most buildings have unique exposures.)
3 A separate, customized form has been developed for 75 percent of the departments on
    campus and documented efforts are underway to complete the remainder.
2 A single form has been developed and is used by all departments on campus.
1 Informal observations are used with evidence that hazards are documented.
0 No guidelines are used and there is no documentation that fall-hazard assessments are
    being done.




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     Are fall hazard assessment forms being completed on a quarterly basis?
     4 Quarterly with documentation
     3 Three times per year with documentation
     2 Two times per year with documentation
     1 Once per year with documentation
     0 No formal assessment being completed
     Are unsafe conditions corrected when identified as a result of assessments and/or
     investigations?
     4 Unsafe conditions identified as a result of assessments have been corrected.
     3 Most unsafe conditions identified have been corrected. Those that have not been
         corrected have been budgeted and are scheduled for correction.
     2 Most unsafe conditions identified have been corrected. Those that have not been
         corrected have been budgeted but are not scheduled for correction.
     1 Some corrective action has been taken; however, many items remain unbudgeted and
         unscheduled.
     0 No action has been taken. No action is budgeted. No action is scheduled.



                                         Total Points Earned

                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from falls.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-10
Revised 10/05
                                                                Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                    Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Manual Material Handling
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                  Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or group/subcommittee been assigned to oversee the manual material
handling effort on campus?
4   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices as documented in meeting minutes.
3   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the scheduling stage as
    documented in meeting minutes.
2   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the planning stage as documented
    in meeting minutes.
1   Evidence within Risk Management/Safety Committee minutes that the assignment of an
    individual or group to address this effort is being considered.
0   No one has been assigned and there is no evidence that such an assignment is being
    considered.
Is manual material handling training being conducted in all departments?
4   Manual material handling training is being conducted annually within all applicable
    departments (all departments except those contracted out).
3   In at least one department outside of the Physical Plant, with the remaining applicable
    departments scheduled or all applicable departments receive this training every two
    years.
2   Only in the Physical Plant with the remaining departments scheduled; or, all applicable
    departments receive this training every three years.
1   Only in Physical Plant.
0   No training provided within any departments.
Are jobs/activities that have resulted in strains/back injuries evaluated to identify the
contributing risk factors? (See Risk Factor Checklist.)
4   Formal evaluations are completed using the Risk Factor Checklist or other quantitative
    analysis form.
2   Informal evaluations are conducted with a listing of potential risk factors.
0   No evaluations are conducted.




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     Are contributing factors or potential problems, identified as a result of evaluations,
     eliminated, reduced or controlled through engineering or administrative intervention?
     4   All documented risk factors identified have been eliminated, reduced or controlled
         through feasible engineering or administrative intervention.
     3   Some engineering or administrative measures have been taken; remaining needs have
         been budgeted and scheduled.
     2   No progress, but needs have been budgeted but not scheduled.
     1   Documentation in meeting minutes or otherwise that planning/budgeting/scheduling of
         needs is being considered.
     0   No evidence of action being taken.
     Is necessary material handling equipment provided where needed on campus (dollies
     for handling boxes, carts for books, fork trucks for handling large deliveries, etc.)?
     4   A formal evaluation of material handling equipment needs has been completed with
         findings indicating that appropriate equipment is available where needed.
     3   A formal evaluation has been completed with findings that most departments have
         necessary equipment. Such equipment has been budgeted and ordered where needed.
     2   Needed equipment has been budgeted but not ordered.
     1   Meeting notes indicate that the need for material handling equipment is being evaluated.
     0   No effort has been made to determine equipment needs on campus.



                                          Total Points Earned

                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from manual material handling.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-12
Revised 10/05
                                                              Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                  Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Office Ergonomics
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                 Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or group/subcommittee been assigned to oversee the office
ergonomics effort on campus?
4   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices as documented in meeting minutes.
3   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the scheduling stage as
    documented in meeting minutes.
2   An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the planning stage as documented
    in meeting minutes.
1   Evidence within Risk Management/Safety Committee minutes that the assignment of an
    individual or group to address this effort is being considered.
0   No one has been assigned and there is no evidence that such an assignment is being
    considered.
Have computer users received information and training on the proper adjustment of
their workstations?
4   All computer users on campus have received and signed off on information on the proper
    adjustment of computer workstations.
3   75 percent have received same with the remaining scheduled for training.
2   50 percent have received same with the remaining scheduled for training.
1   Only when new workstations are set up or when users experience discomfort.
0   None conducted or scheduled.
Is an annual survey conducted to identify potential workstation problems on campus?
4   A full campus survey is conducted with documented summary of results.
2   Only when requested.
0   None conducted.




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     Have workstation problems identified as a result of the survey(s) been corrected?
     4   All documented workstation problems have been corrected as recorded in minutes.
     3   50 percent have been corrected with the remaining scheduled for correction; or, all have
         been corrected with no documentation.
     2   Minimal corrective action; however, plans are being developed.
     1   No corrective actions; however, plans are being developed.
     0   No progress or plans.
     Have improvements requiring significant capital expenditure (such as the replacement
     of office furniture) been included in long range budget planning?
     4   Such items have been budgeted.
     3   Included in long-range budget planning but unbudgeted.
     2   Being formally discussed as documented in minutes or otherwise.
     1   Informal discussion and planning.
     0   No discussion or planning.



                                          Total Points Earned

                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from office ergonomics.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-14
Revised 10/05
                                                                Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                    Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Vehicle Safety
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                  Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or group/subcommittee been assigned to oversee the vehicle safety
effort on campus?
4 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices as documented in meeting minutes.
3 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the scheduling stage as
    documented in meeting minutes.
2 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the planning stage as documented
    in meeting minutes.
1 Evidence within Risk Management/Safety Committee minutes that the assignment of an
    individual or group to address this effort is being considered.
0 No one has been assigned and there is no evidence that such an assignment is being considered.
Are driving history forms being completed annually for all drivers along with spot
MVR checks?
4 A driving history form is being completed annually for all drivers and spot MVR checks
    are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers.
3 Driving history forms are completed on at least 75 percent of all drivers and efforts are
    underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers; and, MVR spot checks are being
    conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers. Or MVRs are being obtained on all drivers
    every two years.
2 Driving history forms are completed on at least 50 percent of all drivers and efforts are
    underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers; in addition, MVR spot checks are
    being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers. Or MVRs are being obtained on all
    drivers of institution owned or leased vehicles only on an annual basis.
1 Driving history forms are completed for all van drivers only with no MVR checks.
0 No driving history forms completed. No MVRs obtained.
Do all authorized drivers receive defensive driver training at least every two years with
documentation?
4 All drivers on a two-year basis.
3 75-percent with the remaining scheduled.
2 50-percent with the remaining scheduled.
1 25-percent with the remaining scheduled or such training is conducted every three years.
0 None conducted or scheduled.




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     Have written rules, policies and procedures been established for use of institution
     owned or leased vehicles or for the use of personal vehicles on school business?
     4 Established and distributed to all drivers.
     3 In final draft stage.
     2 Documented plans to include all issues listed above.
     1 In planning stage.
     0 No plans to develop rules, policies and procedures.
     Are all institution owned or leased vehicles subject to pre-and post-trip inspections and
     are manufacturer’s suggested maintenance guidelines being followed?
     4 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted and the manufacturer‘s suggested
         maintenance guidelines are being followed.
     3 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted with documented plans to follow the
         manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     2 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted and plans are being made to follow the
         manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     1 Documented plans have been made to conduct pre-and post-trip inspections and to follow
         the manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     0 No documented plans to conduct pre-and post-trip inspections or to follow the
         manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from transportation.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-16
Revised 10/05
                                                              Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                  Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Property Risk Control
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                 Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or group/subcommittee been assigned to oversee the property effort
on campus?
4 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices as documented in meeting minutes.
3 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the scheduling stage as
    documented in meeting minutes.
2 An individual or group has been assigned and is actively involved in implementing
    suggested best practices; however, the activities are in the planning stage as documented
    in meeting minutes.
1 Evidence within Risk Management/Safety Committee minutes that the assignment of an
    individual or group to address this effort is being considered.
0 No one has been assigned and there is no evidence that such an assignment is being
    considered.
Has an Emergency Response Plan been developed for the campus?
4 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus. Full-
    scale tests and annual reviews of the plan are performed.
3 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus.
    Tabletop type tests and annual reviews of the plan are performed.
2 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus and
    reviewed annually.
1 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus. Annual
    reviews of the plan are not performed.
0 No Emergency Response Plan has been developed.
Has a Disaster Recovery Plan been established, tested and reviewed for the following
areas on your campus (business offices, computer operations, food services, libraries
and residence halls)?
4 Disaster Recovery Plans are written, implemented, tested and reviewed for the entire campus.
3 Disaster Recovery Plans written, implemented, tested and reviewed for four of the five
    areas listed above in parenthesis.
2 Disaster Recovery Plans written and in place for at least three areas listed above in
    parenthesis, but have not been tested or reviewed.
1 Disaster Recovery Plans written and in place for at least one of the five areas listed above
    in parenthesis.
0 No disaster Recovery Plans in place.




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     Have the following administrative programs been put in place on your campus (boiler
     & machinery preventive maintenance programs, cold weather precautions, electrical
     safety program, fire protection impairment procedures, housekeeping self-inspections
     and hot work programs)?
     4 All applicable programs are in place.
     3 Four of the six programs are in place.
     2 Three of the six programs are in place.
     1 At least one of the programs is in place.
     0 No programs are in place.
     Have programs been put in place for the inspection, testing and maintenance of fire
     protection systems and equipment installed on campus? (These activities can be
     performed by either campus employees or outside contractors)
     4 Sprinkler and fire alarm systems are checked before every semester.
             and
         Fire extinguishers are visually inspected monthly and serviced annually.
             and
         Other systems and equipment are checked annually.
     2 Sprinkler and fire alarm systems are checked annually.
             and
         Fire extinguishers are visually inspected monthly and serviced annually.
             and
         Other systems and equipment are checked annually.
     0 Programs are not in place for the inspection, testing and maintenance of fire protection
         systems or equipment.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)


    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-18
Revised 10/05
                                                               Casualty Risk Control Manual
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During the past five years, significant losses have occurred at Consortium locations
not having specific protocols in place to address the following exposures:
A. A Disaster Recovery Program that includes at least one full-scale and periodic
   tabletop drills with local, state and federal participation and review as necessary.
B. Annual recorded fire drills in all buildings.
C. A recorded inspection and evaluation of all resident hall room doors to be sure
   that they are equipped with operable self-closing devices.
D. A recorded inspection and evaluation of hallway and stairwell doors to be sure
   that they are equipped with operable self-closing devices.
E. Annual recorded maintenance and testing of automatic sprinkler and fire alarms.
F. Recorded inspection and evaluation of computer hubs for the adequacy of
   electrical connections, housekeeping and equipment maintenance including
   checking for and correction of overheated equipment.
G. Off-campus storage of backup computer records.
H. Adequate surge protection provided for computer and telephone equipment.
I. Timely review of boiler-maintenance records and The Traveler‘s inspection
   reports so that corrective action can be initiated when and where necessary.
J. Periodically complete infrared scanning of all electrical distribution panels.
The items mentioned above have been listed as recommendations on past Consortium
property inspection reports. Your institution should be able to answer in the
affirmative to these items. If not, then please initiate corrective action as necessary.




                                                                                  Page 4-19
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    Appendix 4-B




EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Two-Year
Institutions, Seminaries and Preparatory Schools
    Risk Management/Safety Organization (For Smaller Institutions)
    Fall Prevention (For Smaller Institutions)
    Manual Material Handling (For Smaller Institutions)
    Office Ergonomics (For Smaller Institutions)
    Vehicle Safety (For Smaller Institutions)
    Property Risk Control (For Smaller Institutions)




                                                                                   Page 4-21
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                                                            Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluations for Two-Year Institutions,
Seminaries and Preparatory Schools
Risk Management/Safety Organization (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                              Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has a safety policy statement been issued to all departments?
4 Safety Policy Statement has been completed and signed by the president or other top
    administrator and has been distributed to all departments.
3 The Safety Policy Statement has been completed and signed by the president or other top
    administrator and will be distributed to all departments.
2 The Safety Policy Statement is in draft form.
1 In planning stage—documented in meeting minutes or otherwise.
0 No progress has been made other than discussion of a Safety Policy Statement.
Have risk control responsibilities been delegated and documented in writing?
4 Responsibilities have been delegated and documented.
3 Many responsibilities have been formally delegated. Currently in the process of
    delegating remaining responsibilities.
2 Currently in the process of delegating risk control responsibilities.
1 The delegation of risk control responsibilities is an issue that is being given
    consideration.
0 No evidence that the delegation of risk control responsibilities is being considered.
Is ―Risk Control‖ included as a staff meeting agenda item on a minimum quarterly basis?
4 Quarterly
3 Three times per year
2 Two times per year
1 Once a year
0 Never included on the agenda.




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     Have risk control goals been established in writing?
     4 Goals that are measurable and controllable have been documented in writing and are
        reviewed to determine if they have been met. (Note: A 25 percent reduction in falls or a
        50 percent reduction in strain injuries are not controllable goals. Likewise, increasing
        safety awareness is not measurable. On the other hand, training 80 percent of all
        authorized drivers in defensive driving is both measurable and controllable. See
        examples on the next page.)
     3 Measurable, controllable goals have been established but not reviewed to determine if
        they have been met.
     2 Measurable, controllable goals have been established in draft form.
     1 Meeting minutes indicate that possible measurable, controllable goals have been
        discussed.
     0 Possible risk control goals are not being considered.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)


Examples of measurable, controllable goals:
   Train all Physical Plant Department employees in fall prevention.
   Develop a customized fall hazard assessment form.
   Complete fall hazard assessments in a specified number of departments on a specified
    basis.
   Train all Physical Plant Department employees in manual material handling.
   Conduct formal evaluations within a specified number of departments to determine if
    necessary material handling equipment is provided.
   Train a specified number of computer users in the proper adjustment of computer
    workstations.
   Conduct computer workstation surveys within a specified number of departments.
   Train a specified number of drivers in defensive driving utilizing the CD-ROM
    training program.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-24
Revised 10/05
                                                             Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                 Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Fall Prevention (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                               Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual been delegated the responsibility of overseeing the fall
prevention effort?
4   This is the primary risk control responsibility delegated to this individual.
3   This is one of two or three risk-related responsibilities delegated to this
    individual.
2   This is one of several responsibilities delegated to this individual.
1   This individual is responsible for all risk control issues.
0   This responsibility has not been delegated.
Do all Physical Plant Department employees (Trades, Custodial, Maintenance,
Grounds) receive fall prevention training annually?
4   All Physical Plant Department employees receive this training annually.
3   Most have with the remaining scheduled; or, all Physical Plant Department
    employees receive this training every two years.
2   Such training has been scheduled; or, all Physical Plant Department employees
    receive this training every three years.
1   Such training is being planned.
0   No plans for such training.
Has a customized fall hazard assessment form been developed?
4   A customized form has been developed for this campus.
2   A generic fall hazard-assessment form is being used.
0   No form is being used.




                                                                                    Page 4-25
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     The fall hazard assessment is being completed on a quarterly basis?
     4   Quarterly with documentation.
     3   Three times per year with documentation.
     2   Two times per year with documentation.
     1   Once per year with documentation.
     0   No formal assessment being completed.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from falls.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-26
Revised 10/05
                                                             Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                 Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Manual Material Handling (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                               Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual been delegated the responsibility of overseeing the manual
material handling effort?
4   This is the primary risk control responsibility delegated to this individual.
3   This is one of two or three risk-related responsibilities delegated to this
    individual.
2   This is one of several responsibilities delegated to this individual.
1   This individual is responsible for all risk control issues.
0   This responsibility has not been delegated.
Do all Physical Plant Department employees (Trades, Custodial, Maintenance,
Grounds) receive manual material handling training annually?
4   All Physical Plant Department employees receive this training annually.
3   Most have with the remaining scheduled; or, all Physical Plant Department
    employees receive this training every two years.
2   Such training has been scheduled; or, all Physical Plant Department employees
    receive this training every three years.
1   Such training is being planned.
0   No plans for such training.
Has it been determined if necessary material handling equipment is provided
where needed on campus (dollies for handling boxes, carts for books, fork trucks
for handling large deliveries, etc.)?
4   A formal evaluation of material handling equipment needs has been completed
    with findings indicating that appropriate equipment is available where needed.
3   A formal evaluation has been completed with findings that most departments
    have necessary equipment. Such equipment has been budgeted and ordered where
    needed.
2   A formal evaluation is scheduled.
1   A formal evaluation is being planned.
0   There are no plans to determine material handling equipment needs.




                                                                                    Page 4-27
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                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from manual material handling.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-28
Revised 10/05
                                                             Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                 Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Office Ergonomics (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                               Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual been delegated the responsibility of overseeing the office
ergonomics effort?
4   This is the primary risk control responsibility delegated to this individual.
3   This is one of two or three risk-related responsibilities delegated to this
    individual.
2   This is one of several responsibilities delegated to this individual.
1   This individual is responsible for all risk control issues.
0   This responsibility has not been delegated.
Have computer users received information and training on the proper
adjustment of their workstations?
4   All computer users on campus have received training and information on the
    proper adjustment of computer workstations.
3   At least 75 percent with the remaining scheduled.
2   At least 50 percent with the remaining scheduled.
1   Only when new workstations are set up or when users experience discomfort.
0   None conducted or scheduled.
Is an annual survey conducted to identify potential workstation problems?
4   A full campus survey is conducted with documented summary of results.
3   Some surveys have been conducted with documented results; the remaining
    areas/departments have scheduled surveys.
2   Only when requested.
1   Only when a user complains of discomfort.
0   None conducted.




                                                                                    Page 4-29
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     Have workstation problems identified as a result of the survey(s) been
     corrected?
     4   All documented workstation problems have been corrected.
     3   At least 50 percent have been corrected with the remaining documented problems
         scheduled for correction.
     2   Minimal corrective action; however, plans are being developed.
     1   No corrective actions; however, plans are being developed.
     0   No progress or plans.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from office ergonomics.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-30
Revised 10/05
                                                            Casualty Risk Control Manual
                                                Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Vehicle Safety (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                               Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual been delegated the responsibility of overseeing the vehicle
safety effort?
4 This is the primary risk control responsibility delegated to this individual.
3 This is one of two or three risk-related responsibilities delegated to this individual.
2 This is one of several responsibilities delegated to this individual.
1 This individual is responsible for all risk control issues.
0 This responsibility has not been delegated.
Are driving history forms being completed annually for all drivers along with
spot MVR checks?
4 A driving history form is being completed annually for all drivers and spot MVR
    checks are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers.
3 Driving history forms are completed on at least 75 percent of all drivers and
    efforts are underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers; and, MVR spot
    checks are being conducted on at least 20percent of all drivers. Or MVRs are
    being obtained on all drivers every two years.
2 Driving history forms are completed on at least 50 percent of all drivers and
    efforts are underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers; in addition,
    MVR spot checks are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers. Or
    MVRs are being obtained on all drivers of institution owned or leased vehicles
    only on an annual basis.
1 Driving history forms are completed for all van drivers only with no MVR checks.
0 No driving history forms completed. No MVRs obtained.
Do all authorized drivers receive defensive driver training at least every two
years with documentation?
4 All drivers on a two-year basis.
3 75 percent with the remaining scheduled.
2 50 percent with the remaining scheduled.
1 25 percent with the remaining scheduled or such training is conducted every three
    years.
0 None conducted or scheduled.




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     Have written rules, policies and procedures been established for use of institution
     owned or leased vehicles or for the use of personal vehicles on school business?
     4 Established and distributed to all drivers.
     3 In final draft stage.
     2 Documented plans to include all issues listed above.
     1 In planning stage.
     0 No plans to develop rules, policies and procedures.
     Are all institution owned or leased vehicles subject to pre and post trip inspections
     and are manufacturer’s suggested maintenance guidelines being followed?
     4 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted and the manufacturer‘s
        suggested maintenance guidelines are being followed.
     3 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted with documented plans to
        follow the manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     2 Pre-and post-trip inspections are being conducted and plans made to follow the
        manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     1 Documented plans have been made to conduct pre-and post-trip inspections and
        to follow the manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.
     0 No documented plans to conduct pre-and post-trip inspections or to follow the
        manufacturer‘s suggested maintenance guidelines.


                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)




    Please visit www.eiia.org – Risk Management for a summary of consortium claims experience
    arising from transportation.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




Page 4-32
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                                                  Risk Management Administration Programs

EIIA Best Practices Self-Evaluation
Property Risk Control (For Smaller Institutions)
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                 Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Has an individual or department on campus been given the responsibility for property
risk control issues and programs?
4 Responsibilities have been assigned and documented.
3 The responsibilities are assigned but not documented.
2 The responsibilities are not assigned but an effective, informal program is in place.
1 Responsibilities are assigned, but not followed.
0 No individual or department given responsibility.
Has an Emergency Response Plan been developed for the campus?
4 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus. Full-
    scale tests and annual reviews of the plan are performed.
3 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus.
    Tabletop type tests and annual reviews of the plan are performed.
2 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus and
    reviewed annually.
1 An Emergency Response Plan has been developed and implemented on campus. Annual
    reviews of the plan are not performed.
0 No Emergency Response Plan has been developed.
Has a Disaster Recovery Plan been established, tested and reviewed for the following
areas on your campus (business offices, computer operations, food services, libraries
and residence halls)?
4 Disaster Recovery Plans are written, implemented, tested and reviewed for the entire
    campus.
3 Disaster Recovery Plans written, implemented, tested and reviewed for four of the five
    areas listed above in parenthesis.
2 Disaster Recovery Plans written and in place for at least three areas listed above in
    parenthesis, but have not been tested or reviewed.
1 Disaster Recovery Plans written and in place for at least one of the five areas listed above
    in parenthesis.
0 No Disaster Recovery plans in place.




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     Have the following administrative programs been put in place on your campus (boiler
     & machinery preventive maintenance programs, cold weather precautions, electrical
     safety program, fire protection impairment procedures, housekeeping self-inspections
     and hot work programs)?
     4 All applicable programs are in place.
     3 Four of the six programs are in place.
     2 Three of the six programs are in place.
     1 At least one of the programs is in place.
     0 No programs are in place.
     Have programs been put in place for the inspection, testing and maintenance of fire
     protection systems and equipment installed on campus? (These activities can be
     performed by either campus employees or outside contractors.)
     4 Sprinkler and fire alarm systems are checked before every semester.
             and
         Fire extinguishers are visually inspected monthly and serviced annually.
             and
         Other systems and equipment are checked annually.
     2 Sprinkler and fire alarm systems are checked annually.
             and
         Fire extinguishers are visually inspected monthly and serviced annually.
             and
         Other systems and equipment are checked annually.
     0 Programs are not in place for the inspection, testing and maintenance of fire protection
         systems or equipment.



                                         Total Points Earned
                            Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
                (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)


    Please feel free to provide comments below.




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During the past five years, significant losses have occurred at Consortium locations
not having specific protocols in place to address the following exposures:
A. A Disaster Recovery Program that includes at least one full-scale and periodic
   tabletop drills with local, state and federal participation and review as necessary.
B. Annual recorded fire drills in all buildings.
C. A recorded inspection and evaluation of all resident hall room doors to be sure
   that they are equipped with operable self-closing devices.
D. A recorded inspection and evaluation of hallway and stairwell doors to be sure
   that they are equipped with operable self-closing devices.
E. Annual recorded maintenance and testing of automatic sprinkler and fire alarms.
F. Recorded inspection and evaluation of computer hubs for the adequacy of
   electrical connections, housekeeping and equipment maintenance. Including
   checking for and correction of overheated equipment.
G. Off-campus storage of backup computer records.
H. Adequate surge protection provided for computer and telephone equipment.
I. Timely review of boiler-maintenance records and The Traveler‘s inspection
   reports so that corrective action can be initiated when and where necessary.
J. Periodically complete infrared scanning of all electrical distribution panels.
The items mentioned above have been listed as recommendations on past Consortium
property inspection reports. Your institution should be able to answer in the
affirmative to these items. If not, then please initiate corrective action as necessary.




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 Appendix 4-C




EIIA Best Practices Departmental Self-Evaluation




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EIIA Best Practices Departmental Self-Evaluation
Departmental
Institution:

Evaluated by:                                Date Completed:


Circle Points Earned
Is the department represented on the campus Risk Management/Safety Committee or a
campus-wide committee for Fall Prevention, Driver Safety, Office Ergonomics or
Manual Material Handling?
4 The department is represented on one of the committees listed above.
3 The department is not currently represented on any of the committees listed above;
    however, a department representative has been identified for one of the committees.
2 Not currently represented; however, departmental meeting minutes or other
    documentation indicates that efforts are underway to identify a representative to join a
    committee.
1 Not currently represented; however, departmental meeting minutes or other
    documentation indicates that this is being considered.
0 Not represented and not being considered.
Do all department employees receive manual material handling training on an annual
basis with documentation?
4 All department employees receive manual material handling training on an annual basis
    with documentation.
3 75 percent of department employees receive manual material handling training on an
    annual basis and the remainder have been scheduled to receive the training. Or all
    department employees receive this training every two years.
2 50 percent have received the training and there is evidence that plans are being made to
    schedule the remaining employees for training. Or all department employees receive this
    training every three years.
1 25 percent have received the training and there is evidence that plans are being made to
    schedule the remaining employees for training.
0 No manual material handling training has been conducted.
Have jobs/activities that have resulted in strain/back injuries been evaluated to
determine if engineering or administrative measures can be taken to reduce the
associated risk factors?
4 Formal evaluations are completed using the Risk Factor Checklist or other quantitative
    analysis. (See attached Risk Factor Checklist.)
2 Informal evaluations are conducted with a documented listing of potential risk factors.
0 No evaluations are conducted.




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     Is adequate material handling equipment such as dollies or carts available within the
     department?
     4 A formal evaluation of material handling equipment needs has been completed.
         Appropriate equipment is available within the department.
     3 A formal evaluation has been completed. Most necessary equipment is available and
         needed equipment has been budgeted and ordered.
     2 Evaluation has been completed. Needed equipment has been budgeted but not ordered.
     1 Meeting notes or other documentation indicates that the need for material handling
         equipment is being evaluated.
     0 No effort has been made to determine if there are equipment needs in the department.
     Does at least one individual within the department receive fall prevention training on an
     annual basis with documentation?
     4 At least one individual within the department receives fall prevention training on an
         annual basis.
     2 At least one individual within the department receives fall prevention training every two
         years.
     0 No such training is provided.
     Are slip/fall exposure assessments being completed on a quarterly basis within and
     around buildings and grounds occupied by the department?
     4 Quarterly with documentation.
     3 Three times per year with documentation.
     2 Twice a year with documentation.
     1 Once a year with documentation.
     0 Not being done.
     Are driving history forms being completed annually for all drivers within the
     department along with spot MVR checks?
     4 A driving history form is being completed annually for all drivers within the department
         and spot MVR checks are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers within the
         department.
     3 Driving history forms are completed on at least 75 percent of all drivers within the
         department and efforts are underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers,
             and
         MVR spot checks are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers within the
         department; or, MVRs are being obtained on all drivers every two years.
     2 Driving history forms are completed on at least 50 percent of all drivers within the
         department and efforts are underway to complete forms for the remaining drivers.
             and
         MVR spot checks are being conducted on at least 20 percent of all drivers within the
         department; or, MVRs are being obtained on all drivers of institution owned or leased
         vehicles only on an annual basis.
     1 Driving history forms are completed for all van drivers only with no MVR checks.
     0 No driving history forms completed. No MVRs obtained.




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    Do all authorized drivers receive defensive driver training at least every two years with
    documentation?
    4 All drivers on a two-year basis.
    3 75 percent with the remaining scheduled.
    2 50 percent with the remaining scheduled.
    1 25 percent with the remaining scheduled or such training is conducted every three years.
    0 None conducted or scheduled.
    Are surveys being completed an annual basis to determine if computer workstations are
    properly arranged to reduce employee exposure to repetitive motion and vision
    disorders?
    4 A full department survey is conducted with documented summary of results.
    2 Surveys are only conducted when requested at individual workstations.
    0 No such surveys are conducted.
    Are safety-related objectives established and achieved on an annual basis?
    4 Objectives that are measurable and are within the control of the department have been
        documented in writing and are reviewed to determine if they have been met. (Note: A 25
        percent reduction in falls or a 50 percent reduction in strain injuries are not controllable
        objectives. Likewise, increasing safety awareness is not measurable. On the other hand,
        training all authorized drivers within the department in defensive driving is both
        measurable and controllable. (See additional examples of measurable and controllable
        goals below.)
    3 Measurable, controllable objectives have been established but not reviewed to determine
        if they have been met.
    2 Measurable, controllable objectives have been established in draft form by the
        department.
    1 Meeting minutes indicate that possible measurable, controllable objectives have been
        discussed.
    0 Objectives have either not been established or are not measurable and controllable.



                                          Total Points Earned
                           Best Practices Average (B.P.A.)
              (Divide Total Points Earned by Number of Sections)


Examples of measurable, controllable goals:
   Train at least one individual within the department in fall prevention.
   Develop a customized fall hazard assessment form for the department.
   Complete the fall hazard assessment within the department on a specified basis.
   Complete manual material handling training within the department.
   Train a specified number of computer users in the proper adjustment of computer
    workstations.



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   Conduct computer workstation surveys within the department.
   Train drivers within the department in defensive driving utilizing the CD-ROM
    training program.

    Please feel free to provide comments below.




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 Section 5




Departmental Safety Inspections and Control
Procedures

  Introduction
  It has been estimated that more than 85% of all injuries are caused by unsafe actions,
  with the remaining 15% caused by unsafe conditions. In an effort to address these
  underlying causes of injuries, the following checklists have been developed for
  specific institution departments to help identify both unsafe actions and unsafe
  conditions that may lead to injuries in the individual departments.
  The purpose of the departmental safety inspections and control procedures are to
  provide the institution and individual departments with information and resources that
  will help identify and eliminate actual and potential hazards, as well as monitor
  accepted safety standards, procedures, and equipment. This program provides a basic
  framework for a workplace inspection program, including sample checklists and an
  inspection tracking report.
  The checklists should be used as a means of identifying situations requiring
  improvement, rather than as reasons to discipline employees.

  Policy
  Regular effective inspections are necessary to identify, evaluate, report, and control
  workplace hazards and to maintain faculty, staff and student awareness of any
  hazards. The goals of inspections are to review procedures in action and identify:
        Actual and potential hazards
        Equipment deficiencies
        Unsafe behaviors
        Corrective measures



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    There are two categories of inspections:
               Informal inspections – occur every time faculty, staff and students walk
                through an area, notice a problem and take corrective action.
               Planned inspections – are done on a regular schedule. Frequency will be
                determined based on the particular work setting. For example, an office may
                be inspected annually and a laboratory monthly. Equipment inspections
                should be done in accordance with the vendor-specified requirements.
    An individual who is knowledgeable about safe work practices, proper use of the
    equipment and safety program requirements should conduct planned inspections.
    The following guidelines will assist you in preparing to conduct a workplace
    inspection:
               Establish an inspection team of two or three people from the department or
                from other departments.
               Review the floor plans and decide the specific area to be inspected.
               Review the previous inspection reports for outstanding items.
               Review any incident/injury reports and the preventative action taken.
               Review the inventory of equipment and hazardous materials.
               Review any safety-related complaints.
               Notify relevant faculty, staff, and students of the inspection.


    The following guidelines will assist you in conducting a workplace inspection:
               A successful inspection is a fact-finding exercise, not a fault-finding exercise.
               Use the provided checklists or customized checklists as a guide to provide the
                structure for the inspection. Add additional items as necessary.
               Look for what is right, as well as for what is wrong and comment on good
                practices, as well as bad practices.
               Talk to people, ask about their concerns, but avoid long discussions.
               Look outside the usual eye level – look up, look down, look into closed rooms,
                look into cabinets, look behind, look around.
               Point out immediate dangers for correction on the spot; note other items in the
                report.
               Record all questionable items. The forms found in Appendices 5-A, 5-B, 5-C,
                5-D and 5-E should be utilized to record and track the results of the
                inspections, as well as corrective actions taken.
           Results of an inspection should be shared with other staff members to make them
           aware of the hazards identified and to solicit immediate feedback.



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Follow-up on Non-Conformities
  In order for the inspection to contribute to risk reduction, the information obtained
  is reviewed and corrective action taken as soon as possible. In some cases,
  immediate action should be taken such as halting operations (i.e., in situations
  where physical harm is likely), in other cases action will be recommended to the
  next level of supervision and in other situations a review may be required prior to
  any action being taken. In all cases, it is important to correct the underlying cause
  of the hazard.
  Review of inspection reports over a period of time will assist the institution and
  department in identifying needs and establishing priorities, improving safe work
  practices, identifying areas that require more in-depth analysis and highlighting
  the need for training.
  A timely response to the person(s) doing the inspection is important to validate the
  activity. If no action on recommendations is planned, reasons should be given and
  documented.

Recordkeeping
  The institution should maintain the following records on file:
     A copy of all inspections, results, and corrective actions (Suggested retention
      period of 3 years);
     A copy of all purchased materials/services related to the inspection
      corrections;
     Written training records for each employee detailing the extent of training
      received and the date it was received.




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  Appendix 5-A




Sample Dining Services Department Safety Checklist
Dining Services                                                                           Yes    No
1. Has the cooking line fire suppression system been inspected in the last six months?           
2. Does it cover all cooking equipment?                                                          
3. Is the hood and duct system cleaned of grease on a quarterly basis?                           
4. Are the filters cleaned on the monthly basis?                                                 
5. Is there an automatic fuel shutoff hooked to the fire suppression system?                     
6. Are portable extinguishers available?                                                         
7. Do employees understand their responsibilities in case of a fire?                             
8. Are floors cleaned of grease/food particles frequently throughout the day?                    
9. Are floor mats provided in walking areas adjacent to ice, water and soda
                                                                                                 
   machines? Is the area around ice and soda machines clear of ice and water?
10. Do employees have sturdy non-slip soles on their shoes?                                      
11. Are floor surfaces made of high traction/non-slip materials?                                 
12. Is a small stepladder available to provide safe access to upper shelves?                     
13. Are employees encouraged to use the stepladder when necessary?                               
14. Are the most-frequently-used items stored on middle shelves?                                 
15. Is there adequate space in storerooms to push a cart through the aisles?                     
16. Are employees required to use carts to move any load over 30 pounds?                         
17. Are washrooms cleaned frequently? Is the cleaning documented?                                
18. Is antiseptic soap available from a dispensing machine (vs. bar soap)?                       
19. Is a sign posted requiring employees to wash their hands before returning to
    work? Is it in English, Spanish and other languages that may be spoken by                    
    departmental personnel?
20. Is the key to the compactor removed when the operator is not present?                        
21. Are employees who use the compactor initially and periodically trained?                      




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Dining Services                                                                           Yes   No

22. Does the compactor have an emergency stop in case a hand gets caught?                      
23. Is mechanical grinding and chopping equipment guarded properly?                            
24. Are cut-resistant gloves used when operating and cleaning the slicer?                      
25. Are sharp knives separated from tableware throughout dishwashing?                          
26. Are employees authorized to use knives well trained in their use?                          
27. Are sharp knives stored properly when not in use?                                          
28. Are inside latches for walk-ins checked periodically for function?                         
29. Are protective covers maintained on lights in prep areas at all times?                     
30. Are food items covered and dated when in coolers/freezers?                                 
31. Are food items stored on shelves, rather than floors?                                      
32. Are employees aware of their responsibilities to clean up spills as soon as they
                                                                                               
    happen, even if they did not cause the spills?
33. Do the employees know the location of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for
                                                                                               
    all hazardous materials?
34. Are employees aware of their HazComm responsibilities?                                     
35. Are secondary containers of hazardous chemicals properly labeled?                          
36. In sprinkler protected facilities, are materials maintained a minimum of 18 inches
                                                                                               
    below sprinklers?
37. Are food service line positions cross trained so that one individual does not
                                                                                               
    perform the same repetitive task daily?
38. Are serving utensils ergonomically designed?                                               
39. Are metal/plastic scoops consistently used to scoop ice?                                   
40. Are outlets provided at island serving stations to eliminate the need for extension
                                                                                               
    cords?
41. Are employees that use dish washing machines initially and periodically trained?           
42. Do employees receive initial and periodic food safety training?                            
43. Do employees wear safety glasses or goggles when cleaning cooking
                                                                                               
    equipment?
44. Are employees trained initially and periodically in first aid for burns?                   




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  Appendix 5-B




Sample Housekeeping Department Safety Checklist
Housekeeping                                                                           Yes No
1. Have employees received initial and periodic refresher training in the following
                                                                                          
    subjects:
    A. Fire prevention?                                                                   
    B. Fire response procedures?                                                          
    C. Emergency escape procedures?                                                       
    D. Hazard Communications?                                                             
    E. Personal Protective Equipment?                                                     
    F. Confined Space Entry?                                                              
    G. Body mechanics applicable to their specific jobs?                                  
    H. Safe job methods applicable to their specific jobs?                                
    I. What to do in the event of an injury?                                              
    J. Electrical safety?                                                                 
    K. Hazardous Materials?
    L. Slip/fall hazards?
    M. Bloodborne pathogens?
2. Are hazardous materials containers marked with the contents?                           
3. Are hazardous material locked/controlled?
4. Do employees know locations of the MSDSs for the hazardous materials?                  
5. Do the employees know where the nearest fire escape pathway is?                        
6. Is there a designated outside assembly point? Do the employees know its location?      
7. Are escape drills conducted and documented at least twice per year?                    
8. Are primary exits ever blocked during drills to force staff to use secondary exits?    
9. Is electrical equipment inspected periodically for hazards?                            
10. Are electrical cords intact, with no taped repairs?                                   
11. Are lifting techniques reviewed and documented?                                       
12. Is ladder safety reviewed?
13. Are employees instructed not to use furniture as ladders?                             
14. Are housekeepers trained to request help when necessary to lift, carry or clean
                                                                                          
    any item that presents a potential safety exposure?
15. Are washrooms equipped with medical sharps disposal containers?                       
16. Are towel dispensers located within an arms length of the sink and faucet?            
17. Are washroom checks performed every two hours when the building is open?              


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Housekeeping                                                                          Yes No
18. Are job safety analyses developed for jobs with a high frequency/severity of
                                                                                            
    accidents?

Specific jobs of concern for 1.H and job methods are:

Task                                              Methods
Vacuuming                                         Weight technique for moving furniture
Cleaning stairs                                   Work from bottom landing upwards
Mopping and polishing floors                      Use wet floor signs
Mopping and polishing stairways                   Stairways should not be used as staging areas
Cleaning toilets                                  Wear gloves, eye protection and clothing
                                                  appropriate for chemicals used.
Cleaning showers                                  Wear gloves, eye protection and clothing
                                                  appropriate for chemicals used.
Trash removal                                     Weight technique




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  Appendix 5-C




Sample Athletic Department Checklist
                                                                                          Yes No
1. Have Job Safety Analyses been performed for laundry task?                                      
2. Do the Job safety Analyses include Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)?                        
3. Is appropriate PPE available for employees as needed?                                          
4. Are hazardous materials properly controlled when not in use?                                   
5. Are all employees current in their Hazard Communications training?                             
6. Does every employee understand his/her HazComm responsibilities?                               
7. Are all secondary containers properly labeled?                                                 
8. Are the dryer lint traps cleaned at least once per day?                                        
9. Are safety switches tested weekly and defective switches replaced prior to
                                                                                                  
    returning the machine to service?
10. Do employees use good body mechanics when handling heavy laundry?                             
11. Do the employees receive initial and periodic bloodborne pathogens training?                  
Pool                                                                                      Yes No
12.   Are pool rules and other signs for the pool area in place?                                  
13.   Do rules prohibit anyone from using the pool alone?
14.   Is the pool area locked after hours?                                                        
15.   Is the key to the pool area controlled by an authorized person?                             
16.   Does the pool meet applicable requirements of the American Pool and Spa
                                                                                                  
      Institute, the American Red Cross, NCAA or similar organization?
17.   Do the tiles immediately around the pool have a non-slip surface, even when
                                                                                                  
      wet?
18.   Is proper safety equipment (life ring, straight board, shepherds hook) provided?            
19.   Are electrical outlets provided with ground fault interrupting (GFI) receptacles?           
20.   Is there an emergency telephone available and is it operable?                               
21.   Is there a certified lifeguard on duty (on deck) whenever the pool is open or in
                                                                                                  
      use?
22.   Is all maintenance staff trained to handle the pool chemicals?                              




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                                                                                        Yes No
23. Does maintenance staff know what to do in case of a chlorine/bromine leak or
                                                                                           
    other emergency?
Exercise/Weight Room                                                                    Yes No
24.   Are exercise/weight room rules posted?                                               
25.   Is equipment maintained in good operating condition?                                 
26.   Are records of maintenance to equipment maintained?                                  
27.   Is hydrotherapy equipment properly grounded and GFI’s used?                          
28.   Is equipment to be used only when a certified trainer is present?                    
29.   Are rooms monitored while open or in use?                                            
30.   Is the room locked after hours?                                                      
31.   Do the rules prohibit anyone from working out alone in the room?                     
32.   Do the rules prohibit horseplay?                                                     
33.   Is the equipment cleaned/wiped down daily?                                           
Vehicle Safety                                                                          Yes No
34. Do all authorized drivers have training appropriate for the vehicle they drive?        
35. Are MVR’s run and reviewed with all authorized drivers at least annually?              
36. Are vehicles/mobile equipment covered by a PM program?                                 
37. Do the operators of off road vehicles (golf carts and Gators) receive training in
                                                                                           
    the operation of these vehicles?
38. Are off road vehicles equipped with governors or other speed restriction devices?      
39. Is seat belt usage required while operating all vehicles?                              




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     Appendix 5-D




Sample Physical Plant Safety Checklist
Maintenance                                                                         Yes No
General
1. Are key control logs used to monitor use of keys by maintenance staff?                   
2. Do the key control logs cover nights and weekends as well as weekdays?                   
3. Is the key cabinet closed and locked when not in use?                                    
4. Are employees required to leave keys to institutional equipment on campus when
                                                                                            
   they are not working?
5. Is the key to the cabinet secured by an authorized person?                               
Work Shops
6.    Does the institution ban the lending of institution-owned tools?                      
7.    Is Personal Protective Equipment required when working overhead?                      
8.    Is Personal Protective Equipment required when using machinery?                       
9.    Are flammable liquids stored in UL-listed containers?                                 
10.   Are applicable guards maintained on powered equipment?                                
11.   Has there been any disciplinary action for failure to use guards?                     
12.   Are push sticks required when using table saws?                                       
13.   Are hoists, cranes or other lifting equipment used for moving heavy loads?            
14.   Have employees been trained in proper lifting techniques?                             
15.   Are containers of hazardous materials properly labeled?                               
16.   Do all employees understand their HazComm responsibilities?                           
17.   Is there adequate ventilation for all welding/soldering operations?                   
18.   Is sawdust, trash and combustible waste removed at least daily?                       
19.   Are fire extinguishers available?
20.   Do all employees understand how to operate master shutoff valves/switches?            




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Maintenance                                                                               Yes No
Vehicle Safety
21. Have all employees been trained in fire response procedures?                             
22. Do all authorized drivers have training appropriate for the vehicles they drive?         
23. Are MVRs run and reviewed with all authorized drivers at least annually?                 
24. Are vehicles/mobile equipment covered by a PM program?                                   
25. Do the operators of off road vehicles (golf carts and Gators) receive training in
                                                                                             
    the operation of these vehicles?
26. Are off road vehicles equipped with governors or other speed restriction devices?        
27. Is seat belt use required while operating all vehicles?                                  
Buildings and Grounds
28.   Is there a program in place to inspect for burned-out EXIT sign bulbs?                 
29.   Are emergency lights inspected and tested at least monthly?                            
30.   Is there a system for reporting and repairing building defects, such as stairs?        
31.   Is there a program to regularly inspect parking lot lights for function?               
32.   Are parking lots, sidewalks and other walking surfaces free of slip/trip hazards?      
33.   Is there an effective program for clearing snow and ice from parking lots,
                                                                                             
      sidewalks and other walking surfaces on a regular basis?
34.   Is there a snow and ice removal plan arranged by zone or area?                         
35.   Are snow and ice removal activities documented, including time, date and
                                                                                             
      personnel?
36.   Are breaks taken by snow and ice removal personnel to rest muscles and warm
                                                                                             
      up from the cold?
37.   Are storage and mechanical room doors locked when unoccupied?                          
38.   Are electrical rooms and panels locked?                                                
39.   Are elevators regularly inspected for code compliance?                                 
40.   Are carpets and stair coverings regularly inspected for defects? Documented?           
41.   Are signs posted: “Stairs, not elevators, should be used in emergencies”?              
42.   Are lawn-mowing patterns established to prevent equipment tip-overs on hills?          
43.   Are “Wet-Floor” signs used to mark hallways during cleaning operations?                
44.   Are equipment electrical cords kept to one side of the hallway during cleaning?        
45.   Are emergency escape maps posted in all classrooms, residence hall rooms and
                                                                                             
      meeting areas?
46.   Are doors locked, but operable from the interior in the event of an emergency?         




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  Appendix 5-E




Sample Office Safety Checklist
Office Safety Checklist                                                                  Yes No
General
1.    Are work areas generally neat to ensure good access to workstations?                       
2.    Are areas designated as “No Smoking” in accordance with local regulations?                 
3.    Are unattended file or desk drawers closed?                                                
4.    Are file cabinets secured to prevent tripping?                                             
5.    Does only one drawer in a file cabinet open at one time?                                   
6.    Are cords and wires close to desks and walls to prevent tripping?                          
7.    Is furniture in good condition, free of sharp corners?                                     
8.    Are chairs, step stools and ladders designed to support at least 200 pounds?               
9.    Do employees receive initial and periodic trip/fall training?                              
10.   Do employees receive initial and periodic manual materials handling training?              
11.   Are candles, hot plates, etc., prohibited in the office?                                   
Housekeeping
12. Are floors free of trash or storage that could cause tripping?                               
13. Are carpets and tiles free of cracks, holes or similar defects?                              
14. Are there an adequate number of trash containers and are they emptied
                                                                                                 
    regularly?
15. Are hallways clear of storage that could cause tripping?                                     
16. Are hallways and stairs well lighted at all times?                                           
17. Are spills and melted snow cleaned up promptly?                                              
18. Are stair railings securely fastened, both inside and outside the building?                  
19. Are storage cabinets well organized to prevent falls of heavy items?                         
20. Are space heaters under desks or close to combustible materials prohibited from
                                                                                                 
    use?
21. Is the storage of combustible materials on top of heating fixtures prohibited?               
22. Are coffee pots and machines located on a noncombustible surface and away
                                                                                                 
    from combustible materials?
23. Is there a procedure to ensure that coffee machines are turned off at night or are
                                                                                                 
    they provided with automatic shutoff switches, timers or tip switches?


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Office Safety Checklist                                                                  Yes No
Office Ergonomics
24. Have computer workstations been adjusted to reduce risk factors for carpal
                                                                                            
    tunnel?
25. Are monitor screens placed parallel to windows, as much as possible?                    
26. Are overhead light sources considered when placing monitors?                            
27. Are employees trained in adjusting their chairs for optimum comfort/efficiency?         
28. To the extent possible, do the employee, keyboard and monitor line up straight?         
29. Are monitor heights adjusted for individual user comfort?                               
30. Are keyboard locations adjustable for individual user comfort?                          
31. Are items used most often (i.e. telephone, calculator, etc.) placed near the user?      
32. Are telephone headsets available to employees on request?                               
33. Are carts used to move materials (paper, furniture, etc.) weighing more than 30
                                                                                            
    pounds?
34. Do employees know who to contact for assistance on workstation adjustments?             




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 Section 6




New Employee Orientation

  Introduction
  Many organizations and companies boast that ―Our employees are our greatest asset.‖
  Institutions can foster this belief by ensuring that new employees are welcomed and
  trained well right from their first day on the job.
  The purpose of this section is to provide guidelines that you can use to properly
  prepare a new employee to perform his/her daily tasks in a positive, effective manner.

  General Orientation
  A. New employee orientations are conducted in two steps. The first step is a general
     orientation to the institution, conducted by the Human Resources Department. The
     second step is an orientation to the department and specific job.
  B. The general orientation includes information that applies to all new hires,
     regardless of their specific job or department. This information includes normal
     work hours, vacation schedules and benefits such as the health insurance program.
  C. The institution provides written backup materials for important topics. Being a
     new employee can be a confusing experience and having booklets to refer to later
     can help reduce the uneasy feeling.
  D. Determine beforehand what information is most critical to the new employee‘s
     success at the institution. Provide basic level information first, then less critical
     information later on. For example, fire escape procedures will be covered very
     early in the orientation, while FMLA and vacation policies are addressed later.
  E. Each orientation leader will let the new employee know what the institution looks
     like and how he/she fits into the chain of command. A written organization chart
     will help facilitate understanding. These charts are available from Human
     Resources for the institution as a whole, as well as for individual departments.



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    F. Encourage friendships between new employees, even if they will be working in
       different departments. This will help provide a friendly familiar face when they
       first venture out of their departments.
    G. The orientation will include a review of the institution‘s mission statement and
       goals for the year. This helps the new employees understand how they can
       contribute to the success of the institution.
    H. If time permits, several members of Administration will be on hand to help
       welcome the new employees. This demonstrates that Administration considers the
       new people valuable enough to spend a few minutes getting to know them.
    I. Remind them that acclimating to a new institution can be difficult at times and
       that everyone working at the institution now was once a new employee too. Let
       them know that you will be following up with them in a few weeks to see how
       they are getting along and that they can come to you any time with questions
       about their new job.
    J. Encourage them to ask questions, not only during the initial orientation session,
       but also during any meetings or chance encounters you may have with them.

    Departmental Orientation
    A. First, introduce yourself and put the new employee at ease. Explain how the
       department‘s tasks are organized and how he/she will fit into the work schedule.
    B. At some point early in the orientation, introduce the new person to his/her co-
       workers. If appropriate, celebrate the arrival with a group lunch or snack time.
       New workers tend to bond faster with their co-workers if they can see them not
       just as fellow employees but also as human beings. A meal is a good way to start
       developing good working relationships.
    C. Ask if the new employee has any questions regarding the general orientation. Was
       anything unclear? If you are confident of the correct answers to the new
       employee‘s question(s), feel free to respond. Otherwise, refer or accompany the
       new employee to Human Resources, where the question(s) can be answered.
    D. A written description of the new employee‘s job should be provided and discuss
       the specific tasks involved in performing the job. Encourage the person to ask
       questions. At the end of the discussion, ensure that he/she understands the
       responsibilities of the job. Provide and discuss any Job Safety Analyses that have
       been performed for any jobs he/she will be performing.
    E. Show the person what equipment or tools are used in performing the job and
       his/her responsibilities for care of that equipment.
    F. Provide the individual with training in the institution‘s programs for Manual
       Material Handling, Fall Prevention, Vehicle Safety, Office Ergonomics and
       Sexual Harassment.
    G. Review any personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements and make sure that
       the person understands his/her responsibilities in that regard.


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H. Provide or arrange for training in other OSHA-required subjects, such as
   HazComm, Lockout/Tagout (if applicable), and Machine Guarding. Make sure
   that the training is documented. Make sure that the training is documented.
I. To help the new person get acclimated faster, assign an experienced employee to
   act as a ―buddy‖ for a week or two. The buddy can answer questions and
   demonstrate how to perform the job safely and can also report back to you any
   concerns that he/she cannot answer.
J. Meet with the new person periodically to help increase his/her comfort level with
   the organization. For the first week, the meetings might be at the end of each day.
   After that, decrease them to one or two days a week, then as necessary.




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 Appendix 6-A




Sample New Employee Orientation Checklist




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Name _____________________________             Employment Date _____________

Job Title ___________________________________________________________________

The supervisor should discuss the following on the first day of employment or transfer to a new
job. Check each item as completed.
        ‫ٱ‬   Management's commitment to safety
        ‫ٱ‬   The employee's safety responsibilities
        ‫ٱ‬   Disciplinary action for failure to follow safety procedures
        ‫ٱ‬   Report of any unsafe conditions or unsafe action
        ‫ٱ‬   Accident reporting procedures
        ‫ٱ‬   Safety rules, policies and procedures
        ‫ٱ‬   Equipment training and/or Special job training (as needed)
        ‫ٱ‬   Use of personal protective equipment
        ‫ٱ‬   Chemical hazard communication training
        ‫ٱ‬   Fire Prevention
        ‫ٱ‬   Emergency Procedures
        ‫ٱ‬   Other:
        ________________________________________________________________

Supervisor Providing General Training:

Name ___________________________________             Date of training _______________



Supervisor Providing Job-Specific Training:

Name ___________________________________             Date of training _______________



NOTE: To be completed with orientation and filed according to procedures.




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 Section 7




Fall Prevention

  Purpose
  Historically, slips, trips and falls have accounted for a significant percentage of the
  workers‘ compensation and general liability claims and loss costs sustained by EIIA
  member institutions. An illustration of the Consortium‘s loss history for these
  incidents is provided in the Risk Management section of the EIIA website
  (www.eiia.org).
  There are opportunities to reduce this exposure whether the incident occurs indoors or
  outdoors, on a level surface, on ladders, stairways or a ramp. The selected design and
  texture of walking surfaces are critical factors. However, even a slip-resistant design
  can become an unfavorable walking surface if lighting, maintenance and the control
  of foul weather elements are not appropriate. This section offers insight into the best
  practices available to better manage these controllable risks.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus fall prevention effort. This individual should be given the authority to
  organize an Advisory Committee to oversee and implement best practices aimed at
  reducing fall exposures on campus as covered in this section. These exposures include
  slips, trips and falls from ladders, stairs, curbs, sidewalks, bleachers and elevated
  surfaces such as roofs.

  Organization and Leadership
  Membership for the Fall Prevention Advisory Committee should be comprised of
  representatives from departments with a special interest in the topic such as Grounds
  & Maintenance, Custodial, Theater, Athletics, Planning, etc. Committee positions
  should be rotating with one-fourth to one-third of the members rotating each year. The



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    activities of the Advisory Committee should be reported to the Campus Risk
    Management/Safety Steering Committee.

    Administrative Considerations
    Fall prevention activities need to be implemented by the institution‘s administration.
    There are several areas where administrative support can greatly influence a reduction
    in slips, trips and falls on campus. The following list of administrative ―best
    practices‖ has been compiled for your consideration as to how they may apply to your
    campus:
    –      The campus engineering staff prepares new construction specifications which
           require walking surfaces to conform to ASIM, OSHA, ADA and building (BOCA
           or other) standards for the coefficient of friction.
    –      The campus engineering or occupational safety staff reviews architectural plans
           and specifications related to walking surface designs and floor coverings to assure
           compliance with institutional specifications, including the provision of handrails.
    –      The Facilities or Physical Plant Department refers to manufacturer instructions,
           including materials specifications for guidance on maintenance and care for floor
           finishes. The instructions are maintained in a file for the applicable building.
    –      The Risk Management office maintains an awareness of slip, trip and fall incident
           trends.
    –      The Security office responds to all incidents and distributes a copy of all initial
           reports to the Risk Management, Safety and Physical Plant departments.
    –      The Physical Plant Department inspects the location of all reported slip and fall
           exposures, and initiates corrective actions as necessary.
    –      Training on fall prevention programs, including same level, higher-to-lower level
           and ladder safety, is provided to all campus departments that may work at
           elevation, including Physical Plant, Housekeeping, Theater and Art Departments.
    –      The Facilities or Physical Plant Department oversees floor care and maintenance
           performed by contractors and employees, assuring manufacturer instructions for
           care are followed.
    –      Campus foot traffic patterns are periodically reviewed to assure that pedestrian
           traffic is on designated walkways. If patterns indicate that pedestrians are not
           using walkways, consideration is given to constructing walkways along the paths
           of travel used.
    –      An annual budget is allocated for repairs to walking surfaces, sidewalks, parking
           lots and stairways (including stair tread nosing) and the replacement and
           destruction of ladders.




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Design Considerations
The reduction of slips, trips and falls on campus is often the result of taking design
factors into consideration during the planning or renovating of campus facilities. The
following list of design considerations has been compiled for possible application on
your campus:

Interior Design Considerations
–   Carpeting with a foam cushion is the preferred floor covering for low traffic
    occupancies.
–   Bulletin boards, display cases and signs are not to be located in stairways,
    including landings between floors.
–   Entrances of new buildings are designed to include the installation of recessed
    entrances to accommodate foul weather mats and for the collection of water.
–   The floor surfaces selected for laboratories, cooking areas, locker rooms,
    restrooms and other wet areas are chosen for their ability to retain slip resistance
    when wet.
–   Hand dryers and towel dispensers are located within reach of the sink to avoid
    dripping water on floor surfaces.
–   Foul weather mats are installed inside all building entrances.
–   Rubber mats are installed in locker rooms.
–   Locker room showers have abrasive floor coatings.

Exterior Design Considerations
–   Sidewalks are at least 48 inches wide, based on ADA guidelines.
–   The protection of permanent and temporary walkways adjacent to construction
    operations is contemplated in the construction specifications. Barrier fences are
    required. Overhead walkway protection is required when building construction or
    debris poses the risk of falling onto the walkway.
–   Barriers are provided for sidewalks undergoing repair. Temporary lighting is
    provided at night where necessary.
–   Aesthetic barriers (posts, boulders, etc.) are erected to prevent vehicle traffic on
    walkways not designed to bear the weight, but do not create a barrier for
    emergency response.
–   Where vehicles are expected to traverse the grounds, the walking surface design
    contemplates the added weight.
–   The selection of base material installed below exterior walking surfaces is based
    on factors such as the potential dramatic changes in winter climate, excess water
    and the expansion/contraction properties of the adjacent soil or clay, shrubbery
    and trees.


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    –      Roof and porch drains and gutters discharge away from walking and driving
           surfaces.
    –      Roadways and pathways used by bicyclists are not chained off without adequate
           and visible signage posed on the chain. Additionally, lighting may be needed to
           illuminate the signage.
    –      Bicycle ramps are constructed over or around steps where practical.
    –      Bicycle-friendly storm sewer grates are installed in all new and existing road and
           walkway construction.
    –      Walking surface slopes in excess of 15 degrees are replaced with steps and
           accommodations are made for alternative handicapped access.
    –      New concrete sidewalks have a broomed finish.
    –      Parking lots are paved.

    Interior and Exterior Design Considerations
    –      The Americans with Disabilities Act guidelines for slip resistance and coefficient
           of friction are considered the most appropriate guidelines for walking surfaces.
    –      Adequate lighting is provided for interior and exterior walkways, passages and
           stairways. It is suggested that lighting fixtures use long-life bulbs and are located
           such that the fixtures are easily accessible. If ladders are necessary to reach the
           fixture, the design should incorporate proper footing for ladders. Additionally, if
           lighting is on timers, standard procedures are in place to verify that the timers
           correspond to seasonal lighting needs and lighting is provided at all times
           necessary, including whenever a time change occurs.
    –      Warning signs are posted near stairs and walkways that are prone to slips and falls
           until the condition is amended.
    –      Handrails are provided for steps and stairways with four (4) or more risers.
    –      Where bleacher and special event seating is utilized, the seating plan should
           include provisions for adequate access by the physically challenged.

    Care and Maintenance of Walking Surfaces
    A significant number of slip, trip and fall incidents occur on walking surfaces (floors
    and sidewalks) on campuses. There are several items related to the care and
    maintenance of these surfaces that can help reduce the likelihood of these
    occurrences. The following list of walking surface care and maintenance ―best
    practices‖ has been compiled for your consideration and indicates how they may
    apply to your campus:

    Housekeeping
    –      The maintenance and care instructions supplied by the floor surface designer or
           manufacturer are retained on file for the applicable building.


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–   The assigned supervisor for building maintenance and custodial services is
    familiar with manufacturer recommended floor care procedures and educates
    those persons performing the service.
–   The manufacturers‘ instructions for floor care products such as waxes, cleaners,
    strippers and degreasers are retained on file and discussed quarterly with the
    service personnel.
–   Floor care contracts specify the frequency and materials to be used for floor care.
–   Wet floor warning signs are available in all buildings and are placed at all access
    points of the floor area being washed or cleaned. They are also placed over spills
    or wet areas that cannot be cleaned immediately.
–   Spills and leaks are cleaned immediately upon being reported.
–   All laboratories are equipped with spill control kits near the front entrance and the
    occupants know where to find them.
–   Foul weather mats are vacuumed weekly.
–   Showers are disinfected and cleaned monthly to remove soap scum.
–   Shower floors are coated with an abrasive finish.
–   Perforated mats are provided in locker rooms.
–   Coefficient of friction measurements are taken and documented for all walking
    surfaces.

Groundskeeping
–   A capital budget and five-year plan has been established to improve walking
    surfaces.
–   An adequate winter weather budget is established annually.
–   Freezing weather patterns are tracked through Internet weather sites.
–   In years with favorable winter weather, a portion of unspent snow and ice removal
    funds are applied toward the improvement of exterior walking surfaces.
–   Exterior walkways should be maintained clear of nuts, fruits, berries, needles and
    leaves that may drop from trees.
–   Use safety cones in areas where puddles accumulate and freeze, or where there are
    holes in walkways, parking lots, only as a temporary measure until the problem is
    corrected.
–   Long, steep slope walking surfaces are blocked from use for the winter season.
–   Environmental and concrete friendly ice-melting material is applied near trees and
    shrubs and on steps, stairs and landings.
–   Sand and ice melt is mixed to provide traction and reduce ice and snow.
–   Large containers filled with sand are strategically located throughout the campus,
    eliminating the need to retrieve it from distant storage facilities.

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    –      A ―hot list‖ of wet/icy areas is maintained. Added attention is afforded.
    –      Snow removal priorities are: residential and food service building entrances,
           handicap access, steps, elevations, then parking lots and other walking surfaces. It is
           recommended that the snow removal priorities are shared with students and staff.

    Training and Assessment Form Development
    Training should be provided to at least one individual within each department for the
    recognition and control of potential fall hazards in and around campus buildings and
    common areas.
    The training materials provided in Appendix 7-A serve a dual purpose. They are
    designed to educate participants on potential trip/slip/fall exposures and preventive
    measures. These materials also provide a process for developing and customizing
    building or area specific inspection or assessment forms.
    The department designees should be instructed to develop customized assessment
    forms for use within their own buildings or departments by following the process
    covered in the training materials provided in Appendix 7-A. In many cases, the
    development of the forms will reveal potential hazards such as torn carpet, cracks,
    loose handrails, etc., that require immediate attention. During subsequent periodic
    inspections by the building/department designees, the condition of carpet, steps,
    sidewalks, parking lots, etc., will be monitored so that items such as carpet snags and
    hairline cracks in steps, parking lots and sidewalks are identified early. Taking a
    proactive approach will enable Maintenance to correct such problems before they
    deteriorate into more serious and costly conditions such as torn carpet and large
    cracks that pose tripping hazards.
    The use of customized forms will help to ensure that potential hazards are not
    overlooked and will help streamline the inspection process, as non-applicable items
    will be deleted.




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 Appendix 7-A




Sample Fall Prevention Training Outline and Handout
Materials

  Target Audience
  Building/area designees assigned to oversee the slip/trip/fall prevention effort on campus.

  Objectives
  The target audience of this training material is members of the Fall Prevention Advisory
  Committee. This material should be broken down to the departmental level by the
  Advisory Committee. For example, the Administration Department does not directly
  need to be concerned with the selection or care of walking surfaces, while this
  information is important to the Physical Plant Department.
  To help the team recognize slip/trip/fall hazards and to develop building, area or
  campus specific slip/trip/fall assessment forms or checklists.

  Introduction
  From available loss information, discuss the impact slips, trips and falls have had from a
  workers‘ compensation and general liability standpoint at the institution.
  Note that slips, trips and falls cannot always be prevented; however, by eliminating
  exposures and heightening awareness, the problem can be managed.

     In this session we will
        Review slip/trip/fall hazards and controls
        Develop a slip/trip/fall hazard assessment form or checklist (You will want to
         determine if such a form or checklist has already been developed. If so,
         indicate that as a group you will be looking for possible enhancements to the
         existing form/checklist.)


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               Conduct a group slip/trip/fall hazard assessment of one building or area on
                campus

    Tripping
    We have all had the experience of walking along and suddenly tripping over a small
    crack in the sidewalk or a slight change in the floor height. This happens because we
    do not always monitor the condition of the floor or walking surface. Our normal line
    of sight is approximately 15 degrees below horizontal relative to our eyes. As a result,
    small changes in surface elevation or irregularities are not always seen or perceived.
    For this reason, it is critical that all potential hazards, even those that may not seem
    serious, be identified.
    Some of these hazards are: (read from the handout or overhead)

           Tripping Hazards

           Interior
               Missing or broken floor tiles
               Warped floor boards

           Exterior
               Uneven brick or pavement
               Chipped or cracked concrete

           Both Interior and Exterior
               Cords and cabling
               One or two step change in elevation
               Distractions (posters in stairwells, signs on trees)
               Holes
               Objects protruding from the walking surface


           (Although this is common knowledge, this list is provided so potential hazards are
           not overlooked.)

           Tripping Controls
               Good housekeeping and groundskeeping
               Regular documented inspections of walking surfaces
               Preventive maintenance


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      Warning signs (where the problem can not be fixed immediately)
      Good lighting

Slipping
Why do we slip? We expect there to be a certain resistance between our feet and the
walking surface. If that resistance is not there, or if it changes suddenly, our center of
gravity is not where it should be.
Keep in mind that not all slips result in falls. Muscle strains often occur when we
attempt to catch ourselves from falling.
Again, these hazards are common knowledge, but must be identified in order to
prevent slipping on campus. (Read from handout or overhead)

   Slip Hazards

   Interior
      Water (on the floor; particularly inside building entries during rain or snow)

   Exterior
      Ice
      Fruit/Nuts/Berries
      Wet Leaves/Needles
      Loose Gravel or Soil

   Both Interior and Exterior
      Sand—on dry surfaces
      Mud
      Oil
      Sloped Surfaces/Steep Inclines
      Sudden Changes in Walking Surface/Floor Condition

   Slipping Controls
      Good Housekeeping/Grounds Maintenance—will take care of most of the slip
       hazards on campus.
      Mats—discuss the condition and placement of mats inside doors to provide a
       transition area during wet weather conditions. Stress the importance of
       continuous mopping and signage (―wet floor,‖ ―slippery when wet,‖ etc.).
       Also, stress the importance of checking the condition of the mats to ensure
       they are not creating a tripping hazard.


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               Selection, Application and Maintenance of Floor Surface Treatment and
                Finishes—suppliers can provide useful information on the application and
                maintenance of floor surface treatments and finishes. Problem areas should be
                discussed with the supplier who may be able to offer solutions.
               Abrasive Strips and Finishes—abrasive strips can be placed in strategic areas
                such as on stairs or in areas that are often wet. Sand can also be mixed with
                floor paint.
               Warning Signs—placed in strategic locations can warn individuals of
                conditions such as wet floors.
               Awareness of Conditions—falls can be prevented if individuals are aware of
                conditions when walking or exiting vehicles.

    Falls
    Falls can result from slipping or tripping usually at the same level; however, they can
    also involve falling from one level to another.
    We have already discussed the control of slipping and tripping hazards, but there are
    other measures we can take to prevent falls on campus.

         Fall Controls
               Warnings/Barriers—due to the number and varying ages of sidewalks and
                stairs on campus, there will always be areas that will be in need of repair.
                There are also constant maintenance and landscaping projects taking place. In
                such cases, warning signs or barriers to route traffic around these areas are
                needed until necessary repairs are completed. Fences should be provided as
                protection around major construction projects. Discuss the ―attractive
                nuisance‖ presented for students and children in the area.
               Guardrails—should be provided for elevated areas. Briefly discuss the
                elements, i.e., top rail, mid rail and toe boards—installed where necessary.

         Preventing Falls on Steps—Design Considerations
               Minimum three steps—the number of steps can cause a hazard. A one- or
                two-step change is often not seen and can cause people to fall. For this reason,
                ramps are better than steps for small elevation changes.
               Stair Riser and Tread Dimensions—the slope of stairs is the ratio of riser
                height to tread depth. The preferred slope for stairs is about 30 to 35 degrees
                from horizontal. Slopes between 20 and 50 degrees are acceptable. (Refer to
                Table 7-A-1 that shows acceptable combinations of stair riser and tread
                dimensions.)
               Handrails—handrails should have a 1½ inch grip cross section and should be
                located on both sides of the stairs. Intermediate handrails, installed in the
                center of the stairway, should be provided for stairs 88 inches or wider.


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       The ends of the handrails either should be in contact with the wall or curved
       appropriately towards the wall to eliminate a ―catching‖ hazard (i.e., purse
       straps).
      Visibility—visibility on stairs is very important. This includes having enough
       light to see steps easily and avoid glare that obscures the ability to see steps.
       For example, a window or door placed at the base of a stairs can create glare
       that makes it difficult to see the steps. When entering a building from bright
       outdoor conditions, the eyes do not have time to adjust to low light levels. For
       this reason, light levels between 50 and 100 foot-candles are recommended.
       There should be a clear definition of tread nosing. Surface finishes and
       textures that make one step blend in with another should be avoided.
      Tread—tread should be slip resistant (discuss).
      Uniformity—stairs should have uniform dimensions for all steps in a flight. A
       person walking up or down stairs intuitively establishes a measure of what the
       stair dimensions are and expects the dimensions found in the first step to occur
       for the others. A sudden change in dimensions can cause stumbling.
      Eliminate distractions—posters should not be placed in stairwells. Reading
       or carrying large objects while walking up or down stairs is not a good
       combination!

Summary
Briefly summarize and answer any questions. Indicate that the information discussed
should be considered while conducting the slip/trip/fall hazard assessment. Also
emphasize the importance of follow-up on the hazards that are identified. There needs
to be a line of communication established with individuals responsible for approving
expenditures for improvements and with those who will be making the improvements.

Slip/Trip/Fall Hazard Assessment
Conduct a slip/trip/fall hazard assessment of a building or an area on campus (perhaps
the building the training is being held in). If there is already an assessment checklist
or form, use it for this exercise. List any potential hazards identified. Also, make a list
of items that may be included in a building or area specific checklist or make note of
items that are to be added to the existing form. Again, keep in mind the information
reviewed in the training session.
As a group, review the hazards identified and possible checklist items. Have attendees
repeat this exercise inside additional buildings on campus, when possible.

Slip/Trip Hazards and Controls
   Tripping Hazards
      Objects Protruding from the Walking Surface
      Missing or Broken Floor Tiles


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               Warped Floor Boards
               Uneven Brick or Pavement
               Chipped or Cracked Concrete
               Cords
               One or Two Step Change in Elevation
               Distractions
               Holes

         Tripping Controls
               Good Housekeeping
               Regular Documented Inspections
               Preventive Maintenance
               Warning Signs
               Good Lighting

         Slip Hazards
               Water
               Ice
               Sand
               Mud
               Fruit/Nuts/Berries
               Wet Leaves/Needles
               Oil
               Sloped Surfaces/Steep Inclines
               Sudden Changes in Walking Surface/Floor Condition
               Loose Gravel or Soil

         Slipping Controls
               Good Housekeeping/Grounds Maintenance
               Mats
               Selection, Application and Maintenance of Floor Surface Treatments and
                Finishes
               Abrasive Strips, Finishes
               Warning Signs


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Table 7-A-1 Some Acceptable Combinations of Stair Riser and
Tread Dimensions
Angle to           Riser       Tread Depth
Horizontal         (inches)    (inches)

30°35’             6½          11
32°08’             6¾          10 ¾
33°41’             7           10 ½
35°16’             7¼          10 ¼
36°52’             7½          10
38°29’             7¾          9¾
40°08’             8           9½
41°44’             8¼          9¼
43°22’             8½          9
45°00’             8¾          8¾
46°38’             9           8½
48°16’             9¼          8¼
49°54’             9½          8
Reference 29 CRF 1910.24 (e)




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  Appendix 7-B




Sample Slip/Fall Hazard Assessment Form

Building:                           Auditor:                             Date:

                            Condition                               Follow-up
                                               Repair Needed                     Date
Item/Location        Good   Watch       Poor   (Specify location)                Completed
Sidewalks around building
North
South
East
West
Other
Exterior Steps
North
South
East
West
Other
Entry Mats
North
South
East
West
Other




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Building:                                Auditor:                             Date:

                                 Condition                               Follow-up
                                                    Repair Needed                     Date
Item/Location             Good   Watch       Poor   (Specify location)                Completed
Interior Stairs
Stairwell 1
     Handrail
     Non-slip Tread
     Lighting
     Physical Integrity
Stairwell 2
     Handrail
     Non-slip Tread
     Lighting
     Physical Integrity
Stairwell 3
     Handrail
     Non-slip Tread
     Lighting
     Physical Integrity
Tile Floor
    st
1 Floor
    nd
2        Floor
    rd
3 Floor
Basement Floor
Other
Wood Floor
1st Floor
2nd Floor
3rd Floor
Basement Floor
Other




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Building:                          Auditor:                             Date:

                           Condition                               Follow-up
                                              Repair Needed                     Date
Item/Location       Good   Watch       Poor   (Specify location)                Completed
Restrooms
1st Floor Men’s
1st Floor Women’s
2nd Floor Men’s
2nd Floor Women’s
3rd Floor Men’s
3rd Floor Women’s
Basement Men’s
Basement Women’s
Other Men’s
Other Women’s
Parking Lots
Front
Rear
Other
Note: Add sections appropriate for building as indicated below for a gymnasium
Bleachers
North
  Steps
  Non-slip Tread
  Markings
  End Rails
South
  Steps
  Non-slip Tread
  Markings
  End Rails
East
  Steps
  Non-slip Tread
  Markings
  End Rails
West
  Steps
  Non-slip Tread
  Markings
  End Rails




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 Section 8




Working From Heights

  Introduction
  When work is performed on elevated surfaces such as roofs, or during construction
  activities, protection against falls frequently must be considered. Fall arresting
  systems, which include lifelines, body harnesses and other associated equipment, are
  often used when fall hazards cannot be controlled by railings, floors, nets and other
  means. These systems are designed to stop a free fall of up to six feet while limiting
  the forces imposed on the wearer.

  Scope and Application
  Fall protection is required for most construction activities by the Occupational Safety
  and Health Administration (OSHA) whenever the work is performed in an area that is
  six feet higher than its surroundings. Exceptions to this rule include work done from
  scaffolds, ladders and stairways, derricks and cranes and work involving electrical
  transmission and distribution. Also excluded is the performance of inspections,
  investigations or assessments of existing conditions prior to the beginning or after the
  completion of construction.

  Program Description
  Fall protection is required whenever work is performed in an area six feet above its
  surroundings and can generally be provided through the use of guardrail systems,
  safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Where it can be clearly
  demonstrated that the use of these systems is infeasible or creates a greater hazard, a
  Fall Protection Program that provides for alternative fall protection measures may be
  implemented.




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           Fall Protection Systems
           A variety of systems may be chosen from when providing fall protection. These
           systems include:
               Guardrails—Standard guardrails consist of a top rail, located 42 inches above
                the floor and a mid-rail. Screens and mesh may be used to replace the mid-rail,
                so long as they extend from the top rail to the floor.
               Personal Fall Arresting Systems—Components of a personal fall arresting
                system include a body harness, lanyard, lifeline, connector and an anchorage
                point capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds.
               Positioning Device Systems—Positioning device systems consist of a body
                belt or harness rigged to allow work on a vertical surface, such as a wall, with
                both hands free.
               Safety Monitoring by a Competent Person—This system allows a trained
                person to monitor others as they work on elevated surfaces and warn them of
                any fall hazards.
               Safety Net Systems—These systems consist of nets installed as close as
                possible under the work area.
               Warning Line Systems—Warning line systems are made up of lines or ropes
                installed around a work area on a roof. These act as a barrier to prevent those
                working on the roof from approaching the edges.
               Covers—Covers are fastened over holes in the working surface to prevent
                falls.

           Additional Precautions
           Protection should also be provided from falling objects. Work surfaces should be
           kept clear of material and debris by removal at regular intervals. Toe boards
           should be used to prevent objects from being inadvertently kicked to a lower level.
           When necessary, canopies should be provided.
           General equipment maintenance must follow the manufacturer‘s guidelines.

           Training
           Training must include the following:
               How to recognize and minimize fall hazards
               The nature of the fall hazards in the work area
               Procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling and inspecting the
                specific fall protection systems used
               Use, operation and limitations of fall protection systems
               The user‘s role in fall protection systems



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Roles and Responsibilities

  Department
     Identify areas where fall protection is needed
     Obtain or develop fall protection systems
     Ensure workers are trained

  Supervisors
     Know when fall protection is necessary
     Provide workers with fall protection devices
     Ensure workers use fall protection devices

  Individual
     Attend training
     Know when fall protection is necessary
     Use fall protection systems




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 Appendix 8-A




Ladder Safety

  Introduction
  A significant number of ladder-related injuries occur within the Consortium each
  year. This section is intended to provide a general overview of safe ladder practices
  for those who may use ladders as part of their day-to-day job assignments or for
  infrequent tasks. All employees who use ladders on campus should be required to
  follow safe ladder practices as described in this section.
  Volunteers should never be allowed to work off ladders or scaffolding.

  Portable Ladders

     Suggested Procedures
     The proper use of portable ladders is dependent on choosing the correct ladder for
     the job. In addition to choosing a ladder of sufficient height and construction, the
     following procedures are best practices for the use of portable ladders:

     General
     1. Always check the condition of the ladder prior to use.
     2. Use ladders only in a vertical position.
     3. Position ladders away from doors and windows that may be opened or secure
        the door or window in the shut position.
     4. Place the ladder so that both side rails have secure footing. If ground is soft,
        provide solid non-slip footing to prevent sinking.
     5. Secure the bottom and top of the ladder to prevent slipping or displacement
        when working at high levels.
     6. Allow only one person on the ladder at a time.


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           7. Always be sure to secure the ladder while working on roofs.
           8. Never use ladders during high wind or other adverse weather conditions.
           9. Keep ladder treads clean and free of grease or other foreign materials.
           10. Do not leave placed ladders unattended.
           11. Keep ladder away from all wiring.
           12. Avoid using metal ladders around electrical circuits or equipment.

           Extension Ladders
           1. Place the ladder base at a 1:4 ratio from the vertical (horizontal/vertical). For
              every four feet of height, the base of the ladder should be one foot out from
              the top support.
           2. Extend the ladder a minimum of three feet above the top support point.
           3. Only lean the ladder against a secured backing.

           Step Ladders
           Make sure that the stepladder is fully opened and that the metal spreader is
           securely locked in place before climbing.

           Inspections
           Conduct inspections for ladder integrity on a minimum quarterly basis. Such
           inspections should be documented and maintained on file.
           Ladders found to be defective during inspection should be taken out of use
           immediately and tagged with a ―DANGEROUS—DO NOT USE‖ sign until it can
           be repaired. Any ladders that cannot be repaired should be destroyed.

           Ascending and Descending Ladders
               Climb carefully using both hands and maintaining a three-point contact at all
                times (both feet and one hand or both hands and one foot).
               Maintain your center of gravity and never reach outside your natural arm span.
                Move the ladder instead.
               Always remain facing the ladder.
               Never slide down a ladder.
               Make sure shoe bottoms are free of mud or grease before you climb.
               Do not climb higher than the third rung from the top of extension or straight
                ladders or the second tread from the top of stepladders.




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   Fixed ladders
   Fixed ladders are permanently secured to structures and provide access to specific
   elevated locations.

       Design Characteristics
          Pitch of 75 to 90 degrees
          Normally designed to bear a load of 200 pounds
          ¾-inch rung diameter
          Rungs 16-inches wide
          Rungs spaced no more than 12 inches apart
          Hand or side railings extending 3½ feet above the landing
          Minimum clearance of 2½ feet on the climbing side of ladders with 90-degree
           pitch and 3 feet for a 75-degree pitch.
          Clear width of 15 inches on each side of the centerline of the ladder.
          Seven (7) inch clearance in back of the ladder to assure adequate footing.
          Painted, if metal, or appropriately treated to prevent deterioration.
Cages or ladder enclosures should be provided when required by OSHA.




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 Appendix 8-B




Sample Scaffold Use Program

  Introduction
  According to The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights, more than 60 construction
  workers die every year in falls from scaffolds. In addition to scaffolds at campus
  construction sites, scaffolding is frequently used in theaters and athletic facilities at
  higher education institutions. Therefore, scaffolds can become a source for injuries to
  faculty, staff and students. The information contained in this Appendix is intended to
  help you develop effective guidelines for minimizing the chances of scaffold injuries
  on your campus.
  In some cases, higher education institutions will not be responsible for erecting or
  maintaining the scaffolding. However, the institution could be held responsible for
  any injury or damage that might result from improper erection or use of the
  scaffolding. It is therefore important to ensure that the contractor has properly
  installed the equipment and that contractor employees are working safely on it.
  The specific actions listed below should be a part of every institution‘s regular
  activities when contractor-erected scaffolding is in place on campus:
  –   Periodically observe operations on the scaffolding and bring any unsafe operations
      or conditions to the attention of the contractor‘s safety representative.
  –   Ensure that the work site is secured against unauthorized entry, especially after
      hours and on weekends.

  Scope and Application
  Scaffolds are work platforms that are either supported on legs or suspended from
  above. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has very specific
  guidelines for the erection and use of scaffolds. The most important guideline is
  that the scaffold must be designed and erected under the supervision of a
  ―competent person.‖ OSHA defines a competent person as one ―…who by virtue of
  extensive knowledge, training and experience is capable of identifying existing and


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    predictable hazards and has authority to take prompt measures to eliminate those
    hazards.‖
    This competent person will usually be a supervisor or safety director of the contractor
    who will be doing the work on our campus. During the planning process for any work
    involving scaffolds, the institution‘s administration should identify this competent
    person, to ensure that the scaffold will be erected properly.
    In cases where the scaffolding is erected by and used by the institution‘s personnel,
    the competent person will be the departmental supervisor of the group that erected
    and is using the scaffolding. This could be the Physical Plant Department if the
    scaffolding is for maintenance operations, the Theater Department if the scaffolding is
    part of a stage rigging, or another department on campus if the scaffolding is erected
    for their use.

    Primary Hazards
    The primary hazards related to scaffold use are as follows:
    A. They can collapse, either due to improper design, unsafe usage, overloading or
       natural effects, such as wind or ground tremors.
    B. People or items can fall from them, injuring people walking or working below or
       injuring the worker who fell off.
    C. They can come into contact with hazardous operations, such as a metal scaffold
       touching a high voltage electrical line.

    Preventing Scaffold Collapses
    A. The primary way to prevent a scaffold collapse is to ensure that it is erected
       properly, with consideration for the height and width of the scaffold and its
       intended use.
    B. Check to see that a competent person is in charge of erecting the scaffold and that
       he/she has taken into consideration the condition and terrain of the soil, potential
       windy conditions and overhead facilities (such as electrical wires).
    C. All scaffolding equipment will be checked by the supervisor or contractor prior to
       beginning erection to ensure that it is the proper type and condition of scaffolding
       for the job.
    D. Before use, wood planking will be inspected to ensure that it is of sufficient
       thickness and strength for scaffold use and that it is in good condition.
    E. The scaffold assembly will be designed to comply with applicable local, state and
       federal safety requirements. Some affirmative confirmation should be received
       from the supervisor or contractor that the scaffold is in compliance.
    F. If the scaffold is four times (three times in California) higher than its base width, it
       must be tied to supports.




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G. The maximum length of scaffold planks is 10 feet. Planks must extend at least 6"
   past the end supports, but no more than 18".
H. Observe operations on the scaffold to ensure that the planks are not bending and
   that there are no visible signs of overloading.

Preventing Falls and Injury/Damage from Falling Items
A. All scaffolds above 10 feet must have side rails and end rails to protect the
   workers from falling. This includes both top and middle height rails. The top rail
   must be from 38‘ to 45" above the platform and must be able to support 200
   pounds.
B. If the working side of the scaffold is less than 14" away from the work, a railing is
   not required on that side. However, rails must be used whenever working at
   heights above 10 feet.
C. All scaffolds over work areas must have toeboards, to keep materials and tools
   from falling. Toeboards should be at least 3 ½" high.
D. Where scaffolds are erected above walks or work areas, the space between the
   toeboards and railings should be screened.
E. If a scaffold is suspended, the workers are required to use fall protection. This
   must be in the form of full harnesses, not single body belts.
F. Workers should remove all materials and tools that are not needed immediately
   from the work platform. This will minimize the possibility not only of dropping
   items, but also of a worker tripping on them while working.
G. To the extent possible, keep other workers from walking under the scaffold while
   it is in use.
H. Non-workers should be kept away from the periphery of the scaffolds in case
   items blow, fall or are thrown off the scaffold to the ground.

Preventing Injury from Contact with Other Hazards
A. Set the scaffolding where it cannot come into contact with high voltage electrical
   lines.
B. As an alternative, ensure that the power has been disconnected from the lines and
   locked out.
C. If the electrical power must be maintained and the possibility of contact cannot be
   eliminated, use non-conductive materials to form a barrier between the hazard and
   the exposed workers.
D. All workers should be brought down off the scaffolding at the approach of
   thunderstorms, high winds or other adverse conditions.
E. Working overhead while standing on a scaffold can be a dangerous activity. Your
   balance may be affected by even minor swaying of the framework, as well as by
   the awkward posture of your arms and trunk. There is a temptation to stand on the


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         railing to more easily reach the work. It may be necessary to come down from the
         next highest level, rather than reach that far up. Consider using a ladder on the
         scaffold, but only if you are using approved fall protection equipment that is
         securely fastened to the scaffold itself.
    F. If you must work overhead while on a scaffold, take a break every few minutes to
       relieve some of the stress on your neck and shoulders.
    G. Outside scaffold boards should be secured to avoid being lifted or thrown during a
       wind storm.
    H. Scaffolds should not be moved to a new location. The scaffold should be
       dismantled and the scaffold erected at the new work location.




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 Appendix 8-C




Sample Manlift Safety Program

  Introduction
  Manlifts are small, motorized platforms that can raise workers to elevated heights to
  perform tasks such as changing light bulbs, cleaning, or doing electrical wiring. They
  can be useful when used properly. Improper use can lead to tip-over or fall accidents,
  which can be fatal in some cases. Manlifts may also be used in maintenance and
  theater departments or for other types of operations at an institution. This section
  provides guidelines for safe operation of manlift devices.

  Scope and Application
  Safe operation of manlift devices is addressed by OSHA Standard 1910.29(e). This
  standard addresses design and construction of mobile work platforms.

  General Safety Guidelines
  A. Only trained and authorized people will be allowed to operate manlifts.
  B. Follow all operating and maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer.
  C. The minimum base width of the manlift must be at least 20", to ensure good stability.
  D. Rigid diagonal bracing must be provided to vertical members of the platform.
  E. All operating systems must be checked before operating the manlift. Daily
     inspections must be documented. The equipment should be warmed up before
     inspection and operation. If any system is not operating properly, the platform
     should be shut down until the defect has been repaired.
  F. Operational controls should be provided both on the platform and at ground level.
     The ground level controls should be operated only with the operator‘s permission
     or in the case of an emergency. The ground controls shall override the platform-
     level controls.



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    G. The maximum working level height of the platform may not exceed four times the
       minimum base dimensions. If the platform does not meet this requirement,
       appropriate outriggers shall be used or the platform should be guyed against tipping.
    H. The manlift may not be moved while the platform is in the elevated position.
    I. The area around the base of the platform should be kept clear of all personnel,
       except those working directly with the person on the elevated platform. These
       people should be in continuous contact with the platform operator and should be
       constantly on the watch for dropped parts and that the operator is properly belted
       to the platform.
    J. If the platform will be used at 10 feet or more above the ground, it should be
       provided on all sides with a toeboard at least 3 ½" high.
    K. If the platform will be used 10 feet or more above the ground, it must be equipped
       with guardrails on all sides, including the ends. Each rail must be made of at least
       2x4 lumber or equivalent and be mounted on the platform at least 42 inches in
       height. There should also be a mid-rail of 1x4 lumber or equivalent.
    L. Before elevating the platform, the operator must check the area in which the
       platform will be used. This will ensure that the platform does not contact
       energized electrical equipment or crush the worker against an elevated structure,
       such as a suspended heater or chiller unit.
    M. The operator‘s feet must always stay on the floor of the platform. He/she should
       never stand on any of the railings to reach the work. Never stand on a ladder
       placed onto the work platform, even a stepladder.
    N. Operators should be belted to the work platform during elevated operations. The
       belt should be a full body harness, not a single belt. Do not belt off to anything but
       the platform.
    O. If the individual is using the lift in conjunction with a welding operation, the
       firewatch required by the institution‘s hot work program should be stationed at the
       ground level at all times.

    Management Guidelines
    A. Always ensure that the operator is qualified and in good mental and physical
       condition to operate the manlift.
    B. Ensure that the manlift is in good operating condition before allowing it to be
       used. Insist on a formal preventive maintenance program and periodically check to
       be sure that the program is working effectively.
    C. Never allow a contractor or unauthorized person to operate your equipment. If an
       unauthorized person is injured while using your manlift, you might be held
       responsible.
    D. Periodically observe the operator at work to ensure that he/she is properly belted
       to the platform.



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  Appendix 8-D




Sample Scaffold Inspection Form
Set Up                                                                                                Yes    No

Is the scaffold being erected under the direction of a competent person?                                     
Are all faculty, staff and students involved with (or near) the scaffold wearing hard hats?                  
Are footings sound and rigid - not set on soft or slippery surfaces, or resting on blocks?                   
Is the scaffold level?                                                                                       
Are wheels / castors locked?                                                                                 
Is the scaffold able to hold four times its maximum intended load?                                           
Is the platform complete front to back and side to side (fully planked or decked, with no gaps
                                                                                                             
greater than 1 inch)?
Are guardrails and toeboards in place on all open sides?                                                     
Are all sections pinned or appropriately secured?                                                            
Is there a safe way to get on and off the scaffold, such as a ladder?                                        
Is the front face within 14 inches of the work (or within 3 feet for outrigger scaffolds)?                   
Does the scaffold meet electrical safety clearance distances?                                                
Use
Is the scaffold inspected by a competent person before being put in use?                                     
If the scaffold is over 10 feet high, is personal fall protection or adequate guardrails provided?           
Are hardhats worn by faculty, staff and students on and around the scaffold?                                 
Are scaffold loads (including tools/equipment) kept to a minimum and removed when the
                                                                                                             
scaffold is not in use (like at the end of a day)?
Are scaffolds evacuated during high winds, rain, snow, or bad weather?                                       
Are materials secured before moving a scaffold?                                                              
Are scaffolds evacuated before they are moved?                                                               
Are heavy tools, equipment, and supplies hoisted up (rather than carried up by hand)?                        




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  Appendix 8-E




Sample Manlift Inspection Form

Pre-Start                                                                                             Yes    No
The aerial lift shall be inspected for defects prior to each day’s operation. The prestart
inspection shall be performed and documented by the operator (a faculty member, staff
member or student) on each day and will include items in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommendations for each specific aerial lift. The aerial lift shall not be operated if the
prestart inspection indicates that repair is necessary.
Are all operating/emergency controls, and safety devices functional?                                         
Are personal protective devices, such as fall protection, available?                                         
Are hydraulic, air, pneumatic, fuel and electrical systems are free of wear, leakage, excessive
                                                                                                             
dirt, moisture or any other condition which may impair the use of these systems?
Are all fiberglass and other insulating components free of visible damage or contamination?                  
Are all placards, warnings, operational, instructional, and control markings in place and legible?           
Are all mechanical fastenings and lift parts in place and free of damage?                                    
Are cables and wiring harnesses in place and free of damage?                                                 
Are wheels and tires inflated to the required pressure and in good condition (tread, etc.)?                  
Are Operating Manual(s) available in weatherproof containers on the lift, or in the cab of the
                                                                                                             
truck?
Are outriggers, stabilizers, and other structures in place and operational?                                  
Are guardrail systems in place and functional?                                                               
Other items specified by the manufacturer: ___________________________________                               
Use

Are only trained and certified operators (faculty member, staff member or students) using
                                                                                                             
the lift?
Are operators leveling the aerial platform using the manufacturers’ outriggers and leveling
                                                                                                             
devices and the brakes set?
Are platform occupants using fall protection (e.g., full body harness, shock-absorbing lanyard)
                                                                                                             
connected to the anchorage point(s) provided at the platform position?




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Pre-Start                                                                                            Yes   No
Are operators entering or exiting the elevated platform per the manufacturer’s instructions, using
3 point contact? If manlift is used to access another area, is the operator using proper fall             
protection connected to a suitable anchorage point (in the new area) before leaving the lift?
Are operators in control of the equipment operation from the elevated position (except in an
                                                                                                          
emergency)?
Is the platform being operated within slope and grade for which the platform is rated?                    
Are stability-enhancing means, such as outriggers, outrigger pads, stabilizers or extendible
                                                                                                          
axles, being utilized?
Are entry gates/chains closed before operating the lift? Are operators maintaining a firm footing
                                                                                                          
on the platform floor at all times.
Are occupants and equipment within the maximum platform capacity?                                         
Are safe distances being maintained between the operator, the machine and other objects, and
                                                                                                          
electrical power lines, conductors or bus bars?




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  Appendix 8-F




Sample Ladder Inspection Form
Selection                                                                                                Yes    No

Is ladder strong enough for intended use?                                                                       
Does the ladder have non-slip safety feet? Are the safety feet in good condition?                               
Is the ladder long enough for the job?                                                                          
Is the ladder placed as to prevent slipping, or lashed or held in position                                      
Is ladder inspected at regular, frequent intervals?                                                             
Is ladder maintained free from oil, grease, or slippery materials?                                              
Are defective ladders withdrawn from service?                                                                   
Are ladders used only for intended purpose?                                                                     
Step ladders do not exceed 20 feet in length, single-section ladders do not exceed 30 feet in length,
                                                                                                                
two-section ladders do not exceed 60 feet (wooden) or 48 feet (metal) in length?
Are non-conductive ladders used around electrical hazards?                                                      
Do fixed ladders have safety cages as required by OSHA?                                                         

Use
Are faculty, staff and students trained in ladder-related hazards and safe use?                                 
Are ladders inspected at regular intervals and prior to each use?                                               
Are ladders set up at the proper angle during use (4 to 1) and placed only on stable bases?                     
Are doors locked or guarded prior to placing ladders in front of them?                                          
Are metal ladders used for work on exposed electrical conductors prohibited?                                    
Are ladders used to access a walking surface or roof extended at least 3 feet beyond and lashed?                
Do faculty, staff and students avoid stepping on the top two (2) step ladder rungs, or top four (4)
                                                                                                                
extension ladder rungs?
Step ladders are securely spread open for use and not used in a folded position?                                
Loads are not carried on a ladder?                                                                              
Do faculty, staff and students maintain balance on the ladders by keeping their belt buckle between
                                                                                                                
the side rails?




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 Section 9




Manual Material Handling

  Introduction
  Back pain and injuries related to lifting and manual material handling are some of the
  most frequent types of injuries, both on and off the job. While some factors that
  contribute to the potential for injury cannot be controlled, others can be reduced or
  minimized. Poor physical fitness, obesity, smoking, poor posture and
  medical/physical deficiencies are personal factors that may contribute to back pain.
  Workplace factors may include inadequate workplace design, improper or defective
  material handling equipment, improper manual or mechanical handling methods and
  inadequate training or manpower.
  An illustration of the Consortium‘s loss experience with respect to manual material
  handling can be found in the Risk Management section of the EIIA website
  (www.eiia.org).
  Investing in an effective manual material handling or strain/back injury reduction
  program yields improved morale, comfort and the reduced potential for lost work time
  due to injury.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus manual material handling or strain/back injury prevention effort. This
  individual should be given the authority to organize an Advisory Committee to
  oversee and implement best practices aimed at the reduction of strain and back injury
  exposures on campus as provided in this section.

  Organization and Leadership
  Membership for the Manual Material Handling Advisory Committee should be
  comprised of representatives from departments or buildings with significant material


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    handling/lifting activities such as Physical Plant, Library, Book Store, Business
    Office, Athletics, etc. Committee positions should be rotating with one-fourth to one-
    third of the members rotating each year. The activities of the Advisory Committee
    should be reported to the Campus Risk Management/Safety Steering Committee.

    Training
    Top priority should be given to the elimination or the reduction of lifting activities on
    campus that present strain/back injury exposures. Training of campus personnel in
    several key aspects of proper lifting and material handling techniques, as well as
    improved job and task planning, will assist in reducing the frequency of these
    occurrences on your campus.
    Provided below are a number of training best practices that should be considered.
    A minimum of one individual within each department should receive training in the
    following areas:
    –      How to identify potential exposures
    –      How to evaluate a job or task
    –      How to reduce or eliminate the exposure
    Individuals who engage in lifting and material handling as part of their work should
    receive training in the following:
    –      Performing stretching and warm-up exercises prior to engaging in lifting activities
    –      Using the proper personal protective equipment such as gloves and protective
           shoes
    –      Taking time to size up the load and getting help for heavier lifts
    –      Using proper lifting techniques (e.g. object close to the body, back straight, avoid
           twisting, lift with the legs, etc.)
    –      Using mechanical lifting aids for oversized or bulky loads

    Lifting Best Practices
    Safe lifting is a function of the amount of weight being lifted and the technique being
    used. Always test the weight before lifting. If it is too heavy, have someone help or
    use mechanical lifting aids. The following are helpful hints on the use of proper lifting
    techniques:
    –      Know where you are going before lifting the load. Pre-plan the lift.
    –      Keep your feet shoulder width apart for good balance.
    –      Take a deep breath and tighten your stomach muscles just prior to the lift.
           Conditioned stomach muscles provide excellent support for the lower back.
    –      Bend at your knees not your hips.
    –      Lift using your leg muscles to reduce the load on your back.


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–   Lift smoothly and avoid jerking the load. Sudden movement and weight shifts can
    injure your back.
–   Hold the load close to your body. The further the load is from your body, the
    greater the stress to your lower back.
–   Turn with your feet and avoid twisting.

Job/Task Evaluation
When jobs or tasks are identified that have resulted in or have the potential to result in
strain or back injury, it is recommended that they be evaluated in order to quantify the
seriousness of the exposure. Doing so will help to identify the specific contributing
factors and can be a basis for prioritizing jobs or tasks for redesign or elimination. The
following factors should be considered:
–   Weight—The weight being lifted or carried will be the primary risk factor to be
    considered. The greater the weight, the more stress placed on the lower back.
–   Location of the Object/Item—The further the object to be lifted or carried is
    away from the body, the greater the stress placed on the lower back. The lower
    back works very much like a lever. The further the weight is located from the
    fulcrum of a lever the harder it is to lift. Ideally, loads should be as close to the
    body as possible.
–   Size and Shape of the Object—If the object is bulky or difficult to get your arms
    around, even a relatively light load can pose a back injury hazard.
–   Frequency/Duration/Pace—Fatigue can occur when working at a high frequency
    task over a long period of time or at a high pace. This may be a factor when
    handling large shipments of books, furniture, equipment, etc. Susceptibility to
    injury increases with the onset of fatigue.
–   Stability of the Load—If liquid or another unstable product is being lifted or
    carried, the center of gravity can easily shift, resulting in a loss of balance. An
    attempt to ―catch‖ the shifting center of gravity can result in muscle strain.
–   Couplings—This includes having stable footing and the ability to have a good
    grip on the object during the lift. Attempts to catch oneself when slipping or
    attempting to catch the object slipping from the hands can result in strains or other
    fall or struck by related injuries.
Note that all of these risk factors are included in the Manual Material Handling Risk
Factor Checklist. (See Appendix 9-A) This checklist can be utilized to evaluate the
potential risk factors associated with lifting tasks on campus.
It is suggested that emphasis be placed on the evaluation of the following jobs/tasks
on campus:
–   Loading and unloading of vehicles and trailers
–   Hitching and unhitching of trailers
–   Using carts for the transport of books, materials, etc.


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    –      Handling and disposal of trash bags and containers
    –      Moving furniture and mattresses
    –      Connecting and disconnecting attachments from equipment
    Such manual material handling activities have resulted in a significant number of back
    and general strain type injuries Consortium-wide.

    Eliminating and Reducing Exposures
    Once ―problem jobs or tasks‖ are identified and have been evaluated, as described in
    the preceding section, consideration should be given to redesigning the tasks. The
    following concepts should be applied where possible:
    –      Eliminate the Task—Determine if the task can be eliminated all together. For
           example, can the material currently delivered in bags be delivered in bulk and
           dispensed in controlled amounts or can mechanical means be used to eliminate the
           manual handling altogether. Another option may be to contract out infrequent, high
           hazard tasks such as piano moving, moving furniture and mattress change out.
    –      Reduce the Weight—Use lighter materials where possible such as plastic in place
           of metal or use smaller containers such as 25-pound bags instead of 50- or 100-
           pound bags.
    –      Reduce Horizontal Reaches—The further the load is positioned away from the
           body the greater the stress on the lower back. Where possible, items should be
           positioned so that they can be lifted close to the body. For example, store heavier
           materials near the front of racks and shelves to reduce reaching and pulling.
    –      Reduce Bending—Where possible, heavier boxes and materials should be stored
           at or near waist level. Bending significantly increases the amount of stress on the
           lower back.
    –      Inspect the Object to be Moved—Before moving an object, inspect the object
           for protruding sharp points that may cause injury to the worker during the
           transport. Pad or remove any sharp points before moving the objects.
    –      Use Material Handling Aids—Dollies and carts should be provided where
           materials are commonly handled. Specialized material handling equipment is also
           available for moving loads up and down stairs. (See listing of material handling
           equipment Web sites on page 9-5.)
    –      Reduce Duration of the Task—Assignment of a greater number of employees to
           perform problem tasks will reduce both the amount of time to complete the task
           and the amount of lifting and bending performed by individual employees.
    –      Reduce Work Above Your Head—Use a ladder that is tall enough so that you
           can work at elbow or eye height. Don‘t try to stand on a shorter ladder and
           increase your overhead reach. This will place great stress on your neck, shoulders
           and arms. Take a break every few minutes to relieve some of that stress and use
           lightweight tools if possible.



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Manual Material Handling Equipment
A formal evaluation should be conducted to determine if adequate material handling
aids such as dollies for handling boxes, carts for books, fork trucks for handling large
deliveries, etc., are provided where needed on campus. Where deficiencies are found,
such equipment should be provided or budgeted.
The following Web sites contain information on material handling equipment:
–   www.wescomfg.com
–   www.escalera.com
–   www.industromart.com
–   www.dutro.com

Back Belts
Back belts are a controversial addition to the techniques used in the prevention of
back injuries. The goal of the back belt is to impose a fixed posture on the wearer,
making it difficult or impossible to bend or twist while lifting. It should be noted that
back belts are not considered personal protective equipment by OSHA and are not
specifically covered by existing regulations.
Departments that choose to allow their workers to use back belts should develop a
policy on back belt use that covers the following:
–   Information on the pros and cons of back belts
–   Participation in any back belt program should be voluntary
–   Back belts should be permitted only after the employee has received and
    understands training in back belt use, proper lifting techniques and back care.

Training and Information Web sites
On-line training modules covering the information outlined above can be found on the
following Web sites:
–   www.free-training.com
–   www.ergonext.com




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  Appendix 9-A




Sample Manual Material Handling Risk Factor Checklist
Department:                                                  Task/Job:
Date:
Manual Handling Risk Factors                                                        Yes     No
Does the task involve
Holding the load away from the body?                                                        
Excessive body movement or extreme posture such as twisting or stooping?                    
Carrying more than 10 feet?                                                                 
Excessive pushing or pulling?                                                               
Prolonged physical effort? (Task performed for more than 2 hours without break)             
Is the load
Heavy? (Over 40 pounds)                                                                     
Bulky? (Hard to get arms around)                                                            
Difficult to grasp? (No hand holds)                                                         
Unstable? (Contents likely to shift)                                                        
Potentially damaging to the hands? (Sharp edges)                                            
Are there
Space constraints that prevent good posture?                                                
Uneven or slippery floors?                                                                  
Variations in floor or work surface levels?                                                 
Extremes of temperature or humidity?                                                        
Does the job
Require unusual strength, height, etc.?                                                     
Create a hazard for those who are pregnant or have health problems?                         
Require special knowledge or training for its safe performance?                             

Where risk factors have been identified above, determine if they can be reduced or
eliminated. (See the ―Eliminating and Reducing Exposures‖ section on page 9-4 of this
manual for possible considerations.)




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 Section 10




Office Ergonomics

  Introduction
  Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their environment. In
  the workplace, ergonomics is the science of designing or redesigning the workplace to
  fit the worker and improve worker safety, comfort and productivity. Computers have
  changed our lives tremendously, allowing instant communication and display of data.
  One issue that is commonly overlooked is how people fit into the office environment.
  Workers represent a critical part of a work system and continually interact with
  workstation components to perform a task or accomplish a goal. Each part of the
  system must be properly designed and adjusted to optimize a worker‘s comfort, safety
  and health, while ensuring quality and productivity.
  With computer use a part of the modern campus and as the workforce ages, the
  number of musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis
  can be expected to increase unless proactive measures continue to be taken. This
  section contains information on some basic steps necessary to properly adjust
  workstations in order to improve working postures and comfort within office settings.
  An illustration of the consortium‘s loss experience with respect to office ergonomics
  can be found in the Risk Management section of the EIIA website (www.eiia.org).

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus office ergonomics effort. This individual should be given the authority to
  organize an Advisory Committee to oversee and implement best practices aimed at
  reducing office workstation exposures on campus as provided in this section.

  Organization and Leadership
  Membership for the Office Ergonomics Advisory Committee should be comprised of
  representatives from departments or buildings with significant computer usage such as


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    Information Technology, Administration and Library. Committee positions should be
    rotating with one-fourth to one-third of the members rotating each year. The activities
    of the Advisory Committee should be reported to the Campus Risk
    Management/Safety Steering Committee.

    Training
    Periodic employee training as well as new employee orientation is critical to proper
    workstation adjustment. New employees and existing employees who are transferred
    or receive new computer equipment or furniture must be aware of the proper setup
    and arrangement of workstation components in order to reduce exposure to
    musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and to maximize productivity. Some basic training
    elements may include:
    –    Potential health concerns
    –    Early detection of symptoms
    –    Proper setup and adjustment
    –    Glare control
    –    Stretching exercises for the upper extremities, shoulders and neck
    –    Proper use of breaks and rest periods
    Orientation and training, when conducted properly, not only provides operators with
    an understanding of how to properly adjust the computer workstation, but also
    reassures them about potential health effects and controls in place. Allowing
    employee input into discussions that affect the work environment also helps to reduce
    mental stress.

    Workstation Adjustment

         Chairs
         Properly adjusting the chair is a key factor in making workstations more
         comfortable. If individuals do not know how to adjust their chairs, the supervisor
         should be asked for help. It is important to adjust the height of the seat and the
         backrest so that:
               Forearms are parallel to the floor while using the keyboard.
               Upper arms are relaxed and close to the body.
               Thighs are horizontal and feet are flat on the floor (a footrest may be needed).
               Excessive pressure is not on the worker‘s legs from the edge of the seat.
               The worker can sit with their back against the backrest and it supports the
                lower back comfortably.
         Computer tasks are generally performed best when chairs have adjustable
         armrests. Armrests that do not adjust often prevent the worker from positioning


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the chair close to the workstation. This may force some workers to sit on the edge
of the chair without the benefit of back support.
It may be necessary for an individual to change the seating position frequently
throughout the day. For example, the worker may need to sit higher when they are
writing on the desktop and lower while typing on the keyboard. If workers use
several workstations during the day, consider having them take their chair with
them to the different workstations. If chairs are shared with several people, be sure
each worker readjusts the chair for use at the beginning of their workday.
Non-adjustable armrests can restrict forearm movement, cause arm pressure points
and poor shoulder posture. Armrests should have good padding and be height
adjustable so forearms are parallel to the floor while using the keyboard.
Contact the supervisor or manager for more information on adjusting chairs.

Keyboards and Mouse
Positioning the worker‘s keyboard and mouse will help you to work with more
comfort and control. Listed below are several key items to remember when
positioning the keyboard and mouse:
   Position the keyboard and mouse so that wrists are in a natural relaxed
    position.
   Place the home row of keys at or slightly above elbow height.
   Maintain a straight wrist to avoid soreness often caused by working long
    periods with the hands bent upward or downward.
   Raise or lower the chair to the height that allows maintenance of a natural
    wrist position while using the keyboard and mouse. A footrest may be
    necessary for individuals who must raise the chair height to a position where
    their feet do not touch the floor.
   Position the desktop to a height that allows the upper and lower arms to form a
    90-degree angle.
   Position the mouse next to the keyboard on the side of the dominant hand.
Be aware that most keyboards have legs along the back that can raise or lower the
angle of the keyboard to allow for a neutral wrist posture. Palm rests may also
help prevent the worker‘s wrist from bending. Keep in mind that the palm rest
should only be used while resting, not while typing. Misuse of palm rests can
actually cause poor wrist postures and restricted blood flow. Ask the supervisor or
manager about palm or mouse supports.

Monitors
Most monitors and monitor stands have adjustments for the tilt, swivel height,
contrast and brightness. Surface glare and awkward positioning are common
problems for monitor users. The monitor should be positioned and angled so that
the worker can maintain a relaxed natural posture without having screen glare.

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         The monitor‘s position should not require the worker‘s head to be tilted forward to
         view the text.
         Adjust the monitor to make sure that:
          The top line of text is at or slightly below eye level. Individuals who wear
            bifocals or trifocals can position the monitor lower so they can view the screen
            through the lower portion of their lenses.
          The distance from the worker‘s eyes to the screen is between 18 and 24
            inches.
          The monitor is placed at a right angle to windows to reduce glare.
          The contrast and brightness are set at comfortable levels.
          The screen is clean and anti-glare devices or filters are available.
          The screen is located in front of the worker to avoid side head twisting.
         Report screen flicker to the supervisor.
         It may be more comfortable for the worker‘s eyes to change the screen
         background color from dark to light with contrasting text. A supervisor should be
         able to help do this if necessary.

         Lighting
         Proper lighting levels are important in the office environment. Windows, overhead
         lighting and reflections from shiny surfaces can create glare and reflections on the
         monitor‘s screen. To reduce eye fatigue and distracting reflections, make sure that:
          The drapes are drawn or adjust the blinds.
          Use adjustable task lighting or desk lamps for documents.
          Reduce overhead lighting where possible by turning off lights, switching to
             lower wattage bulbs or dimmer switches.
          Have non-reflective surfaces to reduce glare.
         Avoid bright or strong contrasting colors in the field of vision. A bright wall
         behind a dark monitor screen can cause eyestrain from eyes repeatedly adjusting
         from the bright surroundings to the darker near field of view.
         Also, place task lighting or a desk lamp so that it does not create a glare on the
         monitor screen.
         The American National Standards Institute, Human Factors and Ergonomics
         Society recommends light levels at the work surface between 30- to 50-foot
         candles (ANSI/HFES 100-1988). A standard photography light meter can be used
         to measure illumination.

         The Document Holder
         If the worker transfers information from a paper document to the computer, a
         document holder may be helpful. A document holder or copy stand that is
         properly positioned can make data entry less stressful, increase efficiency,


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improve posture and allow the worker to work more comfortably. A document
holder that is placed close to the monitor changes the head twisting to less
stressful eye movements. Maximum comfort and benefit is gained when the
document holder is placed:
   Close to the monitor.
   The same distance from the eye as the monitor.
   The same height and angle as the monitor.
There are a variety of document holders and stands available to accommodate
different sizes of paper. Ask the supervisor for assistance in obtaining one that
meets the worker‘s needs.

Arranging the Work Area
Properly arranging the work area and keeping the work surface orderly improves
worker effectiveness and comfort. Think about how workers use things in their
workstation and which items are used most often. For example, if the worker is
right-handed, place the phone to their left so that they can write or use the
calculator while holding the phone. Desks should be clear of unnecessary items
and often used documents placed within easy reach.
The best layout depends on the worker‘s computer activities. If the worker
performs repetitive tasks, arrange their furniture and equipment to allow an
uninterrupted flow of materials. Equipment and frequently used files should be
located next to the worker.
In all cases, wires and cabling associated with the workstation should be arranged
and secured to prevent a tripping or fall hazard when the worker enters or leaves
the workstation.
Some examples of computer workstations include:
   Data Entry Workstation
    Data entry requires the worker to constantly enter data into the computer using
    the keyboard and source document. For this arrangement, the keyboard and
    source document should be placed directly in front of the worker with the
    display off to the side. Documents should be the same height as the display.
   Dialogue Workstation
    High-frequency dialogue requires the worker to continually retrieve and enter
    information in the computer. The screen and keyboard are the most important
    items and should be placed directly in front of the worker. Source documents
    are not as important as the screen and keyboard and should be off to the side.
   Data Inquiry Workstation
    Data inquiry requires the worker to retrieve from the computer screen and
    verify or write down information on a document. The screen and document are



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                the most important elements. The screen and writing areas should be the
                closest to the worker.
               Screen Pointing Device
                The computer mouse (or screen-pointing device) is an important part of the
                computer workstation. If the worker is right-handed, clear the right side of the
                computer work surface to move the screen-pointing device. Similarly, if the
                worker is left-handed, clear the left side of the computer work surface to move
                the screen-pointing device. It is important to support the worker‘s forearm and
                elbow while using the device. The vertical height of the pointing device
                should be at the same level as the keyboard.

         Take Care of Yourself
         Even with a properly adjusted workstation, sitting still for long periods of time can
         be tiring and stressful. Have the individual alternate sitting with standing while
         working, if the task and workstation allows. Also, have the individual try to
         alternate different tasks throughout the day and vary work activities; for example,
         getting up from the computer to photocopy or deliver completed work.
         Stretch occasionally and look away from the monitor. Sit back in the chair and use
         the backrest, rather than leaning forward or setting in the middle of the seat.
         Stretching and relaxation exercises can help to reduce stiffness and discomfort.
         The following exercises can help:
               Periodically stretch arms and legs while either setting or standing.
               Rotate head slowly from one side to the other, relaxing the neck muscles.
               Roll shoulders forward and backward several times.
               Stand up with arms down at your sides and breathe in slowly through the nose,
                exhaling slowly through the mouth.
               Make a tight fist and hold for a second, then spread fingers apart as far as
                possible.
         To reduce eye fatigue and irritation, several eye exercises listed below can be used
         to relax eye muscles:
               Close eyes, cup hands and place them over eyes for one minute. Open eyes
                with hands still covering eyes. Slowly spread the fingers to allow the eyes to
                adjust gradually to the light and then take hands away.
               Look at an object 20 feet away and focus on it for five to 10 seconds (do not
                choose a bright object). Blink eyes slowly several times while taking deep
                breaths.
         Vision care is extremely important when working with a computer. Make sure
         workers have regular eye examinations and proper corrective lenses if needed.
         Make sure the worker describes their job duties to their vision care provider
         during these eye examinations.


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    Workstation Surveys
    It is suggested that annual workstation surveys be conducted in order to identify
    potential workstation exposures that may contribute to the onset of
    musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis. The
    Workstation Checklist in Appendix 10-A can be utilized for this purpose.
    Answering ―no‖ to any of the questions listed is an indication that workstation
    adjustment or modification may be necessary.

    Correcting Problems Identified
    With computer use becoming more prevalent, the number of musculoskeletal
    disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis can be expected to
    increase unless proactive measures are taken. A critical step in this process is
    correcting those potential risk factors identified as a result of workstation
    assessments conducted. In many cases, the corrective measures are relatively
    simple and inexpensive to implement. Every effort should be made to see that
    such corrections are made soon after, if not during the workstation assessments.
    In other cases, antiquated office chairs and desks will need to be replaced with
    furniture better suited for computer use. Such transitions can be costly and may, in
    some cases, exceed budget constraints. For this reason, the replacement of
    outdated office furniture should be considered in long-range budget planning.

References
–   ―Office Ergonomics Handbook: Creating a Comfortable Work Environment‖,
    Marsh Risk Consulting, 2005.
–   Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. ―American National Standard for
    Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations.‖
    ANSI/HFS 100-1988. Santa Monica, CA, 1988.
–   ―Information About Eye Care: Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the Eye.‖
    American Academy of Ophthalmology, 1982.
–   Johnson, B. and J. M. Melius. ―Review of NIOSH‘s VDT Studies and
    Recommendations.‖ NIOSH Publications on Video Display Terminals. U.S. Dept.
    of Health and Human Services. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
    Office, 1987.




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  Appendix 10-A




Office Ergonomic Workstation Checklist
                                                                                          If no, what assistance
Item                                                                               Yes No is needed?
Is your chair adjusted with your feet resting firmly on the floor or on a
footrest?
Do you have ample legroom?
Are your arms comfortable while working at the keyboard?
Is your wrist straight when using the keyboard?
Do you have a wrist or palm rest device for the keyboard?
Is your mouse the same height as the keyboard?
Do you have a wrist or palm rest device for the mouse?
Is the top of you monitor screen at a comfortable height (approximately
eye level)?
Note: Individuals who wear bifocals or trifocals may need to position the screen
slightly lower than eye level.
Is your screen positioned to avoid reflections and glare?
Can you reposition your monitor?
If needed, do you have an anti-glare filter?
Have you adjusted the screen contrast and brightness to a comfortable
level?
Do you have ample back support?
Are all task items within easy reach?
Are you changing postures and positions throughout the day or doing other
non-data entry tasks (e.g., filing, copying, etc.) with your computer tasks?
Do you take your authorized breaks?
Can you do stretching exercises at your workstation?
Is your screen and glare filter clean?
Are there wires or cabling located below the workstation that may
cause a tripping hazard?

Answering ―No‖ to any of the questions is an indication that a workstation adjustment or
modification may be necessary.
Contact your supervisor if you need assistance with any of the items noted above.



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 Section 11




Tool and Equipment Safety

  Introduction
  Equipment and tools are the mechanical means by which much of the physical work
  on a campus is performed. Much of this equipment is sharp and is used to cut or move
  materials from place to place. In the hands of experienced operators, powered
  equipment can save many hours of physical labor. However, when the equipment is
  used improperly, serious injury or death may result. The Appendices that follow
  provide sample safety programs to help operators and their managers understand
  some of the hazards involved in using, handling or maintaining tools and equipment
  commonly found on the campus of an educational institution. Remember that these
  sample programs are only guidelines—they cannot foresee every possible situation of
  equipment usage. Use common sense at all times when operating powered equipment.
  This section should be one of the focal points in the institution‘s Risk Management
  Program. Why? One of the major causes of Workers‘ Compensation loss is related to
  ―using equipment‖ unsafely. Refer to an illustration of the Consortium‘s loss
  experience with respect to ―tools/equipment‖ in the Risk Management section of the
  EIIA website (www.eiia.org).
  Note: as a suggestion, the various topics covered in this section can easily be used as a
  basis for some specific ―Tool Box Talks‖ or ―Five Minute Safety Talks‖ with
  Physical Plant employees.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall control and
  monitoring of tool use and scaffold erection and use on campus.




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 Appendix 11-A




Sample Power Tool Safety Program
Note: Power tools belonging to the institution should never be loaned out.

   Introduction
   Staff, faculty and students at higher education institutions use power tools and
   machinery daily in performing their work. Unfortunately, they do not always use the
   tools properly and serious injuries have resulted. These include amputations, crushes
   and bruises from being struck by powered equipment, burns, cuts and other types of
   injuries. The purpose of this section is to provide basic guidelines to help you avoid
   these injuries.

   Scope and Application
   OSHA Standard 1910.242 addresses safe use of portable power tools. Since there is a
   wide variety of equipment types, one standard cannot provide guidelines for every
   separate type. Therefore, the general guidelines must be applied where they are
   applicable and common sense must also be used. Each worker should be familiar with
   the operations and hazards of the tool being operated and should use the tool properly
   to minimize the chance of injury.

   General Guidelines on Power Tools
   A. Only trained and authorized individuals may use power tools in their work.
   B. Individuals should be familiar with the operating procedures for each tool before
      starting to use it.
   C. Always use the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended
      for the tool. This includes safety glasses or goggles, gloves, hard hat, steel-toed
      shoes or other personal protection equipment.
   D. Inspect the tool prior to use to ensure that it is in good operating condition.



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    E. When using tools with sharp cutting edges (such as drills or saws), ensure that the
       blade or bit has been sharpened. This will make the tool easier to use and may also
       prevent the tool from slipping while making the cut.
    F. If a power tool is equipped with a guard, never wedge the guard back, never
       remove it, or otherwise try to defeat it. The guard was placed there to protect the
       operator from serious injury. Defeating the guard has two possible negative results
       for the operator; they are: (a) be seriously injured by the sharp tool, and (b) be
       fired for violating a safety rule.
    G. Many power tools are equipped with constant pressure controls. If the pressure on
       the trigger is released, the motor will stop. These controls also have a tie-down
       button to keep the motor running after releasing the trigger. This tie-down button
       should be used only under well-controlled situations. If the tie-down button is
       used and the operator gets injured, the operator may not be able to shut the motor
       off and the tool may keep on cutting causing more injury to the operator until
       someone can shut it off.
    H. Only use the tool to perform tasks it was designed for. Use for any other task
       could cause an injury. For example, using a chainsaw (which can catch on a small
       branch and jump in the operator‘s hands) to trim a hedge could cause you to get
       cut by the blade or to be injured by flying branches and leaves. Use a hedge
       trimmer for this task.
    I. When done with the tool, disconnect the power cord, so that the tool cannot be
       operated accidentally or by an unauthorized person.
    J. When using a belt-operated piece of equipment, such as a bench grinder, make
       sure that all pinch points are guarded. Pinch points are the points where the drive
       belt contacts the pulley.
    K. Make sure that all rotating parts of the equipment that are not used for work on a
       piece of material are properly guarded. This includes spindles on grinders and any
       protruding rotating shafts on roller-type equipment.
    L. Abrasive wheel grinders (bench- and pedestal-mounted, as well as portable)
       should have guards on them to protect against accidental contact. The maximum
       opening of a circular guard is 180º. On portable grinders, always be sure to keep
       the guard between the wheel and the operator during use.
    M. All bench and pedestal-mounted grinders should have a tool rest installed. Adjust
       the tool rest so that it is no more than 1/8" away from the wheel at all times.
    N. Always make sure that you have adequate ventilation when using or refueling
       gasoline-powered tools.
    O. Store all containers of gasoline in safety cans. When not using the gasoline, store
       the can in a protected metal cabinet designed for the storage of flammable liquids.




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Electrical Safety for Power Tools
A. Ensure that the plug is firmly attached to the cable and that the plug provides
   strain relief. This will keep the wires from pulling away from the pins inside the
   plug.
B. Always make sure that the ground pin (the round pin that is longer than the two
   flat pins) is firmly attached to the plug, not loose or cut off.
C. Check the power cable for any cracks, broken insulation, abrasions or other
   damage. Replace the cord if damage is found. OSHA does not allow the use of
   electrical tape to repair damaged power cables.
D. Check the controls to ensure that they are all well insulated.
E. If equipment uses water, check to make sure that the water is kept away from the
   electrical parts of the equipment or that there are effective seals in place to prevent
   moisture from getting to the motor.
F. During use, be observant for any problems, such as sparks, electrical shocks,
   uneven operation, or unusual noises from the equipment. These may be
   indications of equipment damage, which could possibly lead to electrical shock.
G. Keep the power cable away from any sources of water during operation. Keep the
   equipment away from water unless it is specifically designed for use in water.
H. When pulling the plug from the receptacle, pull the plug out, rather than the cord.
   This will reduce the chance of the wire pulling away from the plug‘s pins, thereby
   causing a short circuit.
I. During operation, check equipment periodically for heat buildup. If the equipment
   becomes too hot to touch, put it down until it cools off.
J. If you need to provide maintenance or repair service to a piece of equipment,
   make sure to disconnect the plug before beginning work. If the equipment is
   ―hard-wired‖ to the building‘s electrical service, follow the Lockout/Tagout
   procedures posted on/near the machine.
K. Electrical outlets should be provided with ground fault interrupter (GFI)
   receptacles in all areas required by Federal, State and local codes/regulations.

Handheld Drills and Drill Presses
A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a hand drill or drill press.
B. Inspect the drill before using. Don‘t use a dull or cracked drill.
C. Wear safety eye protection while drilling.
D. Always hold work in a vise or clamp to the drill table.
E. Always try to support part on parallels or a backing board when drilling through
   material.
F. Use a correctly ground drill bit for the material being drilled. Shop personnel can
   help select the correct bit.

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    G. Use the proper cutting fluid for the material being drilled.
    H. Always clean drill shank and/or drill sleeve and spindle hole before mounting.
    I. Never place taper shank tools such as large diameter drills or tapered shank
       reamers in a drill chuck. Only straight shank tools such as stand drills can be
       clamped in chucks.
    J. Remove taper shank tools from spindle or sleeve with a drill drift and hammer.
    K. Run drill at correct RPM for diameter of drill bit and material.
    L. Don‘t drill with too much pressure.
    M. Ease up on drilling pressure as the drill starts to break through the bottom of the
       material.
    N. If the drill binds in a hole, stop the machine and turn the spindle backwards by
       hand to release the bit.
    O. When drilling a deep hole withdraw the drill bit frequently to clear chips.
    P. Remove chips with a brush. Never by hand.
    Q. Never try to loosen the drill chuck while the power is on.
    R. Let the spindle stop of its own accord after turning the power off. Never try to
       stop the spindle with your hand.
    S. Lower the drill spindle close to the table when releasing the drill chuck or taper
       shank drill to reduce the chance of damage in the event they fall onto the table.
    T. Always remove the drill chuck key or the drill drift from the spindle immediately
       after using.

    Band Saws
    A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a band saw.
    B. Use the proper pitch blade for the thickness of the material to be cut. There
       should be at least 2 teeth in the material when cutting aluminum and three teeth
       when cutting steel.
    C. The upper guide and guard should be set as close to the work as possible, at least
       within ¼ inch.
    D. Do not run the band saw at a higher speed than recommended for the material
       being cut.
    E. If the saw stalls in a cut, turn the power off and reverse the blade by hand to free
       it.
    F. If the band breaks, immediately shut off the power and stand clear until the
       machine has stopped.
    G. Examine blade before installing to see if it is cracked, do not install a cracked
       blade.


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Table Saws
A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a table saw.
B. Use the proper blade for the material and type of cut. Do not use a rip blade for
   cross cutting, or a crosscut blade for rip sawing. Do not use a plywood blade for
   anything but plywood.
C. Inspect the blade before using it to make sure it is sharp and free from cracks.
D. The circular blade of the table saw should be set to 1/8 inch above the work.
E. Appropriate guards must be in place at all times. Never remove the guard.
F. Stand to one side, never directly in line with work being fed through the saw.
G. Never allow your fingers to get near the blade when sawing. Use a pusher stick to
   rip narrow pieces of stock. Don‘t use a pusher stick to remove scrap. For scrap
   removal, shut off machine and wait until blade stops, then remove scraps.
H. If a piece of material you are cutting is large, get someone to assist in tailing-off
   for you. Never try to do it alone. Tailing-off refers to supporting a large workpiece
   by supporting it underneath with your hands.
I. If you are tailing-off for someone else, let them guide the work through the saw.
   You should just support the work without influencing the cut.
J. Never reach over the saw to obtain something from the other side.
K. Never make any adjustments to the saw while it is running. Turn off the power
   and make sure the saw is completely stopped before attempting to adjust it.
L. Do not allow material to collect on or around the saw table. Sweep up sawdust and
   material scraps regularly while working to minimize chances of slipping or
   stumping.
M. When shutting off the power, never attempt to stop the saw quickly by shoving
   anything against the blade. Make sure the saw has stopped before leaving it.
N. Make sure that you clean up thoroughly around the saw before leaving the area. If
   you don‘t, you could be the cause of someone else having an accident.

Chain Saws
A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a chain saw.
B. Supervisors shall verify that operators are capable and qualified on each type of
   equipment before allowing the equipment to be operated unsupervised.
C. Operators shall perform a pre-operational check of equipment. Be familiar with
   operator‘s manual. Report all needed repairs promptly and do not use any
   equipment that is unsafe.
D. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment consistent with the hazard. This
   should include eye goggles and hearing protection; gloves, chaps and hard hats
   when felling trees.


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    E. Do not wear loose jewelry and chains. Snug fitting clothing is recommended.
    F. Never start the chain saw until you are at the location where you intend to use the
       saw.
    G. Operate the chain saw only in well-ventilated areas.
    H. Before you start the engine, make sure the chain or blade is not contacting any
       object.
    I. Do not allow other persons to be near the chain saw when starting or cutting.
    J. Never start cutting until you have a clear work area and secure footing.
    K. Always hold the chain saw firmly with both hands when the engine is running.
       Use a firm grip with thumb and fingers encircling the chain saw handles.
    L. Keep all parts of body away from the saw chain or blade when the engine is
       running.
    M. Do not cut with the power saw above your head to guard against kickback and to
       prevent back injuries.
    N. When operating a chain saw, be aware of the stress of the item being cut. Pinching
       may result on compression side and sudden break may result on tension side.
    O. Always shut off the engine before putting down the saw.
    P. During emergencies, look for downed utility lines before cutting with saw.

    Fueling Safety for Power Engines
    A. Always store gasoline in an approved container.
    B. Do not smoke while handling fuel.
    C. Beware of static electricity and sparks between the power engine and fuel cans
       (metal and plastic).
    D. Always stop the engine to refuel the tank.
    E. Avoid spilling fuel or oil. Spilled fuel should always be cleaned up.
    F. Do not remove fuel tank cap when engine is running.
    G. Move the engine at least 10 feet from the fueling point before starting the engine.
    H. Keep handles dry, clean and free from oil or fuel mixtures.
    I. Know if the motor is a two-stroke engine. Two-stroke engines require a mixture of
       gasoline and oil in a proper ratio.
    J. Always use the correct type of oil and good quality gasoline and mix them
       according to the manufacturer‘s specifications.
    K. Mix the oil and gasoline outside and mix enough for one day‘s work.
    L. Keep the gasoline/oil mixture away from flames and other heat sources.



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M. Before fueling, shake the container vigorously, to ensure that the gasoline and oil
   are thoroughly mixed.
N. Pressure can build up in the fuel tank. Loosen the cap slowly to bleed off that
   pressure before refueling.
O. Try not to leave the fuel tank full at the end of a job. This could cause the engine
   or carburetor to get sticky, which could lead to difficult starts.

Golf Carts
A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate golf carts.
B. Golf carts should not be operated in a manner that may endanger passengers or
   other individuals (e.g., pedestrians), or harm institution property (e.g., no driving
   on landscaping, bumping into bollards, etc.).
C. Do not exceed the passenger limit and load capacity designated by the vehicle‘s
   manufacturer.
D. Golf carts should be restricted to designated streets and paths on campus.
E. Operators must reduce speed on walkways and in pedestrian areas. In crowded
   pedestrian areas, operators must park or proceed at a slow walking pace.
F. Park only on hard covered surfaces (e.g., asphalt, concrete, brick).
G. Use of golf carts should be prohibited on soft surfaces, including but not limited
   to: landscaping, unpaved surfaces, tanbark-covered areas, etc..
H. Do not block entrances to buildings, stairways, disability ramps, or main
   thoroughfares.
I. Do not chain vehicles to trees.
J. Electric vehicles are to be recharged at location designated for such use.
K. Use of extension cords from inside buildings to vehicles is prohibited.

Lawnmowers
A. Only trained and authorized operators should use lawnmowers, especially the
   commercial-size machines.
B. Operators should prepare themselves, especially if they will be mowing for
   extended periods of time. Wear tight-fitting clothes that will protect arms and legs.
   Sturdy leather shoes are a must, with steel toed shoes a preferred choice. Safety
   goggles will help protect eyes from any flying debris that may come out from
   under the mower. Also apply liberal doses of sunscreen lotion, particularly if
   mowing during the hottest parts of the day. Have access to water, to avoid
   dehydration.
C. Prepare the lawn for mowing. Clean up obvious debris that could become flying
   projectiles if struck by the spinning blade. Direct the discharge chute away from
   areas where people are likely to be walking and parked vehicles.

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    D. Check the equipment prior to use to ensure that all required guards are in place
       and the equipment is working properly.
         For example:
                -   Check the mower to verify that all ―kill‖ switches are working properly.
                -   Power-driven chains, belts or gears should be guarded to prevent the
                    operator from coming into contact with them during normal operation.
         Discontinue use and arrange for maintenance if the machinery is not working
         properly.
    E. Always make sure the operating controls are in neutral before starting the engine.
    F. Keep the lawnmower blade higher than the bottom of the circular blade guard.
    G. Never allow passengers on a riding mower while it is operating. It was designed
       for only one rider.
    H. Always keep feet out from under the lawnmower blade guard. The blade rotates
       close to the guard and feet could be seriously cut by the blade.
    I. Never leave a running mower unattended. The vibration from the engine could
       jiggle the clutch out of neutral and into gear causing the mower to start to move
       again.
    J. When stopping to refuel:
                -   Turn off the engine and let the machine cool down before adding fuel.
                -   Wipe up any spills and avoid spilling fuel onto any hot parts of the engine.
                -   The operator should take a break, drink water and check to be sure they are
                    not getting overheated.
    K. Keep the fuel supply for refueling in an approved flammable liquids storage
       container.
    L. When moving:
                -   Be aware of people, animals and vehicles that may be injured or damaged
                    by debris from the mower.
                -   Stop when people or animals approach.
                -   Mow so the discharge is directed away from cars, buildings, sidewalks and
                    parking lots.
    M. Try not to mow wet grass if it can be avoided. Wet grass is slippery and can cause
       the operator to lose control of the mower. Wet grass also clogs the discharge
       chute, which could cause the engine to overheat.
    N. When mowing on the side of a hill, the operator needs to be aware of the
       machine‘s stability. Safety experts are divided in their recommendations. Some
       recommend mowing up and down, while others say the safest way is across the
       slope. Still others recommend using walk-behind mowers across the slope to avoid


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   having the mower either come back down the hill onto the operator or down the
   hill away from the operator.
   Our recommendation is to avoid using power mowers on steep slopes and use
   hand mowers or manual methods to mow the grass. If the hill is large and the
   operator must use a power mower, try to use a walk-behind mower, rather than a
   riding mower. Keep all bystanders away in case the mower should get away from
   the operator. Keep the center of gravity low to minimize the chance of a rollover.
   Don‘t become distracted. If some slippage or loss of stability is noted, the operator
   should protect themselves, i.e., move uphill, away from the machine, until the
   machine comes to rest.
   An option is to plant shrubbery or a ground cover to avoid mowing sloped areas.
O. If the mower uses a catcher bag, always shut the engine off when changing the
   bag.
P. If a stone or other object jams the discharge chute of the mower, shut the machine
   off before trying to clean out the obstruction. Never reach in with a hand to clear
   the obstruction. Use a stick or other tool. There could be stored energy in the
   blades. When the obstruction is removed, the blade could begin to rotate, even
   though the engine has been shut off. The operator could still be seriously injured.
Q. If the mover requires servicing, disconnect the spark plug. This will reduce the
   chance of the engine starting from the rotation of the blade.

Weedeaters
A. Only trained and authorized operators may be allowed to use the weedeater.
B. Consult the operator‘s manual before using the tool for the first time each season.
C. Operators should be in good mental and physical condition to operate the
   weedeater.
D. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when using the weedeater. Appropriate
   PPE includes long pants or high boots, gloves and goggles or full face shield. If in
   an area where a lot of gravel may be thrown up, consider wearing a hard hat. Wear
   ear protection if operating a gas motor powered weedeater.
E. Only use the weedeater for its intended purpose: trimming grass and weeds at
   ground level around buildings or posts. Never use it for trimming hedges or tree
   branches.
F. Make sure that all nuts and bolts are connected tightly before starting the motor.
G. To minimize the danger of flying stones and debris, make a quick visual check of
   the area to be trimmed before starting. Remove any small pieces that could be
   kicked up.
H. Since the spinning nylon cord can kick up stones and other debris, always keep
   other people and animals at least twenty feet away when using the weedeater.




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    I. Work in a direction that would direct any flying debris away from windows,
       parked vehicles or other areas where people may be sitting or working.
    J. Keep away from the exhaust—it gets very hot when the engine is running.
    K. Always keep the line guard in place when trimming.
    L. Always use both hands for good control of the cutting line.
    M. Know the limitations of the cutting line and stay away from large bushes or small
       trees. The line will not cut them and flying chunks could cause injury.
    N. Use only approved replacement nylon cord. Never replace the nylon cord with
       metal wire.
    O. Make adjustments with the motor off and the spark plug disconnected to avoid
       accidental motor starts.
    P. Never leave the weedeater unattended.
    Q. Keep the fuel supply for refueling in an approved flammable liquids storage
       container.

    Hedge Trimmers
    A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a hedge trimmer.
    B. Hedge trimmers must not be used by minors or by anyone under the influence of
       drugs and alcohol.
    C. You must have at least the following items of personal protective equipment:
       goggles, hearing protection and gloves.
    D. Protect other people from the noise and from injury. Keep people at least 30 feet
       away.
    E. Before starting, clear the area of wire, stout branches and other debris that could
       foul your hedge trimmer.
    F. Check your machine, engine and all equipment.
    G. Make sure that you understand all of the controls. Before you start the hedge
       trimmer, you must know how to stop it.
    H. Make sure that any guards on your hedge trimmer are in place and adjusted
       correctly.
    I. Always hold the hedge trimmer firmly with both hands.
    J. Make sure the cutting blade is running at full speed before starting to cut the
       hedge.
    K. Do not try to cut thick twigs. This hedge trimmer is only for trimming foliage.
    L. Do not try to cut off all growth in one pass, remove it one layer at a time. Make
       sure that you can control the amount you are removing before you take off the
       final layers.


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M. Beware of debris that may be thrown out by the trimming blade.
N. If the hedge trimmer starts to labor and slow down, do not force it so hard. Do not
   overload the engine.
O. Stop the hedge trimmer if someone approaches you.
P. Stop the engine and make sure the trimming blade has stopped before making any
   adjustments.
Q. Stop the engine before leaving the machine unattended.

Snow Blowers
A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate a snow blower.
B. Be aware of how the controls work, especially the engine ―kill‖ switch. The
   operator may have to find it quickly in the dark while blowing snow on an early
   winter morning.
C. Take time before the snow starts to fall to inspect the machine and prepare it for
   winter.
D. Prepare yourself for outside winter work, i.e., dress warmly, including sturdy,
   steel-toed weatherproof boots, warm hats and gloves. Safety goggles are also
   appropriate, especially if the wind is blowing.
E. If you will be cleaning a large area during the hours of darkness, visible clothing,
   such as a reflective safety vest should be worn. Let someone know when to expect
   you back in so you can be checked on if something happens.
F. Always keep the controls in neutral when starting the snow blower.
G. Make sure that all guards are in place before starting the engine.
H. Before starting to clean an area, check first for any large objects that could be run
   over. Remove them if possible or mark them if they can‘t be moved. This will
   minimize the possibility of striking them.
I. Move the snow blower to a well-ventilated area before starting the engine.
J. Aim the discharge chute to minimize the blowing of snow toward people and
   parked vehicles.
K. Be aware of the wind, so that you are not blowing snow back onto yourself.
L. Set the height of the blades at ½‖ to 1" above the ground. This will minimize the
   danger of running into a small piece of debris and throwing it into somebody. This
   will also minimize the chances of damage to the blower.
M. If the discharge chute should become jammed with packed snow and debris, shut
   off the engine and wait at least 5 seconds after the engine has shut off. Sometimes
   there is a brief recoil of the blades after the engine stops.
N. Use a stick or other object to clear jams. Keep hands away from the augers and
   other moving parts, even when the machine has been shut down.


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    O. If the blades strike an object, immediately stop the blower and turn off the engine.
       Inspect for damage. Damaged parts could expose the operator to danger from
       flying metal or possible motor damage.
    P. When the snow blower is in operation, never leave it unattended.
    Q. When done snowblowing, check the blower over for any damage that may have
       occurred. Clean off the snow, salt and dirt on the blower, to ensure that it will be
       ready to go next time.
    R. Keep the fuel supply for refueling in an approved flammable liquids storage
       container.

    Snow Plows
    A. Only trained and authorized personnel should operate snow plows.

    B. Operators shall perform a pre-operational check of their equipment. Be familiar
       with operator‘s manual. Report all needed repairs promptly. Do not use any
       equipment that is unsafe.
    C. Supervisors shall verify that operators are capable and qualified on each type of
       equipment before allowing the equipment to be operated unsupervised.
    D. Inspect plows and components prior to use as follows and repair or replace any
       items found to be deficient:
         1. Check plow, plow frame and shear flange for cracks, broken welds or loose
            bolts.
         2. Check shear flange and pins for proper bolt grade, size, tightness and
            condition.
         3. Check safety chains and blade for wear and condition.
         4. Check for leaky or damaged hydraulic lines, fittings or cylinders.
         5. Check lube points and lube as needed.
         6. Check all controls to ensure smooth and correct operation.
    E. Be aware of pinch points when installing or removing plows. Keep your hands
       away. Do not lift with your back. Get help and use lifting equipment as needed.
    F. Always use safety chains or protective blocking when changing blades or
       performing other work on plows; never trust the hydraulic system!
    G. Adjust your plowing speed to the conditions, i.e., traffic volumes, pedestrians,
       highway conditions, material to be plowed, terrain and visibility.
    H. While plowing, watch for bridge joints, water meters, manholes, railroad tracks,
       etc.
    I. Check the condition of the plow periodically during use using the guidelines
       provided in D above.


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J. The use of flags on ends of plow is recommended for visual contact by driver.
K. When possible, plow operators should inspect plowing route and note or mark
   hazards.
L. For long distance travel (outside normal work area), snow plow should be chained
   in the up position to relieve stress on the cylinder and lifting mechanism.

Trailers
A. Supervisors shall verify that operators are capable and qualified on each type of
   equipment before allowing the equipment to be operated unsupervised.
B. Operators shall perform a pre-operational check of their equipment. Be familiar
   with the operator‘s manual. Report needed repairs promptly. Do not use any
   equipment that is unsafe.
C. Operators shall perform a visual and manual check of the ―pintle hooks‖ to ensure
   that they are secure before the truck and attachment are put to use.
D. Make sure cargo is properly loaded and secured using only approved chain and
   load binders. Safety chains are to be used on any attachment in tow. Ensure that
   the chains are of the proper strength for the load and are properly secured to both
   the vehicle and attachment to be towed.
E. Be aware of height and width of load.
F. Never load a trailer beyond its recommended capacity.
G. Do not allow anyone between truck and trailer when backing to hook trailer.
H. Plan ahead to minimize the need for backing. Always check to the rear before
   backing and use an observer when available. Make sure back-up alarms are
   working properly.
I. Make sure trailer-bed and ramps are clear of any debris.
J. Make sure tilt-beds or ramps are secure before putting trailer in use.
K. Hook, unhook, load and unload on stable ground with trailer secure.
L. Be sure taillights and turn signals are in view when towing any attachment that
   does not have taillight hookup.
M. Observe towing speed limit if applicable.

Air Conditioners
Air conditioner safety has two components: proper installation and safely performing
maintenance. The first part of this section deals with installation to minimize injury or
property damage. The second part addresses safe maintenance/repair procedures.




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         Installation
    A. Install air conditioners in areas where there is no oil mist in the air. Oil mist will
       accumulate on the heat exchanger and negatively affect its performance. In
       addition, the mist may be blown into the room being cooled, which could affect
       the breathing quality of the air.
    B. Install air conditioners away from other sources of air that could corrode the metal
       parts of the unit. These air sources include coastal areas (salty air), sulphur spring
       areas (acid or alkaline air), or near garages (exhaust gases and vapors).
    C. Air conditioners may leak small amounts of refrigerant gas over extended periods
       of time. If the unit is installed in a small room, ensure that there is adequate
       ventilation to remove the gas.
    D. If the unit is installed where there is a chance of snow accumulation, install it
       where there is a minimal possibility of snow either blowing into the unit or piling
       up on top of it.
    E. Periodically inspect and service the air conditioner, especially when it is subject to
       heavy or non-stop use during periods of hot weather. Filters should be inspected
       and cleaned regularly for optimum performance.

         Maintenance Procedures
    A. If you are going to remove the air conditioner cover and work on the controls, be
       sure to switch off the power first.
    B. Wear gloves when handling sharp parts of the unit. Other protective equipment,
       such as safety goggles, will be useful when using hazardous cleaning chemicals or
       blowing/vacuuming dust out of the inner parts of the unit.
    C. Air conditioners are not only heavy, they may also have much of their weight
       concentrated on one side. For this reason, use a cart or hoist to install or remove a
       window air conditioner. At the very least, get a helper and work together. Use
       bracing material to help hold the unit in position while adjusting the window
       frame around it.
    D. Contact a HVAC contractor to help clean the drains at least once a year. This will
       help to remove any mold or bacteria growing in the drains. Unless employees
       have been specially trained to perform this task, it is best left to the professionals.
    E. If employees have been trained to use high-pressure suction to clear drains, be
       sure they wear appropriate protective equipment, such as protective masks for
       nuisance dusts.




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 Section 12




Vehicle Safety

  Introduction
  Vehicles are used for many functions on a campus, from the day-to-day activities of
  the Physical Plant Department in maintaining the campus to the transportation of
  athletic teams to sporting events and a multiple of uses in between. Vehicle accidents
  can and do result from a number of causes, with most resulting from improper or
  unsafe actions by the vehicle operator, such as unsafe turning, unsafe backing, unsafe
  passing or following or disregard of traffic signs.
  The consortium‘s experience on vehicle related losses can be viewed in the Risk
  Management section of EIIA‘s website (www.eiia.org).

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus vehicle safety effort. This individual should be given the authority to
  organize a Vehicle Safety Advisory Committee to oversee and implement best
  practices aimed at reducing vehicle incidents resulting from institution-related vehicle
  operations.
  These best practices should include the following: training all drivers that drive on
  institution business or operate institution vehicles; maintaining a list of approved
  drivers for the institution; and developing and enforcing the institution‘s vehicle
  safety policies.

  Vehicle Program Organization and Leadership
  Membership for the Vehicle Safety Advisory Committee should be comprised of
  representatives from departments with significant vehicle usage, such as Athletics,
  Admissions, Administration, Development and Physical Plant. Committee members
  should be rotating with one-fourth to one-third of the members rotating in and out of



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    the committee each year. The activities of the Advisory Committee should be reported
    to the Campus Risk Management/Safety Steering Committee.
    The forms included in the Appendices to this Section can assist the Advisory
    Committee in such areas as seat belt use, driver selection and training, vehicle control
    and maintenance, driver history and motor vehicle record (MVR) checks, vehicle
    inspections and cellular phone use.

    Training
    Training is an important component of any institution‘s Vehicle Safety Program,
    especially when the drivers are transporting students on institution-sponsored trips or
    to athletic events. It is also important that drivers are trained and licensed to operate
    the vehicle they are using. Defensive driver training should be provided to all drivers
    of institution vehicles before allowing drivers to drive either institution owned
    vehicles or drive on institution business. A best practice is that all drivers receive
    refresher training on an annual basis.
    Here are some questions that the institution may want to ask in evaluating its
    program:
    –    Are the drivers of your student transport cars and vans up to date in their
         understanding and use of critical defensive driving skills and techniques?
    –    If drivers operate vans, have they been trained specifically to drive a vehicle that
         is larger, heavier and has more blind spots than a passenger car?
    Driver training can be accomplished in many ways on campus, from training provided
    by qualified in-house personnel or by outside agencies, such as the local police
    department. Another option is to utilize the web-based AlertDriving.com driver
    training program provided by EIIA for all Consortium members. We encourage you
    to mandate that all campus drivers complete at least the following program:

    AlertDriving.com Van Driver Training Program – Van Safety 1 and Van
    Safety 2
    The AlertDriving Van Driver Training Program is applicable to all drivers, not only
    to van drivers. The program offers participants intensive defensive driver training
    that is challenging, substantive and most importantly builds skills that improve driver
    performance while reducing an institution‘s overall fleet accidents. The van program
    covers defensive driving techniques, such as:
    –    Defensive backing and parking
    –    Dealing with blind spots
    –    Cornering
    –    Curbing and distractions
    –    Ways to help prevent roll-overs



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The Van Driver Training Program consists of two modules – Van Safety 1 and Van
Safety 2. Each module has a 4-step design that includes an interactive slide show,
statistical summary, an Internet video and a comprehensive quiz. The modules deliver
needed skills in 20-minute high interaction sessions. Trainees receive an electronic
certificate of completion. Trainees can complete the program from any Internet
enabled computer anywhere, anytime. Minimum system requirements include Internet
access and a computer.
The program offers participants intensive defensive driver training that is challenging,
substantive and most importantly builds skills that improve driver performance while
reducing an institution‘s overall fleet accidents.
The driver training program is intended for faculty, administrators, staff and students
who work or volunteer for the institution and would have occasion(s) to drive for the
college‘s or university‘s business. Each institution should assign at least one (1)
administrator to manage its driver training program. To register an administrator(s)
for AlertDriving.com and have access to the driver training program, please call
1.800.537.8410, ext. 219. There is no additional charge to Consortium members for
this service. The cost of the training services is included in the auto liability insurance
program fees.

Vehicle Safety Policies and Procedures
It is suggested that each institution have policies and procedures in place to manage
the Vehicle Safety Program on campus. The implementation of these
polices/procedures will assist the institution in lowering the frequency of vehicle
incidents and prevent injuries to members of the campus community.
A brief description of the areas covered in these policies is provided below with
sample policies provided in the subsequent appendices:

   Seat Belt Usage
   Seat belts are one of the most important pieces of safety equipment installed on a
   motor vehicle. Each institution should implement a policy stating that seat belt
   usage is required at all times when traveling in institution vehicles (drivers and
   passengers). See Appendix 12A for additional information.

   Driver Selection
   To help select only well-qualified operators, the institution should implement a
   driver selection process that:
      Permits only drivers with a good driving record to operate institution vehicles;
      Permits only drivers with valid operator‘s licenses;
      Evaluates the driver‘s ability to operate a specific vehicle; and




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               Certifies that each specific driver has been approved for driving on
                institutional business. See Appendices 12-B, 12-C, 12-D and 12-E for
                additional information.

         Driver Evaluation and Training
         In order to understand the responsibilities and techniques for driving safely, all
         drivers must be able to demonstrate their skills in operating their assigned
         vehicles. If drivers are not able to demonstrate the necessary driving skills, they
         will be trained in the appropriate techniques. See Appendices 12-B (Sample Fleet
         Administration Policy) and 12-E (Sample Driving History Motor Vehicle Records
         Point Valuation Guideline) for additional information.

         Vehicle Control and Operations
         Some vehicles may be assigned to individuals as part of their job duties, such as
         the Director of Physical Plant, the Security Director, or the President. These
         employees should operate and maintain these vehicles as though they were their
         own. Also, various employees or students, depending on the institution‘s need
         may operate institution vehicles, including pool vehicles. Control of these vehicles
         will be maintained through Campus Security, the Business Office, or another
         designated department.
         Each institution should have a specific policy regarding the use of institution-
         owned vehicles by family members of the employee assigned vehicles. If family
         member use is permitted by the institution, all drivers must meet the institution‘s
         driver selection criteria. EIIA discourages children/relatives from driving
         institution-owned vehicles.
         In addition, each institution should implement a policy regarding vehicle
         operations that covers some key items that will help prevent driver distractions
         and minimize inattention to the driving task – an underlying cause of many
         vehicle accidents. The vehicle operations policy should specify a time at which all
         vehicles must return to campus. If a return trip cannot be completed by the time
         specified, hotel accommodations should be arranged. In this case, fatigue is a
         significant distracting influence (especially at night) to the driving task. For
         example, a van may be returning from an intense activity at night and all
         passengers are sleeping. The driver may also be fatigued and there is a possibility
         that he/she will nod off. In scenarios like this, at least one other approved driver
         should be available to drive. These two drivers should rotate the driving task,
         changing every few hours. As appropriate, these two drivers should be allowed to
         rest prior to starting the return trip.
         The policy should also indicate that loose items be secured in the vehicle before
         driving. Loose items on the dashboard/rear deck, on a seat, or on the floor need to
         be secured so they don‘t become hazardous to the occupants/driver or a distraction
         to the driver. Further, the policy should state that the driver request a minimum of



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loud discussion or music inside the vehicle, especially at times when traffic,
weather or road conditions demand his/her greatest attention to the driving task.

Entering or Exiting Vehicles Safely
   If you park during daylight hours, think about how the location will look if
    you need to return when it is dark. Look for well-lit areas when you park your
    car. Do not park next to areas that could conceal a potential criminal, such as
    shrubbery, buildings, and dumpsters, etc.
   Before exiting your car, first look around to see if there are any threats to your
    safety.
   Always have keys to your destination in hand (car, office, home, etc.) so you
    do not waste precious time fumbling for them. Seconds can make a difference
    to your personal safety.
   As you approach your car, check for potential threats to your safety. Look
    alongside, around and beneath your car and check the interior of your car
    before you get in – someone may be hiding from you.
   If you observe someone in your car, do not approach. Instead, leave as quickly
    as you can and call the police.
   Always check to make sure you do not have a flat tire or other visible damage
    to your car that will render it disabled.
   If you must give flight, drop any packages or other items you may be carrying.
    If necessary, you can always come back when it is safe to retrieve them. It is
    better to give up personal property than to sustain serious injury or death.

Pre/Post Trip Vehicle Inspections (Owned, Leased or Rental)
It is important to ensure that vehicles are maintained in good operating condition.
To help achieve compliance, a policy should be implemented to have pre- and
post-trip inspections performed on all institution vehicles. Inspection checklists
should be used and reviewed. The inspections should identify any needed repairs
and corrective action taken. With regard to brakes, unless inspected by a certified
mechanic, brakes should not be an item marked as inspected. In the case of rented
or leased vehicles, the institution‘s employee should have any body damage noted
on the rental or lease contract. Refer to Appendix 12-G for sample ―Vehicle
Pre/Post-Trip Inspection Form‖.

Carjacking and Car Theft Prevention
   If someone bumps into your car, look around before you get out. If you have a
    car phone or cell phone, call 911 and notify the police; give them a description
    of the vehicle that bumped you. Stay in your car if possible and keep the doors
    locked and windows rolled up. Make sure there are other cars around, check
    out the car that rear-ended you and who is in it. If the situation makes you
    uneasy, note the license plate number and description of the car, and ask the

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                driver to follow you. Go to the nearest police station or to a busy well-lit area.
                If you do get out of your car, take your keys (and purse and wallet) with you
                and stay alert. If you sense something is wrong, leave or alert other drivers.
               Know the area you travel; know alternate routes; note where you frequently
                stop and wait; know what traffic lane offers you greatest flexibility to react.
                Know where ‗safe havens‘ are located.
               Have some plans for reacting to a carjacking – how could you safely get away,
                how would you react?
               At traffic lights and stop signs, be aware of who is around you, particularly to
                the sides and the rear of your vehicle. Watch for people approaching your
                vehicle.
               When you are stopped at ATMs, malls or other places, be aware of who is
                around you and be aware of the possibility of being blocked in by another
                vehicle.
               Park in well-lit areas and avoid remote locations, especially in shopping malls.
               Before you even enter your car, be alert to any activity near your car. In malls
                and large parking lots, where potential thieves could be hiding behind nearby
                cars, pay attention to your surroundings. Look in and around your car. Have
                your keys in hand before you arrive at your vehicle to avoid fumbling and
                creating an opportunity for someone to overtake you.
               When you get in your car, immediately lock the doors and be sure the
                windows are up.
               Keep your windows and doors locked when you drive.
               When you stop at a traffic signal or stop sign, leave some space between you
                and the vehicle in front of you so you have some room to leave quickly, if you
                need it. Even if you need to go through a red light (after checking for
                approaching traffic), do so – if you alert a nearby police officer, all the better.
               Be suspicious of strangers asking for directions, change, or handing out flyers.
                If you feel uncomfortable, pull out carefully and leave the area, even if it
                means running a red light or stop sign.
               If your car becomes disabled, pull to the side of the road and wait for police to
                arrive, or, if possible, drive slowly to a secure location or a police station. If
                someone offers to help, ask them to call the police. If you have a car phone,
                call the police as soon as you run into trouble.
               If you suspect you are being followed, never drive home. Change directions,
                go to a safe area – ideally a police station – or call the police.
               Before you exit your vehicle, look around you before turning off the ignition
                and unlocking the doors. Lock your car when you leave it.
               Be especially wary during late night hours; national statistics show most
                carjackings take place between 10 pm and 2 am.


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   If you must leave a key with a parking attendant, leave only your vehicle‘s
    ignition key.
   Install and use anti-theft devices, whether an alarm or a protective device like
    a club or a collar. Be sure to activate the device every time you leave your
    vehicle.
   Park only in well-lighted areas near other vehicles.
   Keep valuables out of sight, preferably locked away in the trunk.
   Don‘t hide a spare key in a magnetic key box; thieves know all the hiding
    places.
   At home, if possible, put your car away in a locked garage, or at least parked
    in the driveway.
   If you have two cars and one of them is easy to break into, then park it in the
    driveway so it‘s blocked by the other car. When you park your car, turn the
    front wheels to the left or right and put the emergency brake on. This locks the
    wheels, making it difficult for a thief to steal the car.

    What if it Happens to Me?
   Don‘t argue. Give up your car, especially if you are threatened with a gun or
    other weapon. Your life is worth far more than the car. Remember that your
    car is not bullet proof; if you feel it is safe to accelerate to get away, then do
    so, but keep your safety in mind.
   Get away from the area as quickly as possible.
   If you can safely do so, sound your horn repeatedly. If you have an alarm,
    press the duress button. This may discourage your attacker.
   Try to get a good description of the carjacker. Note sex, race, age, weight,
    height, hair and eye color, distinguishing features, and clothing.
   Report the crime as soon as possible to police.

Accident Reporting and Investigation
Accidents can seriously impact the lives of those involved, both as drivers and as
passengers. To minimize the long-term effects of those accidents and to ensure
that they do not happen again, an institution policy should be implemented to
address the requirements for reporting and investigating the accidents. See
Appendix 12-B for additional information and Appendix 3-B for the ―Vehicle
Accident Investigation and Report Form‖.

Cellular Phone Usage and Policy
Each institution should implement a policy regarding cell phone usage while
operating institution vehicles. Cell phone usage should be in compliance with this



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         policy. See Appendix 12-I for additional information on a cellular phone usage
         and sample policy.

         Trailer and Towing Safety
         Operating a vehicle that is towing a trailer presents a unique set of issues for a
         driver. Only authorized and experienced drivers should be permitted to operate
         vehicles towing trailers.
         Information on Trailer Safety is provided in Appendix 12-L.

         Transportation of K through 12 students
         Periodically, institutions may have a need to transport grammar school and high
         school students in institution owned vehicles. Appendix 12-M provides
         information on these activities.

         Insurance Coverage for Rental Vehicles in Foreign Countries
         Institution representatives renting vehicles for institution business, in countries
         other and the United States, its possessions and Canada should purchase the
         following auto insurance coverages in the country where the vehicle is being
         rented:
               Liability
               Collision damage
               Comprehensive damage

         Insurance Coverage for Third Parties
         Third party vendors/employees/volunteers working on or using campus facilities
         should provide an original certificate of insurance issued to the institution as
         evidence of having $2 million combined single limit of owned and non-owned
         commercial auto insurance in force.




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  Appendix 12-A




Seat Belt Usage
Seat belts are one of the most important pieces of safety equipment installed on a motor
vehicle. Thus, it should be noted that the use of seat belts is entirely under the control of
the driver. All assigned vehicle drivers should follow the procedures listed below as a
condition of assignment as a vehicle driver for (name of institution):
   A. Upon first assignment to the vehicle, inspect it to ensure that there are enough seat
      belts for the intended number of passengers and that the seat belts are in good
      condition.
   B. When going on a trip (even a short trip across town), ensure that there is a seat
      belt for every passenger. If not, limit the number of passengers to the number of
      seat belts available.
   C. If you will be transporting children, ensure that there are an adequate number of
      approved car seats for the ages and weights of the children to be transported. The
      car seats should be tightly connected to the passenger‘s seats through the use of
      the seat belts. Follow manufacturer‘s directions for car seat installation and check
      with local/state laws to ensure proper compliance.
   D. Before moving out of the ―Park‖ position, the driver must ensure that all
      passengers are appropriately secured by seat belts and shoulder harnesses.
   E. It goes without saying that the driver should never drive the vehicle until his/her
      seat belt and shoulder harness are secured.




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 Appendix 12-B




Sample Fleet Administration Policy

  Introduction
  Because of the mobility of vehicles in a fleet, control of a fleet is often difficult.
  Administration of a vehicle fleet requires the consistent implementation of strong
  policies and procedures, to ensure that drivers and departments know their
  responsibilities and carry them out. The following guidelines have been established to
  help us control the operation of our institution‘s owned, leased or rented vehicles.

  Driver Selection
  To help select only well-qualified drivers, we will adhere to the following procedures:
  A. All employees (including faculty and administration) whose duties may require
     them to operate an institution vehicle will have a current driver‘s license,
     appropriate for the type of vehicle they will be driving. The employee will provide
     a copy of the driver‘s license during the hiring process and annually or upon
     request thereafter. The institution will maintain a copy of the license in the
     employee‘s personnel file. The Human Resources Department will maintain these
     files.
  B. We will allow only drivers with a good driving record to operate institution
     vehicles. A ―good‖ driving record is defined as having 25% or less of the point
     level at which the driver‘s license would be suspended under current state motor
     vehicle codes. For example, if 12 points would require suspension, then only
     drivers with 3 or fewer points are allowed to operate institution owned, leased or
     rented vehicles. See other related Appendices at the end of this section.
     Note: On a case-by-case basis, this rule may be temporarily over-ridden by
     specific authorization of the President of the Institution or his or her designee.
     Such authorization must be in writing and will be maintained in the driver’s
     personnel file. EIIA recommends that this specific authorization be given only



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         after the driver has attended an approved vendor’s driver training course, such as
         the National Safety Council’s Defensive Driver Training Program.
    C. To allow us to evaluate the driver‘s ability to operate a specific vehicle, every
       prospective driver will complete a road test using the type of vehicle that he/she
       would be driving as part of his/her job duties.
    D. All department heads will certify the necessity of having each specific driver
       available to drive for their department. This certification will be completed in
       writing annually and will be maintained in the driver‘s personnel file.
    E. It is important for all drivers to recognize their responsibilities for operating an
       institution vehicle in a safe and sober manner. We require each driver to sign a
       commitment statement in which he/she pledges to comply with all applicable
       federal, state and local regulations (including institution polices) when operating
       an institution vehicle.
    F. Any student whose duties may require him/her to operate an institution vehicle
       will meet the same criteria as an employee driver. Specifically, the student will:
         1. Possess a current driver‘s license appropriate to the class of vehicle to be
            operated.
         2. Have 25% or less of the points needed for license suspension in the state in
            which the vehicles are to be operated
         3. Satisfactorily complete a road test in the type of vehicle the student will be
            driving.
         4. Sign the safe-driving commitment at least annually.
         5. Maintain at least a 2.5/4.0 GPA during the time when the student may be
            driving an institution vehicle. We will monitor the academic records of all
            students who may be assigned to drive an institution vehicle and any student
            driver with a GPA below 2.5 will be ineligible to drive until the student is able
            to maintain the required GPA.

    Driver Evaluation and Training
    A. In order to understand the responsibilities and techniques for driving safely, all
       drivers must be able to demonstrate their skills in the operation of their assigned
       vehicles. If they are not able to demonstrate their driving skills, they will be
       trained in the appropriate techniques. For example, if a student team manager
       needs to be able to drive the team in a 15-passenger van, but has no experience in
       such a vehicle, he/she must be trained until he/she can demonstrate mastery of that
       vehicle‘s operation. This training will be provided by Campus Security or the
       Education Department if Driver Education training is provided.
    B. Training may include classroom, individual instruction and audio-visual methods
       (AlertDriving courses), as appropriate. The need for training may be determined
       through the use of the road test. In addition, the training will include an in-vehicle
       (behind the wheel) evaluation by the instructor.


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C. The driver instructor will be licensed by the state as a driver education instructor
   or Department of Motor Vehicles license examiner.
D. All department heads will ensure that the employees who operate institution
   vehicles receive at least two hours of safe driving instruction each school year. If
   the training is not completed by July 31, that employee will be ineligible to drive
   any institution vehicle until the instruction has been given. This training will be
   coordinated through Campus Security or the Education Department if Driver
   Education training is provided.
E. All student drivers should receive safe driving instruction during each school year
   during which they are eligible to drive an institution vehicle. The training should
   be completed prior to their first use of the vehicle in the school year.
F. All employees and students will document their training by signing the attendance
   sheets at the training sessions.
G. All employees and student drivers will complete and sign a ―Driving History‖
   form. (See Appendix 12-D)

Vehicle Control and Operations
A. Some vehicles may be assigned to individuals as part of their job duties, such as
   the head of Buildings and Grounds, the Security Director or the President. These
   employees should operate and maintain these vehicles as though they were their
   own.
B. Other vehicles, including pool vehicles, may be operated by various employees or
   students, depending on the need. Control of these vehicles will be maintained
   through Campus Security.
   When a department wishes to use a vehicle for a specific purpose, the requestor
   will complete a Vehicle Use Request form and submit it to Campus Security as
   soon as possible. If the requesting department plans to provide the driver, the
   names of all drivers should be provided with the Vehicle Use Request form and
   the drivers should be verified against the institutional list of eligible drivers.
   Vehicles will not be loaned, leased or rented to others without institution approved
   driver, including but not limited to employees for personal use and camps or
   conferences at remote campus facilities.
C. Campus Security will notify the department of the approval and provide a time for
   the driver to pick up the keys.
D. When the driver arrives to pick up the keys, the Campus Security officer on duty
   will make a brief evaluation of the driver‘s condition. If the driver appears
   fatigued, ill or under the influence of alcohol or drugs, he/she will be denied use
   of the vehicle. This is at the officer‘s discretion, based upon observable conditions
   and behaviors. The Security Officer will also verify that the driver has his/her
   valid driver‘s license in his/her possession.




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    E. The driver and Campus Security officer will make a brief inspection of the vehicle
       to ensure that it is in good operating condition and that all emergency equipment
       (including the vehicle‘s assigned cell phone) is with the vehicle and functional.
       The driver and officer will each complete and sign the 3-part dispatch slip
       indicating that they have inspected the vehicle. Campus Security will retain the
       second copy of the 3-part form. The driver will keep the first and third copies with
       him/her at all times while operating the vehicle.
    F. The driver and security officer should also verify that a copy of the current
       insurance card is available in the vehicle to show evidence of vehicle insurance.
       (Refer to Appendix 12-H, ―Sample Insurance Card.‖)
    G. Upon return from the trip, the driver will return the original copy of the dispatch
       slip to Campus Security when turning in the vehicle keys. He/she will document
       any mechanical problems with the vehicle, the amount of gas added, the number
       of miles driven and any service that may have been provided to the vehicle.
       Campus Security and the driver will again complete a brief vehicle inspection
       using the Pre-/Post-Trip Vehicle Inspection form card and note any new vehicle
       damage. Campus Security will return the signed second copy of the dispatch slip
       to the driver and retain the original copy along with the inspection form in the
       vehicle file.
    H. To reduce the possibility of fatigue-related accidents on extended trips, when the
       one-way distance to the destination will take four hours or more, at least two
       eligible drivers will be assigned to drive the vehicle. The drivers and ―shot-gun
       passengers‖ will rotate as a driving team every two hours.
    I. Drivers are not to operate institution-owned, leased or rented vehicles or personal
       vehicles for institution business between the hours of 2:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m.
    J. Any loose items must be secured in the vehicle before driving. Loose items on
       dashboards/rear decks, on seats or on the floor must be secured or put in the trunk
       to avoid becoming a potential hazard to the occupants or the driver.
    K. Drivers should have a minimum of loud discussion or music inside vehicles,
       especially at times when traffic, weather or road conditions demand the greatest
       attention to driving.

    Vehicle Maintenance
    In order for the institution‘s vehicles to have a long and useful life, they must be
    maintained regularly. Accordingly, we have established a Preventive Maintenance
    Program to include all institution‘s vehicles and equipment.
    A. The Fleet Administrator will establish a list of all institution vehicles. The list will
       include the manufacturer‘s recommended intervals for preventive maintenance
       services, as well as the dates/times and types of services that have been performed
       on the vehicles.
    B. At least once a week, the Fleet Administrator will review the list to determine
       which vehicles are due for maintenance services. He/she will then designate a


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   person to either perform that service or take the vehicle to the designated service
   provider.
C. For vehicles assigned to one person or department for their exclusive use (such as
   the President or Security Office), the Fleet Administrator will notify that person or
   department when the service is due. That user will then be responsible for having
   the maintenance services completed and documented with the Fleet
   Administrator‘s office.
D. If a vehicle has operational problems while off-campus, the driver will notify the
   Fleet Administrator during normal office hours and Campus Security after hours.
   If the vehicle cannot be operated safely, the Fleet Administrator or Campus
   Security will make the necessary arrangements to bring the driver back to campus
   and have the vehicle transported to a designated service location.

Accident Reporting and Investigation
Vehicle accidents can seriously impact the lives of those involved, both as drivers and
as passengers. To minimize the long-term effects of those accidents and to ensure that
they do not happen again, the following policies and procedures are in effect.

   Vehicle Accident Reporting Procedures
A. If an institutional vehicle is involved in a collision with another vehicle, object or
   person or a one-car accident (such as rolling over and going into a ditch), the
   driver will notify the Fleet Administrator (or Campus Security after normal office
   hours) immediately. Using the cell phone provided with the vehicle, a call to the
   police and emergency medical personnel should be made if there are any
   suspected injuries to driver or passengers.
B. Provide the following information to the Fleet Administrator:
   1. Driver‘s name and the vehicle involved
   2. Location of the accident
   3. Describe any injuries to driver, passenger(s) or occupant(s) of other vehicles
   4. Indicate whether the police and/or ambulance been notified and
   5. Indicate the medical facility where injured people have been taken
   Await further instructions from the Fleet Administrator/Campus Security.
C. After calling the Fleet Administrator, retrieve the current insurance card from the
   glove box. This card shows evidence of insurance to police authorities and also
   provides the driver with basic information on the insurance company, their claim
   reporting phone number and the policy number.
D. The driver should begin to fill out the accident report form located in the vehicle‘s
   glove box. Be particularly careful to discuss the accident only with the police or
   the Fleet Administrator. Despite the fact that the driver may feel that he/she was
   the cause of the accident, do not make any admissions of liability or assume any


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         blame. There may be factors that the driver is unaware of at the time that could
         mitigate any responsibility.
    E. Exchange basic information with the driver of each vehicle involved. Only the
       following information should be provided:
         1. Name, address and telephone number of the driver and any passengers
         2. Type of vehicle and license plate number
         3. Insurance company name and policy number
         Obtain the same information from driver(s) of the other vehicle(s)
    F. The Fleet Administrator will notify the Business Office and coordinate the
       accident investigation. (Refer to Appendix 3-B for a sample Vehicle Accident
       Investigation Report form). He/she will gather reports from police investigators
       and will begin the investigation as soon as reasonably possible. This will generally
       be within 24 hours of the accident. Depending on the distance from campus, time
       of day/night and the extent of injuries, the Fleet Administrator (or designee)
       should travel to the accident site to begin the investigation
         All accidents should be reported to the Business Office within 24 hours of the
         incident. The Business Office will report the accident to the institution‘s
         insurance company. (Refer to Appendix 12-E for Sample Insurance Automobile
         Loss Notice). Failure to report the accident to the Business Office within 24
         hours will result in a charge back to the department using the vehicle for any
         insurance policy deductibles.
    G. When the institution‘s investigator arrives at the accident scene, he or she will
       speak with the driver and other witnesses separately. It is best to keep these people
       separated from each other and the general public until the investigator has had a
       chance to speak with them individually. This separation will minimize the
       ―blending‖ of stories and help to ensure that each person‘s unique viewpoint is
       heard.
    H. The investigator will stress to each witness and the driver that the purpose of the
       investigation is not to find fault or blame. The purpose is to determine what
       controls were ineffectively implemented, so that they can be properly put into
       place to prevent a recurrence.
    I. The investigator will use National Safety Council guidelines to determine whether
       the accident was preventable by the assigned driver. ―Preventable‖ means that the
       driver failed to do everything he/she reasonably could have done to prevent the
       accident.

    Vehicular Accident Investigation Procedures
    Vehicular accidents are often difficult to investigate because they may occur a
    distance away from the campus. It takes some time to travel to the scene, by which
    time the injured parties may have been taken to the hospital and the damaged



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vehicle(s) towed away to the shop for repairs. Nevertheless, for the same reasons as
listed for personnel injuries, it is important that we investigate such accidents.
The institution has to rely greatly on the statements of those who were involved in the
accident. It is important that all drivers of the institution‘s vehicles be trained in
proper procedures to take in the event of a vehicle accident. This includes reporting
accidents in a manner that allows a determination as to how to prevent future
accidents while still providing legal protection against unnecessary lawsuits.

       Investigation Techniques
       a. First, determine the extent of injuries and where the people and damaged
          vehicle(s) have been taken. ―Freeze‖ the site if possible.
       b. If medical information is available, ensure that proper notification has
          been made to next of kin as appropriate.
       c. Obtain a police report if possible. This will provide some background
          information on conditions (road, weather, traffic, etc.) at the time of the
          accident.
       d. Interview all witnesses and the driver separately. Put them at ease. Again,
          the purpose of the investigation is to gather facts, not place blame.
       e. Using interview information, examine the site of the accident. Take
          pictures from the driver‘s point of view, if possible, to aid in determining
          possible cause(s).
       f. Ask for suggestions as to preventive measures and form your conclusions.
          Then complete the report. The information should be entered in the same
          manner as for other accidents.
       g. Complete the automobile section as applicable. Enter the vehicle
          information and indicate the status of the driver
          (student/faculty/staff/other) and any training the driver may have received.
          List the names of all passengers in the vehicle.
       h. Describe the road, weather and traffic conditions at the time of the
          accident. Was the driver skilled at driving under those conditions?
       i. List the names of all other people involved in the accident. These may be
          passengers in the other vehicle(s), bystanders or pedestrians. It is important
          to list all names, in order to minimize the possibility of fraud later.
       j. Describe the damage to the other vehicle(s) as you can best determine it.
          By accurately reporting such damage, you may be protecting the
          institution against a potentially fraudulent claim of inflated damage to the
          other vehicle(s).
       k. In all cases, try to complete the Vehicle Accident Investigation Report
          within 24 hours of the accident.
       l. The Business Office will report the accident to the insurance company
          within 24 hours of the accident, even if all of the accident information is

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                not yet available. It is suggested that a copy of the completed accident
                investigation form be forwarded to the insurance company.

    Summary
    A vehicle fleet presents many exposures for injuries and property damage. It is
    important for the Fleet Administrator to critically examine these types of exposures
    and take effective steps to minimize them. Choosing qualified drivers, training and
    supervising them is the primary area where the Fleet Administration Program can be
    successful. Failure to act effectively can lead to death, injury and potentially very
    expensive lawsuits.




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 Appendix 12-C




Sample Insurance Automobile Loss Notice




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  Appendix 12-D




Sample Driving History Form
Institution Name:
Employee/Student Name:
Any faculty, staff member or student who may drive an institution-owned or leased vehicle or
their personal vehicle on institution business should answer the following questions.
                                                                                       Yes    No
1. Do you have a current and valid state driver’s license in the state where the
                                                                                               
     institution is located?
2. Has your driver’s license been suspended/revoked in the past five years?                    
3. Does your license have any restrictions?                                                    
4. Have you been convicted of driving under the influence in the last seven years?             
(If yes to questions 1–4, please explain on the second page of this form.)
5. Have you been convicted of the following violations in the past three years? (Check, if yes)
      reckless driving/driving to endanger            failure to have vehicle under control
      driving w/suspended/revoked license             improper passing/lane change/use
      allowing unlicensed driver to operate vehicle  improper backing
      fleeing a police officer                        driving on wrong side of road
      speed in excess of 20 mph over limit            speed too slow for conditions
      racing on public highway                        equipment violation/tires/lights/etc.
      failure to stop for school bus                  improper parking
      leaving the scene of an accident                operating vehicle without insurance
      disregard of red light/stop sign                passing through/around crossing barrier
      careless driving                                seat belt violation
      operating unsafe vehicle                        failure to signal for direction/slowing
      following too close                             obstructed vision
      failure to yield right-of-way                   failure to pay traffic ticket
      speed too great for conditions                  improper enter/exit traffic way
     (If yes to any of these items, please explain on the second page of this form.)
6. Number of accidents involved in during the past three years:




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7. Number of accidents in which you were at fault during the past three years
   (briefly describe the accidents on the back of this form.):
                                                                                   Yes   No
8. Are there any special accommodations you may require while driving a vehicle?        
9. Are you 21 years of age or older?                                                    

I certify that the information provided on this form is correct. Any discrepancy in the
information found through an MVR check could result in the complete suspension of all
driving privileges. I further understand that the information will be compared to
established criteria in determining my qualifications to drive on institution business.
Signature:                                                      Date:
Print Name:
Please utilize the space below for explanation of driving and conviction history as noted
on the first page of this form and what special accommodations, if any, you may require
while driving a vehicle.




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  Appendix 12-E




Sample Driving History/Motor Vehicle Records Point
Valuation Guideline
Points Violation/History                        Points Violation/History
  7    DWI (last seven years)                     2    Failure to Have Vehicle Under Control
  7    Suspended License (last 5 years)           2    Improper Passing/Lane Change/Use
  5    Reckless Driving                           2    Any Driver Under 21 Years of Age
  5    Driving with Suspended License/Revoked     2    Improper Backing or Turning
       License                                    2    Driving on Wrong Side of Road
  5    Allowing Unlicensed Driver                 2    Speed too Slow for Conditions
  5    Fleeing a Police Officer                   2    Driving 19 mph or Under
  4    Speed in Excess of 20 mph or More Over    1.5   Equipment Violation/Tires/Lights/etc.
       Limit                                     1.5   Tag or Overweight/Length/Height/Load
  4    Racing on a Public Highway                      Dropping
  4    Failure to Stop for School Bus            1.5   Improper Stand/Stop/Parked Vehicle
  4    Leaving Scene of Accident                 1.5   Financial Responsibility/Operating Vehicle
  3    Disregard Traffic Control Device/Red            Without Insurance
       Light/Stop Sign                            1    Passing Through/Around Crossing Barriers
  3    Careless Driving                           1    Seat Belt Violation
  3    Operating Unsafe Vehicle                   1    Failure to Signal for Direction/Slowing
  3    Following Too Close                        1    Obstructed Vision
  3    Failure to Yield Right-of-Way              1    Failure to Pay Traffic Ticket
  3    Speed Too Great for Conditions             1    Improper Enter/Exit Traffic Way

3 points—1st At-Fault Accident
4 points—2nd At-Fault Accident
7 points—Three Accidents
Drivers should be disqualified if the record indicates more than 25% of the points that
would require suspension of the operator‘s license under current state motor vehicle
codes.




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  Appendix 12-F




Motor Vehicle Record (MVR) Retrieval Vendors
                              Telephone
Name & Address                              Contact Person    Acct. I.D. Number
                               Number

AlertDriving.com
Sonic e-Learning, Inc.                       Sherry Smith
185 Bartley Drive, Suite 1   877-867-6642         Or            Company # 380
Toronto, Ontario Canada                       Leigh Foley
M4A1E6




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 Appendix 12-G




Sample Vehicle Pre/Post Trip Inspection Form

Operator                                        Location
Year and                              Date of                   Odometer
Make of Vehicle                       Inspection                Reading
Driver’s                                                        Expiration
License Number                              State               Date


                                             Satisfactory/Yes     Unsafe/No       Corrected
A copy of the Institution’s Fleet
                                                                                    
Administration Policy is in the vehicle?
Current Insurance Card is in glove box to
                                                                                    
provide evidence the vehicle is insured?
Seat Belts (accessible/condition)                                                   
Lights: Headlights                                                                  
        Turn Signals                                                                
        Brake Lights                                                                
        Tail Lights                                                                 
        Flashers                                                                    
        Instrument Panel                                                            
Glass: Windshield                                                                   
        Other                                                                       
        Mirrors                                                                     
Steering                                                                            
Horn                                                                                
Brake pedal provides resistance                                                     
Parking Brake                                                                       
Muffler                                                                             
Tires                                                                               
Oil Change (Odometer reading last change)                                           
Transmission and Differential (Odometer
                                                                                    
reading last check)



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Condition of Vehicle

Inside:

Outside:


Other Items—Requirements of Driver’s Manual/Driver Comments

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


Safety checked

                             by
                Date                              Signature


                             by
                Date                               Driver




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 Appendix 12-H




Sample Insurance Card




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 Appendix 12-I




Cellular Phone Usage and Policy

  Introduction
  Students, faculty and staff who conduct campus business from behind the wheel may
  be putting themselves and their institution at risk. Cell phone use while driving results
  in an estimated 2,600 deaths, 1.5 million accidents and 330,000 injuries annually,
  according to Harvard University‘s Center for Risk Analysis.
  Studies show that a large percentage of teens own cell phones-approximately 70
  percent of college students ages 18 to 30 and nearly 40 percent of Americans ages 12
  to 19. Although there are no statistics to show how many speak on the phone while
  behind the wheel, a drive through any campus tells us that it is a lot.
  That is reason for concern because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death
  for 15 to 20 year olds. Among all age groups nationally, more than 3 million people were
  injured and more than 42,000 killed in motor vehicle accidents in 2001. Of all fatal motor
  vehicle crashes, 20 to 30 percent result from distracted driving, such as cell phone use,
  changing CDs, using temperature controls and dealing with children in the back seat,
  according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An agency
  study is exploring the public‘s perception of distracted driving and what measures it will
  accept to control it.

  Institutions Could Be Held Liable
  Cell phone use while driving may lead to expensive and time-consuming litigation.
  Three recent lawsuits that arose from traffic accidents caused by employees with cell
  phones provide cautionary tales for schools, colleges and universities. Although only
  one of these cases involves an educational institution, the other lawsuits offer fair
  warning about the value of having a comprehensive and well-enforced policy on cell
  phone use and driving. Here is a summary of the cases:
     –   Dyke Industries agreed to pay $16.2 million to a 78-year-old woman who was
         severely disabled after one of its salesmen collided with the car she was


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                driving. The sales representative was talking on his cell phone while driving to
                a sales meeting.
         –      Smith Barney paid $500,000 to settle a wrongful death lawsuit brought by the
                family of a deceased motorcyclist who was struck by a car driven by one of its
                employees. The employee ran a red light when he bent down to pick up a
                dropped cell phone. He hadn‘t been using the phone at the time, the employer
                didn‘t own the phone or the car and the employee was en route to a Saturday
                night dinner not related to work. The deceased‘s family maintained that the
                employee used the phone for business and the employee agreed. Co-workers
                said sales calls to potential clients were often made on personal time from
                personal cell phones. The firm settled rather than risk a jury decision.
         –      The State of Hawaii paid $1.5 million to the family of a New Jersey man who
                was crossing a highway when he was struck by a car driven by a public school
                teacher who was on her way to work. The judge found that the teacher had
                been distracted by using her cell phone within a minute of the accident.
         These cases show that institutions may be held liable for an accident by someone
         driving for them if they supply the phone or if they encourage the driver to use
         their own cell phone, whether or not the call is related to school business.

         Consider Implementing a Policy
         An institution‘s legal liability and the potential risk of injuries and fatalities to
         students, faculty, staff and the general public are potent reasons for establishing a
         cell phone policy. The policy should emphasize that safety is a driver‘s priority.
         –      EIIA recommends the policy discourage employees from using cell phones
                while driving cars, trucks and golf carts on and off the campus and should not
                dial or write while driving on institution business. The policy should instruct
                drivers to find a safe place to pull over and stop (a shoulder is not a safe place
                to stop) if they must use the phone. The policy should prohibit any driver of an
                institution-owned or leased vehicle from talking on a cell phone, including
                those with ―hands-free‖ devices, while driving. Likewise, when receiving a
                call while driving, let your voicemail answer the call.
         Various federal, state and local legislation is under consideration, but only a
         handful of states and municipalities have enacted laws and their approaches to cell
         phone use vary. Among them, New Jersey prohibits drivers under age 21 who
         hold learners‘ permits from using wireless communication devices except in
         emergency. However New York drivers may only use hands-free phones or
         similar devices and solely for calling emergency personnel.
         A clearly explained and strictly enforced cell phone policy may be an institution‘s
         best insulation against liability and a best practice against potential accidents. The
         policy should apply to anyone who drives for your institution—staff, faculty and
         students—whether in their own car or the institution‘s. The policy should stress
         that safe driving is the institution‘s priority. Consider requiring that drivers:



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–   Take a defensive driving course that includes a lesson on cell phone use.
–   Get off the road before making or receiving calls.
–   Be prohibited from taking notes or jotting down phone numbers while talking
    on the phone.
–   Sign a copy of the institution‘s policy, keeping one for themselves and giving
    the other to the institution.
Also consider having the institution do the following:
–   Notify drivers that the policy either prohibits them from talking on the phone
    while they drive or that it does not expect or encourage them to talk on the
    phone while they drive.
–   Post warnings about cell phone use on the phones and in school vehicles.
    Warnings could say that it is too dangerous to use the phone while driving and
    that employees, faculty, or students should do so only in an emergency. Also
    consider posting a sign in a central office that drivers visit to check out vehicles.
–   Reinforce the importance of the institution‘s policy on cell phone use.
    Consider sharing reminders about the policy at meetings and in newsletters.
    Another opinion is to have drivers periodically sign an acknowledgement that
    they have received the policy and then keep their signed documents on file.
    The acknowledgement could be part of the vehicle checkout form, or you
    could require drivers to re-sign a separate form at some specific interval.
–   Require that institution representatives refuse non-emergency calls from
    employees, faculty members, or students who are driving. Representatives
    should tell those callers to phone back when they are no longer driving.
–   Require that anyone who gets reimbursed for phone calls sign a statement
    saying they did not violate the policy on any of their calls.
A cell phone policy may keep your driver, passengers and community safer and
may keep your institution better protected from a lawsuit.

Resources
–   National Highway Transportation Safety Association (NHTSA). The Gallup
    Organization conducted a survey on a distracted and drowsy driving for the
    NHTSA.
–   Preliminary results are available at:
    http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/drowsy_driving1/.
–   Network of Employers for Traffic Safety: www.netsnational.org. The
    organization focuses on traffic safety in the workplace.




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 Appendix 12-J




The Rollover Propensity of Fifteen-Passenger Vans

  Introduction
  On April 9, 2001, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) issued a consumer
  advisory regarding The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
  (April 2001) research note titled, ―The Rollover Propensity of Fifteen-Passenger
  Vans.‖ This research note has been the subject of many newspaper articles. Many
  reporters included in their articles references to the use of fifteen-passenger vans by
  colleges and universities. These references have caused much concern on many
  campuses nationwide.

  USDOT Consumer Advisory
  The consumer advisory is a cautionary warning to users of fifteen-passenger vans
  because of an increased rollover risk under certain conditions. The advisory notes that
  these vehicles should be operated by experienced drivers who understand and are
  familiar with the handling characteristics of the vans, especially when fully loaded.
  The consumer advisory also stresses the value of seat belts. Eighty percent of those
  who died in single vehicle rollovers last year were not buckled up. Wearing seat belts
  dramatically increases the chances of survival during a rollover crash. NHTSA urges
  that institutions using fifteen-passenger vans require seat belt use at all times.

  Analysis of the Research Note
  The research note is a three-part study; crash data analysis from 17 states for the years
  1994 through 1997, theoretical rollover propensity of fifteen-passenger vans based on
  dimensions and weight and theoretical handling characteristics of loaded and
  unloaded fifteen-passenger vans.
  The essential message of the research note is that the handling of an over ten-
  passenger van changes between an unloaded van and a fully-loaded van during



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    extreme maneuvers and that a fully-loaded van is inherently less stable than an
    unloaded one.

         Crash data analysis from 17 states
         Since impact dynamics may be the significant factor in initiating a rollover event,
         multiple vehicle crashes were not included in the study. Only vans involved in
         single vehicle crashes were identified for the purpose of the study. The crash data
         reviewed included only fatal, injury, or property-damage-only crashes. The
         crashes were recorded in the state systems based on the reporting thresholds in the
         17 states. The reporting thresholds for the participating states varied.
         The study states that there was no way to ensure that these vehicles actually were
         configured as fifteen-passenger vans. Therefore, some of the vehicles in this part
         of the study may have actually been configured as cargo vans. The complete
         removal of cargo vans from this analysis might change the observed occupant
         loading effect on the propensity to rollover.
         Analysis of this selective data showed that fifteen-passenger vans with ten or more
         occupants had three times the rollover ratio than those with fewer than ten
         occupants.
         Another conclusion of this section was that looking at all rollovers, regardless of
         the number of vehicle occupants, fifteen-passenger vans have almost the same
         rollover ratio as does a comparison group: all light trucks and vans (LTVs).
         The study did not include any information regarding the age, training, or
         experience of the driver of the vehicles.

         Theoretical rollover propensity
         This section of the study reviewed the physical dimensions of the vehicles; their
         lengths, widths, lightly loaded weight (LLW) (driver only) and gross vehicle
         weight (GVW) (loaded to capacity). The study looked at changes in the center of
         gravity vertically and horizontally.
         The center of gravity height of the fifteen-passenger van rose by 4.0 inches when
         the vehicle was loaded versus 1.4 inches for the seven-passenger van and 0.9
         inches for the minivan. The longitudinal center of gravity moved nearly 18 inches
         towards the rear of the vehicle when it was loaded to GVW. At GVW, the fifteen-
         passenger van has over 65 percent of its weight on the rear axle. The seven-
         passenger van and minivan measured have just over 50 percent of their weight on
         their rear axles at GVW.
         Loading the vehicles to GVW has an adverse affect on the rollover propensity due
         to the increase in center-of-gravity height. Loading the vans with passengers and
         cargo also moves the center of gravity rearward, increasing the vertical load on the
         rear tires.




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   Theoretical handling characteristics
   Computer simulation runs were performed at the LLW and the GVW load
   conditions using the vehicle dynamics simulation Vehicle Dynamics Analysis,
   Non-Linear (VDANL). These predictions, which did not rely on the measured
   suspension and tire properties of an actual fifteen-passenger van, were presented
   to illustrate the effects of loading the vehicle to its GVW.
   The study notes that actual vehicles are likely to have different suspension and
   tire properties than those in these simulation models. Also, some vehicles rely on
   using higher rear tire pressures to maintain appropriate handling responses at
   limit conditions.
   The simulated tests found that the GVW fifteen-passenger van exhibited both
   lateral and roll instabilities under extreme maneuvers. The roll instability resulted
   from the facts that the GVW vehicle spins out and that the center of gravity is
   higher. These instabilities are known to cause safety problems, particularly for
   drivers who normally only drive smaller passenger vehicles and who are therefore
   unfamiliar with a loaded fifteen-passenger van’s responsiveness and limits. The
   study also notes that these instabilities are probably not unique to fifteen-
   passenger vans; other vehicles with high payload to empty weight ratios may well
   have similar instabilities.
   The conclusion of this section is that the handling of fifteen-passenger vans
   changes between the two loading conditions during extreme maneuvers and that a
   fully-loaded van is inherently less stable than an unloaded one.

Consortium Member Response
How should consortium members respond to this study? We have noted that van
rollovers have declined since member institutions began implementing van driver
training programs, Motor Vehicle Record reviews and checks for valid drivers‘
licenses. Therefore, we feel this is a manageable risk. At this point, we do not feel
there is a need to abandon fifteen-passenger vans as a mode of transportation.
Rather, institutions need to review their van safety programs to assure that their
drivers are properly trained and driving properly maintained equipment. This of
course begs the question, What does a good van driver safety program include?
A good van driver safety program should include the following:
A. Verification that all van drivers have valid driver‘s licenses in the state (preferably
   where the institution is located but at least a domestic license).
B. At minimum, the institution should conduct a biennial review of each van driver‘s
   Motor Vehicle Report.
C. Each van driver should receive proper training. This training should be van
   specific. Each van driver should complete the AlertDriving Training Program
   provided by EIIA. With the USDOT Consumer Advisory specifically noting that
   van drivers should be familiar with their vehicles, each van driver should receive
   behind the wheel (on-the-road) training in a vehicle with no passengers and at


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         simulated maximum weight. (Simulated maximum weight can be achieved by
         loading the vehicle with sand bags or bags of salt).
    D. All van drivers and passengers should be required to wear their seat belt
       while traveling in the van. The USDOT Consumer Advisory specifically
       addresses this point. Since this requirement can be difficult to enforce, the duty of
       enforcement lies with the driver. To promote enforcement, the institution can
       promise extension of its auto liability insurance to the driver only if all passengers
       wear their seatbelts.
    E. Due to the USDOT ban on the sale of fifteen-passenger vans for the transportation
       of grammar school and high school students and the various state laws prohibiting
       transporting high school and younger age children in fifteen-passenger vans,
       fifteen-passenger vans should not be used to transport children under college age.
    F. Vans should not be used for towing. Also, no gear should be transported on the
       roof of the van.
    G. There should be a formal documented Vehicle Maintenance Program. A certified
       mechanic should review the condition of the brakes and tires and the vehicle‘s
       suspension system every 3,000 miles (to coincide with oil changes).
    H. Tire pressures should be adjusted each trip per manufacturer‘s specifications to
       meet the demands of the trip.
    I. All emergency and safety equipment including wipers, lights, horn, windshield
       solvent and flashers should be tested before each trip. All necessary repairs should
       be made before the van is used.
    J. Drivers should be banned from using cell phones while driving.
    K. Drivers should be reminded to obey speed limits and all other traffic laws.
    L. For long trips, a navigator should be assigned to assist the driver. The navigator
       must stay awake while on duty. The entire driver/navigator team should be
       replaced every few hours.
    M. The institution should limit the number of total hours a driver may drive and the
       total hours a van may be on the road in any 24-hour period. The institution should
       have a policy regarding how late in the night a group may travel and return to
       campus.
    N. The institution should have clear guidelines to determine when to interrupt,
       postpone, or cancel travel if:
               The schedule does not allow adequate rest for the driver(s).
               There is bad weather.
               The budget is inadequate to provide for overnight accommodations when
                needed.
    A copy of the NHTSA analysis of the rollover characteristics of fifteen-passenger
    vans can be found at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.qov/people/ncsa/reports.html#2001.
    Information reported above was taken from this study. The accompanying press

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release can be found at
http://www.nhtsa.dot.qov/nhtsa/announce/press/pressdisplav.dbm?vear=2001&filena
me=ca-010409.html
For more information on the AlertDriving, Van Training Program, contact EIIA at
1.800.537.8410, extension 219.




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   Appendix 12-K




Automobile Coverage—General Rules of July 1, 1999
Automobile liability insurance follows the ownership of the vehicle. A vehicle operator is
covered under the owner‘s policy if they have permission from the owner to use the vehicle.
                     Who owns
Who                  the vehicle?
operates the The                             The Vehicle                      A Borrowed Car                   A Car Rental Firm
             Institution                     Operator                         (i.e., from another
vehicle?
                     (owned or long          (an employee, volunteer, or      person/not owned by
                     term lease)             student)                         institution)
An Employee          The institution’s       The employee’s policy            The other person’s policy        The car rental firm provides
(includes faculty,   policy provides         provides liability coverage      provides liability coverage      liability coverage1. The
staff and work       liability coverage to   to the employee and the          to the employee and the          institution’s policy will
study students)      the institution and     institution. The institution’s   institution. The institution’s   provide primary and/or
                     the employee.           policy will provide excess       policy will provide excess       excess coverage to both
                                             coverage if driving on           coverage if driving on           the institution and the
                                             institution business.            institution business.            employee.
A Volunteer          The institution’s       The volunteer’s policy           The other person’s policy        The car rental firm provides
(includes students   policy provides         provides liability coverage      provides liability coverage      liability coverage1 to the
while driving on     liability coverage to   to the volunteer and the         to the volunteer and the         volunteer. The institution’s
institution          the institution and     institution. The institution’s   institution. The institution’s   policy will provide primary
business)            the volunteer.          policy will provide excess       policy will provide excess       and/or excess coverage to
                                             coverage if driving on           coverage if driving on           both the institution and the
                                             institution business.            institution business.            volunteer.
A Student (while     The institution’s       The student’s policy             The other person’s policy        The car rental firm provides
driving on personal policy provides          provides liability coverage      provides liability coverage      liability coverage1 to the
business)            liability coverage to   to the student.                  to the student.                  student.
                     the institution and
                     the student.
1
   In some states, car rental firms transfer the liability to the renter of the vehicle. If an individual is renting for
   institution business, the institution’s policy provides liability coverage. Therefore, the liability coverage offered by
   the rental firm may be declined.

Automobile Physical Damage coverage also follows the ownership of the vehicle. In the
case of rental vehicles, if the use of the vehicle is for institution business, the institution‘s
policy provides collision coverage to the rental vehicle. Therefore, the collision damage
coverage offered by the rental firm may be declined.



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 Appendix 12-L




Safety Tips for Driving with a Trailer
Take time to practice before driving on main roads and never allow anyone to ride in or
on the trailer. Before you leave, remember to check routes and restrictions on bridges and
tunnels. Consider the following safety tips each time you drive with a trailer.

   General Handling
          Use the driving gear that the manufacturer recommends for towing.
          Drive at moderate speeds. This will place less strain on your tow vehicle and
           trailer. Trailer instability (sway) is more likely to occur as speed increases.
          Avoid sudden stops and starts that can cause skidding, sliding or jackknifing.
          Avoid sudden steering maneuvers that might create sway or undue side force
           on the trailer
          Slow down when traveling over bumpy roads, railroad crossings and ditches.
          Make wider turns at curves and corners. Because your trailer‘s wheels are
           closer to the inside of a turn than the wheels of your tow vehicle, they are
           more likely to hit or ride up over curbs.
          To control swaying caused by air pressure changes and wind buffeting when
           larger vehicles pass from either direction, release the accelerator pedal to slow
           down and keep a firm grip on the steering wheel.

   Braking
          Allow considerably more distance for stopping.
          If you have an electric trailer brake controller and excessive sway occurs,
           activate the trailer brake controller by hand. Do not attempt to control trailer
           sway by applying the tow vehicle brakes; this will generally make the sway
           worse.



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               Always anticipate the need to slow down. To reduce speed, shift to a lower
                gear and press the brakes lightly.

    Acceleration and Passing
               When passing a slower vehicle or changing lanes, signal well in advance and
                make sure you allow extra distance to clear the vehicle before you pull back
                into the lane.
               Pass on level terrain with plenty of clearance. Avoid passing on steep
                upgrades or downgrades.
               If necessary, downshift for improved acceleration or speed maintenance.
               When passing on narrow roads, be careful not to go onto a soft shoulder. This
                could cause your trailer to jackknife or go out of control.

    Downgrades and Upgrades
               Downshift to assist with braking on downgrades and to add power for
                climbing hills.
               On long downgrades, apply brakes at intervals to keep speed in check. Never
                leave brakes on for extended periods of time or they may overheat.
               Some tow vehicles have specifically calibrated transmission tow-modes. Be
                sure to use the tow-mode recommended by the manufacturer.

    Backing Up
               Put your hand at the bottom of the steering wheel. To turn left, move your
                hand left. To turn right, move your hand right. Back up slowly. Because
                mirrors cannot provide all of the visibility you may need when backing up,
                have someone outside at the rear of the trailer to guide you, whenever
                possible.
               Use slight movements of the steering wheel to adjust direction. Exaggerated
                movements will cause greater movement of the trailer and could result in
                jackknifing. If you have difficulty, pull forward and realign the tow vehicle
                and trailer and start again.

    Parking
               Try to avoid parking on grades. If possible, have someone outside to guide
                you as you park. Once stopped, but before shifting into ―Park‖, have someone
                place blocks on the downhill side of the trailer wheels. Apply the parking
                brake, shift into ―Park‖, and then remove your foot from the brake pedal.
                Following this parking sequence is important to make sure your vehicle does
                not become locked in ―Park‖ because of extra load on the transmission. For
                manual transmissions, apply the parking brake and then turn the vehicle off in
                either first or reverse gear.


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   When uncoupling a trailer, place blocks at the front and rear of the trailer tires
    to ensure that the trailer does not roll away when the coupling is released.
   An unbalanced load may cause the tongue to suddenly rotate upward;
    therefore, before uncoupling, place jack stands under the rear of the trailer to
    prevent injury.




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  Appendix 12-M




Transportation of K through 12 Children
It is not uncommon for institutions to offer programs to children attending grades K
through 12 and younger. If the programs include transportation of these children, the
institution should be aware of its state's laws regarding the transporting of children in
these age ranges.
These laws are aimed primarily at pre-primary, primary and secondary schools. However,
the law has not been firmly established on this issue and court decisions may result in the
law being applied to any institution offering programs for K through 12 students. As a
best practice, each institution is strongly encouraged to comply with the provisions of the
state‘s law.
The following table, as compiled by the National Association of State Directors of Pupil
Transportation Services, provides a summary of state laws concerning the use of 12 and
15 passenger vans for transporting K through 12 students, as of February 2004. This
table should be used as a reference and the current state law should be followed. Links to
the Department of Transportation and state government web sites are available at:
www.fhwa.dot.gov/webstate.htm


State            To &         To & From           Comments
                 From         School Related
                 School       Events

Alabama          No*          No*                 * - State laws do not apply to private schools.

Alaska           No*          Yes                 * - State laws do not apply to private schools.

Arizona          No           Yes

Arkansas         Yes          Yes

California       No           No




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State            To &         To & From        Comments
                 From         School Related
                 School       Events

Colorado         Yes*         Yes*             * - State-wide, self-insurance pool for school
                                               districts will not insure vans after July 1, 2005.

Connecticut      No           Yes

Delaware         No           No

Florida          No*          No*              *- Does not apply to private schools or companies
                                               that contract directly with parents.

Georgia          No*          Yes*             * - State laws do not apply to private schools.

Hawaii           Yes          Yes

Idaho            No*          Yes              * - State laws do not apply to private schools.
                                               State statute allows for some exceptions, e.g.,
                                               students with special needs in remote locations
                                               without school buses.

Illinois         No           Yes

Indiana          No*          Yes**            * - Special education students may be transported
                                               in vans.

                                               ** - After June 30, 2006 vans will be prohibited.
                                               State laws do not apply to private schools.

Iowa             No           No

Kansas           No           No

Kentucky         No           No

Louisiana        No*          No*              * - State laws do not apply to private schools.

Maine            No           No*              * - Private schools are exempt from this state
                                               regulation.

Maryland         No*          No*              * - State law is not clear on private schools.

Massachusetts    Yes          Yes

Michigan         No           No

Minnesota        No           No

Mississippi      Yes*         Yes*             * - State law does not prohibit the use of vans, but
                                               Department of Education will not approve van
                                               purchases.

Missouri         No*          No*              * - State laws do not apply to private schools.




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State            To &     To & From        Comments
                 From     School Related
                 School   Events

Montana          No*      No*              * - State laws do not apply to private schools.

Nebraska         Yes      Yes

Nevada           No       Yes

New Hampshire    No       No

New Jersey       No       No

New York         No       No

North Carolina   No*      Yes              * - Private schools not covered by state rules.

North Dakota     Yes*     Yes*             * - Not allowed after June 1, 2008. Vans can no
                                           longer be purchased for these purposes after March
                                           1, 2003. State laws do not apply to private schools.

Ohio             No       No

Oklahoma         No       No

Oregon           No       No

Pennsylvania     No*      No*              * - Unless the van was registered as a bus in
                                           Pennsylvania prior to March 1, 1993 or titled to a
                                           public, private or parochial school prior to March
                                           1, 1993, and was registered as a bus to such school
                                           prior to September 15, 1993.

Rhode Island     No*      No*              * - Child care organizations are exempt, and can
                                           use vans for transportation to and from school.

                                           ** - Vans purchased prior to January 1, 2000 can
                                           be used until January 1, 2008.

South Carolina   No*      No*              * - Vans purchased prior to July 1, 2000, can be
                                           used until June 30, 2006.

South Dakota     No       No

Tennessee        No       Yes

Texas            No*      Yes              * - Private schools not covered by state rules.

Utah             No       No

Vermont          Yes      Yes

Virginia         No*      No*              * - State laws only apply to public schools.

Washington       No*      No*              * - State laws only apply to public schools.



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State            To &         To & From        Comments
                 From         School Related
                 School       Events

West Virginia    No           Yes

Wisconsin        Yes          Yes

Wyoming          No*          No*              * - State laws only apply to public schools.




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Advanced Risk Control Programs




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 Section 13




Hazard Communication

  Introduction
  OSHA has estimated that more than 32 million workers are exposed to 650,000
  hazardous chemical products in more than three million American workplaces,
  including higher educational institutions. This poses a serious problem for exposed
  faculty, staff and students and their institutions.
  The basic goal of a Hazard Communication Program is to be sure our institutions and
  exposed faculty, staff and students know about hazards and how to protect themselves;
  this should help to reduce the incidence of chemical source illness and injuries.
  Chemicals pose a wide range of health hazards (such as irritation, sensitization and
  carcinogenicity) and physical hazards (such as flammability, corrosion and reactivity).
  OSHA‘s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is designed to ensure that information
  about these hazards and associated protective measures is provided to faculty, staff and
  students and their institutions. This is accomplished by requiring chemical
  manufacturers and importers to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or
  import and to provide information about them through labels on shipped containers and
  more detailed information sheets called Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).

  Policy
  All institutions with hazardous chemicals on their campus must prepare and implement
  a written Hazard Communication Program and must ensure that all containers are
  labeled, exposed faculty, staff and students are provided access to MSDSs and an
  effective training program is conducted for all potentially exposed individuals in
  departments such as Physical Plant, Housekeeping, Groundskeeping, Dining Services,
  Athletics, Theater, Arts, Science and Mailroom.
  Training for students enrolled in the science, theater and arts programs is also suggested.




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    Program Elements
    The following sample Hazard Communication Program may be utilized to assist your
    institution in compliance with Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200.




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 Appendix 13-A




Sample Hazard Communication Program

  Introduction
  (Insert institution name) recognizes the importance for documentation, inventory,
  labeling and training with regard to hazardous substances either produced or imported
  into the campus environment. This Hazard Communication Program establishes our
  institution‘s procedures for comprehensively evaluating the potential hazards of
  chemicals, biological substances and radioactive materials in the workplace and to
  communicate this information to exposed faculty, staff, students, contractors and the
  general public whenever needed. In addition, this Program creates the framework
  through which the management of hazardous substances and the implementation of
  protective measures are initiated.
  This Hazard Communication Program includes:
  A. Documentation
     1. Hazard Determination
     2. Material Safety Data Sheets
     3. Chemical Inventory
  B. Container Labeling
     1. Shipping and Receiving
     2. Chemical Transfers
     3. Pipes and Tanks (if applicable)
  C. Training
     1. Hazardous Substances
     2. Spill Cleanup
     3. Personal Protection


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         4. Reading the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
         5. Site-Specific Emergency Plans
         6. First Aid

    Documentation

         Chemical Lists—Hazard Determination
         The government and private associations provide information for identifying and
         evaluating the hazards associated with chemicals used in the workplace. (Insert
         institution name) evaluates hazardous chemicals based on 29 CFR 1910, Subpart
         Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, OSHA; and Chemical Substances and
         Physical Agents in the Work Environment published by the American Conference
         of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH).

         Health Hazard Determination
         In evaluating the health hazards associated with chemicals on campus,
         determinations shall be reviewed as objectively as possible. Health hazard
         definitions and analysis are by nature less precise and more subjective. Faculty,
         staff and students exposed to chemicals with associated health hazards shall be
         evaluated on the basis of objective information furnished by MSDSs (Material
         Safety Data Sheets) and technical publications. Health effects shall be evaluated
         on the basis of ―acute‖ and ―chronic‖ exposure categorization as defined by the
         American National Standards Institute (ANSI) (Z 129.1—1982), Occupational
         Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Safety and
         Health (NIOSH).
         For the purpose of hazard analysis, (Insert institution name) shall further
         evaluate chemicals on the following basis:

                Table 13-A-1
                Carcinogen            Irritant               Target Organ Effects

                Corrosive             Sensitizer             Hepatotoxins
                Highly Toxic          Toxic                  Nephrotoxins
                Neurotoxins           Hematopoietic Toxins   Lung Damaging
                                                             Agents
                Reproductive Toxins   Cutaneous Toxins       Eye Hazards


         Material Safety Data Sheets
         Material Safety Data Sheets shall conform to the requirements and specifications
         of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The procedures adopted
         for evaluating chemicals at (Insert institution name) are as follows:



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   Access to MSDSs for hazardous substances used on campus shall be available to
   exposed faculty, staff and students and in the office of the Hazard Communication
   Program Administrator. Following is the name of the Program Administrator:
   (Insert name and position of Program Administrator)
   This employee is responsible for the administration of this Hazard
   Communication Program, which includes reviewing MSDSs for completeness and
   consistency of information. If a MSDS is missing or incomplete, a new MSDS
   will be requested of the manufacturer or distributor.
   Each product or chemical, at a minimum, will be identified based on the following
   properties:
   1. Health Acute
   2. Health Chronic
   3. Flammable
   4. Reactive
   5. Compressed Gas
   6. Decomposition
   A complete list of hazardous materials by property and location on campus is
   located in the Program Administrator‘s office.
   Separate locations/departments on campus shall have specific lists or electronic
   access to lists of chemicals encountered in particular locations. Following are the
   locations and/or departments on campus where lists of chemicals and MSDSs
   specific to these locations can be accessed:
   (Insert locations and/or departments)

   Chemical Inventory
   Chemical inventories shall be conducted on an annual basis to act as a double
   check of the communication system. Department heads/supervisors shall review
   the chemical inventory in their locations on a quarterly basis and report any
   inconsistencies or discrepancies to the administrator of the Hazard
   Communication Program. The following department heads/supervisors are
   responsible for providing a monthly inventory:
   (Insert department heads/supervisors names)
   Material Safety Data Sheets shall be reviewed periodically to determine whether
   the distributor or manufacturer has released a revised or updated version.

Container Labeling
It is the policy of (Insert institution name) to not release any hazardous substances
for use until the following label information is verified:
A. Container labels are clearly legible and accurately identify contents.

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    B. Appropriate primary hazard warnings and secondary hazards are noted.
    C. The name and address of the manufacturer or distributor is listed.
    It is the responsibility of each department head/supervisor to insure exposed faculty,
    staff and students are aware of the hazards associated with the materials they use.

         Shipping and Receiving
         The following procedures are to be used when (Insert institution name) receives
         chemicals:
         To control chemicals on campus, all chemicals should be delivered to a
         centralized receiving area. This area is______________. The department chairs
         and supervisors who have hazardous chemicals in their departments are
         responsible for compliance with the Hazard Communication Program.
         1. Exposed mailroom personnel shall inspect and verify that the quantities
            specified on the bill of lading/manifest matches the quantities received.
         2. Personnel shall verify that Material Safety Data Sheet information is available
            and accessible prior to a product or chemical‘s release onto the campus. If it
            is discovered that MSDS information is not available, the Hazard
            Communication Program Administrator shall be notified immediately.
         3. Exposed mailroom personnel shall notify the Program Administrator of all
            shipments received and will distribute copies of newly received MSDSs to the
            Program Administrator‘s office. The Program Administrator shall update the
            control book and distribute MSDSs to their appropriate locations.
         4. Exposed mailroom personnel shall verify that the information on the container
            label corresponds to the information on the MSDS. The appropriate hazard
            warning label, i.e., corrosive, flammable, oxidizer, etc., shall be verified or
            marked if necessary, prior to the material being distributed for use on campus.
            All discrepancies shall be noted and the Program Administrator notified of
            findings.
                (Insert institution name) has adopted the (Insert labeling system) labeling
                system. (NFPA, HMIS, etc.) Classification of chemicals under NFPA can be
                reviewed for assistance in establishing labeling information.

         Chemical Transfers
         It is the policy of (Insert institution name) to label all secondary containers with
         the appropriate classification prior to distribution. Department heads/supervisors
         shall inspect secondary containers monthly for this hazard notification. Portable
         secondary containers that remain under the control of one person and the contents
         are intended for immediate use, are not required to be labeled; however, faculty,
         staff and students are encouraged to do so.
         In the event a secondary container is discovered which is not labeled, positive
         identification of its contents shall be made, if necessary through laboratory


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   analysis and the container shall be appropriately labeled. Following is the name,
   address and telephone of the laboratory facility to be used under these
   circumstances:
   (Insert laboratory name, address and telephone number)
   In the event the contents of a secondary container cannot be positively identified,
   measures for its appropriate identification or disposal shall be made.

   Pipes and Tanks (if applicable)
   1. Pipes and tanks containing or transferring chemicals shall be appropriately
      labeled throughout campus.
   2. Torn or damaged labels will be replaced immediately.
   3. Bulk containers shall retain the DOT hazard label until the container is empty
      and cleaned. Bulk containers are considered to be any container that holds 55
      gallons or more.

Training
(Insert institution name) shall provide training to all faculty, staff and students who
work with or around hazardous materials. This training will address how to identify
and evaluate chemicals found in their respective workplaces and include basic spill-
control procedures for spills involving quantities that are routine in nature. Routine
quantities are quantities of hazardous substances, which are fully characterized, that
do not present an imminent threat to human health and do not exceed the quantity
used on a day-to-day basis.
A copy of this Hazard Communication Program is available for review by all exposed
faculty, staff and students. Further, copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
are located throughout the campus for the use of and review by those in need. All
exposed faculty, staff and students are trained in how to read and understand the
information on an MSDS. If an exposed faculty member, staff member or student has
not received training or does not understand how to read a MSDS, the faculty
member, staff member or student has been instructed to contact his/her department
head/supervisor who will arrange for MSDS training. Following is a list of locations
where MSDSs and this Hazard Communication Program can be found for review:
(Insert locations)
(Insert name and position/s) is/are responsible for the faculty, staff and student
training program. This training shall include:
A. Requirements of Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200.
B. Chemicals present in their workplace and labeling requirements.
C. Location of Hazard Communication Program and MSDSs.
D. Physical and health effects of hazardous chemicals in the workplace.



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    E. Techniques to determine the presence or release of hazardous chemicals in the
       workplace and how to clean up small spills safely.
    F. How to reduce or prevent exposure through engineering controls, work practices
       and personal protective equipment.
    G. Steps taken by this Institution to prevent exposure to chemicals found in the
       workplace.
    H. Emergency procedures.
    I. How to read labels and MSDSs.
    J. How to administer routine first aid.
    Following a training class, all exposed faculty, staff and students shall sign a form
    acknowledging that they have received training and understand our institution‘s
    policy for identifying and evaluating chemicals in their areas. Documentation of
    training is maintained within the Program Administrator‘s office.
    Prior to any new chemical hazard being introduced into the higher education
    environment, all exposed faculty, staff and students will be given the appropriate
    information to insure the safe use and distribution of the chemical.
    The Hazard Communication Program Administrator is responsible for insuring that
    the chemicals have been properly labeled and that MSDSs have been received and
    have been distributed accordingly.

         Non-routine Tasks
         From time to time, exposed faculty, staff or students may be required to perform
         tasks that are non-routine and may pose different hazards than those found during
         the course of their normal day. Prior to beginning any hazardous non-routine task,
         the department heads/supervisors shall inform his/her exposed faculty, staff or
         students of the appropriate safe handling methods for each chemical to be used.
         The specific chemical hazards and the institution‘s policy on protective measures
         to be adhered to including personal protective equipment, emergency procedures,
         respirator use and assistance will be communicated to the faculty, staff or students
         performing the task.
         Examples of non-routine tasks for (Insert institution name) include:
         (Insert non-routine tasks—for example, such tasks may include repair of an
         unlabeled pipe, disposal of materials collected in fume hoods and testing of
         fume hood airflow.)


Provided by EHSmanager.com




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 Appendix 13-B




Sample Hazard Communication Training Manual

  Introduction
  All exposed faculty, staff and students of (Insert institution name) have a right to
  know about the chemical hazards they may encounter during the course of their day.
  In addition, it is the right of all exposed faculty, staff and students to be informed of
  ways to protect themselves from chemical hazards, both physical and health and how
  to obtain information that can explain these ways. This is the purpose of OSHA‘s
  Hazard Communication Standard.

  Chemical Hazards and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  Material Safety Data Sheets, also known as MSDSs, are a key focal point of the
  Hazard Communication Standard. They serve as an important source of information
  and are to be used by (insert institution name) exposed faculty, staff and students
  when working with and around hazardous chemicals.
  OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) developed a basic MSDS
  form to provide everyone with a common source of all the facts about hazardous
  chemicals used throughout the United States. While higher educational institutions are
  not required to use OSHA‘s form, they are required to provide all the same
  information about the hazardous substances they produce. The American National
  Standards Institute has adopted a 16-part MSDS format as a standard, which will
  become the way information about a chemical will be communicated. An MSDS will
  give you the following information:
  –   Trade name
  –   Location of manufacturer or distributor
  –   Chemical ingredients
  –   Specify why the chemical is hazardous
  –   Specify routes of exposure to the chemical


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    –    Risk factors regarding exposure
    –    Specify the fire hazards associated with the product
    –    How to safely handle the substance
    –    Levels of protective clothing and/or protective equipment needed
    –    What to do if exposed to the substance
    –    How to handle a spill or emergency
    –    How to transport and label the substance
    –    How to dispose of the product
    A. General Hazards
         There are both health hazards and physical hazards to be aware of when working
         with and around chemicals. Health hazards include skin rashes, respiratory
         problems, dizziness and damage to internal organs, eye irritation and even death.
         Physical hazards, while differentiated from health hazards, can also have a
         significant effect on the health of an individual. Some physical hazards to consider
         include fire, explosion and reactivity.
    B. OSHA Regulations and Their Importance
         OSHA specifically requires chemical manufacturers and importers to obtain or
         develop MSDSs on every chemical they manufacture or distribute. In addition,
         they must develop a written description of how they determined the chemicals‘
         hazards. This information must be made available to institutions that purchase
         these chemicals and to their exposed faculty, staff and students when requested.
         This insures that manufacturers and importers do their homework and provide
         accurate information.
         (Insert institution name), as required by the Hazard Communication Standard,
         maintains access to a MSDS inventory and whenever necessary will provide
         copies of MSDSs for each chemical found on campus. These MSDSs and copies
         of MSDSs are readily accessible to all exposed faculty, staff and students every
         day and can be found at the following locations:
         (Insert locations)
         Exposed faculty, staff and students of (Insert institution name) shall review a
         MSDS prior to starting any activity involving a hazardous chemical they are
         unfamiliar with or have not used previously in a particular lab or activity.
    C. Components of the MSDS
         The amount of information found on a MSDS is considerable. Often the terms
         used are not easily understood and it is, therefore, important to identify the
         components of the MSDS and review the information being provided. Here are
         the MSDS components:




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   Section 1: Chemical identity. This section identifies the chemical using the
    name located on the label. It also tells you who makes or sells the chemical
    and how to reach them for information in the event of an emergency. It may
    include the date the MSDS was prepared, indicating how up-to-date it is.
   Section 2: Hazardous ingredients/identity. This section lists all hazardous
    components of the chemical by their scientific and common names. If the
    ingredients are a trade secret, this information will not be revealed, however,
    the MSDS must include information regarding hazards and safety measures.
    This section also lists any safe exposure limits that have been established for
    the chemical. Most common are (1) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL),
    which is the maximum concentration of a chemical that a person can be
    exposed to over a standard workweek without harm (as determined by
    OSHA). If concentrations are at or above the PEL, respirator use is
    mandatory; (2) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is similar to PEL except the
    recommended safe exposure limit is set by the American Conference of
    Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
   Section 3: Physical/chemical characteristics. This section explains the
    various factors that may affect the degree of the hazard. It tells you the normal
    appearance and odor of the chemical and alerts you to potentially dangerous
    situations. Other information includes:
    -   Boiling point or the temperature at which a liquid boils or changes from
        liquid to gas, the hazards these changes pose and the protection required.
    -   Melting point or the temperature at which a solid turns to liquid (also the
        same temperature at which a liquid turns to solid or freezing point), the
        hazards these changes pose and the protection needed.
    -   Vapor pressure explains under what circumstances a chemical will
        evaporate or release vapors. The higher the number, the faster the chemical
        will evaporate increasing the risk of inhaling dangerous vapors.
    -   Vapor density compares the density of a chemical vapor to the density of
        air (air‘s density = 1). If the chemical vapor density is higher than 1, the
        vapor will sink in air; if the chemical vapor density is lower than 1, it will
        rise in air.
    -   Evaporation rate is a warning of the possibility of inhaling vapors. The
        higher the number, the faster the evaporation rate and the greater the risk.
    -   Solubility in water indicates how much of the chemical will dissolve in
        water.
    -   Specific gravity compares the weight or density of the chemical to that of
        water (water‘s specific gravity = 1). If the chemical‘s specific gravity is
        greater than 1, it will sink in water; if the chemical‘s specific gravity is less
        than 1, it will float in water.




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                Section 3 of the MSDS alerts you to factors that could have a significant effect
                on the chemical and the type and degree of the hazards posed by the various
                factors.
               Section 4: Fire and explosion hazard data is described in terms of:
                -   Flash point which is the minimum temperature at which a flammable
                    liquid‘s vapor could ignite if it comes into contact with an ignition source
                    (spark or extreme heat);
                -   Flammable limits being the minimum and maximum amounts of vapors in
                    the air, by percent, that can catch fire; and,
                -   Lower explosive limit (LEL) and Upper explosion limits (UEL) indicate the
                    upper and lower concentrations of vapor in the air that will explode if in
                    contact with an ignition source.
                In addition, this section explains how to deal with a fire or explosion, such as
                using CO2 or foam to put a fire out and lists any other special fire-fighting
                requirements to consider.
               Section 5: Reactivity data. This section explains how a chemical will react
                with other chemicals, water or air and indicates any hazards posed by such
                instances. Reactions that may occur can include the release of flammable or
                toxic gases. Additional information provided in this section includes:
                -   Stable or unstable meaning how well the chemical resists change. If the
                    chemical is unstable, it could change or disintegrate more easily than a
                    stable chemical. The MSDS will include conditions to avoid thereby
                    preventing the problem from occurring.
                -   Incompatibility lists substances, that when mixed with the chemical, will
                    cause a hazardous reaction.
                -   Hazardous decomposition or by-products indicate the new hazardous
                    products that may be created in the event of a chemical breakdown or
                    reaction.
                -   Hazardous polymerization indicates the conditions whereby a chemical
                    will react with itself to release heat energy, which could create the
                    potential for an explosion.
               Section 6: Health hazard data. This section is crucial for protecting your
                health. It will include information with regard to the routes of exposure to the
                chemical (inhaling, swallowing or through the skin) and what can happen as a
                result of being exposed to the chemical. It will indicate whether the health
                effects are acute (show up immediately after exposure) or chronic (develop
                over a period of time and repeat exposure).
                If a chemical is believed to be a possible cause of cancer, there is a place on
                the MSDS that acknowledges the organization responsible for identifying the
                chemical as a ―known‖ or ―suspected‖ carcinogen. If the chemical causes



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       health problems, the MSDS lists ―signs‖ or ―symptoms‖ to watch for such as
       dizziness, headache, rashes, etc.
       If you have a pre-existing condition such as asthma, the MSDS will tell you if
       exposure to the chemical will worsen the condition. Finally, this section will
       give you emergency and first aid procedures to follow in the event of
       exposure.
      Section 7: Precautions for safe handling and use. This section provides for
       precautions to take when handling and storing the chemical as well as what to
       do in the event of a spill, leak or other accidental release of the chemical.
      Section 8: Control measures. This section goes into detail about the types of
       protective clothing and/or equipment needed to safely work with the chemical.
       The types of protective clothing and equipment covered include:
       -   Respirator selection for preventing the inhalation of the chemical
       -   Ventilation requirements for preventing the buildup of chemical vapor
           concentrations
       -   Protective glove selection
       -   Protective clothing selection to prevent skin contact
       -   Eye protection needed
       -   Work practices and procedures including washing after handling,
           decontamination, etc.
       It is our institution‘s responsibility to provide exposed faculty, staff and
       students with proper ventilation to ensure adequate air quality and protective
       clothing and/or equipment. However, it is the exposed faculty member, staff
       member or student who is responsible for making sure that proper ventilation
       is in place and working and for using the protective equipment and procedures
       that have been established to ensure the safe handling of chemicals. If there
       are concerns regarding appropriate air quality, personal protective equipment
       or work practices, exposed faculty, staff or students should inform their
       department head/supervisors so necessary corrective actions can be taken.
D. Safety Procedures
   The MSDS provides information regarding the chemicals used by exposed
   faculty, staff or students and how they can be handled safely. The MSDS is
   provided for the safety of exposed faculty, staff and students and (Insert
   institution name) has provided its exposed faculty, staff and students with full
   access to MSDSs for their safety. This valuable reference is worthless if not
   utilized by faculty, staff or students. Therefore, exposed faculty, staff and students
   of (Insert institution name) should prepare for labs or activities involving a
   hazardous chemical using the following steps:
   1. Read container label
   2. Read the MSDS if not familiar with the product


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         3. Follow all precautions and instructions on the MSDS
         4. When in doubt or information is unclear, ask your department head/supervisor

    Working With and Around Hazardous Materials
    A. Identifying the Health Hazards
    Identifying the health hazards associated with hazardous materials that faculty, staff
    and students work with and teaching the proper techniques for handling, storing and
    transporting these materials is an ongoing process aimed at reducing or eliminating
    task-related accidents and exposures.
    Following are the specific chemicals, where they are used and their associated health
    hazards that can be found at (Insert institution name):
    (Insert or provide chemical inventory)
    B. General Safety Guidelines for Handling Chemicals
               Read and obey all label directions when using chemicals.
               Keep chemical containers tightly closed when not in use.
               Flammable materials must be stored and transported in their original
                containers or in approved safety containers. If flammable chemicals need to be
                transferred from the primary container to another container, ensure proper
                grounding and bonding is in place.
               Unless otherwise specified, never use flammable solvents for general cleaning,
                as this increases the likelihood of fire.
               Flammable liquids in excess of quantities needed for one day‘s use must be
                stored in an approved safety cabinet or other designated area.
               Chemicals are to be used in specified areas only. Never mix chemicals
                together unless instructed to do so by department head/supervisor or process
                procedure.
               Excess chemicals are to be disposed of in approved waste containers. Never
                pour chemicals down drains, flush down toilets or dispose of in trash
                containers.
               Always wear the proper protective clothing and use the proper protective
                equipment when working with hazardous materials.
               Always wash your hands immediately after working with chemicals and prior
                to eating or drinking or smoking.
               If overexposure to a material occurs, get medical attention immediately.

    Promoting Safety
    (Insert institution name) is committed to promoting safety throughout its campus.
    This can be accomplished through the following:


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      Drawing attention to any and all hazards by use of proper labeling procedures.
      Providing for the safe storage of hazardous materials, including proper
       ventilation of the storage area, providing adequate lighting and adequate space
       for moving in and around materials and utilizing the proper storage containers
       for hazardous materials found on campus.
      Providing the proper protective clothing and equipment for the safe handling
       of materials.
      Providing training and periodic reviews for exposed faculty, staff and students
       who handle chemicals during the normal course of their campus activities.

Labeling
Throughout this training program, we have stressed the importance for understanding
the information that can be obtained by reading the MSDS. Just as important,
however, is understanding the information that is provided on the container label. It is
our institution‘s policy that all containers are labeled as to their contents, hazards and
handling precautions. The manufacturer‘s label will satisfy this requirement but
faculty, staff and students should be mindful that when they transfer hazardous
materials from one container to another that the secondary container must be labeled
appropriately.
(Insert institution name) uses the NFPA 704 labeling system. This system is based
on providing hazard information through the use of colors and numbers. Red denotes
flammability, blue denotes health hazard and yellow denotes reactivity. The numbers
range from 0 to 4 and convey the following information:
   0 = little to no hazard,
   1 = slight hazard,
   2 = moderate hazard,
   3 = high hazard, and
   4 = extreme hazard.
If you are unsure of the type of label that should be used ask your department
head/supervisor before transferring the contents from one container to another.

Toxicology

   Toxicity
   Toxic materials are capable of causing both ―systemic‖ and ―local‖ effects in
   living organisms. Exposure to toxic materials does not always cause death;
   however, this is the foremost concern. Toxic hazards are categorized based on the
   physiological effect they have on the organism and may initiate more than one
   physiological reaction.




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    Types of Toxic Hazards

         Systemic Poisons
         Chemical agents acting on specific organs or organ systems are known as
         ―systemic‖ poisons (see Table 13-B-1). Anesthetics and narcotics are included in a
         subgroup of these poisons. Although they do not cause irreversible harm, they are
         of concern for the response personnel as they can impair judgment and the thought
         process. For these reasons, they are considered extremely hazardous. Anesthetics
         and narcotics act as a depressant on the central nervous system resulting in a lack
         of sensation, which, in large doses, can cause coma and even death.

                Table 13-B-1—Systemic Poisons
                -   Anesthetics/Narcotics                  -   Compounds Damaging the
                     Olefins                                  Nervous System
                     Ethyl Ether                               Methanol
                     Isopropyl Ether                           Carbon Disulfide
                     Paraffinic Hydrocarbons                   Metals
                     Aliphatic Ketones                         Organometallics
                     Aliphatic Alcohols                   -   Compounds Damaging
                     Esters                                   Kidney Function
                                                                Halogenated
                -   Compounds Damaging
                                                                  Hydrocarbons
                    Blood-Circulatory System
                     Aniline                              -   Compounds Damaging
                     Toluidine                                Liver Function
                                                                Carbon Tetrachloride
                     Benzene
                                                                Tetrachloroethane
                     Phenols
                     Nitrobenzene

         Asphyxiants
         These agents cause a condition called ―anoxia,‖ meaning an insufficient oxygen
         supply to the body tissues. This group can be divided into ―simple‖ and
         ―chemical‖ asphyxiants (see Table 13-B-2). Simple asphyxiants dilute or displace
         atmospheric oxygen lowering the concentration of oxygen in the air. Breathing
         this air causes insufficient oxygen in the blood and tissues, which, in turn, causes
         headaches, unconsciousness and death. Inert gases such as carbon dioxide can be
         simple asphyxiants.
         Chemical asphyxiants, such as carbon monoxide, prevent the uptake of oxygen in
         the blood stream. Carbon monoxide, specifically, interferes with the transport of
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carboxyhemoglobin. This leaves inadequate hemoglobin, which serves as the
carrier of oxygen in the blood.
Other chemical asphyxiants such as hydrogen cyanide do not permit the normal
transfer of oxygen within the cell itself or from the blood to the tissues.
Hydrogen sulfide is an example of an extremely toxic compound that falls into
both the ―simple‖ and ―chemical‖ groups. Neurotoxic systemic action halts
oxidation of the respiratory tissues paralyzing the lungs. No air enters the lungs
causing simple asphyxiation. Finally, lower oxygen concentrations in the lungs
cause death.

   Table 13-B-2—Asphyxiants
   -   Simple Asphyxiants                         -   Chemical Asphyxiants
        Aliphatic Hydrocarbons                        Carbon Monoxide
        Methane                                       Hydrogen Cyanide
        Helium                                        Methyl Aniline
        Nitrogen                                      Cyanogen
        Nitrous Oxide                                 Toluidine
        Carbon Dioxide                                Aniline
        Hydrogen sulfide                              Hydrogen sulfide

Allergic Sensitizers
Becoming sensitized to chemicals is a function of the immune system. When an
antigen, or foreign substance, enters the body, antibodies are produced, which
react with the antigen serving to immunize the body. Prior to and at the time of
first exposure to a chemical, the body has no antibodies specific to the chemical.
After each subsequent exposure, the antibody level increases until a point is
reached whereby the level is high enough that upon exposure to the chemical, an
allergic reaction, also known as an antigen-antibody reaction, occurs. The body is
now ―sensitized‖ to the chemical. Symptoms of skin and respiratory sensitizers
range from mild discomfort from poison ivy to death from isocyanates (see Table
13-B-3). In addition, symptoms may mimic those from an ―irritant‖ (see Table 13-
B-5).

   Table 13-B-3—Allergic Sensitizers
   -   Skin Sensitizers                           -   Respiratory Sensitizers
        Formaldehyde                                  Isocyanates
        Nickel                                        Sulfur Dioxide
        Poison Oak
        Poison Ivy
        Toluene Disocyanate
        Epoxy Monomers

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         Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
         ―Carcinogens‖ are agents that cause cancer in organisms. ―Mutagens‖ cause
         changes in genes of the sperm or egg cells of the parents. It is not the parent, but
         the offspring, who suffers the consequences of exposure. ―Teratogens‖ also affect
         the offspring through direct exposure of the embryo or fetus. While some
         carcinogens and teratogens have been identified (see Table 13-B-4), observing
         mutagenic action in cells is considerably more difficult.

                Table 13-B-4—Carcinogens, Mutagens and Teratogens
                -   Carcinogens                             -   Teratogens
                     Halogenated                                Thalidomide
                       Hydrocarbons                              Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
                     Polynuclear Aromatics
                     Aromatic Amines

         Irritants
         Irritants cause inflammation of membranes through the process of a drying or
         corrosive action. In order for this to occur, the irritant, which may affect the eyes,
         skin, respiratory membranes or gastrointestinal tract, must come in direct contact
         with the tissue (see Table 13-B-5).

                Table 13-B-5—Irritants
                -   Skin Irritants—Acids                    -   Respiratory Irritants—
                     Alkalies                                  Aldehydes
                     Detergents                                 Ozone
                     Solvents                                   Hydrogen Chloride
                     Metallic Salts                             Nitrogen Dioxide
                                                                 Ammonia
         Exposing skin to high concentrations of irritating materials may result in contact
         dermatitis with symptoms of redness, itching and drying of the skin. Dermatitis-
         causing materials such as organic solvents are known as ―primary‖ irritants and
         produce a response within hours. Acid and alkalies are known as ―strong‖ or
         ―absolute‖ irritants and produce a response within minutes. Skin ulceration and
         destruction of tissue can occur if a material is extremely corrosive.
         Respiratory tissues respond with a reflex action followed by involuntary coughing
         when exposed to irritant gases or fumes. Ammonia, chlorine, ozone and sulfur
         dioxide are examples of irritant gases that can cause inflammation of the major air
         passages commonly known as bronchitis or tracheitis. There are more destructive
         irritating agents that can cause pulmonary edema (accumulation of fluid in the



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   lungs), pneumonia and death when the terminal respiratory passages (alveoli)
   located deep in the lungs are reached.
   It is important to note, however, that particulates such as dust can be severely
   irritating even though they are not chemically active hazards.

Routes of Exposure

   Contact with Skin, Eyes and Hair
   Skin acts as a protective barrier against the entrance of foreign materials into the
   body. However, the skin provides a large surface area for contact with toxic
   agents. When this barrier is overcome, toxic chemicals more readily enter through
   the skin.

   Inhalation
   Inhalation, the most rapid route for entry, immediately introduces toxic chemicals
   to respiratory tissues and into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream,
   chemicals are quickly transported to all organs of the body.

   Ingestion
   Ingestion is the least likely form of exposure in that it normally results from a
   conscious ―hand-to-mouth‖ effort. Additionally, the number of substances that can
   be ingested readily is limited, as it is difficult to swallow gases and vapors.
   Although the acids, alkalies and enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract can serve to
   limit the toxicity level, they can also serve to enhance the toxic nature of a
   compound. Finally, studies have shown that gum and tobacco chewers can absorb
   significant amounts of gaseous substances during an eight-hour day.

Measurement of Toxicity
Most toxicological data is derived from tests performed on mammalian species other
than humans. Test organisms are chosen for their ability to simulate human response.
For example, many skin tests are performed on rabbits whose skin response most
closely simulates that of humans.
Generally speaking, a given amount of a toxic substance will elicit a response of a
given type and intensity. Often in toxicological testing, the measured response is
death. During testing, a dose (specified amount) of the chemical being tested would
be administered to the organism. This dose may be expressed in milligrams (mg) of
test agent (chemical) per kilogram (kg) of body weight. The accumulated data is then
plotted on a dose/response curve. From this curve, the ―lethal dose‖ of the chemical
agent responsible for killing a percentage (usually 50 percent) of test organisms can
be determined. This is known as ―lethal dose 50,‖ or ―LD50,‖ and is a relative
measurement of toxicity.




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    A similar value to the LD50, which is used to measure inhalation exposures, is known
    as ―lethal concentration 50‖ or ―LC50.‖ LC50 is measured as parts per million of toxic
    agent per exposure time (ppm/hr).
    The relationship between concentration and exposure time is another important factor
    to consider when determining the toxicity of a material. ―Acute‖ exposure refers to a
    large single dose received over a short period of time. ―Chronic‖ exposure refers to
    several small doses administered over a longer period of time. This cumulative dose
    may be harmful to the organism. However, a ―large single dose‖ administered over a
    short period of time may be much more hazardous than the same dose administered
    over a longer period of time.

         Important Considerations
         The most important consideration for response personnel is protection of site
         workers, the public and the environment. With this in mind, the following
         determinations must be made:
          What toxic agent is present?
          What quantity of the agent is present?
          How might the agent enter the body?
          What effect will the agent have on the body?
         Answering these questions will enable response personnel to:
          Evacuate the area or warn the general public of the dangers.
          Select the proper respiratory and personal protective gear.
          Determine required monitoring—continuous or intermittent.

    Corrosive Hazards

         Corrosion
         Corrosion is the act or process of corroding which means ―to dissolve or wear
         away gradually, especially by chemical action.‖ A corrosive agent is a reactive
         compound that produces a chemical change in the material it comes into contact
         with. Corrosive materials are capable of destroying body tissues, plastics, metals
         and a host of other materials. Common corrosives are acids, bases and halogens
         (see Table 13-B-6). A common reaction when coming into contact with acids and
         bases is skin irritation and burns. Acids and bases can be compared based on the
         number of ions formed in solution. Strong acids form the greatest number of
         ―hydrogen‖ ions (H+), while bases form the greatest number of ―hydroxide‖ ions
         (OH-). The H+ ion concentration in solution is known as pH. The pH scale ranges
         from 0 to 14 with strong acids having a low pH and strong bases having a high
         pH. Measurements of pH can be done on-site, affording immediate information on
         the corrosive hazard.




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  Important Considerations
  The following determinations must be made when dealing with corrosives:
     Is the corrosive an irritant and will it cause severe burns?
     Will the corrosive material cause structural damage to containers holding other
      potentially harmful materials releasing them into the environment?

      Table 13-B-6—Corrosive Materials
       Acids                        Bases                      Halogens
       Sulfuric                     Sodium Hydroxide           Chlorine
       Hydrofluoric                 Potassium Hydroxide        Bromine
       Hydrochloric                                            Fluorine
       Nitric                                                  Iodine
       Acetic                                                  Astatine

Chemical Reactivity Hazards

  Reactivity Hazards
  Materials that undergo chemical reactions under specific conditions are ―reactive.‖
  ―Reactive Hazards‖ involve chemical reactions of a violent nature such as a water-
  reactive flammable solid that will spontaneously combust upon contact with
  water. The term ―Reactive Hazard‖ also refers to any substance that undergoes a
  violent reaction in the presence of water; or in an environment with a normal room
  temperature devoid of added heat, friction or shock.

  Chemical Reactions
  Chemical changes that occur as a result of the interaction of two or more
  substances are known as a ―chemical reaction.‖ ―Endothermic‖ chemical reactions
  are those requiring an external source of heat to maintain. By removing the heat
  source, the reaction will stop. ―Exothermic‖ chemical reactions can be far more
  dangerous, because while they occur, they produce heat. The rate at which a
  chemical reaction occurs depends on the following:
     Physical state (solid, liquid, gas) of a reactant
     Concentration of reactants
     Temperature
     Pressure
     Presence of a catalyst
     Surface area of reactant; a chunk of coal is combustible, but coal dust is
      explosive



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         Compatibility
         When two or more materials do not react after being in contact over an indefinite
         period they are considered compatible. However, not all reactions are considered
         hazardous. Acids and bases will react to form salts and water, which may not be
         corrosive.
         Determining the compatibility of two or more materials is extremely important to
         response personnel. It is not uncommon to come into contact with two or more
         hazardous materials that have been mixed due to an accident or unfortunate
         occurrence. If the materials are not ―compatible,‖ any number of chemical
         reactions could occur (see Table 13-B-7).
         Chemical analysis must be performed to determine the identity of unknown
         reactants. Based on their individual properties, a chemist can determine any
         chemical reactions that may occur when the reactants are mixed. Determining the
         compatibility of two or more materials is extremely difficult. Analysis should be
         performed by a trained chemist and should be done on a case-by-case basis.
         Response personnel who must determine compatibilities should refer to A Method
         for Determining the Compatibility of Hazardous Wastes, published by the EPA
         Office of Research and Development (Publication # EPA 600/2-80-076).
         In the event the identity of a waste is impossible to determine due to time
         constraints or unavailability of funds, there are simple tests that can be performed
         such as pH, oxidation/reduction potential and flash point. Additionally, very small
         amounts of materials may be combined to determine compatibility.



                Table 13-B-7—Examples of Hazards Due to Chemical Reactions
                (Incompatibilities)
                Substance(s)                       Reaction

                Acid and Water                     Heat Generation
                Hydrogen Sulfide and Calcium       Fire
                Hypochlorite
                Picric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide   Explosion
                Sulfuric Acid and Plastic          Toxic Gas or Vapor Production
                Acid and Metal                     Flammable Gas or Vapor Production
                Chlorine and Ammonia               Formation of a Substance with a Greater
                                                   Toxicity than the Reactants
                Ammonia and Acrylonitrile          Violent Polymerization
                Sensitive Compounds                Formation of Shock or Friction
                Fire Extinguisher                  Pressurization of Closed Vessels
                Hydrochloric Acid and Chromium     Solubilization of Toxic Substances




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      Important Considerations
      Compatible materials may be stored together in bulk, such as in 55-gallon drums,
      only after analysis has been performed substantiating compatibility. The ultimate
      handling of all materials is based on analysis information.

      Disposal Considerations
      It is the responsibility of the generating department to determine if a waste is a
      hazardous waste prior to its disposal. A chemical should never be placed in the
      building solid waste (trash) or dumped down a drain unless it has been determined
      that it is not a hazardous waste and is acceptable for disposal through such means.
      Liquids should never be placed in the building solid waste; liquids are not
      acceptable for landfill since they can migrate into the ground water.
      For chemicals or products of unknown composition, very expensive laboratory
      analysis is often required before disposal. However, knowledge of the generating
      process and the chemicals involved may be sufficient to make a determination for
      other materials. Consulting the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provided by
      the chemical manufacturer can provide a wealth of information.
      Chemical wastes are classified as hazardous waste by being specifically listed as a
      hazardous waste in federal and/or state hazardous waste regulations, or based on
      characteristics of flammability, reactivity, corrosivity, or toxicity. Each hazardous
      waste is assigned an EPA Hazardous Waste Code consisting of a letter and three
      numbers. Additionally information on identifying hazardous waste is provided in
      Appendix 13-D.
      Local regulations will govern your ability to dispose of these materials. In all
      cases, it is recommended that local authorities be contacted with respect to
      disposal requirements and that disposal be accomplished through the use of a
      licensed contractor.



A portion of this material provided by EHSmanager.com




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    MSDS Quiz
    The following exercise has been designed to ensure that all exposed faculty, staff and
    students of the institution understand how to locate and interpret pertinent information
    on a MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Distribute any MSDS to faculty, staff and
    students and answer the following questions with them:
    1. What is the identity of the chemical as noted on the label?
    2. Who is the manufacturer or importer of the chemical?
    3. What is the emergency contact number?
    4. Are hazardous ingredients present in this chemical? If so, please list.
    5. What is the normal appearance and odor?
    6. Are there any physical and chemical characteristics that could change the
       chemical‘s form (e.g., from liquid to gas) and hazards? If so, what are they?
    7. List any conditions that could cause a fire.
    8. How would you handle a fire or explosion?
    9. How would you put out a fire?
    10. Is the substance unstable? If so, what conditions should you avoid?
    11. What other materials should you avoid during handling and storage to prevent
        reactions?
    12. What hazards could result from reaction, breakdown or polymerization?
    13. How could the chemical enter your body?
    14. What specific health hazards are possible? Are they acute or chronic?
    15. What pre-existing medical conditions could exposure aggravate?
    16. Is the chemical a suspected cancer-causing agent?
    17. What are signs and symptoms of exposure?
    18. What are the safe handling and storage procedures?
    19. What precautions can you take to prevent a spill or leak?
    20. What would you do in the event of a spill or leak?
    21. How would you safely dispose of the chemical?



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 Appendix 13-C




Sample Acknowledgement for Receipt of Hazard
Communication Training Form

   Written Hazard Communication Program
   I acknowledge receipt of training on OSHA‘s Hazard Communication Standard (29
   CFR 1910.1200). Specifically, I have been instructed on the types of hazardous
   chemicals present on the (Insert institution name) campus and I understand the
   importance of protecting myself and my fellow faculty members, staff members and
   students from exposure to hazardous substances. I have been instructed and
   understand how to read and evaluate labels and Material Safety Data Sheets and will
   do my part to make our campus a safe learning and working environment.
   I further understand that it is my responsibility to immediately inform my department
   head/supervisor about any hazardous substances that I am not familiar with or do not
   know how to handle safely. In addition, it is my responsibility, in the spirit of promoting a
   safe learning and working environment, to inform a fellow faculty member, staff member
   or student of proper procedures when observing the handling of a hazardous substance in
   an unsafe manner. Finally, I will do my part to insure that proper labels are maintained on
   all secondary containers that I utilize during the course of my work or study.


    __________________________________________________                              _________
    Faculty member, Staff member or Student Name and Signature                           Date

    __________________________________________________                              _________
    Trainer‘s Name and Signature                                                         Date


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 Appendix 13-D




Hazardous Waste Guidelines
Hazardous Waste
This appendix covers those items that are addressed in the Federal regulations, as well as
those that are typically found in state requirements. Each institution must contact their
local state agency regulating the disposal of hazardous waste to determine the specific
requirements for hazardous waste control and disposal that apply to their campus.

Identification of Hazardous Waste
Federal regulation 40 CFR 261 and contains lists of specific materials which are
hazardous wastes. Listed wastes are grouped by EPA Waste Codes on four lists:

      The "F" list, which applies primarily to spent solvents, sludges, etc.;
      The "K" list which includes wastes from specific sources such as distillation
       bottoms, wastewater treatment sludges, etc.;
      The "P" list of acutely hazardous wastes, and;
      The "U" list containing various unused chemicals.

Wastes found in the first list are assigned waste codes which begin with "F" (e.g., F001);
wastes from the second list have waste codes beginning with "K" (e.g., K136), etc. Be
careful to apply the correct list to your situation.
One example of the need for care in using lists is the list of acutely hazardous wastes (the
"P" list). The "P" list only applies to unused commercial chemical products,
manufacturing chemical intermediates, or off-specification commercial chemical products
or their intermediates; a spent product, even if found in the "P" list will not carry a "P"
waste code.




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Characteristics of a Hazardous Waste
Hazardous wastes are also characterized by other factors. These factors are:
Ignitability
A waste exhibits the characteristic of ignitability and is assigned the Hazardous Waste
Code D001 if it meets any of the following criteria:
(a)      It is a liquid, other than an aqueous solution containing less than 24% alcohol by
         volume and has a flash point less than 60°C (140°F);
(b)      It is not a liquid and is capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of
         causing fire through spontaneous chemical changes and, once ignited, burns so
         vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard;
(c)      It is an ignitable compressed gas as defined in federal regulations or as determined
         by approved test methods;
(d)      It is an oxidizer as defined in federal regulations.
Corrosivity
A waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity and has a Hazardous Waste Code of
D002, if it meets any of the following criteria:
(a)      It is aqueous and has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5,
         as determined by a pH meter using an approved test method;
(b)      It is a liquid and corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35 mm per year at a
         temperature of 55°C (130°F) as determined by approved methods.
Reactivity
A waste exhibits the characteristic of reactivity and has a Hazardous Waste Code of
D003, if it meets any of the following criteria:
(a)      It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating;
(b)      Reacts violently with water;
(c)      Forms potentially explosive mixtures with water;
(d)      When mixed with water, it generates toxic gases, vapors, or fumes in a quantity
         sufficient to present a danger to public health or the environment;
(e)      It is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste which, when exposed to pH conditions
         between 2 and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapors, or fumes in a quantity
         sufficient to present a danger to public health or the environment;
(f)      It is capable of detonation or explosive reaction if subjected to a strong initiating
         source or is heated under confinement;



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(g)    It is readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction at
       standard temperature and pressure;
(h)    It is a forbidden explosive, Class A explosive, or Class B explosive (Explosives
       1.1, 1.2, or 1.3) as defined by U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
       regulations found in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Toxicity Characteristics
A waste exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic
Leaching Procedure (TCLP) or other approved procedure, the extract from a
representative sample contains any of the contaminants listed below in concentrations
equal to or greater than the noted levels. Hazardous waste codes assigned to these wastes
are also listed on the following page:




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HW           Contaminant                    CAS Number   Level
Code                                                     (mg/L)
D004         Arsenic                        7440-38-2    5.0
D005         Barium                         7440-39-3    100.0
D018         Benzene                        71-43-2      0.5
D006         Cadmium                        7440-43-9    1.0
D019         Carbon tetrachloride           56-23-5      0.5
D020         Chlordane                      57-74-9      0.03
D021         Chlorobenzene                  108-90-7     100.0
D022         Chloroform                     67-66-3      6.0
D007         Chromium                       7440-47-3    5.0
D023         Cresol, o-                     95-48-7      200.0
D024         Cresol, m-                     108-39-4     200.0
D025         Cresol, p-                     106-44-5     200.0
D026         Cresol                                      200.0
D016         2,4-D                          94-75-7      10.0
D027         Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-          106-46-7     7.5
D028         Dichloroethane, 1, 2-          107-06-2     0.5
D029         Dichloroethylene, 1, 1-        75-35-4      0.7
D030         Dinitrotoluene, 2, 4-          121-14-2     0.13
D012         Endrin                         72-20-8      0.02
D031         Heptachlor (and its epoxide)   76-44-8      0.008
D032         Hexachlorobenzene              118-74-1     0.13
D033         Hexachlororobutadiene          87-68-3      0.5
D034         Hexachloroethane               67-72-1      3.0
D008         Lead                           7439-92-1    5.0
D013         Lindane                        58-89-9      0.4
D009         Mercury                        7439-97-6    0.2
D014         Methoxychlor                   72-43-5      10.0
D035         Methyl ethyl Ketone (MEK)      78-93-3      200.0
D036         Nitrobenzene                   98-95-3      2.0
D037         Pentachlorophenol              87-86-5      100.0
D038         Pyridine                       110-86-1     5.0
D010         Selenium                       7782-49-2    1.0
D011         Silver                         7740-22-4    5.0
D039         Tetrachloroethylene            127-18-4     0.7
D015         Toxophene                      8001-35-2    0.5
D040         Trichloroethylene              79-01-06     0.5
D041         Trichlorophenol, 2, 4, 5-      95-95-4      400.0
D042         Trichlorophenol, 2, 4,, 6-     88-06-2      2.0
D017         2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex)            93-72-1      1.0
D043         Vinyl chloride                 75-04-1      0.2




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Some Common Wastes Which May Fail the TCLP Test
Photographic Chemicals
Used photographic chemicals containing silver in excess of 5 milligrams per liter (e.g.,
spent black and white fixers) are examples of a hazardous waste under the TCLP rule.
The indiscriminate dumping of these chemicals, as with other hazardous wastes, could
result in severe civil and criminal penalties and damage the environment. Therefore, spent
black and white fixers and related materials should not be dumped down drains unless
tested and found to be non-hazardous. If your operations generate such materials, you
may choose from several methods to handle the resulting hazardous waste, including:

      Accumulating waste in containers for recovery or disposal by a hazardous waste
       contractor, or
      Recovering silver from waste by use of a chemical recovery cartridge or other
       approved system.
Departments recovering silver on-site with approved methods are not considered to be
generators of hazardous waste and recovering significant quantities of silver may also
negate a portion of the treatment cost. Recovery cartridge systems for this purpose are
reasonably priced, requiring a onetime investment for the system, plus periodic
maintenance costs.
Used Oils and Filters
When properly recycled, used oil from vacuum pumps and other sources is not currently
classified as a hazardous waste unless combined with a hazardous waste. Uncontaminated
oil should be collected and shipped via an approved contractor for recycling. Since
contaminated oil must be disposed of as a hazardous waste, it is essential that vacuum
pumps (and the pump oil) be protected from contamination. Uncontaminated waste oil
should never be consolidated with contaminated waste oil.
Oil filters such as those removed from vehicles should be drained and crushed to remove
all free flowing oil for recycling; the crushed filter may then be recycled or disposed as a
special waste. Used engine oils and fully drained oil filters that are not recycled must be
handled under waste management standards for used oil.
Spent Solvents
Waste petroleum based solvents will almost always be a hazardous waste based on
ignitability (D001); however, contaminants in waste solvents may add additional hazards
and EPA Waste Codes (yes, a waste can have more than one waste code). Examples
include paint solvents from art studios and maintenance operations which may contain
lead, chromium, or other heavy metals noted in the TCLP list.




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Fluorescent Tubes
The presence of mercury within fluorescent tubes will frequently make these items a
hazardous waste. Unless there is laboratory evidence to show that a fluorescent tube type
is not a hazardous waste under the TCLP rule, these should not be indiscriminately placed
in the solid waste.
Thermometers
Mercury-filled thermometers constitute a hazardous waste when broken. Due to the health
hazards presented and the high cost for disposal of mercury spill debris, mercury-filled
thermometers should be purchased only when no cost-effective alternative is available.
Those departments which purchase mercury-filled thermometers must be prepared to pay
all associated disposal costs unless prior arrangements are made with EH&S.
Batteries
Batteries of various types may contain lead, mercury and cadmium from the TCLP list,
plus other materials such as lithium and nickel. While old lead-acid batteries are easily
returned to recyclers and are not a hazardous waste when treated in this manner, other
types of batteries may present problems. Small batteries like those found in computers
and other electronic devices can cost many times their original value when disposed of as
hazardous waste and present a great temptation for improper disposal. It is recommended
that departments avoid the expense and potential legal ramifications by dealing only with
vendors who will accept the return of old batteries.
Electronic Devices
Computer monitors, printed circuit boards and other electronic devices typically contain
significant amounts of lead and other metals. Since electronic devices are known to
contain significant quantities of heavy metals, some of which are listed hazardous wastes,
unwanted electronic devices such as printed circuit boards, monitors, etc., should be
routed through Central Receiving for recycling or resale. Do not dispose of these items in
the dumpster.
What to Do With Your Hazardous Waste
Once your department has determined that a waste is hazardous, it is important to do the
following:


        Store the waste properly.
          Accumulate waste in containers that are clean, in good condition, chemically
            compatible and appropriate for the quantity accumulated - quantities greater
            than one (1) gallon should be in unbreakable containers, metal safety cans are
            recommended for flammables suitable for storage in metal;
          If small quantities are accumulated in larger containers, do not combine
            different kinds of waste unless you know that they are compatible and are
            acceptable for disposal in the combined form;


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          Flammable materials must be stored away from oxidizers, water reactive
           materials must be stored away from moisture and acids must be stored away
           from bases, etc.;
        Containers must be within a secure area where any leak will not cause harm to
           the environment;
        Containers must be closed at all times unless waste is being actively added to
           or removed from the containers.
      Label the waste with the date accumulation started, identity of the contents,
       quantity of each constituent and the words "HAZARDOUS WASTE."
      Schedule removal of the waste by a hazardous waste contractor.
      Inspect the hazardous waste on a weekly basis and keep a log showing: date and
       time of each inspection, name of the inspector, observations and any remedial
       action taken to correct problems.
      Install and maintain emergency equipment to be used in case of a spill.
      Post a Chemical Spill Procedure by the nearest phone and in the storage area. Be
       certain to designate an emergency coordinator who will respond to any emergency
       situation involving the waste. Fill in the appropriate phone numbers and other
       information on the Chemical Spill Procedure.
      Keep complete records of all hazardous waste, including generation date,
       quantities and kinds of materials.
      Provide appropriate training for personnel who handle or might otherwise be in
       proximity to the hazardous waste.
Satellite Accumulation Areas
Hazardous wastes may be accumulated in a Satellite Accumulation Area (SAA) at or near
the point of waste generation. Quantities of waste stored in a (SAA) are limited to 55
gallons of non-acute hazardous waste or 1 quart (1 kg.) of acute hazardous waste; once
the limit is reached, containers must be marked with the accumulation start date and
moved to a central hazardous waste storage area within 72 hours. Container labeling,
storage and inspection requirements must be complied with in the SAA.
Generator Status
Your generating location will be classified under environmental regulations as a
Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG), Small Quantity Generator
(SQG), or Large Quantity Generator (LQG) based on the following criteria:
Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator
   • Total monthly generation is less than 100 kilograms (kg), and
   • Accumulation or generation of acutely hazardous waste ("P" listed) is less than 1 kg,
   • Waste is accumulated in quantities less than 1,000 kg before shipping off-site.




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Small Quantity Generator
   • Total monthly generation is greater than 100 kg, but less than 1,000 kg, and
   • Accumulation or generation of acutely hazardous waste is less than 1 kg, and
   • Waste is accumulated in quantities less than 1,000 kg before shipping off-site.
Large Quantity Generator
   • Total monthly generation is equal to or greater than 1,000 kg, or
   • Accumulation or generation of acutely hazardous waste equal to or greater than 1
     kg, or
   • Waste is accumulated in quantities equal to or greater than 1,000 kg before shipping
     off-site.
Generator status is important: Large Quantity Generators are more highly regulated, must
ship wastes off-site every 90 days and must pay the maximum annual maintenance fees to
regulatory agencies; Small Quantity Generators may hold hazardous wastes for up to 180
days (270 days if wastes are shipped more than 200 miles for treatment or disposal) and
pay an annual maintenance fee which is about half that of the LQG; and Conditionally
Exempt Small Quantity Generators pay no fee and have no storage time limit until certain
quantities of waste are generated or accumulated.
It is very important to observe the time and quantity limits for storage. Exceeding these
limits can result in serious legal consequences and reclassify your location as a storage
facility. (A storage facility must have a special EPA permit and falls under very stringent
regulatory constraints which present major administrative and financial burdens.)
Departments are responsible for notifying the institution‘s waste coordinator of new
waste streams, changes in generation rates, etc., within ninety (90) days to assure proper
generator classification.
It is essential that departments generating 1 kg or more of an acutely hazardous waste
(from the ―P‖ list) notify the hazardous waste contractor for removal of the waste prior to
expiration of the 90 day time limit.
Drain Disposal
In accordance with local regulations, limited quantities of non-hazardous chemicals may
be introduced into the sanitary sewer for disposal; The appropriate section of your
institution‘s local sewer use ordinance should be consulted before discharge of chemicals
into sanitary sewer systems. No chemical should ever be discharged into storm sewers.
Some Chemicals Prohibited from Drain Disposal
Based on the typical ordinances, the discharge of wastewater containing any of the
materials listed below should not be performed, without checking with and getting
permission from the local authority.




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Acrylonitrile          Dichlorobenzene, p-          Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins,     Pentachlorodibenzofuran,
                                                    1,2,3,4,6,7,8-                    1,2,3,7,8,-
Aldrin                 Dichlorobenzene, m-          Heptachlorodibenzofurans, total   Pentachlorodibenzofuran,
                                                                                      2,3,4,7,8,-
Aluminum               Dichlorobenzene, o-          Heptachlorodibenzofuran,          Pentachlorodibenzofurans,
                                                    1,2,3,4,7,8,9-9                   total
Barium                 Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-        Heptachlorodibenzofuran,          Phenols
                                                    1,2,3,4,6,7,8-
Benzene                Dichlorobenzidene, 3,3-      Hexachlorobenzene                 Pyrene
Benzo (a) pyrene       Dichloroethane, 1,2-         Hexachlorobutadiene               Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
                                                                                      dioxins, total
Benzotrichloride       Dichloroethane, 1,1-         Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,       Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
                                                    1,2,3,7,8,9-                      dioxin, 2,3,7,8-
Beryllium              Dichloroethyl ether (bis     Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,       Tetrachlorodibenzofuran,
                       (2-chloroethyl))             1,2,3,6,7,8-                      total
Bis (2-ethylexyl)      Dichloroethylene, trans-     Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins,      Tetrachloroethane,
phthalate (DEHP)       1,2-                         total                             1,1,1,2-
Bromobenzene           Dichloroethylene, cis-1,2-   Hexachlorodibenzofuran,           Tetrahlorodibenzofuran,
                                                    1,2,3,4,7,8-                      2,3,7,8-
Bromodichloromethane   Dichloroethylene, 1,1-       Hexachlorodibenzofurans, total    Tin
Bromoform              Dichloropropane, 2,2-        Hexachlorodibenzofuran,           Titanium
                                                    1,2,3,6,7,8-
Carbon tetrachloride   Dichloropropane, 1,3-        Hexachlorodibenzofuran,           Toluene
                                                    1,2,3,7,8,9-
Chlordane              Dichloropropane, 1,2-        Hexachlorodibenzofuran,           Toxaphene (chlorinated
                                                    2,3,4,6,7,8-                      camphene)
Chlorobenzene          Dichloropropane, 1,1-        Isopropylbenzene                  Trichloroethane, 1,1,2-
Chlorodibromomethane   Dichloropropene, 1,3-        Lindane                           Trichloroethylene
Chloroethane           Dieldrin                     Methyl chloride                   Trichloropropane, 1,2,3-
                                                    (Chloromethane)
Chloroform             Diisobutylenes               Molybdenum                        Vinyl chloride
Chlorophenol, 2-       Dimethylnitrosamine          Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        Xylenes, o,m,p-
Chlorotoluene, p-      Dinitroluene, 2,4-           Octachlorodibenzofuran
Chlorotoluene, o-      Dinitrophenol, 2,4-          PCB-1260
Cumene                 Ethyl benzene                Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,
                                                    2,3,4,7,8-
DDT/DDE/DDD            Heptachlor                   Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,
                                                    1,2,3,7,8-
Dibromo-3-             Heptachlorodibenzo-p-        Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins,
chloropropane, 1,2-    dioxins, total               total
Dibutylphthalate




Neutralization
Chemicals with a pH less than 5.5 or greater than 10 must not be introduced into the
sewer. Where a chemical would otherwise be acceptable for sewer disposal, neutralize
corrosive solutions to acceptable levels before disposal down the drain. Contaminants
such as heavy metals or hazardous reaction products will make the neutralized solution
unacceptable for drain disposal. In all cases of neutralization, be careful – perform the
procedure in an approved fume hood with a safety shield, wear the proper personal
protective equipment and work slowly to prevent splattering and container damage due to
the exothermic reaction.




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Mixed Waste
Regulatory complexities treat different types of waste in distinctly different ways. In
addition, there are few facilities authorized to transport, treat and/or dispose of materials
falling under differing regulatory constraints. Therefore, it is essential that personnel
exercise great care in not mixing hazardous waste with materials which are radioactive or
infectious. These combinations, called Mixed Waste, may be virtually impossible to
dispose of at the present time and represent a significant liability to the institution and
generating departments.
Potentially Infectious Materials
Potentially infectious items, including cultures, pathogenic waste, human blood and blood
products, sharps and certain body fluids, must be accumulated, handled and disposed of in
accordance with institution exposure control plans, the OSHA Blood borne Pathogens
Standard and related regulations. In order to avoid the potential liability associated with
the appearance of improper disposal, institution personnel are urged to dispose of all
hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpel blades, needles with tubing attached, culture
dishes, etc., through the medical waste contractor.
Sharps must be accumulated in properly labeled, puncture resistant, leak proof containers.
Call the institution‘s Environmental, Health and Safety Department for guidance on
proper handling and disposal of potentially infectious materials.
Empty Containers
When accepting or disposing of drums or other containers, it is wise to confirm that they
are empty. A container is legally empty based on the following criteria:
Compressed Gas
A container which has held a compressed gas which is a hazardous waste may be
considered empty when the pressure within the container is equal to atmospheric
pressure.
Acutely Hazardous Waste
A container which has held an acutely hazardous waste must be triple rinsed using a
solvent capable of removing the chemical contained therein, or cleaned by another
method that is legally acceptable, or by removing and properly handling any inner liner
which prevented contact with the container. Materials rinsed out of the container and any
liner must be properly handled and disposed of.
Other Hazardous Waste
All waste must be removed from the container to the extent possible through commonly
employed methods of removal for the type of container (e.g., pouring, pumping, etc.).
When residue remains, review local regulations for guidance before disposing of the
container or residue.



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Obliterate the labels and other markings before disposing of an empty container which
held a hazardous chemical. Render glass containers useless by safely breaking them;
plastic and small metal containers may be carefully punctured before disposal to prevent
further use. Some empty metal drums may be recycled through a reputable drum recycler;
check local regulations for guidance.
Waste Minimization
The most effective method of reducing disposal costs, quantity and toxicity of waste and
the associated safety and administrative problems is to never generate the waste. Some
suggestions for reducing waste are listed below:

      Centralize the purchase of hazardous materials within the department by
       processing all orders through one person or one office.
      Order only what is needed now, not what you might need for future processes.
      Maintain an up-to-date inventory and check for in-house availability before
       ordering new material.
      Use materials on a first-in, first-out basis to prevent degradation in storage.
      Reduce the scale of laboratory processes.
      Substitute less hazardous materials in processes (e.g., special detergents in place
       of chromic acid solution to clean glassware).
      Reuse materials by making the product of one process the raw material for a later
       process.
      Reduce the hazardous properties of waste as the final step in experiments.
      Train personnel in waste reduction techniques.
      Centralize waste collection within each building.
Inventory Control for Waste Reduction
In addition to potentially serious safety problems and storage difficulties, uncontrolled
inventories of hazardous materials eventually lead to increased hazardous waste
generation. Department chairs are strongly encouraged to address these difficulties by
following guidance found above and in the Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan (See
Appendix 14-A).
It is especially important to date all chemical containers to indicate when the containers
are received and when they are opened. Those chemicals known to form potentially
explosive peroxides need to be identified. A list of the more common potentially
explosive peroxide forming chemicals and the recommended shelf life for storage of open
containers of these materials is provided below. It is recommended that unopened
containers be disposed of 12 months after receipt.




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Chemical Name                                CAS No.     Recommended Shelf Life
                                                             after Opening
Acetal                                       105-57-7           6 months
Acrylic Acid                                 79-107             6 months
Acrylonitrile                                107-13-1           6 months
Boron trifluoride etherate                   109-63-7           6 months
Butadiene                                    106-99-0           6 months
Butyraldeyde                                 123-72-8           6 months
Chlorobutadiene                              126-99-8           6 months
Chlorofluoroethylene                         79-38-9            6 months
Cumene                                       98-82-8            6 months
Cyclohexane                                  110-83-8           6 months
Decahydronapthalene                          91-17-8            6 months
Dicyclopentaiene                             77-73-6            6 months
Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Diglyme)   111-96-6           6 months
Diethylpyrocarbonate                         1609-47-8          6 months
Dioxane                                      123-91-1           6 months
Divinyl acetylene                            821-08-9           3 months
Ethylene Glycol dimethyl ether (Glyme)       110-71-4           6 months
Ethyl ether                                  60-29-7            6 months
2-Heptanone                                  110-43-0           6 months
Isopentyl alcohol                            123-51-3           6 months
Isopropyl alcohol                            67-63-0            6 months
Isopropyl ether                              108-20-3           3 months
Methyl isobutyl ketone                       108-10-1           6 months
Methyl acetylene                             74-99-7            6 months
Methylcyclopentane                           96-37-7            6 months
Methyl methacrylate                          80-62-6            6 months
Potasium tert-Butoxide                       865-47-4           6 months
Potassium metal                              7440-09-7          3 months
Sodium amide                                 7782-92-5          3 months
Styrene                                      100-42-5           6 months
Tetrafluoroethylene                          116-14-3           6 months
Tetrahydrofuran                              109-99-9           6 months
Tetrahydronapthalene                         119-64-2           6 months
Vinyl acetate                                108-05-4           6 months
Vinyl acetylene                              689-97-4           6 months
Vinyl chloride                               75-01-4            6 months
Vinyl ether                                  109-93-3           6 months
Vinyl ethyl ether                            109-92-3           6 months
Vinyl pyridine                               1337-81-1          6 months
Vinylidene chloride                          75-35-4            3 months




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Disposal of unused peroxide formers by the times suggested in the list will decrease the
probability of an explosion and reduce disposal costs by thousands of dollars. Never
drop, shake, or attempt to remove the cap from old picric acid or peroxide former
containers.
Departments allowing chemicals to deteriorate to the point of becoming unstable must be
prepared to pay costs for bomb disposal technicians, disposal charges and fees to
regulatory agencies. Such departments must also be prepared for the inconvenience of
temporary building evacuation and losing the use of laboratories and storage rooms
containing potentially shock sensitive explosives until the materials are properly
removed.
Decommissioning Chemical Storage Areas
Upon completion of a faculty or staff member‘s association with the institution or transfer
to another work area, the department chair must assure that all hazardous materials under
that person's supervision are disposed of, transferred to the care of another employee, or
removed to storage. Strict adherence to this policy will reduce the likelihood of
accumulating orphaned chemicals, some of which may become dangerously unstable.
Waste Reduction Plans
Many states have policies to reduce and prevent the generation of hazardous waste. These
policies typically require that each department generating hazardous waste must prepare a
hazardous waste reduction plan which must be updated annually.
At a minimum, waste reduction plans typically include the following items:


      A written policy supporting the hazardous waste reduction plan which is signed by
       the Administration (i.e., the department chair for the departmental plan);
      The scope and objectives of the plan;
      A description of technically and economically practical hazardous waste reduction
       options and a schedule of implementing these options;
      A description of a hazardous waste cost accounting system;
      A description of employee awareness and training programs; and
      A description of how the plan has been or will be incorporated into management
       practices and procedures so as to insure an ongoing effort.
A generator or person failing to comply with the above act is subject to civil penalties.
The Contingency Plan
Contingency Plans are required under 40 CFR 265.50 and state regulations. Subpart D
requires that Large Quantity Generators operating 90-day accumulation areas under 40
CFR 262.34 must write and implement a Contingency Plan, assign an Emergency
Coordinator and implement specific procedures to minimize hazards to human health or
the environment from fires, explosions, or unplanned release of hazardous waste or
hazardous constituents from their facilities to air, surface water, or soil.



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Departments having Large Quantity Generator status must have a Contingency Plan.
Small Quantity Generators must still have an Emergency Coordinator and an Emergency
Response Procedure.


Examples of items that need to be in a Contingency Plan are:

        A description of the actions departmental personnel must take to comply in
         response to fire, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of
         hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at
         the facility. (If a Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan in
         accordance with 40 CFR 112 or 40 CFR 1510, or some other Emergency or
         Contingency Plan has been prepared, the department may amend the Plan to
         incorporate hazardous waste management provision that are sufficient to comply
         with these requirements.)
        A description of the arrangement agreed to by local police departments, fire
         departments, hospitals, contractors and State and local emergency response teams
         to coordinate emergency services.
        A list of names, address and phone numbers (office and home) of all persons
         qualified to act as Emergency Coordinator and this list must be kept up to date.
         Where more than one person is listed, one must be named as the primary
         Emergency Coordinator and others must be listed in the order in which they will
         assume responsibility as alternates.
        A list of all emergency equipment at the facility [such as fire extinguishing
         systems, spill control equipment, communications and alarm systems (internal and
         external) and decontamination equipment] and where this equipment is required.
         This list must be kept up to date. In addition, the Plan must include the location
         and a physical description of each item on the list and a brief outline of its
         capabilities.
        An Evacuation Plan for facility personnel where there is a possibility that
         evacuation could be necessary. This Plan must describe signal(s) to be used for
         evacuation, evacuation routes and alternate evacuation routes (in cases where the
         primary routes could be blocked by releases of hazardous waste or fires).
A copy of the Contingency Plan and all revisions to the Plan should be maintained within
the department and submitted to all police departments, fire departments, hospitals and
state and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency
services. The Plan must be reviewed and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever
applicable regulations are revised; the Plan fails in an emergency; the facility changes in
design, construction, operation, maintenance, or other circumstances in a way that
materially increase the potential for fires, explosions, or releases of hazardous waste or
hazardous waste constituents, or change the response necessary in an emergency; the list
of Emergency Coordinators changes; or the list of emergency equipment changes.
There must be at least one faculty or staff member available at all times either on site or
on call (i.e., available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility within a short
period of time) with the responsibility of coordinating all emergency response measures.


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This Emergency Coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the
Contingency Plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and
characteristics of waste handled, the location of all records within the facility and the
facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources
needed to carry out the Contingency Plan.
Once the Contingency Plan is written; it will need to be reviewed at least on an annual
basis; and changed if a new Department Chair is selected or the designated Emergency
Coordinator is changed.
Shipment of Hazardous Waste
Since hazardous wastes must be transported in commerce by Department of
Transportation permitted haulers, movement of hazardous waste in commerce by
institution personnel is prohibited. When necessary to transport chemicals on institution
property, it is important to maintain a spill control kit suitable for the substance and to
provide adequate training for personnel who might have to control a spill. When shipping
waste off-site through a permitted transporter, a signed hazardous waste manifest must
accompany each shipment. Only personnel who have been appropriately trained and
certified may be involved in shipping hazardous materials; this includes personnel signing
hazardous waste manifests.
Transportation Security Plans
Each department holding hazardous waste for shipment must implement appropriate
security measures. These measures must be included in a written departmental
transportation security plan which addresses who will have access to the waste and how
access will be limited to those who are trained and authorized. Methods of restricting
access include:
       (1) Installing or replacing locks to limit access to specific individuals,
       (2) Installing alarms to limit access to specific individuals and
       (3) Performing background checks on all faculty, staff and students who have
           access to the area.
Each faculty member, staff member or student involved in the hazardous waste program
must receive training in the security plan at appropriate intervals.
Important Documents
The hazardous waste manifest, hazardous waste disposal certificates and related
documents such as drum packing lists are important legal documents. Copies of these
documents should be retained by each generating department.
Disposing of Unwanted Equipment
Unwanted equipment destined for landfill poses a potentially serious liability. It is
essential that all hazardous materials associated with equipment destined for landfill be
removed and properly disposed. Some items to check for are noted below:


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        Coolants, including ethylene glycol antifreeze
        Oil, including pump oil
        Refrigerants, including freon and ammonia
        Batteries
        Fluorescent lamp ballasts
        Lead, including that found in electronic devices
        Mercury, including that found in switches and thermostats
It is the responsibility of each department to ensure that all unwanted equipment is
acceptable for landfill.




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 Section 14




Laboratory Standard

  Introduction
  Faculty members and students are occasionally exposed to hazardous chemicals such
  as acetone, bromine, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, mercury and
  nitric acid in campus laboratories. Many accidents and injuries occur annually in
  laboratories resulting in chemical related illnesses ranging from skin and eye irritation
  to fatal pulmonary edema.
  OSHA‘s Laboratory Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450 emphasizes the use of work
  practices and effective individual protection appropriate to the unique nature of the
  laboratory. This performance-oriented regulation is intended to provide colleges and
  universities with the flexibility of implementing safe work practices and procedures
  specific to their laboratories while at the same time reaching the important goal of
  reducing injuries and illnesses.
  The Laboratory Standard applies to all individuals who work with hazardous
  chemicals in science and engineering laboratories. Work with hazardous chemicals
  outside of laboratories is covered by the Hazard Communication Standard, which is
  covered in Section 13 of this manual. Laboratory uses of chemicals which provide no
  potential for exposure (e.g., chemically impregnated test media or prepared kits for
  pregnancy testing) are not covered by the Laboratory Standard.
  Although the laboratory safety provisions apply to faculty and other employees such
  as lab assistants, they do not specifically apply to the student population. However, as
  a best practice, it is clearly in the best interest of the institution to apply the
  requirements within the Standard to the student population.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus Laboratory Safety Program. The individual should be given the authority
  to organize an Advisory Committee to oversee the Program.


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    Note: Children are not allowed in areas where chemicals are present.

    Scope
    The areas covered by the Laboratory Standard are determined by their conformance
    with the ―laboratory use‖ and ―laboratory scale‖ criteria, as defined by the Standard.
    The Standard covers all chemicals meeting the definition of health hazard, as detailed
    in OSHA‘s Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200.
    Although the Laboratory Standard does not specify provisions for work practices to
    protect employees from potential physical hazards associated with chemicals used in
    the workplace, it does require that such physical hazards be addressed in the
    employer‘s training program. (See 29 CFR 1910.1450 (f)(4)(B).)
    The Laboratory Standard requires continued compliance with OSHA‘s permissible
    exposure limits (PELs) and with the employer‘s written Chemical Hygiene Plan. In
    order to provide additional safeguards for laboratory employees and students who
    work with these chemicals, the standard also requires special consideration for
    substances that are thought to be particularly hazardous, including ―select
    carcinogens‖ as defined by the Standard, reproductive toxins and substances that have
    a high degree of acute toxicity.

    Chemical Hygiene Plan Requirements
    The written Chemical Hygiene Plan is the core of the Standard and affords flexibility
    in providing the type of individual protection appropriate for a specific laboratory.
    This plan, which is to be developed by the institution, specifies the training and
    information requirements of the Standard. It also establishes appropriate work
    practices; standard operating procedures, methods of control, measures for
    appropriate maintenance and the use of protective equipment, medical examinations
    and special precautions for work with particularly hazardous substances. The
    institution is required to evaluate the effectiveness of the Plan at least annually
    and to update it as necessary. The written Plan must be available to employees, their
    designated representatives and to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational
    Safety and Health.
    As part of the written Plan, the institution is required to designate a Chemical Hygiene
    Officer and, if appropriate, to establish a Chemical Hygiene Committee to provide
    technical guidance in developing and implementing the provisions of the Plan. The
    Chemical Hygiene Officer may have a variety of duties such as monitoring,
    procuring, helping project directors upgrade facilities and advising administrators on
    improved chemical hygiene policies and practices.
    A discussion of the components of the Chemical Hygiene Plan follows.

         Employee Information and Training
         As part of the written Plan, an employer must establish a training and information
         program for employees exposed to hazardous chemicals in both the laboratory and


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workplace. The training program should be initiated at the time of the initial
assignment and prior to assignments involving new exposure situations. This
provision incorporates the training and information requirements of the Hazard
Communication Standard, which includes training on physical and health hazards,
thus increasing the protection of laboratory workers.
   Information—At minimum, the discussion topics must include the following:
    -   The existence of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and requirements of the
        Laboratory Standard.
    -   The location and availability of the employer‘s Chemical Hygiene Plan.
    -   Permissible exposure limits for regulated substances and recommended exposure
        limits for other hazardous chemicals where no OSHA standard applies.
    -   Signs and symptoms associated with exposures to hazardous chemicals.
    -   Location and availability of known reference materials, including Material
        Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) on the hazards, safe handling, storage and
        disposal of hazardous chemicals in the workplace.
   Training—The employee training plan must consist of the following elements:
    -   The components of the Chemical Hygiene Plan and how it is implemented
        in the workplace.
    -   The hazards of the chemicals in the work area and the protective measures
        those employees can take.
    -   Specific procedures put into effect by the employer to provide protection,
        including engineering controls, work practices and personal protective
        equipment.
    -   Methods and observations—e.g., continuous monitoring procedures, visual
        appearance or smell—that workers can use to detect the presence of
        hazardous chemicals.

Medical Examinations and Consultation
The Laboratory Standard does not mandate medical surveillance for all laboratory
workers. There are, however, certain circumstances where employers must
provide any employee who works with hazardous chemicals an opportunity for
medical attention.
Specifically, medical attention, including any follow-up examination and treatment
recommended by the examining physician, must be offered to the following:
   Any employee or student who exhibits signs or experiences symptoms
    associated with exposure to a hazardous chemical used in the laboratory.
   Any employee or student who is exposed routinely above the action level or, in
    the absence of an action level, above the PEL for an OSHA regulated substance
    for which there are exposure monitoring or medical surveillance requirements.



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               As a best practice (although not required under the Standard), such
                examinations and consultations should be extended to students as well.
         A medical consultation conducted to determine the need for a medical
         examination must be offered to any employee who is present in the work area
         when a spill, leak, explosion or other accident occurs that results in a potential
         significant exposure to a hazardous chemical.
         The employer is required to give to the physician specific information on the
         identity of the hazardous chemical, conditions under which the exposure occurred
         and a description of the signs and symptoms experienced by the worker. The
         employer also must obtain from the physician any written opinion for a
         recommended follow up examination, medical exam and the attendant test results;
         any detected medical conditions of the employee that might pose increased risk;
         and a statement that the employee was informed of the medical
         examination/consultation results.

         Methods of Control and Personal Protective Equipment
         As part of the Chemical Hygiene Plan, employers must develop criteria for
         determining and implementing control measures to reduce employee exposure to
         hazardous chemicals in the laboratory. Traditionally, these measures have
         included engineering controls, work practice controls and personal protective
         equipment. Engineering controls include general ventilation, fume hoods, glove
         boxes and other exhaust systems. Work practice controls may cover items such as
         restricting eating and drinking areas, prohibiting mouth pipetting and performing
         work in such a manner as to minimize exposures to hazardous chemicals and to
         maximize the effectiveness of the engineering controls.
         OSHA policy dictates that engineering and work practices controls are used to
         reduce employee exposure below the PEL. Respiratory protection is to be used
         only as an interim measure or when engineering or work practice controls are
         infeasible. Tasks requiring the use of respiratory protection are to be contracted
         out (see Appendix 17-G). Other personal protective equipment that must be used
         in laboratories, if appropriate, includes items such as safety glasses, whole body
         coverings and gloves.

         Safeguards for Particularly Hazardous Substances
         Employers must consider including in the Chemical Hygiene Plan additional
         protective measures, where appropriate, for work involving select carcinogens,
         reproductive toxins and substances having a high degree of acute toxicity.
         Specific consideration must be given to incorporating the following provisions:
               Establishment of a designated area with appropriate signs warning of the
                hazards associated with the substance.
               Use of a fume hood or equivalent containment device.
               Cleaning of fume hoods at the end of each semester.

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   Procedures for decontaminating the designated area.
   Procedures for safe removal of contaminated waste.

Hazard Identification
Employers must make certain that labels on containers of hazardous chemicals are
not removed or defaced. They also must maintain any MSDSs received with
incoming shipments of these chemicals and make sure they are available to
employees. MSDSs are documents that provide specific information about
chemicals, such as their chemical identities, physical properties, associated health
hazards, reactivity data, control measures and precautions for safe handling and use.
The employer is not required to prepare an MSDS except in cases where a
chemical is produced in the laboratory for another user outside of the laboratory.

Recordkeeping
Employers also must establish and maintain for each employee an accurate record
of exposure monitoring results and any medical consultation and examinations,
including tests or physician medical opinions. Such records must be kept,
transferred and made available in accordance with OSHA‘s rule governing access
to employee exposure and medical records, 29 CFR 1910.1020.
Under this regulation, exposure records and data analyses based on them are to be
kept for 30 years. Medical records are to be kept for at least the duration of
employment plus 30 years. Medical records of employees who have worked for
less than one year need not be retained after employment, but the employer must
provide these records to the employee upon termination of employment.
Although there are no recordkeeping requirements for students, it is suggested that
as a best practice records for students be maintained in the same manner as those
for employees.

Summary
The requirements of the Laboratory Standard provide employers, employees and
students in laboratories with a flexible and viable alternative to traditional
substance specific regulations. Compliance with this regulation and
implementation of the Chemical Hygiene Plan will provide employees and
students with the information and training necessary to improve workplace safety
and health and to reduce the number of chemical-related injuries and illnesses in
laboratories.




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 Appendix 14-A




Sample Chemical Hygiene Plan

  Introduction
  It is the policy of (institution name) to enforce safe work and chemical hygiene
  practices in our laboratory/laboratories within (insert laboratory location/s).
  It is the goal of (institution name) to minimize chemical exposures to people,
  property and the environment. To this end, we have established a comprehensive
  Chemical Hygiene Plan as required under OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1450, Appendix A.
  Note: Children are not permitted in laboratories or other areas where chemicals
  are in use.

  Scope and Application
  This Chemical Hygiene Plan establishes policies, procedures and work practices
  intended to protect employees from health hazards associated with work involving
  chemicals, particularly in laboratories. It covers employees (including student-
  employees, technicians, supervisors and researchers) who handle chemicals at the
  institution. It also covers laboratory students who may be handling chemicals as part
  of the educational process. This Chemical Hygiene Plan is available for review by any
  campus employee/student or his/her representative. It is the responsibility of every
  person covered by this Standard to comply with the safety guidelines established in
  this Plan.

  Responsibilities

     Chemical Hygiene Officer
     The following employee is responsible for administering and enforcing this
     Chemical Hygiene Plan and will act as our campus Chemical Hygiene Officer
     (CHO): [Insert name of designated CHO]



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         Specific responsibilities include the following:
         1. Identify the physical and health risks of the various chemicals used in the
            institution‘s laboratory facilities.
         2. Develop and implement specific policies and procedures to minimize the risks
            from the identified hazards.
         3. Perform and document regular, formal chemical hygiene inspections,
            including inspections of emergency equipment.
         4. Develop Standard Operating Procedures specific to each laboratory‘s
            operations.
         5. Determine the proper level and type of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
            for lab operations.
         6. Ensure that appropriate training has been provided to affected employees and
            students.
         7. Maintain a current knowledge concerning the legal requirements of the
            regulated substances handled in the labs.
         8. Provide monitoring for permissible exposure limits (PELs).
            (29 CFR 1910.1000, Z-1 Tables, Z-2 Tables, Z-3 Tables)

         Laboratory Supervisor
         If there is no designated CHO, the responsibilities listed above will be assumed by
         the Laboratory Supervisor.

         Laboratory Workers and Students
         Workers and students are individually responsible for planning and conducting
         their laboratory operations in accordance with this Chemical Hygiene Plan and
         good chemical hygiene practices.

    Institutional Activities
    Each institutional activity involving chemicals can be identified by a specific task.
    Each task is further defined through the identification of potential hazards associated
    with performing the task.

         Monitoring
         Due to the consistent presence of potential airborne hazards in a laboratory
         setting, it is the policy of (institution name) to routinely monitor for changes in
         air quality, using direct-reading instruments. Monthly, the CHO shall evaluate the
         effectiveness of the air handling equipment used to reduce or eliminate airborne
         contaminants. Fume elimination hoods, point source fume eliminators and
         ventilation systems in the following areas shall be evaluated:



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    (List the location of ventilation hoods)
    Using a velometer, quantitative airflow measurements shall be taken. Processes
    that routinely use specific chemicals that may produce chronic health effects shall
    be monitored on a monthly basis using calorimetric tubes or the best available
    equipment.
    Emergency equipment shall be monitored for preparedness on a monthly basis.
    This equipment includes but is not limited to the following:
       Fire Extinguishers (See Emergency Fire Prevention Plan)
       Eyewash Stations
       Smoke Detectors
       Safety Showers
       Spill Kits
    In addition, testing may be done at any time on an as-needed basis as determined
    by the CHO or Laboratory Supervisor.
    All test results will be documented and specific corrective action will be taken
    when the level of contaminant exceeds the applicable level (e.g., PEL, TLV, etc.).

Laboratory Chemicals
(Institution name) stores, processes and handles many chemicals in its
laboratory/laboratories. The following campus employee under our campus Hazard
Communication Program as defined by 29 CFR 1910.1200 maintains a
comprehensive list of all chemicals used in our laboratory/laboratories.
(Person responsible for lists of chemicals)
In addition, a comprehensive inventory of laboratory chemicals shall be conducted
annually. The following information should be included:
–   Product/Chemical Name
–   MSDS number
–   Date Received
–   Quantity Received
–   Age Sensitive (Y/N)
–   Date of Inventory
–   Quantity of Inventory
–   Primary Hazards

    Chemical Procurement
    Whenever a chemical is received for use in our campus laboratory/laboratories, it
    is the responsibility of the CHO to ensure that employees/students whose


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         institutional activity requires working with or around the chemicals receive
         information on the proper handling, storage and disposal of the chemical.
         Note: To control chemicals on campus, all chemicals should be delivered to a
         centralized receiving area. The area is ___________________________.

         Material Safety Data Sheet
         Material Safety Data Sheets are maintained for all chemicals used in our campus
         laboratory and can be accessed through the CHO (or the established database).
         Sample materials submitted for analysis or unknown materials received by our
         campus shall be handled according to routine practices. These practices include
         labeling, handling, storage and disposal procedures.

         Stockroom Storage
         Bulk chemicals for use in the laboratory/laboratories shall be separated in a
         storage area that is clearly identified and well ventilated. Highly toxic chemicals
         and other chemicals whose containers have been opened will be placed in a
         secondary non-breakable container, such as a plastic or metal tray, in order to
         contain a spill or leak.
         An employee shall be assigned to inspect chemicals stored in the stockroom/s for
         replacement, deterioration and container integrity on a monthly basis.

         Chemical Transfer
         The maximum size container used to store chemicals in our
         laboratory/laboratories is five gallons. Chemicals that are received in larger
         quantities shall be placed in smaller appropriate containers and labeled
         accordingly prior to transfer to the laboratory. Chemicals that are transferred to
         the laboratories from the receiving area or stockroom storage shall be placed in an
         outside container or bucket prior to transfer. All chemicals transferred to the
         laboratories from the receiving area shall be recorded in the chemical inventory
         prior to being used in the laboratories.
         Any transfer of flammable liquids between containers should only be performed
         when the containers are properly grounded and bonded.

         Laboratory Storage
         Samples, unused chemical product and hazardous wastes shall be stored in
         separate locations and will remain segregated for storage purposes.
               Samples—Upon receipt, samples shall be placed in appropriate containers,
                labeled and stored adjacent to the area where analysis will take place. Upon
                completion of the analysis, samples will be moved to a post-analysis storage
                location. Pre-analysis and post-analysis samples are stored in various locations
                throughout the laboratory that are labeled accordingly.


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   Chemical Products—Corrosive substances shall be stored below eye level.
    Flammable substances shall be stored in approved flammable cabinets.
    Reactive and incompatible substances shall be stored separately from each
    other. In all cases, products shall be labeled and appropriate personal
    protective clothing and equipment employed prior to handling.
   Hazardous Waste—All containers must be of an appropriate type, clearly
    labeled and stored with compatible materials. Hazardous wastes are stored in
    (location where hazardous waste is stored).
   Handling Procedures—All laboratory users will minimize personal and co-
    worker exposure to the chemicals in the lab. Specific precautions include the
    following:
    -   A chemical mixture will be assumed to be as toxic as its most toxic
        component. Look for substitution possibilities wherever possible.
    -   Laboratory users will become familiar with the signs and symptoms of
        exposure to the chemicals they work with and will understand and apply
        precautions necessary to minimize exposure.
    -   Eating, drinking and smoking are prohibited in the areas where laboratory
        chemicals are present. All users will thoroughly wash their hands after
        handling chemicals. Food and drink will not be stored in chemical storage
        areas, such as cabinets or refrigerators.
    -   All users will maintain their assigned areas in a neat and orderly manner
        and will ensure that all chemical containers are labeled with the chemical
        name and appropriate hazard warning.
    -   Mouth suction for pipetting or starting a siphon is prohibited.
    -   Use the personal protective equipment provided at all times, even for
        minor work. Avoid skin contact with chemicals.
    -   No employee or student shall work alone in the laboratory.
        Communication between those working must be maintained to provide
        assistance in the event of an emergency.

Equipment Usage
   Laboratory equipment should only be utilized for its intended use.
   Glassware should be handled and stored in such a manner as to minimize
    breakage. Dispose of broken glassware in the broken glass container. Use
    tools as necessary to retrieve items from the broken glass container. Never use
    bare hands.
   Marked waste receptacles should be used to dispose of any waste chemicals.
   Equipment should be inspected periodically to ensure continued performance
    as designed. If the equipment is not working properly, the laboratory
    supervisor should be notified and the equipment removed from service.


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         Permissible Exposures
         (Institution name) requires that exposures to chemicals not exceed permissible
         exposure limits specified under 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart Z and the 28
         substance-specific standards. Further, our campus policy states that maximum
         concentrations will be one-half the PEL as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart
         Z. In instances where this threshold of one-half the PEL is exceeded, engineering
         controls, modified work practices and/or personal protective equipment shall be
         employed.

         Particularly Hazardous Substances
         Our campus recognizes that certain chemicals are considered ―Particularly
         Hazardous Substances,‖ and additional controls shall be employed whenever use
         of these substances is required. Particularly Hazardous Substance chemical classes
         include the following:
         1. Carcinogens—substances that cause cancer in organisms.
         2. Reproductive Toxins—substances that affect reproductive capabilities,
            including chromosomal damage.
         3. Embryo Toxins—substances that affect embryos and fetuses.
         4. Severe Chronic Toxicity—substances that are toxic when exposed to a small
            amount over a long period.
         5. Severe Acute Toxicity—substances that are toxic when exposed to a large
            single dose.
         It is the policy of (institution name) to require employees handling or otherwise
         using ―Particularly Hazardous Substances‖ to first obtain written authorization
         from the CHO prior to engaging in work with the substance. The following
         chemicals found at (institution name) are classified as “Particularly Hazardous
         Substances.”
               Carcinogens (List of carcinogens)
               Reproductive Toxins (List of reproductive toxins)
               Embryo Toxins (List of embryo toxins)
               Severe Chronic Toxicity (List of chemicals with severe chronic toxicity)
               Severe Acute Toxicity (List of chemicals with severe acute toxicity)

         Special Handling Procedures
         Work with particularly hazardous substances requires the use of special handling
         procedures. These include the following:
               Establishment of a designated area for the use of high hazard substances
               Signage and access control to the designated high hazard work area



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      Containment devices, such as glove boxes
      Isolation of contaminated equipment
      Special attention to good laboratory hygiene
      Prudent transportation of particularly hazardous substances, including
       minimizing the use of open containers
      Specific planning for any spills or leaks
      Specific storage and waste disposal practices

Personal Protective Equipment
In an attempt to reduce the use of personal protective equipment, (institution name)
employs the use of engineering controls whenever feasible to reduce exposure or
potential exposure to employees/students. All containers marked with the Biohazard
Label shall be handled using universal precautions (see Bloodborne Pathogens
Control Plan, Appendix 16-A).

   Personal Protective Glove Selection
   Due to the wide variety of chemicals utilized in our laboratories, the following
   guidelines shall be followed with respect to glove selection. The supervising staff
   member shall determine which material(s) provides the most desirable protection
   from each of the chemicals utilized in the laboratories by consulting with the
   CHO. The Degradation/Permeation Time Key for each chemical will be used to
   determine which material provides maximum protection and will include the
   length of time the material provides protection.
   The Chemical Hygiene Officer has completed a Chemical Glove Selection Chart
   of the chemical compounds used in our laboratories. This chart is prominently
   displayed as a point of reference for employees/students in (location of chart). It
   is the responsibility of the CHO to display and maintain this chart.
   Gloves are stored in the following area(s): (Location(s) where protective
   clothing is stored)

   Other Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
   Employees and students working in laboratory areas shall wear laboratory coats.
   Employees and students working in areas where fume elimination hoods are
   present shall wear protective eyewear and chemical resistant lab aprons.
   Lab coats, aprons and protective eyewear are stored in the following area(s):
   (Location/s where protective clothing is stored)




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         Disposal of Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
         Upon completion of a specific task, or at the end of each day‘s activity, employees
         and students are responsible for disposing of contaminated personal protective
         equipment in appropriately labeled containers designed for such disposal.

         Restocking Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
         The Chemical Hygiene Officer or his/her designee shall be responsible for
         restocking personal protective clothing and equipment. Any malfunction or
         inappropriate breakdown of protective clothing or equipment must be immediately
         reported to the CHO. The CHO shall notify Purchasing and the appropriate
         corrective actions shall be taken. Department managers are responsible for
         assessing personal protective equipment use in their department and annually
         budgeting for this expense.

    Housekeeping
    Due to the hazards associated with laboratory work, strict housekeeping practices
    shall be enforced at (institution name). The CHO is responsible for routine
    inspections of laboratory areas to determine if proper housekeeping practices are
    being employed. In addition, the CHO will perform a formal laboratory housekeeping
    and chemical hygiene inspection semiannually. Results of these inspections shall be
    documented on an inspection form.
    The following housekeeping policies are to be adhered to by all employees and
    students at all times:
    A. Work areas shall be kept as clean as possible at all times.
    B. Upon completion of the activity, it is the responsibility of employees and students
       to clean their areas of all chemicals and equipment.
    C. Chemicals shall be appropriately labeled and stored at all times when not in use.
    D. Equipment and materials shall be appropriately stored at all times when not in use.
    E. Any spilled materials shall be promptly cleaned up and disposed of in accordance
       with proper procedures. If individuals are not sure of those procedures, they
       should ask their supervisor.
    F. Hazardous waste shall be disposed of in accordance with campus standard
       operating procedures.
    G. Unlabeled containers shall be appropriately labeled upon discovery. Whenever the
       contents of the container is not known, the container shall be labeled as an
       unknown, moved to the pre-analysis storage area and an analysis of the contents
       shall be performed and the container labeled accordingly. Under these
       circumstances, the unknown container shall be handled as if the contents were
       highly toxic and the highest level of personal protection available in the laboratory
       shall be used.



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H. Chemicals and materials no longer needed shall be disposed of appropriately and
   promptly.
I. Floors shall be regularly swept and cleaned. Rugs or other floor coverings that are
   not specifically designed for laboratory work shall not be permitted.
J. Exits and access to emergency equipment such as eyewash stations and fire
   extinguishers shall never be blocked.
K. Never store equipment or materials in a hallway or stairway.
L. Eyewash stations shall be inspected a minimum of monthly to ensure good
   working order. This inspection is the responsibility of the CHO. All other safety
   equipment shall be inspected monthly by the CHO.
M. All glassware shall be promptly cleaned and stored upon completion of use. Any
   damaged or permanently stained glassware shall be discarded in an appropriate
   container.

Chemical Spills, Releases and Accidents
Telephone numbers of the laboratory supervisor, campus security and emergency
response personnel will be posted at the lab entrance and near the telephone, if the lab
is so equipped. The list is updated as often as there are any changes.
In the event of a fire, the safety of all lab occupants is the foremost consideration. If
the fire is small, it can be extinguished by a portable extinguisher, assuming training
has been provided in the use of an extinguisher. Only make an effort to put the fire
out after emergency responders (911) are called and the rest of the personnel in the
lab are evacuated.
In the event of a spill or leak, the level of response will be dependent on the type and
size of the release. The CHO should be notified and if there is any doubt as to the
seriousness of the spill, notify designated first responders and describe the extent of
the spill/leak.
In the event of skin contact between a lab worker or student and a chemical, flush the
skin with cool flowing water for several minutes. All users should be familiar with the
location and operation of the emergency eyewash systems and emergency showers.
Notify the laboratory supervisor as soon as possible for further instructions.

Medical Surveillance
Note: Before undertaking any program requiring this level of medical monitoring,
the proposed medical surveillance should be reported to EIIA for the underwriter’s
approval. Depending on the type of chemical, the frequency of use and the duration
of use, it may be necessary to provide medical surveillance for employees and
students.
The following operations when conducted may expose employees above their
permissible exposure limit (PEL) and may require the implementation of our Medical
Surveillance Program.


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    (List of operations)
    Medical examinations shall be provided annually to all affected laboratory users
    unless the attending physician determines otherwise. Employees and students enrolled
    in our Medical Surveillance Program shall be provided an exit physical upon
    termination of employment, reassignment of duties, retirement or whenever there is a
    change in exposure level. The CHO shall be responsible for coordinating the Medical
    Surveillance Program for employees and students.
    In addition, examinations will be provided to all affected laboratory users under the
    following conditions:
    –    Whenever a user develops symptoms associated with exposure to a hazardous
         chemical to which the user may have been exposed in the lab.
    –    When exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level routinely above the action
         level or PEL for an OSHA-regulated substance, for which there are exposure
         monitoring and medical surveillance requirements.
    –    Whenever an event such as a spill, leak or other event takes place that increases
         the likelihood of a hazardous exposure.

    Employee/Student Training
    (Institution name) is committed to accident prevention and understands the
    importance of providing employee training for recognizing workplace hazards and
    equipping employees with the knowledge to protect themselves from these hazards.
    Therefore, training will be provided in conjunction with Hazard Communication
    training (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200) to every employee whose institutional activity
    falls under this Standard. Training will be provided to employees and students
    whenever they are initially assigned to a laboratory work area and whenever a new
    work assignment creates new exposure situations. Employees and students shall have
    the documented refresher training annually.
    The following information will be conveyed to employees and students who attend
    training under this Standard:
    A. The contents of OSHA‘s 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous
       Chemicals in Laboratories Standard.
    B. The physical and health hazards associated with the chemicals found in our
       laboratories and the measures employees are required to take to protect
       themselves from these hazards, including procedures for employing appropriate
       work practices, emergency procedures and personal protective equipment.
    C. Signs and symptoms of exposure to the chemicals utilized in our laboratories.
    D. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for handling chemicals in our laboratories.
    E. The details of our campus Chemical Hygiene Plan including location and
       availability of the Plan.




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   F. The location of Material Safety Data Sheets and other references for information
      on hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal of chemicals found in our
      laboratories.
   G. The permissible exposure limits for OSHA-regulated substances and the
      recommended exposure limits for other hazardous substances found in our
      laboratories.
   H. Methods employed by our campus to detect the release or presence of a hazardous
      chemical such as monitoring, visual appearance or odor.
   I. Good laboratory work practices.


Provided by EHSmanager.com




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  Appendix 14-B




Sample Laboratory Safety Inspection Form

                                Sample Laboratory Safety Inspection Form
Location:                                                     Today’s Date:
Supervisor Name:                                              Inspector Name:
Supervisor Title:                                             Inspector Title:
Department:                                                   Department:
Phone/e-mail:                                                 Phone/e-mail:
General Safety                                                 Yes      No       NA           Comments

Door signs list laboratory personnel names and phone
numbers; special hazards identified?
Door signs have current information (updated at minimum
in yearly intervals)?
Housekeeping satisfactory, including no excessive
storage?
Glass bottles, if stored on the floor, are protected from
breakage?
Mechanical equipment is appropriately guarded?

Aisles and exits are unobstructed?

All food and beverage items, containers and utensils are
stored and used in an officially designated area that is
separated from the laboratory work area and laboratory
refrigerators?
Vision is unobstructed in the laboratory door windows
needed for emergency response personnel?
Materials are stored in such a way that they are stable and
secure against sliding, collapse, falls or spills?
Ceiling tiles are in place?

Any equipment used in unattended operations has
automatic shut-off?




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Electrical Safety                                             Yes   No   NA   Comments

Circuits are properly loaded (including power strips)?

Cords of all electrical equipment in good condition?

Cords are used properly (i.e., kept clear of aisles, sinks
and heat sources)?
Any cut-off switches are readily accessible?

Electrical equipment used in wet locations (within six feet
of water) is properly grounded (GFCI protected)?
Extension cords are used only for temporary purposes?

Any extension cords in use are three-wire?

Spark-producing equipment is not used in areas where
flammable gases or liquids are used or stored (i.e., in
laboratory chemical fume hoods)?

Emergency/Safety Equipment
All fire alarm pull stations are unobstructed?

Suitable fire extinguishers are available where flammable
or combustible liquids are used or stored?
Fire extinguishers are available, unobstructed and
mounted properly?
Fire extinguisher pressure gauge (if present) is in the
normal range and tie (if present) is not broken?
Fire extinguisher service date is current?

There is presence of obvious physical damage to the fire
extinguisher?
Emergency contact information (i.e., 9-911) is posted by
phone?
Eyewash is available and unobstructed?

Safety shower available and unobstructed?

Eyewash and safety shower are tested periodically?

First aid kit is available and stocked?

Spill clean up kit is available and stocked?

The following personal protective equipment is available
and in good condition: laboratory coats or aprons, safety
glasses/goggles, full face shields, gloves appropriate for
particular chemical or biohazard, respirator (users must be
trained)?
Fume hoods inspected within last 6 months?

Chemical storage in hoods is kept to a minimum?

Hood is equipped with a flow alarm monitor?

Storage is to the rear of the hood?

Safe sash height is being observed?

Other local exhaust properly functioning?




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                                                               Yes   No   NA           Comments

Filters labeled with maintenance schedule (ductless
hoods)?
Biological Safety Cabinets have been certified within the
last 12 months (check certification sticker)?

Biological Safety
Laboratories have doors for access control?

Each laboratory contains a sink for handwashing?

The laboratory is designed so that it can be easily cleaned.
No carpets or rugs are present?
Bench tops are impervious to water and resistant to
moderate heat and chemicals used for decontamination of
work surfaces and equipment?
Laboratory furniture is capable of supporting anticipated
loading and uses. Chairs used in laboratory work are
covered with non-fabric material that can be easily
decontaminated?
If the laboratory has windows that open to the exterior,
they are fitted with fly screens?
Durable, leak-proof containers are available to transport
waste to the autoclave for decontamination?
Sharps disposal containers are present for the proper
disposal of laboratory sharps?
All containers and bags used for waste collection are
closable and prominently display the international
biohazard symbol?
Disinfectant is available for daily work surface
decontamination and spill clean up?

Chemical Safety

Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is available?
Refrigerator used to store flammables is designed or
appropriately modified for flammable storage, or is
explosion-proof?
Chemical storage is in cabinets or stable shelving?

Chemicals are stored by compatibility?
Hazardous materials are stored in approved containers
with secondary containment if necessary.
Liquid chemicals (no hazard rating above 2) if stored on
floor is in secondary containment.
Chemical contained in manufacturer’s containers are
marked with chemical name, date opened/received, and
expiration date noted (if applicable).
Working solution containers marked with label containing:
         Name of chemical
         Name of PI or person placing chemical into
          container.
         Date chemical is placed into container
         Expiration date (if applicable).




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                                                             Yes   No   NA   Comments
No more than 10 gallons of flammable/combustible liquid
stored outside an approved safety can or flammable
cabinet. (25 gal if in approved safety can)?
Flammable cabinet(s) doors kept closed, with vent plugs in
place?
One gallon or larger containers not stored higher than 5
feet or shoulder level of any lab staff?
All reagents stored on wall mounted shelving with ½ inch
lip?
Only non-hazardous working solutions kept on center aisle
shelves?
Chemicals stored away from sunlight, heat, or ignition
sources?
Peroxide forming compounds dated when opened, and
placed for disposal at expiration?
Picric acid and strong oxidizers dated when opened,
periodically checked for crystallization and placed for
disposal at expiration or crystallization?
Perchloric acid is used only in a perchloric acid hood?

Use of extremely hazardous, highly toxic chemicals and
carcinogens approved by the Institutional Chemical Safety
Committee?
Spill kits are on hand and accessible?
Integrity of containers is good or they are placed for
disposal.
Peroxidizable chemicals are dated when opened and
tested for peroxides every six months after that?
All chemical containers are in good condition?
All chemical (including waste) containers are sealed when
not in immediate use (no funnels left in place)?
Chemical inventory is available (not mandatory but
recommended)?
Gas cylinders (at all times) and lecture bottles (when in
use) are fastened securely?
All mercury devices (thermometers, gauges, switches,
etc.) that can be replaced with a mercury-free alternative
have been replaced?
Mercury thermometers are not present in heated ovens?
Traps are used when house vacuum is utilized for
aspiration, filtering, etc. of any liquids?




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Radiation Safety                                            Yes   No    NA              Comments

Contamination surveys are performed and documented as
specified in permit conditions?
Records of radioactive materials inventory and use are
maintained?
Radioactive waste receptacles are labeled and contents
are recorded?
Protective clothing is available and used?
Absorbent paper, shielding, and handling devices are used
when appropriate?
Radioactive material is secured when not attended?

This checklist covers general laboratory safety as well as basic biological, chemical, and radiological
safety concerns that are common to most laboratories. Individual laboratories or departments may need to
add items to this checklist to address specific concerns that may be unique to the laboratory or department.




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    Instructions for Sample Laboratory Safety Inspection Form
    The following briefly describes what are some typical items that should be checked
    during a typical laboratory inspection (for general laboratory safety and chemical
    safety only – biological and radiation safety issues are not addressed). The categories
    follow the sample form line by line.

    General Safety
    –    Door signs list laboratory personnel names and phone numbers, as well as special
         hazards. The names and phone numbers (office and home) of the principal
         investigator and other knowledgeable employees/students should be listed on the
         front of the sign and the appropriate hazards checked on the back of the sign. The
         sign should be posted either in a three-card slot near the door, in an alternative
         card holder next to or on the door, or taped to the door in a way that emergency
         personnel can remove it in order to view the back side for hazards (if card holder
         is not available).
    –    Door signs have current information. All door signs should be checked for
         accuracy on a yearly basis and should be dated when posted/updated.
         Additionally, the information should be updated whenever the contact or hazard
         information changes.
    –    Housekeeping is satisfactory. Floor space and bench space should not be cluttered
         with excessive storage. Physical hazards should be minimized (e.g., tripping
         hazards, items that could fall on someone, etc.), and combustible/flammable
         materials should not be stored in excessive amounts.
    –    Glass bottles stored on the floor are protected. If glass bottles must be stored on
         the floor, they must be in a secondary container such as a sturdy cardboard box
         that would minimize accidental breakage. If the glass bottles contain liquids, the
         secondary container will need to be able to contain the bottle and contents if
         breakage should occur.
    –    Mechanical equipment is appropriately guarded. Any equipment that is belt-driven
         should have belt guards in place (e.g., vacuum pumps, Parr shakers, etc.).
         Grinding wheels should have a chip guard in place and moving blades should also
         have guards in place. Other equipment should be guarded as needed.
    –    Aisles and exits are unobstructed. There should be no objects that block
         movement through aisles or exits. Emergency personnel should be able to access
         all areas of the laboratory through all exit doors and should be able to move freely
         in the aisles when smoke may be present.
    –    All food and beverage items are kept away from laboratory work areas. Food and
         beverages are forbidden in laboratory work areas. Labs may designate a specific
         area for food and beverage consumption/storage, provided that the area is clearly
         marked and chemicals and other laboratory materials are forbidden from that area.
         Food and beverage must not be stored in refrigerators that also store biological,
         chemical or radioactive materials.

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–   Vision unobstructed in laboratory door windows. There should be no objects
    blocking vision through windows in the laboratory doors. In the event of an
    emergency, response personnel will need to quickly see inside the laboratory to
    assess the situation, before entering the laboratory.
–   Materials are stored to prevent sliding, collapse, falls, or spills. Materials should
    not be stored in such a way that they could accidentally slide, collapse, fall, or
    spill.
–   Ceiling tiles are in place. Ceiling tiles should not be moved. It can interfere with
    appropriate airflow in the laboratory.
–   Any equipment used in unattended operations has automatically shut-off. Any
    equipment that is used when unattended should have an automatic shut-off to
    prevent situations that might result in fire or other emergencies. Examples include
    electrophoresis auto shut-off and heating baths over-temperature shut-off (for
    when water completely evaporates).

Electrical Safety
–   Circuits are properly loaded. Electrical circuits should not be overloaded.
    Overloaded is defined as excessive electrical cords plugged into a circuit through
    the use of adapters, which allow multiple plug capability. Power strips with
    circuit breakers can be used, but should not be used in a series or with adapters.
    Three-to-two prong adapters should never be used to plug a three-wire plug into a
    two-wire system.
–   Cords of all electrical equipment are in good condition. Cords should be inspected
    for any damage. Cords with damage to the insulation (i.e., wires are visible or tape
    is needed to hold it together) or frayed cords should be replaced immediately.
    Equipment with cords that have obvious shorts should also be taken out of service
    until cords are replaced.
–   Cords are used properly. Cords should be kept clear of aisles (trip hazard), sinks,
    and heat sources.
–   Any cut-off switches are readily accessible. Access to cut-off switches should not
    be obstructed.
–   Electrical equipment used in wet locations (within six feet of water) are grounded
    properly (GFCI protected). GFCI protection must be used for electrical
    appliances that will be operated within six feet of water.
–   Extension cords used only for temporary purposes. Electrical equipment should be
    located such that extension cords are not needed on a permanent basis; or, an
    outlet should be installed close to the equipment. Power strips with circuit
    breakers are acceptable to use but should not be connected in a series or to an
    extension cord.
–   All extension cords are three-wire. All extension cords should be three-wire and
    not two-wire.



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    –    Spark-producing equipment is not used in areas where flammable gases or liquids
         are used or stored. Spark-producing equipment, such as Variacs, should not be
         located in an area where flammable gases or liquids are stored or used (e.g.,
         laboratory chemical hoods).

    Emergency/Safety Equipment
    –    All fire alarm pull stations are unobstructed: self-explanatory.
    –    Suitable fire extinguishers are available where flammable or combustible liquids
         are used or stored. In general, fire extinguishers suitable for the hazard to be
         protected should be available.
    –    Fire extinguishers are available, unobstructed, and mounted properly. Fire
         extinguishers that are appropriate for the hazard associated with the laboratory
         should be present. They should also be in an obvious and accessible location near
         the exit door and/or near the hazard. They should be mounted on the wall and not
         sitting on the floor.
    –    Fire extinguisher pressure gauge (if present) is in the normal range and tie (if
         present) is not broken. Check indicators (if present) on fire extinguishers to be
         sure that the pressure gauge is in the normal range. If the indicator is not in the
         normal range and/or the tie is broken, the extinguisher needs to be serviced.
    –    Fire extinguisher service date is current: The fire extinguisher should be tagged
         with an inspection date within the last year.
    –    There is presence of obvious physical damage to the fire extinguisher: Confirm
         that seals or tamper indicators are intact. Check that extinguisher operating
         instructions are legible and face forward. Note any obvious physical damage.
         Confirm that the Hazardous Material Identification System label is in place.
    –    Emergency contact information (e.g., 9-911) is posted by phone. Emergency
         phone numbers should be posted by or on all phones in the laboratory.
    –    Eyewash is available and unobstructed. Eyewashes should be in accessible,
         unobstructed locations that require no more than 10 seconds to reach. Eyewash
         locations should be identified with a highly viewable sign that is visible within the
         area served by the eyewash.
    –    Safety shower available and unobstructed. Safety showers should be in accessible,
         unobstructed locations that require no more than 10 seconds to reach. Safety
         shower locations should be identified with a highly visible sign that is visible
         within the area served by the safety shower.
    –    Eyewash and shower tested periodically. Eyewashes and safety showers should be
         periodically tested. Testing date should be recorded on a tag or sheet that is posted
         on or near the eyewash and/or safety shower.
    –    First aid kit is available and stocked. First aid kit should be accessible and
         contents kept stocked. If hydrofluoric acid is used in the laboratory, calcium
         gluconate gel (two-year shelf life) should also be kept in the first aid kit.


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–   Spill clean up kit is available and stocked. Spill clean up kits should contain
    appropriate materials to clean up spills that could occur in the laboratory. When
    materials are used, they should be re-stocked immediately. Spill kit materials
    should be evaluated for compatibility with the hazards in the laboratory that might
    require clean up. Universal sorbents, such as 3M Powersorb and spill pads are
    recommended for spill kits.
–   The following personal protective equipment is available as needed: laboratory
    coats or aprons, safety glasses/goggles, full face shields, gloves appropriate for
    particular hazard, respirator (users must be trained).
       Laboratory coats or aprons provide adequate coverage (length is appropriate).
       Safety glasses/goggles/face shields should be checked for condition of
        visibility and straps. An appropriate number of visitor safety glasses should be
        available.
       Gloves:
        For use with chemicals  Various types of gloves are required for various
        chemicals. Latex gloves are not good for all-purpose chemical protection. If
        gloves are disposable, they should not be reused. Reusable gloves should be
        checked routinely for holes/leaks.
        For used with biological materials – Single-use disposable laboratory gloves
        are generally adequate. Because of potential allergic reactions, alternatives to
        latex gloves should be provided. Nitrile gloves are recommended. If reusable
        gloves are used, they must be decontaminated after each use.
–   Chemical hoods have been inspected in the last 6 months. A certification sticker
    that has been dated during the past 6 months should be on the hood.
–   Chemical hoods are free from excessive storage. Excess chemicals and/or
    equipment should not be stored in the hood, especially if it blocks proper airflow
    (i.e., blocks back baffle). Large items that must be in a hood are recommended to
    be elevated approximately two inches on blocks or a stand with legs to allow air to
    flow beneath the item.
–   Hood is equipped with a flow alarm monitor. It is important that each hood
    maintain a minimum airflow to purge harmful fumes and vapors from within the
    hood. Each hood should be equipped with a ―low airflow‖ alarm to alert
    individuals to problems with hood ventilation.
–   Storage is to the rear of hood. Storage needs to be located in the center of the
    hood for the ventilation system to work most effectively. Storage in the rear of
    the hood area may allow fumes and vapors not be drawn off properly.
–   Safe sash height is being observed. The sash height needs to be monitored to
    assure proper ventilation is maintained within the hoods.
–   Other local exhaust properly functioning. The local ventilation systems in the
    laboratory or other area in which the hood is located also needs to be working
    properly to remove any small amounts of vapors or fumes that may escape from


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         the hoods and to provide sufficient air to be drawn through the hood exhaust
         system
    –    Filters labeled with maintenance schedule. On ductless type hoods it is imperative
         that the maintenance schedule for cleaning or replacing filters is observed. Failure
         to do so will limit the effectiveness of the hood and may allow fumes or vapors to
         back up in the laboratory.
    –    Biological Safety Cabinets (BSCs) have been certified within the last 12 months.
         A sticker that lists the last certification date should be present on the cabinet. It is
         required that a BSC be certified at the time of installation, annually thereafter, and
         any time the unit is relocated.

    Biological Safety
    –    Laboratories have doors for access control. Access to the laboratory is limited or
         restricted at the discretion of the laboratory director when experiments or work
         with cultures and specimens are in progress.
    –    Each laboratory contains a sink for handwashing. The sink should be kept stocked
         with soap and paper towels. A hand washing policy that directs staff and students
         to wash their hands after they handle viable materials, after removing gloves, and
         before leaving the laboratory should be communicated to all laboratory members.
    –    The laboratory is designed so that it can be easily cleaned. Spaces between
         benches, cabinets, and equipment should be readily accessible for cleaning.
         Carpets and rugs are prohibited because they are difficult to decontaminate.
    –    Bench tops are impervious to water and resistant to moderate heat and chemicals
         used for decontamination of work surfaces and equipment. Self-explanatory.
    –    Laboratory furniture is capable of supporting anticipated loading and uses. Chairs
         used in laboratory work are covered with a non-fabric material. Laboratory
         furniture should be sturdy and in good condition. Cloth-covered chairs are
         prohibited because they are difficult to decontaminate. Vinyl-covered chairs are
         acceptable.
    –    If the laboratory has windows that open to the exterior, they are fitted with fly
         screens. If installing screens is not an option, windows should be sealed shut.
    –    Durable, leak-proof containers are available to transport waste to the autoclave for
         decontamination. Secondary containment for autoclave bags helps prevent spills
         of material from unexpected holes or tears in the bag. Appropriate containers for
         transport include plastic or metal tubs. Do not place transport containers in the
         autoclave unless you are certain they are composed of ―autoclavable‖ material.
         Note: if bags are heavy, use of a cart for transport is also recommended.
    –    Sharps disposal containers are present for the proper disposal of laboratory sharps.
         Self-explanatory.
    –    All containers and bags used for waste collection are closable and prominently
         display the international biohazard symbol. All bags used for waste collection


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    must have the biohazard symbol printed on the bag. If the bag is kept in a
    container, the container should have a lid and also have the biohazard symbol
    prominently displayed. When not in use, waste containers waste should be kept
    closed.
–   Disinfectant is available for daily work surface decontamination and spill clean
    up. Work surfaces should be decontaminated on completion of work, at the end of
    the day, and after any spill or splash of viable material with disinfectants that are
    effective against the agents of concern. For some organisms, 70% ethanol may be
    effective. For most organisms, a 10% bleach solution is effective. Note that bleach
    solutions should be prepared fresh each day.

Chemical Safety
–   Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) available. A current copy of the laboratory‘s
    chemical hygiene plan should be available to all laboratory personnel. All
    laboratory personnel should know the location of the CHP and be familiar with its
    contents. Personnel should also know how to obtain a Material Safety Data Sheet
    (MSDS) for any given chemical in the laboratory (a required part of the CHP).
–   Refrigerator used to store flammables is designed or appropriately modified for
    flammable storage, or is explosion-proof. Flammable materials that must be kept
    in a refrigerator must be stored in one designed or modified for flammable storage
    or one that is explosion-proof. Typical refrigerators have ignition sources that are
    not suitable for flammable materials.
–   Chemical storage is in cabinets or stable shelving. Chemicals should be stored in
    cabinets or stable shelving. Chemicals should not be stored on the floor or
    precariously on shelves where they could be knocked off or fall off.
–   Chemicals are stored by compatibility. Chemicals should be stored by
    compatibility. Storage of incompatible chemicals together may result in unwanted
    and uncontrolled reactions should a leak or spill occur and the chemicals come in
    contact with one another. Chemicals in the following compatibility groups should
    be stored separately from each other:


       Air reactives (pyrophorics)
       Water reactives
       Cyanides and sulfides
       Acids, organic - inorganic
       Bases
       Toxics
       Carcinogens
       Reproductive hazards



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               Oxidizers
               Flammables
               Gases
               Miscellaneous
    –    Hazardous Materials are stored in approved containers with secondary
         containment if necessary. Hazardous materials must be stored in containers that
         are specifically approved for that specific use in order to lessen the chance of a
         spill or release.
    –    Liquid Chemicals (no hazard rating above 2) if stored on floor is in secondary
         containment. It is allowable to store these materials on the floor in an approved
         storage area, provided the room or area is provided with a curb, dike or some
         other means to contain a spill or release of the liquid.
    –    Chemical contained in manufacturer‘s containers are marked with chemical name,
         date opened/received, and expiration date noted. If chemicals are stored in the
         manufacturer‘s containers, this information is necessary for proper storage,
         handling and disposal of the chemical.
    –    All contained substances are labeled. All containers of chemical, biological, and
         radioactive materials must be labeled as to the contents and its hazard category
         (refer to the compatibility chart). Even temporary containers should be labeled so
         that if an emergency arises, another person can identify what is in the container.
         For chemical waste, the container should describe the contents with the word
         ―waste‖ (e.g., ―waste acetone,‖ ―waste halogenated solvents,‖ etc.).
    –    No excess flammable liquids are stored. Maximum quantities for flammable liquid
         storage are determined based on the type of laboratory inspected, the hazard
         classification of the flammable liquid, the container used for storage and the fire
         protection features of the laboratory.
    –    Flammable cabinet doors kept closed, with vent plugs in place. The doors to
         cabinets need to be kept closed and vent opening plugged to prevent the escape of
         flammable vapors from within the cabinet.
    –    One gallon or larger containers not stored higher than 5 feet or shoulder level of
         any lab staff. Storage of these containers at higher level increases the chance of
         spill or dropping the container and also increases the potential for injury to
         faculty, staff and students.
    –    All reagents stored on wall mounted shelving with ½ inch lip. The presence of a
         lip on the shelving will lessen the potential for the reagents falling off the shelf.
    –    Only non-hazardous working solutions kept on center aisle shelves. Center aisle
         shelves are more prone to having materials accidentally spilled, so hazardous
         working solutions should not be allowed in these locations.
    –    Chemicals stored away from sunlight, heat or ignition sources. Each of these
         items can initiate a reaction with specific chemicals.


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–   Peroxide forming compounds dated when opened, and placed for disposal after
    expiration. Peroxide forming chemicals become unstable and dangerous after
    prolonged storage and require strict handling precautions.
–   Picric acid and strong oxidizers dated when opened, periodically checked for
    crystallization and placed for disposal at expiration of crystallization. These
    chemicals may become unstable and dangerous after prolonged storage and when
    crystallization occurs and require strict handling precautions.
–   Perchloric acid is used only in a perchloric acid hood. This acid is a very strong
    oxidizer and may react strongly when exposed to other materials, as such it is a
    best practice to segregate it from other materials in a separate hood.
–   Use of extremely hazardous, highly toxic chemicals and carcinogens approved by
    the institutional Chemical Safety Committee. These materials pose physical
    hazards to students, faculty and staff and their use needs institutional approval.
–   Spill kits are on hand and accessible. These materials are needed quickly in the
    event of a spill to mitigate its effects. The kits should be available and located
    within each lab or at a nearby location where they can be easily accessed.
–   Integrity of containers is good or the containers are placed for disposal. Only
    containers that are in good condition are to be used. Containers that are damaged
    are more prone to leakage or breaking and should be identified for replacement
    and disposal.
–   Peroxidizable chemicals are dated when opened and tested for peroxides every six
    months. Peroxidizable chemicals must be dated when opened. Once opened,
    peroxidizable chemicals should be tested every six months for the presence of
    peroxides, and they should be disposed if no longer needed or if they have formed
    peroxides.
–   Chemical containers are in good condition. All chemical containers should be in
    good condition with no cracks, leaks and with the appropriate lid/cap. Any
    container that is not in good condition should be replaced immediately once noted.
–   All chemical containers are sealed when not in immediate use. All chemicals and
    chemical waste should be stored in containers that can be sealed. Chemical waste
    containers are to be sealed at all times unless in immediate use. Immediate use
    means that a person is in the vicinity of the container and is actively adding or
    removing chemicals from the container.
–   Chemical inventory is available (not mandatory but recommended). Chemical
    inventories are recommended because they can assist the laboratory in keeping
    inventory low and prevent over-purchasing (waste minimization). In addition,
    inventories can sometimes be useful in responding to an incident in the lab.
–   Gas cylinders (at all times) and lecture bottles (when in use) are fastened securely.
    Cylinders should be secured in an upright position. If the cylinder is not in use,
    valve caps should be in place. Cylinders with flammable contents should not be
    stored near cylinders with oxidizers (e.g., oxygen, bromine, chlorine, fluorine,



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         nitric oxide, etc.). Lecture bottles that contain extremely toxic or pyrophoric gases
         should not be stored in ventilated cabinets.
    –    All mercury devices-thermometers, gauges, switches, etc.-that can be replaced
         with a mercury-free alternative have been replaced. Mercury is a toxic material
         that should be eliminated whenever possible.
    –    Mercury thermometers are not present in heated ovens. Mercury thermometers
         should not be used in heated ovens. Broken thermometers in ovens pose a health
         hazard to everyone in the vicinity because the heat will volatize the mercury such
         that it can be breathed in. It will also contaminate the oven such that the oven will
         have to be disposed. Disposal of mercury contaminated items is very expensive.
    –    Traps are used when house vacuum is utilized for aspiration, filtering, etc. of any
         liquids. No liquids should be aspirated directly into the house vacuum lines. There
         is a potential of a reaction within the lines if laboratory personnel from different
         laboratories aspirate incompatible chemicals through the vacuum lines. It can also
         result in expensive repairs to the vacuum lines because of blockage.

    Radiation Safety
    –    Contamination surveys are performed and documented as specified in permit
         conditions. Laboratories must perform and document surveys for radioactive
         contamination at least monthly and whenever quantities exceed thresholds
         specified in the laboratory‘s Radiation Permit.
    –    Records of radioactive materials inventory and use are maintained. Laboratories
         must maintain records of the radioactive materials they possess and use, including
         records of liquid wastes disposed through the sanitary sewer.
    –    Radioactive waste receptacles are labeled and contents are recorded. Waste must
         be collected in appropriate receptacles and segregated according to half-life.
         Waste receptacles must be properly labeled and the contents of each waste parcel
         must be recorded.
    –    Protective clothing is available and used. Persons working with radioactive
         materials must wear laboratory coats, gloves, eyewear and footwear.
    –    Absorbent paper, shielding, and handling devices are used when appropriate.
         Benches, fume hoods, etc., where loose radioactive materials are used must be
         lined with absorbent paper. Sources with high levels of external exposure should
         be used and stored behind shielding and handled with appropriate tools to
         minimize exposures.
    –    Radioactive material is secured when not attended. Radioactive material must be
         attended by trained personnel or secured from removal when not attended. The
         laboratory should be locked when unattended.




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  Appendix 14-C




Sample Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Program
Self-Assessment Guide
Laboratory:___________________________________ Date: ______________________
Completed by: ________________________________


Program Administration                                                                              Yes   No    NA      Comments

 1. Do all research labs have a Chemical Hygiene Plan?
 2. Does each lab have a designated Chemical Hygiene Officer or committee?
 3. Is the CHO familiar with his/her chemical hygiene duties?
 4. Is there a written Chemical Hygiene Plan?
 5. Is the plan complete and up to date?
 6. Is a documented program evaluation performed at least annually?
Standard Operating Procedures:                                                                      Yes   No    NA      Comments

 7. Are there written SOP‘s covering the basic laboratory safety & hygiene practices?
 8. Is there an adequate procedure for identifying hazardous substances used in the lab?
 9. Are there written SOP‘s for substances if handling procedures differ from basic SOP?
 10. Are those SOPs practiced?
Prior Approval Procedures:                                                                          Yes   No    NA      Comments

 11. Are there any operations or activities, which required prior approval, before performed?
 12. Are these procedures documented in CHP?
Identification of Chemical Hazard                                                                   Yes   No    NA      Comments

 13. Are labels left on incoming containers?
 14. Are Material Safety Data Sheets accessible?
 15. Are containers labeled with the material‘s identification or main hazards?




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Ventilation and Fume Hoods:                                                                            Yes   No   NA   Comments

 16. Are lab hoods and local exhaust ducts provided where needed?
 17. Does each hood have a continuous flow monitor?
 18. Are lab hoods inspected annually?
 19. Is the hood labeled with an up-to-date inspection sticker?
 20. Are good lab practices observed?
Personal Protective Equipment:                                                                         Yes   No   NA   Comments

 21. Has the correct PPE been selected based on a hazard analysis or SOP?
 22. Are gloves, glasses, faceshields, goggles and respirators available as needed?
 23. Do lab workers use required PPE?
Hygiene Practice:                                                                                      Yes   No   NA   Comments

 24. Is eating, drinking, smoking and cosmetic application restricted to non-chemical work areas?
 25. Is food refrigerated separately from chemicals?
 26. Is the lab neat, clean and orderly?
 27. Are emergency eyewashes inspected weekly?
 28. Are emergency showers inspected annually?
Information and Training:                                                                              Yes   No   NA   Comments

 29. Have all lab workers received chemical hygiene training at least once?
 30. Is training documented using training rosters or signatures?
 31. Is the training content adequate?
 32. Has any objective air sampling been performed where an exposure may occur?
 33. Is sampling repeated periodically when the action level is exceeded?
Particularly Hazardous Substances:                                                                     Yes   No   NA   Comments

 34. Have particularly hazardous substances been identified?
 35. Are areas or hoods where these substances are in used posted with a designated area sign?
 36. Have special procedures for these substances been identified?
 37. Are special procedures in practice?
Medical Consultation:                                                                                  Yes   No   NA   Comments

 38. Is medical consultation available to those routinely exposed more than the action level or PEL?
 39. Is medical consultation available to those exposed during a spill or event?
 40. Is there a written physician‘s opinion on file for above examinations?
Recordkeeping:                                                                                         Yes   No   NA   Comments

 41. Is there a list of persons covered by the Chemical Hygiene Program?
 42. Is there Standard Operating Procedures available for review?
 43. Is there a training attendance list?
 44. Are the exposure monitoring results made available to the people for their review?
 45. Are lab hood and local exhaust inspection documents available for review?
 46. Is there a chemical spill report available for review?
 47. Is there an established and written respirator program?
 48. Is there a list when the CHO reviewed the CHP and respirator programs?



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Example questions which could be asked of laboratory personnel:
1.   Where is the Chemical Hygiene Plan?
2.   What particularly hazardous substances do you work with?
3.   For what activities would you need prior approval by your supervisor or the Chemical Hygiene Officer?
4.   Where are the written SOP‘s for handling those particularly hazardous substances?
5.   Where would you go to look up the general safety rules of the lab?
6.   Who is the Chemical Hygiene Officer for your group?
7.   Where is the closest emergency eyewash located?
8.   Where is the closest fire extinguisher located?
9.   Where are the MSDS‘s kept?
10. When might you wear a respirator?
11. How do you know your lab hood is functioning properly?
12. What gloves would you wear for that task?
13. What would you do if you dropped a bottle of concentrated acid?
14. What are the signs and symptoms of overexposure to (select a substance)?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________



NOTES:




Assessors Names:




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 Section 15




Compressed Gas Cylinders

  Introduction
  Many varied and useful gases are supplied to the Consortium institutions in
  compressed gas cylinders for use in the Physical Plant, Science and Dining Services
  departments. However, misuse can lead to serious injury or death. The purpose of this
  section is to provide basic guidelines for handling compressed gas cylinders in a safe
  manner.

  Basic Guidelines for Handlers
  A. When a compressed gas cylinder is received, the institution‘s representative will
     perform a brief visual check to ensure that the cylinder is not damaged, leaking or
     showing any cracks on the neck or stem. Any of these will be reported to security
     and the supplier.
  B. The label on the cylinder will be checked to ensure that the cylinder contains the
     proper gas. If the contents of the cylinder cannot be verified, the cylinder will not
     be used and will be labeled ―Contains unknown gases‖. The cylinder is to be
     returned to the supplier.
  C. Before using any gas for the first time, its hazards will be identified and
     understood. These hazards include:
        Flammability,
        Whether it is poisonous or not,
        Whether it will replace the oxygen in the room if accidentally released, and
        Whether it will combine with other materials in the room to form a hazardous
         substance.
  D. All users will review the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the gas before
     using it for the first time.


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    E. At a minimum, all users will wear sturdy shoes when handling cylinders,
       including shoes with safety toes when necessary.
    F. Users will always be sure to use a regulator with all cylinders of compressed
       gases, making sure it is the correct regulator for the gas in the cylinder.
    G. Users will ensure that the cylinder cap is always screwed onto the tank when
       handling, storing or transporting the cylinder, thus protecting the neck against
       accidental breakage.
    H. Users will wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling
       gases. They will refer to the MSDS for the gas to know what PPE is required.

    Cylinder Storage
    A. Cylinders will be stored in compatible groups. For example:
               Flammables away from oxidizers
               Corrosives away from flammables
               empty cylinders apart from full ones
               All cylinders away from corrosive vapors
    B. Oxygen cylinders are to be stored at least twenty feet away from combustibles or
       flammable gases, such as acetylene.
    C. If a twenty-foot separation cannot be maintained, a noncombustible barrier (at
       least one-half fire hour resistance rating) and at least five feet high is to be
       provided between the cylinders.
    D. All cylinders will be stored in an upright position in racks or secured with chains.
       This will keep them from falling over.
    E. Empty cylinders will be marked EMPTY or MT. Beware of ―empty‖ cylinders,
       since once filled, a cylinder is never completely empty. Valves are to be closed on
       empty cylinders, to keep the remaining gas from leaking out. Empty cylinders are
       to be stored away from sources of heat and electrical wiring.
    F. Cylinders should be stored in defined locations away from elevators, stairs or
       other passageways.
    G. Assigned storage places should be located where cylinders will not be knocked
       down or damaged by passing or falling objects, or subject to tampering by
       unauthorized individuals.

    Cylinder Handling and Use
    A. A cylinder cart or dolly should be used to move a cylinder from one point to
       another. Using the connecting straps to ensure that the cylinder remains securely
       attached to the cart/dolly.
    B. Users will not drop, bang or otherwise abuse the cylinder.



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C. A protective cradle or secure hoist should be used to lift a cylinder, making sure to
   lift it from the bottom, rather than using the protective cap.
D. The regulator should be removed and the valve protection cap secured in place
   before moving the cylinder, unless the cylinder is secured to a specially designed
   cart.
E. The correct fitting is to be used to connect a gas line to a cylinder. If the fitting
   doesn‘t set well, the connection will not be forced and where needed a new fitting
   should be used.
F. Soapy water or other leak detection fluid should be used to check the tightness of
   connections, never a match or candle.
G. Oil, grease and other hydrocarbon materials are to be kept away from valves,
   regulators and couplings.
H. When opening a cylinder valve, the user will open it slowly and stand away from
   the face and back of the gauge. The user will open the valve to full open and then
   close it approximately ¼ turn. This will minimize the possibility that the valve
   will get stuck in the ―open‖ position.
I. Flashback arrestors and reverse-flow check valves are required when using oxy-
   fuel systems for torch work.
J. When a special wrench is used to open a cylinder or manifold system, the user
   will leave the wrench on the valve stem when in use. This will ensure that the
   wrench is always available to quickly shut off the gas supply in an emergency.
K. No materials are to be stored on top of a cylinder, so not to damage the neck nor
   interfere with rapid closing of the valve in the event of an emergency.
L. In addition to having an automatic gas shutoff, the system should also shut off
   automatically under conditions of high system pressure, high gas delivery
   pressure, loss of vacuum, loss of cooling or other conditions that could pose a
   hazard to the safety of the gas system.
M. Areas where flammable gases are stored or used should be equipped with
   automatic sprinkler systems and smoke detector systems. These systems should
   be connected to the campus alarm system.
N. Emergency eyewash stations and showers should be available in locations where
   corrosive gases are used or stored. These systems should be inspected and test-
   flowed at least once a month with results documented.
O. The exhaust fans should be connected to a source of emergency power to help
   clear the area of hazardous gases in the event of an emergency where normal
   operating power has been shut off.
P. When done using a compressed gas, shut off the main cylinder valve first, then
   bleed off the regulator and lines and then close the regulator. The regulator should
   not be left under pressure by closing down the regulator without first shutting off
   the main cylinder valve.



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    Poisonous Gases
    Some gases are poisons. Their use requires us to take special precautions. Because we
    have some poison gases in use on our campus [List locations here], we will comply
    with the following guidelines:
    A. The institution should identify which poison gases may be in use. Common poison
       gases include arsine (AsH3), ethylene oxide (EtO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN),
       nitric oxide (NO) and phosphine (PH3). The user will refer to the MSDS to ensure
       that everyone who may deal with the gas knows its hazards and preventive
       measures to use to prevent injury.
    B. When first ordering a cylinder of a poison gas, find out from the distributor how to
       dispose of the cylinder when it is empty. The distributor should be able to receive
       the empty cylinder back or be able to suggest someone who will take it.
    C. The institution should ensure that proper handling procedures are documented in
       their Chemical Hygiene Plan (refer to Appendix 14-A).
    D. Campus Safety and community first responders are to be notified of the location,
       type and quantity of poison gases so that appropriate response procedures can be
       implemented if necessary.
    E. Only trained and authorized users are permitted to use a poison gas. The Chair of
       the Chemistry Department maintains a list of authorized users.
    F. Certain poison gases (e.g., ethylene oxide) may only be used if specific OSHA
       regulations are followed.
    G. All laboratory fume hoods should be tested semesterly to ensure that they are
       exhausting air at the required ventilation rate, both before and during the time
       poison gases are being used.




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 Section 16




Bloodborne Pathogens

  Introduction
  Diseases contracted through bloodborne pathogens, including acquired
  Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Hepatitis B pose a serious concern for staff,
  faculty and students exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials and
  body fluids that may contain bloodborne pathogens.
  Exposure to bloodborne pathogens may occur in many ways. Although needle sticks
  are the most common means of exposure, bloodborne pathogens can also be
  transmitted through contact with mucous membranes and non-intact skin.
  OSHA‘s standard applies to all faculty, staff and students who may reasonably
  anticipate skin, eye or mucous membrane contact with blood or other potentially
  infectious materials as a result of performing their duties. On a higher education
  campus, these individuals may include, but are not limited to, health service students,
  clinic workers, lab workers, nurses, athletic trainers, housekeeping personnel, physical
  plant personnel, residence personnel, security personnel and individuals trained in
  first aid/CPR, as well as medical professors and students.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the Bloodborne Pathogens Program. The individual should be given the authority to
  organize an Advisory Committee to oversee the Program.

  Program Requirements
  The Bloodborne Pathogens Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030 requires employers to
  develop a written Exposure Control Plan. At minimum, the Plan must include the
  following:
  –   The exposure determination


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    –    The procedures for evaluating the circumstances surrounding an exposure incident
    –    The schedule and method for implementing sections of the Standard including:
         1. Hepatitis B vaccination and post-exposure follow-up
         2. Communication of hazards to exposed faculty, staff and students
         3. Recordkeeping
    The plan must be reviewed and updated at least annually or whenever new tasks
    and procedures affect occupational exposure. The Sample Exposure Control Plan
    provided in Appendix 16-A may be used to help in the institution’s compliance
    efforts.

    Training and Information Web Sites
    On-line training modules for bloodborne pathogens can be found at the following
    Web site:
    http://www.pp.okstate.edu




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 Appendix 16-A




Sample Exposure Control Plan

  Introduction
  (Insert institution name) understands the importance of protecting faculty, staff and
  students from occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This Exposure Control
  Plan is written to increase the awareness of and the prevention of the infectious spread
  of AIDS, hepatitis and other diseases through exposure to blood, saliva and all other
  potentially infectious materials. This Plan is our institution‘s written policy for
  implementation of procedures relating to the control of infectious disease hazards.
  This Plan includes provisions for the proper selection of personal protective clothing
  and equipment, labeling and signage requirements, exposure determination,
  housekeeping practices, recordkeeping procedures and training for all faculty, staff
  and students whose job or educational activities place them at risk for exposure to
  blood or other potentially infectious materials. Further, this Plan is to be utilized by
  any employee, staff or student of our institution who has been first aid/CPR trained
  and who has been granted permission to administer first aid/CPR on campus. OSHA
  establishes minimum requirements under 29 CFR 1910.1030, which shall be reviewed
  by department heads/supervisors/staff members who have or may have faculty, staff
  or students whom are affected by this requirement.

  General Provisions
  This Exposure Control Plan shall be reviewed annually and updated whenever
  necessary to reflect new or modified tasks and procedures. This review is the
  responsibility of (insert name and position).
  This Plan is available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director of the National
  Institute for Occupational Safety and Health upon their request for examination or
  copying.

  Exposure Determination
  (Insert name and position) is responsible for identifying all institutional activities
  and their associated tasks in which the faculty‘s, staff and students‘ performance of
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    the activity puts them at risk for occupational exposure. The following identifies
    institutional activities and associated tasks:

     Institutional Activity                        Tasks

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.


    Methods of Compliance

         Universal Precautions
         It is the policy of (Insert institution name) to require all faculty, staff and
         students to observe Universal Precautions to prevent contact with blood or other
         potentially infectious materials. Whenever a differentiation cannot be made
         between body fluid types, all body fluids shall be considered potentially infectious
         materials.

         Engineering and Activity Practices
         1. (Insert institution name) provides hand-washing facilities throughout our
            campus. Following are the locations where these hand-washing facilities can
            be found:
                (Insert locations)
         2. Whenever work is performed as identified under Exposure Determination,
            where there are no hand-washing facilities readily available, antiseptic soap
            and antibacterial wipes are provided.
                Faculty, staff and students using the antiseptic soap and towelettes are required
                to wash their hands with soap and water as soon as possible upon completion
                of their work.


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3. Faculty, staff and students who are required to handle disposable contaminated
   needles or other contaminated sharps shall do so in a safe manner so as not to
   bend, recap or remove them from the immediate area. Further, they shall
   dispose of the contaminated items in a proper puncture resistant container that
   is correctly labeled as to its contents.
   These containers can be found at the following locations:
   (Insert locations)
   It is the responsibility of (Insert name and position) to ensure that these
   containers are in good repair and that the contents are disposed of in
   accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1030.
4. Faculty, staff and students who are required to handle reusable contaminated
   needles or sharps are required to place these items in their puncture-resistant,
   labeled, leak-proof container as soon as possible after use.
   These containers can be found at the following locations:
   (Insert locations)
   It is the responsibility of (Insert name and position) to ensure that these
   containers are in good repair and that the contents are disposed of in
   accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1030.
5. Eating, drinking, smoking, applying lip balm and handling contact lenses in
   work areas where there is reasonable likelihood of occupational exposure is
   prohibited.
6. Food items and drinks are never to be stored in refrigerators, freezers or on
   shelves or in containers, cabinets, counter tops, or bench tops where blood or
   other potentially infectious materials are present.
7. Whenever faculty, staff or students are engaged in work involving blood or
   other potentially infectious materials, they are required to do their part to
   minimize splashing, spraying, spattering or the generation of droplets of these
   substances.
8. Mouth suctioning or pipetting of infectious materials is prohibited.
9. Specimens of infectious materials placed in leak-proof containers during
   collection, handling, processing, storage, transport or shipping shall be done in
   the following manner and is the responsibility of (Insert name and position).
       i. All containers shall be properly labeled.
       ii. All containers shall be closed properly prior to storage, transport or
           shipping.
       iii. If a container leaks or otherwise becomes contaminated, or whenever
            the specimen being stored could potentially puncture the primary
            container, it shall be placed in a secondary container to prevent leakage
            during handling, processing, storage, transport or shipping and this
            secondary container shall be properly labeled. Leak proof containers,


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                         both primary and secondary, can be found at the following locations
                         throughout the campus:
                   (Insert locations)
                   iv. Equipment that potentially can become contaminated but cannot be
                       decontaminated either in part or in full will be labeled to identify
                       which portion of the equipment is contaminated.
                Faculty, staff and students are required to convey this information to all
                affected employees prior to servicing, handling or other contact with
                equipment. In addition, faculty, staff and students are required to convey this
                information to outside service contractors and/or manufacturers prior to any
                contact with the equipment.

    Personal Protective Equipment
    (Insert institution name) shall provide personal protective equipment to every
    faculty member, staff member or student whose institutional activities place them at
    risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
    A. Personal protective equipment made available to faculty, staff and students of our
       institution may consist of, but is not limited to, the following:
               Gloves
               Masks
               Boot Covers
               Gowns
               Eye Protection
               Laboratory Coats
               Mouthpieces
               Hypoallergenic Gloves
               Face Shields
               Resuscitation Bags
    B. (Insert name and position) shall be responsible for selecting personal protective
       clothing and equipment for each institutional activity and associated task based on
       the item‘s ability to effectively prohibit the passing of blood or other potentially
       infectious materials through to the employee‘s clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes,
       mouth or other mucous membranes during his/her normal work. He/she is also
       responsible for conveying to all affected faculty, staff and students the
       circumstances in which they are required to use the personal protective clothing
       and equipment.
    C. (Insert Name of Institution) requires the use of personal protective equipment by
       every faculty member, staff member and student whose institutional activity
       demonstrates the potential for exposure. If an instance arises whereby a faculty
       member, staff member or student, through his or her professional judgment,
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   deems it necessary to remove personal protective equipment in an effort to
   provide adequate health care or public safety services, the circumstances
   surrounding the incident shall be investigated utilizing the ―Personal Protection
   Investigation Form.‖ (See Appendix 16-B) This investigation is the responsibility
   of the individual who made the judgment and is to be turned in to the individual‘s
   immediate department head/supervisor as soon as possible after the incident.
D. Personal protective clothing and equipment is located throughout the campus and
   can be found at the following locations:
   (Insert locations)
E. (Insert institution name) shall provide cleaning, laundering, repair, replacement
   and disposal of personal protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain
   effectiveness and at no cost to faculty, staff or students of the institution.
   1. (Insert institution name) requires faculty, staff and students to immediately
      remove all garments that have been penetrated by blood or other potentially
      infectious materials. Contaminated laundry shall be handled with a minimum
      amount of agitation to reduce the likelihood of further contamination. Upon
      removal of personal protective clothing, faculty, staff and students are
      instructed to place clothing in their appropriate containers.
       It is the responsibility of (Insert name and position) to ensure that all
       containers are clearly marked for storage, washing, decontamination or
       disposal. Containers are located as follows:
       (Insert locations)
   2. (Insert institution name) shall provide washing and decontamination
      services:
           -house       or
       In the event an outside subcontractor is utilized for off-site cleaning and
       decontaminating, the following subcontractor will be used.
       (Insert name & position)
       (Insert address)
       (Insert telephone number of laundry facility)
       The above named facility          does        does not utilize Universal
       Precautions in the handling of all laundry. In either event, contaminated
       laundry shall never be sorted or reused at its location of use. It is the policy of
       (insert institution name) to label all laundry in accordance with Universal
       Precautions and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1030(g)(l)(i). All contaminated laundry
       that presents a likelihood of container leakage or soak through shall be placed
       in a secondary container that prevents such leakage or soaking to the outside.
       Employees handling contaminated laundry are required to wear personal
       protective gloves at all times. In addition, employees handling laundry are
       required to wear the following personal protective clothing:
       (Insert list of personal protective clothing)

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    Housekeeping
    A. (Insert institution name) requires faculty, staff and students to clean and
       decontaminate all contaminated work surfaces upon completion of their activity
       work. Appropriate disinfectants are supplied by the institution and can be found at
       the following locations:
         (Insert locations)
    B. Surrounding work areas/surfaces that may have become contaminated must be
       cleaned and decontaminated at the end of each activity.
    C. All protective coverings including plastic wrap, aluminum foil and imperviously
       backed absorbent paper utilized in covering equipment shall be replaced at the end
       of each activity or sooner when required and the old coverings disposed of in their
       appropriate containers.
    D. Receptacles intended for reuse and having the potential for contamination shall be
       cleaned and decontaminated on a weekly basis. Further, this schedule of cleaning
       shall be posted at the locations of the receptacles.
    E. In the event a receptacle is contaminated, the receptacle shall be
       cleaned/decontaminated immediately or as soon as possible following the
       incident. It is the responsibility of the faculty, staff or student performing the
       activity that caused the contamination to ensure that cleaning and decontamination
       is performed. Following are the procedures to follow when cleaning and
       decontaminating:
         1. Broken glass shall never be handled directly. All broken glass shall be swept
            and discarded using a dustpan, tongs or forceps. Broken glass shall be
            discarded in appropriately identified and dedicated receptacles, such as color-
            coded metal trashcans with lids.
         2. All reusable sharps, upon contamination, shall be stored and processed in
            containers in a manner prohibiting faculty, staff and students from placing
            their hand(s) into these containers. These containers are easily accessed by
            faculty, staff and students and are maintained in upright positions. In addition,
            they are to be replaced on a routine basis to prevent them from becoming over
            full. It is the responsibility of the following individual to ensure that this takes
            place:
                (Insert name and position)
    It is a further responsibility to:
         3. Remove all such containers for storage and, prior to removal, immediately
            close container to prevent leakage or spillage.
    F. Place into a secondary container if leakage or spillage is detected.
    G. Use only secondary containers that can be closed and are constructed to contain a
       primary container and prevent further leakage during handling, storage, transport
       or shipping.


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H. Label containers as required by law (fluorescent orange or orange/red with letters
   and symbols in contrasting color).

Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-Exposure Evaluation

   General
   1. (Insert institution name) shall make available the Hepatitis B vaccine and
      vaccination series to all faculty, staff and students who have occupational
      exposure.
   2. The institution shall make available post-exposure evaluation and follow-up to
      any faculty member, staff member or student who has had an exposure
      incident.
   3. All medical procedures as described in this Plan shall be scheduled at no cost
      to the faculty, staff or student and shall be provided during normal business
      hours by a licensed physician or health care provider. Following is the name of
      the medical facility utilized by our institution for the purpose of providing
      medical procedures described in this Plan:
       (Medical facility name, address and telephone number)
   4. All laboratory testing shall be conducted by an accredited laboratory as
      follows:
       (Insert laboratory facility name, address and telephone number)

   Hepatitis B Vaccination
   1. The Hepatitis B vaccination shall be made available to the faculty member,
      staff member or student upon receipt of training and within 10 working days
      of the individual‘s initial work assignment.
   2. Faculty, staff and students may decline the Hepatitis B vaccination but are
      required to sign the attached ―Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination‖ form (see
      Appendix 16-C). In addition, the institution shall make available the Hepatitis
      B vaccine to those individuals who initially declined the vaccine, but who are
      still covered under this standard and have changed their mind and agreed to
      the vaccine as outlined in this Plan.
   3. (Insert institution name) shall provide the health care professional
      responsible for administering the Hepatitis B vaccination with a copy of the 29
      CFR 1910.1030 regulation.
   4. (Insert institution name) shall obtain and provide all exposed faculty
      members, staff members and students with copies of the evaluating health care
      professional‘s written opinion, which shall be limited to whether the Hepatitis
      B vaccination is indicated for an individual and if the individual has received
      such a vaccination.



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         Post-Exposure Evaluation and Follow-up
         1. (Insert institution name) shall immediately make available a confidential
            medical evaluation and follow-up to any faculty member, staff member or
            student who reports an exposure incident. This report can be made on the
            ―Post-Exposure Evaluation‖ form (see Appendix 16-D) and must include the
            following:
                a. Documentation of routes of exposure.
                b. Description of the circumstance surrounding exposure.
                c. Identification and documentation of the source individual, unless it is
                   established that identification is not feasible or is prohibited by state or
                   local law.
         2. The source individual‘s blood shall be tested as soon as possible following the
            exposure incident and after consent is obtained to determine HBV and HIV
            infection. If consent is not obtained, documentation that legally required
            consent could not be obtained must be made. If HBV and HIV status of the
            source individual is already known, repeat testing is not required.
         3. Results of the source individual‘s testing shall be made available to the
            exposed individual, who shall be informed of applicable laws and regulations
            concerning disclosure of the identity and infectious status of the source
            individual.
         4. The exposed individual‘s blood shall be collected and tested, upon consent
            being granted, as soon as possible after the exposure incident. In the event the
            individual does not grant permission for HIV testing, the blood sample shall
            be preserved for a period of 90 days, during which period of time the
            individual may change his/her mind and request testing.
         5. Measures designed to preserve health and prevent the spread of disease, when
            medically indicated, shall be offered and shall include counseling and an
            evaluation of the reported illness.
         6. The department representative tells the Business Officer, who in turn notifies
            the appropriate workers compensation or general liability insurance carrier and
            EIIA.
         7. (Insert institution name) shall provide the health care professional
            responsible for evaluating an individual after an exposure incident with the
            following information:
                a. A copy of the OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1030 regulation.
                b. A description of the individual‘s duties as they relate to the exposure
                   incident.
                c. Documentation of the routes of exposure and the circumstances
                   surrounding the exposure incident.
                d. Results of the individual‘s blood testing if available.


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   e. All medical records relevant to the appropriate treatment of the individual
      including vaccination status.
   This information can be furnished to the health care professional using the
   attached ―Post-Exposure Evaluation‖ form provided in Appendix 16-D.
8. (Insert institution name) shall obtain and provide every member of the
   institution‘s faculty and staff and all students with copies of the evaluating
   health care professional‘s written opinion, which shall be limited to the
   following:
   a. A statement that the institution‘s faculty, staff and students have been
      informed of the results of the evaluation.
   b. A statement that the institution‘s faculty, staff and students have been told
      about any medical conditions resulting from exposure to blood or other
      potentially infectious materials which require further evaluation or
      treatment. All other medical findings or diagnoses shall remain
      confidential and shall not be included in the written report.

Medical Recordkeeping
1. Medical records including the Social Security numbers of faculty, staff and
   students; copies of the individual‘s Hepatitis B vaccination status (dates); any
   medical records relative to the employee‘s ability to receive the vaccination;
   results of examinations; medical tests; follow-up procedures; and the
   physician‘s or healthcare professional‘s written opinion shall be maintained
   for no less than 30 years for every faculty, staff and student of the institution
   who is affected by this Standard and who has been employed for more than
   one year.
2. Medical records for faculty, staff and students who have worked at the
   institution for less than one year shall be maintained for the duration of
   employment and given to the employee upon termination of employment.
3. All such medical records shall be maintained in the individual‘s
   personnel/student‘s file under a separate heading.

Access to Medical Records
1. Medical records (copies) are made available to faculty, staff and students or
   their authorized representative upon written request utilizing the ―Release of
   Employee Medical Information Record Form‖ (see Appendix 16-E).
2. The institution‘s safety and health professionals may access medical records
   on a ―need-to-know‖ basis for the purpose of research and statistical studies.
   These individuals are bound to the same confidentiality requirements as
   medical professionals.
3. Medical records, all or in part, may be released to our institution‘s insurance
   carrier, legal counsel, employee relations representatives or other authorized
   representative in connection with disability, workers‘ compensation claims or
   similar claims, active or pending, against the institution. Confidentiality is
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                waived in such instances. However, the institution‘s medical professional
                custodian of records shall take care to see that only information relevant to the
                claim is disclosed.
         4. In the event of a medical emergency involving a faculty member, staff
            member or student where information in the individual‘s medical record is
            deemed important to the immediate care of said individual, information
            contained in the record may be released upon request of the attending
            physician or responsible family member.
         5. To preserve the confidentiality of faculty, staff and students, including medical
            students and professors, medical records will be released only upon written
            request or authorization of the faculty, staff or student, or as required by law
            through an order of a court of competent jurisdiction. However, before any
            medical record is released to a government agency without prior written
            faculty, staff or student consent, approval from the institution‘s human
            relations and the legal counsel must be obtained in order to determine whether
            such agency request falls within the regulatory authority of the agency.
         6. The institution may release institution-initiated, composite statistical data
            regarding occupational health matters. In all such instances, the information
            will not be in individually identifiable form. Faculty, staff or student consent is
            not required in such instances.

         Labels and Signs
         1. All containers of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers containing blood
            or other potentially infectious materials and all other containers used for
            storage, transport or shipping of blood or other potentially infectious materials
            shall be clearly marked with a warning label. This warning label shall be
            fluorescent orange or orange-red with lettering or symbols in a contrasting
            color.
         2. Wherever applicable, red bags or red containers may be used instead of the
            warning label.
         3. (Insert name and position) is responsible for ensuring that all containers are
            properly labeled at all times.
         4. Individual containers of infectious materials that are placed in labeled
            containers for storage, transport or shipping need not be individually labeled.
         5. Regulated wastes that have been decontaminated need not be labeled or color-
            coded.
         6. Signs bearing the biohazard symbol shall be posted at the entrance to all areas
            where there is potential for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.




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                           Figure 16-A-1 Biohazard Symbol

Training
1. (Insert institution name) shall provide training for faculty, staff and students
   who, during the normal course of their duties, have potential for occupational
   exposure as defined under ―Exposure Determination.‖ Faculty, staff and
   students are required to take part in this training as a condition of their
   education or employment.
2. (Insert name and position) is responsible for providing this training and is
   knowledgeable in the subject matter covered in the training program as it
   relates to the campus.
3. Training is provided at the time of initial assignment to tasks posing potential
   for occupational exposure and no less than annually thereafter.
4. Faculty, staff and students shall receive additional training whenever there are
   modifications made to their tasks or procedures that affect an individual‘s risk
   of exposure.
5. (Insert institution name)‘s training program shall include the following:
   a. A copy of 29 CFR 1910.1030 standard.
   b. A general explanation of how disease is spread and controlled in the
      population.
   c. An explanation of how bloodborne pathogens are transmitted from one
      person to another.
   d. An explanation of the institution‘s Exposure Control Plan, including how
      to obtain a copy.
   e. An explanation of methods used to recognize tasks and other activities that
      may place an individual at risk for exposure to blood and other potentially
      infectious materials.
   f. An explanation of the methods and their limitations to be utilized to reduce
      or prevent exposure. These methods must include engineering controls,
      work practices and the use of personal protective clothing and equipment.
   g. An explanation of the type of personal protective equipment available; its
      proper use; location of equipment; and procedures for removal, handling,
      decontamination and disposal of equipment.
   h. An explanation of the basis for selection of personal protective equipment.
   i. Information on the Hepatitis B vaccine; its effectiveness; its safety; its
      method of administration; its benefits; its availability to faculty, staff and
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                   students free-of-charge; and the individual‘s option to refuse the vaccine
                   (including signed statement).
                j. An explanation of the appropriate actions to take and the person to contact
                   in the event of an emergency involving blood or other potentially
                   infectious materials.
                k. An explanation of the procedures to follow if an exposure incident occurs
                   including the method of reporting the incident and available medical
                   follow-up.
                l. An explanation of the faculty‘s, staff‘s and student‘s responsibility for
                   post-exposure evaluation and follow-up.
                m. Information on signs and labeling requirements.
                n. Interactive question and answer session.

         Training Recordkeeping
         Records of training shall be maintained, using the ―Acknowledgment of Receipt
         of Training‖ form (see Appendix 16-F), in the individual personnel/student‘s files
         for a period of three years from the date of training and shall include the
         following:
         1. Dates of training.
         2. Summary of training received.
         3. Names and qualifications of the person conducting training.
         4. Name and job title of person receiving training.
         Training records shall be made available to the Assistant Secretary of Labor and
         the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health upon
         their request.


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 Appendix 16-B




Sample Personal Protection Investigation Form
The following information is necessary to properly investigate the lack of use of personal
protective equipment that is supplied by the institution and is required to be used. This
information is to be filled out by the faculty member, staff member or student, who in
his/her own judgment and in this specific instance, determined that the use of such
equipment would have prevented the delivery of health care or public safety services or
would have posed an increased hazard to the safety of the individual or others at the
institution.

1. Name:                                              Date of Incident:
   Please list the types of personal protective equipment that would have been required
   under normal circumstances and place a check next to each item which was removed
   or which you decided not to wear:
   a.                                          d.
   b.                                          e.
   c.                                          f.
2. Please describe the circumstances leading to the removal of or decision not to wear
   certain personal protective equipment:




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3. Please describe how the use of personal protective equipment would have prevented
   the delivery of health care or public safety services or would have posed an increased
   hazard to the safety of the individual or others at the institution:




4. Please describe any changes that could be instituted to prevent such an occurrence
   from happening in the future:




Employee‘s Signature                                              Date
Submitted to:


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     Appendix 16-C




Sample Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination Form
It is mandatory that this form be filled out by every individual, who under this Standard is
offered the Hepatitis B Vaccine, yet refuses to have the vaccine administered.
I,                                                                                                    ,
                                  (Print or type name of individual)
understand that due to my potential exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials, I may be at risk of acquiring the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. I have been
given the opportunity to be vaccinated with the Hepatitis B vaccine, at no charge to myself.
However, I decline the Hepatitis B vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining
this vaccine, I continue to be at risk of acquiring Hepatitis B, a serious disease. If in the
future, I continue to have an exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and
I want to be vaccinated with the Hepatitis B vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at
no charge to me.

___________________________________                                               _______________
Signature of Employee/Student                                                     Date of Signature
___________________________________                                               _______________
Signature of Witness                                                              Date of Signature


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  Appendix 16-D




Sample Post-Exposure Evaluation Form

Exposed Individual Name:                                            Title:
Address:                                                            SS#:
Telephone Number:                              Emergency Contact Name:

Source Name:                                         Employee of Institution?
Address:                                                            SS#:
Telephone Number:                                Emergency Contact Name:
Date of Exposure:                                    Date of Evaluation:
Activities:
Circumstances Leading to Exposure:


Route of Exposure:



Source
Blood Test Date:                              Blood Analysis Result Date:
Blood Analysis Results:
Has source person been notified of results?                    Date of Notification:




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Exposed
Blood Test Date:                         Blood Analysis Result Date:
Blood Analysis Results:
Has employee been notified of results?                     Date of Notification:
Has the appropriate Workers‘ Compensation or General Liability insurance
carrier been notified?
Date of Notification:                              (If not, notify and document!)

                                                             _________________________
Authorized Institution Representative                                  Date

                                                             _________________________
Exposed Individual Signature                                           Date




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     Appendix 16-E




Sample Authorization for the Release of
Employee/Student Medical Record Information
I,
                              (Print or type individual‘s name)
hereby authorize
                                            (Institution Name)
to release copies of the following medical information from my personnel records:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


Full Name of Institution
                                                                     ________________
Signature of Requesting Individual                                   Date of Request
                                                                    ________________
Signature of Witness                                                Date of Witnessing


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  Appendix 16-F




Sample Acknowledgement of Receipt of Training Form
I hereby acknowledge receipt of training with regard to our institution‘s Bloodborne
Pathogens Exposure Control Plan. Specifically, I have been instructed to identify the
institutional activity and associated tasks that place me at risk for exposure. Further, I
understand how to protect myself through the use and implementation of specific
engineering controls, work practices, personal protective equipment and clothing,
housekeeping procedures and labeling and disposal requirements. Finally, I understand
that the institution offers, at no cost to me, a Hepatitis B vaccination and if I decline the
vaccination, I am required to sign the ―Hepatitis B Vaccine Declination‖ form. I may,
however, change my mind at some future date and will be provided the vaccination at that
time.

Training was received on this            day of                         , 20


Signature                                                                      Date


Trainer‘s Signature                                                            Date


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 Section 17




Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Hazard
Analysis

  Introduction
  Prior to selecting any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to conduct
  a complete analysis of the type of hazards present throughout the campus. This
  requirement is not only a best practice, but is established under OSHA (29 CFR
  1910.132) and extends to all faculty, staff and students who are or potentially are
  affected by hazards, both in the workplace and in educational settings. The application
  of the Standard‘s requirements will help faculty, staff and students select a form of
  personal protective equipment based on the hazard it is intended to control or
  eliminate.
  Ideally, the Institution will apply engineering controls wherever feasible to control or
  eliminate work-related hazards. If engineering controls cannot be implemented, work
  practices (administrative controls) should be investigated so they may be applied to
  control or eliminate hazards. Finally, after efforts to implement engineering controls
  and work practices have been exhausted and workplace hazards continue to be
  considered unacceptable, personal protective equipment should be used. This
  rationale should be applied to eye, face, head, hand, foot, hearing and respiratory
  protection.
  Call or e-mail your EIIA assigned Director of Risk Management Services for a copy
  of your Institution‘s claim history with respect to workers‘ compensation.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus Personal Protective Equipment Program. The individual should be given
  the authority to organize an Advisory Committee to oversee the Program and conduct
  hazard assessments.



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    Hazard Assessment
    Hazard assessments should be conducted by a designated individual and should
    include each work area and educational setting on campus. In an effort to standardize
    hazard assessments and measure the actual or potential risk associated with a
    particular task or operation, a numerical value should be applied to each hazard
    classification associated with a given job task. In the larger scheme of safety and
    health management, the Institution‘s ability to identify which job activities/tasks pose
    the most risk will be improved and the quality of the work/educational environment
    will also improve by being more effective in controlling or eliminating hazards.
    In addition, Institution administrators and faculty will better understand what is
    involved in particular activities/tasks, that should ultimately help them match the right
    persons for the jobs/tasks. Hazard assessments should be conducted for each task
    assigned to each activity within designated work areas. Hazard classifications should
    include: impact, penetration, compression, chemical, heat, harmful dusts, radiation
    (ionizing, non-ionizing and light), electrical and any other hazard classification that
    may be unique to the activity.
    Hazards should be rated according to the following scale:
         0 = No hazard
         1 = Light hazard
         2 = Moderate hazard
         3 = Considerable hazard
         4 = Extreme hazard
    A sample hazard assessment form that can be used is provided in Appendix 17-A.
    Areas should be assessed individually to address specific hazards and collectively to
    evaluate an area‘s hazard rank in comparison to all work areas on campus. A database
    of activities and the associated hazards should be maintained and updated as
    conditions change or an annual basis as a minimum. A sample Work Area Personal
    Protective Equipment Requirements form is provided in Appendix 17-B. Hazard
    classifications are explained below.

         Impact
         The hazard classification for impact should be used to assess the various risks
         associated with machinery, equipment, tool use, objects and an employee‘s
         position in relationship to the work being performed. Contusions, crushing,
         pinching, vibration and repeated shock are some of the harmful results that can be
         attributed to impact. Examples of impact hazards may include falling tools,
         materials and equipment.
         This hazard can be found in all departments on campus.




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Penetration
The hazard classification for penetration should be used to assess the various risks
associated with machinery, equipment, hand tools, laboratory implements,
materials and objects. Cuts, punctures and lacerations can result from objects
penetrating clothing, personal protective equipment and footwear. Examples of
penetration include razors, punches, powder-actuated tools, sharp metal
surfaces/edges, etc. This hazard can be found in some degree in all departments on
campus.

Compression
The hazard classification for compression should be used to assess the risks
associated with machinery, equipment, packaging, material handling vehicles and
any other devices which when moving could pose a physical threat to faculty, staff
and students. Examples of compression hazards include work involving printing
presses, lifts and moving heavy goods such as furniture and materials.
Typical departments that may experience this hazard on campus are the Trades,
Housekeeping, Groundskeeping, Art, Theater, Information Technology and
Science Departments, as well as in the Mailroom.

Chemical
The hazard classification for chemical(s) includes a wide variety of materials and
conditions, which can be both physical and health hazards. To complicate the
assessment, it should be recognized that not all individuals are similar with respect
to how they may be adversely affected by a chemical, including concentrations
that are published as safe, but may result in a worker experiencing symptoms.
Risks associated with chemicals include contact, absorption, inhalation, ingestion
and injection.
Examples of chemical hazards include, but are not limited to, corrosives, solvents,
oils, fuels, drugs and biological agents. See Section 10 of this Manual for
additional information on chemical hazards.
Typical departments on campus that may experience this hazard are the Science,
Trades, Housekeeping, Groundskeeping, Art, Theater and Athletic Departments.

Heat
The hazard classification for heat should be used to assess the risks associated
with equipment, electrical, liquid processes and any other heat generating
mechanisms or devices. Examples of heat hazards include work involving the use
of flame, hot liquids, boilers, ovens, motorized equipment, working outdoors in
hot weather, etc.
Typical campus departments that may experience this hazard are the Trades,
Groundskeeping, Science and Art Departments, as well as the Mailroom.



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         Harmful Dusts
         The hazard classification for harmful dusts should be used to assess various risks
         associated with operations where the generation of dust may produce a respiratory
         or contact hazard. The primary focus should be the source (type) and degree of its
         generation. Some examples of operations where harmful dusts can be generated
         include polishing, sawing, sanding, cleaning, glazing and grinding.
         Typical departments on campus that may experience this hazard are the Trades,
         Housekeeping, Groundskeeping, Art, Theater, Art Departments working with
         ceramics and Science Departments.
         A discussion of the specific hazards and suggested policies is provided in
         Appendix 17-H.

         Radiation
         The hazard classification for radiation includes light, infrared, ionizing and non-
         ionizing sources. Risk associated with many types of machinery and equipment
         involves radiation exposure. It is incumbent upon managers and supervisors to
         adequately assess this form of hazard and protect faculty, staff and students
         through the use of appropriate engineering controls, work practices, personal
         protective equipment or a combination of each. Some examples of radiation
         hazards include visual display terminals, lasers, microwave, open flames and
         power transmission.
         This hazard may be present in all departments on campus.

         Electrical
         The hazard classification for electrical should be used to assess the various risks
         associated with operations where exposure to electrical energy may pose a hazard.
         While a number of work activities are covered under the OSHA Lockout/Tagout
         (Control of Hazardous Energy) Standard 29 CFR 1910.147 (see Section 18 of this
         Manual), many other types of work tasks and operations expose faculty, staff and
         students to risk due to the presence of electrical energy. Some examples of
         operations where electrical hazards should be assessed include electrical panels,
         computers, most machinery, equipment and tool use.
         This hazard may be present in all departments on campus.

         Motion
         The hazard classification for motion should be used to assess the risks associated
         with repeated motions used by faculty, staff and students operating a tool or
         machine, which can lead to a number of injuries collectively called cumulative
         trauma disorders. Cumulative trauma injuries are difficult to characterize because
         the appearance of symptoms will vary from person to person. Factors such as
         frequency of activity, forces applied and duration of force and activity require
         analysis. Some examples of operations where motion hazards exist are typing,


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painting, vacuuming, mopping, use of power tools and tool use (such as hammers
and ratchets).
This hazard may be present in all departments on campus.

Other
The hazard classification for ―other‖ will be used to assess the operations unique
to the campus. Managers or supervisors must always be aware of the potential
risks associated with performing any operation and ensure the appropriate
measures to protect faculty, staff and students are in place and have been
communicated to those performing these tasks.




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  Appendix 17-A




Sample Certification of Hazard Assessment
Date:
Institutional Activity Being Evaluated:
Work Area Being Evaluated:
Job Task Being Evaluated:
Name of Person Conducting Assessment:
Place a check mark (√) next to every category that could pose a hazard to staff, faculty
and students working in this area. Identify the sources responsible for contributing to this
hazard. Upon completion, rate each hazard category on a scale of 0–4.
    0 = No hazard
    1 = Slight hazard
    2 = Moderate hazard
    3 = High hazard
    4 = Extreme hazard
Note: Assignment of hazard rates may include numeric variation between the hazard
scales. For example, a 1.5 rating would signify a hazard between slight and moderate.

Category:                                            Impact Hazard Rate
Sources:      (i.e., machinery or processes where any movement of tools, machine elements or
              particles could exist; or movement of personnel that could result in collision with
              stationary objects; sources of falling objects; or potential for dropping objects)
         1.
         2.
         3.
         4.



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Category:                                               Penetration Hazard Rate
Sources:         (i.e., sources of falling objects or potential for dropping objects; sources of
                 sharp objects which might pierce the feet or cut the hands)
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.



Category:                                               Compression (rollover) Hazard Rate
Sources:         (i.e., sources of rolling or pinching objects)
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.



Category:                                               Chemical Hazard Rate
Sources:         (i.e., types of chemicals utilized)
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.



Category:                                               Heat Hazard Rate
Sources:         (i.e., sources of high temperatures that could result in burns, eye injury, heat
                 exhaustion, dehydration or ignition of protective equipment)
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.




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Category:                                           Harmful Dust Hazard Rate
Sources:    (i.e., sources of harmful dusts)
       1.
       2.
       3.
       4.



Category:                                           Radiation Hazard Rate
Sources:    (i.e., sources of light radiation including welding, brazing, cutting, furnaces,
            heat treating, high intensity lights, lasers, VDTs, etc.)
       1.
       2.
       3.
       4.



Category:                                           Electrical Hazard Rate
Sources:    (i.e., sources of electrical hazards in relation to location of faculty, staff and
            students and the work performed)
       1.
       2.
       3.
       4.



Category:                                           Motion Hazard Rate
Sources:    (i.e., sources of repeated motions relative to frequency of activity, force and
            duration)
       1.
       2.
       3.
       4.



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Category:                                             Other Hazard Rate
Sources:        (i.e., sources of other hazards that may be present requiring the use of
                personal protective equipment)
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.


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 Appendix 17-B




Sample Work Area Personal Protective Equipment
Requirements Form
Based on the hazard assessment, the following types of personal protective equipment
should be issued to faculty, staff and students performing the following tasks in the
following areas (be specific):
Area:
Tasks:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
Eye and Face Protection:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
Head Protection:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.




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Hand Protection:
     1.
     2.
     3.
     4.
Foot Protection:
     1.
     2.
     3.
     4.
Hearing Protection:
     1.
     2.
     3.
     4.
Respiratory Protection:
     1.
     2.
     3.
     4.


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 Appendix 17-C




Sample Eye, Face and Head Protection Policy

  Introduction
  The proper use and selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) are integral parts
  of a comprehensive Safety and Health Management Program. Personal protective
  equipment is available for a variety of uses including eye and face protection, foot
  protection, hearing protection, respiratory protection, head protection and hand
  protection. This section will discuss the equipment available, proper selection and use
  of equipment and training requirements when applicable for eye, face and head
  protection.

  Eye and Face Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.133)

     Purpose
     The purpose of establishing eye and face protection policies is to prevent eye
     injuries resulting from contact with chemical or physical agents.

     General Safety Guidelines
     Many hazards, which may pose immediate and potentially irreversible eye
     damage, exist within a work environment.
     Based on the hazard assessment conducted for specific tasks performed in
     particular work areas, faculty, staff and students are required to wear safety
     glasses at all times while working in the following areas and performing the
     following processes:
     (Insert areas and/or processes)
     All parents or visitors who enter these areas for any purpose are required to wear
     safety glasses at all times while in the area. Children are not permitted in areas
     where eye protection is required.


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         Obtaining proper eye protection is the responsibility of faculty, staff and students.
         Faculty, staff and students who regularly wear eye protection are required to keep
         their safety glasses strapped around their necks at times when eye protection is not
         needed, so that it is readily accessible when the faculty, staff and students resume
         tasks requiring eye protection.
         Selection of eye protection must suit the job at hand. When in doubt, contact your
         immediate department head/supervisor or instructor.
         Adequate protection against the highest level of each of the hazards will be
         provided.
         Faculty, staff and students whose vision requires prescription lenses must wear
         either a protective device fitted with prescription lenses or protective devices over
         regular prescription eyewear.
         Wearing safety glasses is not normally required in offices, non-laboratory
         classrooms, lecture halls, locker rooms and break areas. However, activities such
         as maintenance work in these areas may require faculty, staff and students in these
         areas to wear suitable eye protection.
         Eye and face protection should be inspected regularly for integrity. Defective or
         damaged eye and face protection should be immediately removed from service
         and replaced.

         Training
         Training should be provided to faculty, staff and students whose tasks require eye
         and face protection.
         Upon completion of training, faculty, staff and students should demonstrate their
         knowledge of the proper use and care of eye and face protection and should be
         certified utilizing the attached training form (See Appendix 17-D).
         Faculty, staff and students should be retrained whenever:
               Changes in workplace conditions occur; or
               Changes in use of personal protective equipment occurs; or
               Faculty, staff and students demonstrate a lack of knowledge in the use and
                care of PPE; or
               An introduction of a new chemical or physical agent requires additional
                training.

    Head Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.135)

         Purpose
         The purpose of establishing head protection policies is to prevent injury to the
         head, which may result from falling objects, electric shock or burns.


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      General Safety Guidelines
      Helmets or hard hats should be provided and their use required whenever working
      in the following areas:
      (Insert areas)
      Helmets and hard hats used to protect faculty, staff and students from falling or
      flying objects should meet ANSI, Z89.1-1997 (Industrial Head Protection).
      Helmets or hard hats used to protect faculty, staff and students from electric shock
      or burns should meet ANSI, Z89.2-1997.
      Children are not permitted in areas requiring head protection.

      Training
      1. Training should be provided to faculty, staff and students whose tasks require
         the use of head protection.
      2. Upon completion of training, faculty, staff and students should demonstrate
         their knowledge of the proper use and care of head protection and should be
         certified utilizing the Acknowledgement of Training form (see Appendix 17-D).
      3. Faculty, staff and students should be retrained whenever:
         -   Changes in workplace conditions occur; or
         -   Changes in use of personal protective equipment occurs; or
         -   Faculty, staff and students demonstrate a lack of knowledge in the use and
             care of PPE.
      4. Additional training aids/materials can be found at the following web sites;
         http://toolboxtopics.com/
         http://keats.admin.virginia.edu/
         http://www.pp.okstate.edu/ehs/links
         http://www.onlnesafetytraining.com/resources.htm
         http://www.safety.vanderbilt.edu/training/index.htm
         http://www.ehrs.upenn.edu/training.onlinetrain.html



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 Appendix 17-D




Personal Protective Equipment—Eye, Face and Head
Acknowledgement of Training Form

                               (Insert institution name)

                    Personal Protective Equipment—
            Eye, Face and Head Acknowledgement of Training

   I acknowledge receipt of training with regard to the use and care of the following
   types of personal protective equipment, which have been issued to me:

                      Eye Protection                                 Head Protection
                      Face Protection
   Training was received on this          day of                          , year



   Trainee Name and Signature                                                        Date


   Trainer‘s Name and Signature                                                      Date




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 Appendix 17-E




Sample Foot and Hand Protection Policy

  Introduction
  The proper use and selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) are integral parts
  of a comprehensive Safety and Health Management Program. Personal protective
  equipment is available for a variety of uses including eye and face protection, foot
  protection hearing protection, respiratory protection, head protection and hand
  protection. This section will discuss the equipment available, proper selection and use
  of equipment and training requirements when applicable for foot and hand protection.
  Children are not permitted in areas where foot and hand protection is required.

  Foot Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.136)

     Purpose
     The purpose of establishing foot protection policies is to prevent foot injuries
     resulting from contact with chemical or physical agents. Faculty, staff and
     students who are unsure of the type of or need for wearing foot protection should
     consult their department head/supervisor or instructor.
     1. To avoid foot injuries resulting from the impact of falling tools or equipment,
        faculty, staff and students are required to wear steel-toed boots while working
        in the following areas:
         (Insert areas)
     2. Where potential exposure to chemical hazards or temperature extremes exists,
        faculty, staff and students are required to wear suitable chemical resistant
        boots or overshoes.
     3. Under no circumstances are gym or tennis shoes, sandals, fancy lightweight or
        high-heeled shoes permitted in areas where specific foot protection
        requirements have been established.


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    Hand Protection (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.138)

         Purpose
         The purpose of establishing hand protection policies is to prevent hand injuries
         resulting from contact with chemical or physical agents. Faculty, staff and
         students who are unsure of need for or type of hand protection should consult their
         department head/supervisor or instructor.
         1. To avoid hand injuries from chemicals, cold, heat, abrasive surfaces or sharp
            objects, faculty, staff and students are required to wear appropriate hand
            protection in the following work areas while performing the following tasks:
                (Insert work areas and tasks)
         2. Where exposure to chemicals is present, gloves suitable for use with the
            specific chemical are to be worn at all times.

         Training
         1. Training should be provided to faculty, staff and students whose work requires
            the use of hand or foot protection. Training will incorporate the following
            areas:
                -   Types of foot and hand protection
                -   How foot and hand protection is selected
                -   Chemical compatibility and protective material selection
                -   Degradation
                -   Penetration
                -   Permeation
                -   Reactivity
                -   Organics, Inorganics, Corrosives and Biohazards
                -   Allergic reactions to protective materials
                -   Decontamination
                -   Proper donning, doffing and disposal
         2. Upon completion of training, faculty, staff and students should demonstrate
            their knowledge of the proper use and care of hand or foot protection and
            should be certified utilizing the Acknowledgment of Training form (see
            Appendix 17-F).
         3. Faculty, staff and students should be retrained whenever:
                -   Changes in work area or conditions occur; or
                -   Changes in use of personal protective equipment occurs; or



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         -   Faculty, staff and students demonstrate a lack of knowledge in the use and
             care of PPE; or
         -   An introduction of a new chemical requires additional training.


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 Appendix 17-F




Sample Personal Protective Equipment—Foot and Hand
Acknowledgement of Training Form

                               (Insert institution name)

                     Personal Protective Equipment—
               Foot and Hand Acknowledgement of Training

   I acknowledge receipt of training with regard to the use and care of the following
   types of personal protective equipment, which have been issued to me:

                      Foot Protection                                Hand Protection

   Training was received on this          day of                          , year



   Trainee Name and Signature                                                        Date


   Trainer‘s Name and Signature                                                      Date




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 Appendix 17-G




Sample Respiratory Protection Program

  Introduction
  Respiratory protection (use of a respirator) is designed to provide effective control of
  harmful airborne contaminants from being inhaled into the respiratory tract. There are
  many different types of respirators; each is designed to provide a certain level of
  protection, but each has limitations. Factors such as type of chemical, chemical
  concentration, oxygen availability, immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)
  conditions, source and location of contaminant, physical condition of user and
  ambient environment are some of the considerations that must be made before
  respirator selection can occur.
  The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established
  requirements under 29 CFR 1910.134 for the protection of workers who are required
  to wear respirators while performing work. The National Institute of Occupational
  Safety and Health (NIOSH) establishes additional requirements under 42 CFR Part 84
  for the selection and certification of respiratory protective equipment.
  Factors such as protection, efficiency rating, service life, type of certification and fit
  testing requirements are additional considerations that must be addressed in order to
  provide the right type of respirator for the particular respiratory hazard.
  Note: It is highly recommended that all work requiring the use of respirators be
  contracted out to contractors who have demonstrated and have on file a
  documented Respiratory Protection Program.

  Policy
  In the control of occupational health hazards associated with breathing air
  contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays or vapors,
  the primary objective shall be to prevent contamination from entering the workplace
  atmosphere. Wherever feasible, engineering controls shall be adopted; however, in
  those cases where enclosure or confinement of operation, or ventilation controls or


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    product substitution is either inappropriate, unreliable or temporarily ineffective,
    (insert institution name) shall hire an outside contractor to perform the task. If
    (insert institution name) elects to keep the work in-house, it will contact EIIA before
    work commences.




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 Appendix 17-H




Ceramics Dust Hazards
The creation of ceramics exposes faculty, staff and students to unique dust hazards on
campus. The following information discusses the hazards presented by these materials
and provides suggested best practices for their handling.

   Clay
   Clays are minerals composed of hydrated aluminum silicates, often containing large
   amounts of crystalline silica. The primary health hazard is associated with repeated
   breathing of clay dusts. Excessive dusts will occur if dry clay is mixed without
   ventilation and allowed to accumulate on surfaces.
       1. Always use the ventilation system during mixing.
       2. Make sure the studio is cleaned daily by wet moping and washing.
       3. Dry sweeping and vacuuming is to be avoided unless a HEP vacuum is used.

   Glazes
   Glazes contain a mixture of silica, fluxes and colorants. Fluxes and colorants can be
   highly toxic by inhalation. Highly toxic glaze constituents include, but are not limited
   to:
    Antimony               Lead                    Barium                   Lithium
    Cobalt                 Manganese               Vanadium                 Arsenic
    Cadmium                Beryllium               Chromium                 Nickel
       1. Mix and weigh glazes in an exhaust hood. Wet glazes are not an inhalation
          hazard. Wet mop spilled powders.
       2. Perform all glaze spraying in a ventilated booth.
       3. Hand washing after each use is important.


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     Appendix 17-I




Sample Authorization for the Release of
Employee/Student Medical Record Information
I,
      (Employee/Student Name)

hereby authorize
                           (Institution Name)

to release copies of the following medical information from my personnel/student
records:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


Full Name of Institution


Signature of Requesting Employee/Student


Date of Request



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     Appendix 17-J




Sample Authorization for the Release of Employee/
Student Medical Record Information to Authorized
Representative

I,
       (Employee/Student Name)

hereby authorize
                            (Institution Name)

to release copies of the following medical information from my personnel/student records
to the authorized representative(s) listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Full Name of Institution


Signature of Requesting Employee/Student


Date of Request


Authorized Representative


Street Address


City                                             State              Zip Code


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 Section 18




Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)

  Introduction
  Each piece of equipment and machinery on campus operates using some form of
  energy such as electrical energy (currents that flow through wires or cables),
  hydraulic energy (water or other liquid moving through pipes or hoses), pneumatic
  energy (pressurized steam, gas or compressed air) or mechanical energy (stored or
  built-up energy in springs). We know that such energy is present during the normal
  operation of equipment and machinery, but when it comes on or is released
  unexpectedly during servicing or maintenance, such energy can cause serious
  injury—even death.
  OSHA‘s Control of Hazardous Energy Standard (Lockout/Tagout) (29 CFR
  1910.147) is designed to prevent injuries caused by unexpected energization of
  machinery and equipment during servicing and maintenance activities.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus Program for the Control of Hazardous Energy. The individual should be
  given the authority to organize an Advisory Committee to oversee the Program.

  Program Requirements
  The Lockout/Tagout Standard requires employers to establish a written Energy
  Control or ―Lockout/Tagout‖ Program that includes the following:
  A. Documented energy control procedures
  B. Documented employee training program
  C. Documented periodic inspections and revisions as necessary
  The Standard provides flexibility for your institution to develop a program and
  procedures that meet your particular needs based on the types of machines and

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    equipment being maintained. The following sample program may be tailored to fit the
    needs of your institution in order to help in your compliance with this Standard.




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 Appendix 18-A




Sample Lockout/Tagout Program

  Introduction
  The OSHA Lockout/tagout regulation (29 CFR 1910.147) was implemented on January 2,
  1990. The purpose of this Standard is to reduce the number of injuries by accidental start-
  up of a machine or piece of equipment while undergoing servicing or routine maintenance.
  In addition, injuries from the release of stored energy could occur. The Standard establishes
  requirements for minimum performance for control of such hazardous energy.
  Lockout is the placement of a lockout device on an energy-isolating device, in
  accordance with an accepted established procedure, that ensures the energy-isolating
  device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device
  has been removed.
  A “lockout device” is just that—a locking device that provides a positive means for
  rendering a switch, valve or any other energy source inoperable. The device may be a
  padlock, restraining bar, chain or any device that positively prevents a machine or
  piece of equipment from becoming ―energized‖ or ―from releasing stored energy.‖
  Tagout is the placement of a tagout device on an energy-isolating device, in
  accordance with an accepted established procedure, which effectively communicates
  that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled are not to be
  operated until the tagout device is removed.
  A “tagout device” serves as a prominent warning that can be securely attached to an
  energy-isolating device, which clearly communicates that a tagout condition exists. This
  tag is a means of identifying who locked out the machinery, the date and time of day the
  tagout took place and the department for which the person works. Additional information
  may be placed on the tag such as beeper number, extension number, etc. Tags shall be
  durable and securely fastened to the energy-isolating device so as not to fall off.
  Tags are NEVER to be removed by anyone except the individual who is
  responsible for the lockout/tagout procedure.



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    Policy
    Qualified employees of (institution name) shall follow lockout/tagout procedures as
    specified under 29 CFR 1910.147 and its appendices.
    Only individuals that have successfully completed the training under the campus
    Lockout/Tagout Program are qualified and authorized to perform lockout/tagout
    operations.
    Lockout/Tagout operations are to be performed:
    A. During servicing and/or maintenance of machines and equipment (as specified by
       our Lockout/Tagout Program).
    B. During removal or bypassing of a machine guard or other safety device.
    C. When placing any part of the body into an area where work is actually performed
       (point of operation), including danger zones with respect to a machine‘s normal
       operating cycle.
    D. When the authorized individual following an assessment of the work to be
       performed believes that unexpected energization, start up, or release of stored
       energy could cause injury.
    This Lockout/Tagout Program shall be reviewed annually on the basis of assessing its
    effectiveness for controlling the release of hazardous energy. This includes
    lockout/tagout procedures, employee training and program implementation. Annual
    periodic inspections of each Lockout/Tagout procedure shall be performed as part of
    this review. This inspection is to be performed by an authorized employee, other than
    the one(s) utilizing the procedure being inspected.

    General Safety Guidelines
    It is the responsibility of department managers/supervisors to complete the Survey for
    Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices (see Appendix 18-B) for every piece of machinery
    or equipment requiring lockout/tagout procedures under their authority. This
    information will be placed into the lockout/tagout database and will be accessible to
    any authorized employee who will be performing lockout/tagout operations. The
    following information must be included:
    A. Name of the manager/supervisor submitting the survey.
    B. Name of the department for which the survey was conducted.
    C. Name of the machinery or equipment and their identifying numbers.
    D. Energy sources for each piece of machinery and equipment and its location.
    E. The procedure or method required for lockout/tagout.
    F. The procedure or method required for releasing stored energy.
    G. The date of the survey and the name and initials of the employee acknowledging
       the accuracy of the information found on this form.



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All authorized employees shall use the following sequence whenever lockout/tagout
procedures are required:

   Identification
   1. Obtain the identification number for the piece of machinery or equipment requiring
      servicing or maintenance. Access the Survey for Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices
      Database (see Appendix 18-B). Match the identification number for the particular
      machinery or equipment with the identification number in the database. Access to
      this database is only permitted to authorized lockout/tagout employees.
   2. Note the number and location of energy sources that require locks or tags for
      the piece of equipment or machinery being serviced.
   3. Note the hazards identified for the piece of equipment or machinery.
   4. Obtain the Employee Lockout/Tagout Time Schedule form (see Appendix 18-
      D) and fill in all areas that are applicable (see Documentation of
      Lockout/Tagout Procedures).

   Evaluation
   1. Review the surrounding area for other possible sources of energy transmission.
   2. Inspect the immediate area where locks or tags will be attached.
   3. Notify all employees in the general vicinity that lockout/tagout procedures are
      being implemented.

   Electrical Control
   1. Unplug the machine or piece of equipment using an electrical plug lock or a
      disconnect switch with padlocks, locks and tags.
   2. Ensure that all power sources are locked and tagged out.
   3. Bleed or drain any stored electrical energy to a ―zero energy state.‖
   4. Use a tester to check that all circuits are dead.

   Pneumatic Control
   1. Release/open the pressure to reach a ―zero energy state.‖
   2. Lockout the energy source using lockout valves.

   Hydraulic Control
   1. Release/open pressure valve to reach a ―zero energy state.‖
   2. Lock out the energy source using lockout valves, chains, padlocks or locks.

   Fluids and Gasses
   1. Evaluate all hoses and valves.
   2. Insert a blank or blind in the line.
   3. Use lockout valves, chains, padlocks or locks at the isolating source.



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         Mechanical Control
         1. Release or block all stored mechanical energy. Be cautious of gravity, springs,
            tension and other sources of energy that are not always obvious.
         2. Restrain energy using blocks.
         3. Lockout and tagout energy using padlocks, locks and tags.
         4. Recheck all areas for potential sources of energy.

         Documentation of Lockout/Tagout Procedures
         1. The Employee Lockout/Tagout Time Schedule Form (See Appendix 18-D) is
            completed each time the employee must lockout/tagout a piece of machinery
            or equipment. This form chronicles the lockout/tagout times and a new form
            must be completed for each lockout/tagout performed. Each time a
            lockout/tagout takes place, it is the responsibility of the authorized employee
            to fill out the following information:
            a. Date.
            b. Equipment name, identity number and location.
            c. Lockout/Tagout start time. When this is completed, this form must be
                presented to the manager/supervisor for physical inspection of the machine
                or equipment.
            d. Lockout/Tagout ending time.
         2. The manager/supervisor will sign the form once he/she is satisfied through the
            physical inspection of the equipment or machinery that all energy sources
            have been identified and that proper lockout or tagout has occurred.
         3. The manager/supervisor shall, in the company of the employee, operate the
            switch valve or other energy-initiating device(s) confirming its energy
            isolation. Both individuals shall confirm the operating controls have been
            returned to ―neutral‖ or the ―off‖ position after the test. Stored energy in
            springs, elevated machine parts, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, air,
            gas, steam or water systems must be dissipated or restrained using methods
            such as repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
         4. The manager/supervisor shall observe the placement of the locks or tags with
            the assigned individual‘s lock(s) and/or tag(s).
         5. A final inspection of the disconnected energy sources and operating controls
            shall be conducted to make certain the equipment shall not operate. Ensure
            the operating controls are returned to the ―OFF‖ or ―NEUTRAL‖
            positions.
         6. The equipment is now locked out and tagged out. Employees should be
            notified in the immediate area of the machinery or equipment‘s ―down‖
            condition.




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More Than One Person Lockout/Tagout
1. When more than one person will be involved with maintenance or repair of a
   piece of machinery or equipment requiring isolation of energy source, each
   shall place their individual locks and tags on the energy-isolating device.
2. When the machinery or equipment cannot accept more than one lock or tag, an
   additional hasp or similar energy-isolating device shall be used, if feasible.
   Should this technique not be feasible, one lockout device can be used
   requiring a key and the key shall be placed in a lockout box or cabinet that
   accommodates multiple employee locks to secure it. As each employee no
   longer needs to maintain lockout protection, they shall remove their locks
   from the box or cabinet.
3. Managers/supervisors shall maintain an awareness of instances where multiple
   lockout/tagout devices are required.

Restoring Machines and Equipment to Normal Operations
1. When maintenance or servicing has been completed and the machinery or
   equipment is ready to be placed into normal operation, check out the
   immediate area to confirm that no one is exposed to any danger.
2. Remove or check that all tools have been removed from the machinery or
   equipment.
3. Confirm that all guards, pulleys and safety devices have been reinstalled and
   are secure.
4. Remove all locks and tags only after one final check to ensure all employees
   are in the clear.
5. Operate the energy isolating devices to restore energy to the machine or
   equipment.
6. Complete the lockout/tagout end time on the Employee Lockout/Tagout Time
   Schedule Form (see Appendix 18-D) and keep this form on file for review for
   a two-year period.

Periodic Inspections
Periodic inspections are required to be performed annually on all Lockout/Tagout
procedures. These inspections are to be performed by authorized individuals other
that the one(s) utilizing the Lockout/Tagout procedure being inspected.
The periodic inspection is required to include a review between the inspector and
each authorize employee, of that employee‘s responsibilities under the
Lockout/Tagout procedure being inspected.




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         The periodic inspection must be documented and include the machines or
         equipment on which the procedure was being utilized, the date of inspection,
         employees included in the inspection and the name of the person performing the
         inspection. A sample Lockout/Tagout Periodic Inspection Form is provided in
         Appendix 18-E.


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     Appendix 18-B




Sample Survey for Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices

Department Name:                                               Date:

Instructions
This form is to be filled out for every piece of machinery or equipment requiring
lockout/tagout procedures within each department of (Insert institution name) prior to
servicing. This form is to serve as a reference for employees who perform lockout/tagout
procedures. The information included on this form will be entered into the Survey for
Applying Lockout-Tagout Devices Database.
Please Print Clearly:
1.     Identify the name and location of the machinery/equipment in the department:


2.     Obtain an identification number for this specific piece of machinery or equipment.
       Identification number assigned:
3.     Identify the type(s) of energy source(s) for the above machinery/equipment and
       indicate the energy source(s) location:
       Type(s) of Energy Sources                  Location




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4.   For the above machinery, describe the procedure and method for lockout/tagout:




     Employee name, position and title of who provided this information               Date



     Signature of Department Manager/Supervisor                                       Date


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 Appendix 18-C




Sample Receipt of Training Acknowledgment

I acknowledge receipt of training with regard to (institution name)‘s Control of
Hazardous Energy Program and Lockout/Tagout Procedures. I understand the purpose for
having such a program is to reduce injuries resulting from the accidental start-up of a
machine or piece of equipment while undergoing service or routine maintenance. I have
been instructed to identify the piece of machinery and/or equipment and its energy source
utilizing the campus‘ Survey for Applying Lockout/Tagout Devices prior to beginning
any lockout/tagout procedures. I have been further instructed to fill out my own monthly
Lockout/Tagout Time Schedule each time I begin lockout/tagout procedures; and to have
my immediate manager/supervisor sign off on this form granting approval for continuing
to service or provide maintenance to the piece of equipment or machinery. I further
understand that it is my responsibility to notify all co-workers of machinery or
equipment‘s inactive state each time I begin lockout/tagout procedures.


Training was received on this             day of                         , year



Trainee‘s Signature                                                                   Date


Trainer‘s Signature                                                                   Date


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 Appendix 18-D




Authorized Employee Lockout/Tagout Time Schedule
Employee                                 Month:                Year
Name:
                                                       LO/TO                LO/TO
                        Identification                 Start    Approval    End
Date   Equipment Name   Number           Location      Time     Initials    Time




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     Appendix 18-E




Sample Periodic Inspection Certification Form
The periodic inspection of the Lockout/Tagout procedure for the ____________________
has been completed. The employees included in this inspection are:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.




________________________________________                       ________________
Inspector                                                              Date




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 Section 19




Electrical Safety

  Introduction
  Almost every work and leisure activity that we are engaged in involves the use of
  electricity. Electricity can be very useful when used properly. Unsafe use of electrical
  equipment exposes individuals to serious injuries and even death. The purpose of this
  section is to provide guidelines for staff, faculty and students to work safely with
  electricity.

  Scope and Application
  The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has several specific
  requirements for working safely with electricity. These guidelines are contained in 29
  CFR 1910 Subpart S and are in place to reduce the possibility of contact between the
  worker and uncontrolled electrical current. Departments that may be at special risk for
  electricity-related injuries include, Physical Plant (Housekeeping, Buildings and
  Grounds, Custodians, Painters, Plumbers, Carpenters and Electricians) and the
  Theater and Arts Department.
  A sample Electrical Safety Program has been provided in Appendix 19-A that
  institutions can use as a basis for developing an Electrical Safety Program for their
  campus.




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 Appendix 19-A




Sample Electrical Safety Program

  Purpose
  Staff, faculty and students who face a risk of electrical shock or related injuries must
  be trained in appropriate electrical safety work practices. In addition, staff, faculty and
  students that work around, but not on, electrical systems must be trained in the
  hazards associated with electricity. (Insert Institution Name) has developed this
  Electrical Safety Program to:
        Assure that all its departments understand and comply with the regulatory
         requirements related to electrical work;
        Assure the safety of staff, faculty and students who may work in the vicinity
         of, or on, electrical systems; and
        Assure that all departments that perform electrical work on campus follow
         uniform work practices.

  Application
  Each department that performs work covered by this program must designate one or
  more individuals to coordinate the requirements of this program at departmental
  worksites. Furthermore, it is recommended that each supervisor that oversees work
  covered by this program be designated to coordinate this program in his or her work
  area. These program coordinators will assist with training departmental staff that work
  on or near electrical systems and will review and verify the skills and competency of
  departmental workers.
  The effectiveness of the electrical safety program will be periodically reviewed by the
  Physical Plant Director or their designee. If deficiencies are found with the program
  or with training, the program and/or training will be modified to address these
  deficiencies.


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    Scope
    This program applies to all institution properties, to all work performed on the campus
    and to all work performed by staff, faculty and students regardless of jobsite location.
    All staff, faculty and students who face a risk of electrical shock, burns or related
    injuries must be trained in electrical safety work practices. These work practices must
    always be followed. In addition, staff, faculty and students who work around, but not
    on, electrical systems must be trained in the inherent danger of electricity. This
    Electrical Safety Program describes work practices for both qualified and unqualified
    persons.
    Qualified persons are those who have received specific training and have
    demonstrated the skills necessary to work safely on or near exposed energized parts.
    A person may be qualified to work, for example, on circuits up to 600 volts, but may
    be unqualified to work on higher voltages. Only qualified persons may place or
    remove locks and tags on energized electrical systems.

    Unqualified persons are those with little or no such training.
    An individual undergoing on-the-job training who has demonstrated the ability to
    perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct
    supervision of a qualified person, is considered to be a qualified person for the
    purpose of those duties.
    Work practices covered by this program include persons working on or near:
               Premises wiring: Installations of electric conductors and equipment in or on
                buildings or other structures and in other areas such as yards, parking and
                other lots and industrial substations.
               Wiring for connection to supply: Installations of conductors that connect to the
                supply of electricity.
               Other wiring: Installation of other outside conductors on the premises.
               Optical fiber cable: Installation of optical fiber cable near or with electric
                wiring.
    Work practices covered by this program also includes work performed by unqualified
    persons near or with electric power generation, transmission and distribution
    installations, communications installations, installations in vehicles and railway
    equipment.

    This program does not apply to:
               Work performed by qualified persons on or directly associated with electric
                power generation, transmission and distribution, including the repair of
                overhead or underground distribution lines, line clearance tree trimming and
                utility pole replacement.



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      Work in a generating plant where the electric circuits are commingled with
       power generation equipment or circuits and where there is exposure to high
       voltage or lack of overcurrent protection.
      Communication installations.

Responsibilities

Safety Department
The Safety Department is responsible for developing, implementing and
administering the Electrical Safety Program. This involves:
      Training supervisors/designated departmental program coordinators and their
       employees.
      Maintaining centralized records of training, energy control procedures and
       inspection data and reports.
      Providing technical assistance to institution personnel.
      Developing and maintaining the written program, training programs and other
       training resources that can be used by institution personnel.
      Evaluating the overall effectiveness of the Electrical Safety Program on a
       periodic basis.
      Developing and maintaining other safety programs and training as needed to
       assure the safety of employees and the public and to comply with the
       regulatory requirements.

If the institution does not have a Safety Department, these responsibilities should be
assigned to the Physical Plant Department.

Departmental Responsibilities
Departments are expected to maintain safe and healthy living, learning and working
environments for faculty, staff, students and visitors to our campus. Departments are
expected to assure that all staff, faculty and students are thoroughly familiar with their
safety responsibilities and that safety practices are followed at all times. Departmental
worksites should be inspected on a frequent basis to identify and correct hazards.
Staff, faculty and students are expected to comply with all safety requirements and act
proactively to prevent accidents and injuries by communicating hazards to
supervisors.


Contractors
Contractors working in institution facilities must comply with all local, state and
federal safety requirements and assure that all of their employees performing work on


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    the property have been suitably trained. Contractors must also comply with any
    additional requirements outlined for Contractors and Subcontractors when working at
    institution-owned facilities.

    Training
    Staff, faculty and students who face a risk of electrical shock that is not reduced to a
    safe level by the electrical installation (e.g., systems that meet the National Electrical
    Code and OSHA requirements) must be trained per the requirements of this program.
    Staff, faculty and students in the following categories must be trained:
               Any individual who faces a risk of injury due to electric shock or electrical
                hazards.
               Material handling equipment operators
               Supervisors of employees performing work around or on electrical systems ·
                Mechanics and repairers
               Electricians
               Painters
               Electrical and electronic engineers
               Riggers and roustabouts
               Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers
               Stationary engineers
               Electrical and electronic technicians
               Welders
               Industrial machine operators
    Staff, faculty and students in these groups do not require training if their work does
    not bring them close enough to exposed parts of electric circuits (operating at 50 volts
    or more to ground) for a hazard to exist.
    Qualified persons working on or near exposed energized parts must receive training in
    the following:
               The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from
                other parts of electric equipment;
               The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of
                exposed live parts; and,




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      The clearance distances specified for working on or near exposed energized
       parts and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be
       exposed.
Qualified persons whose work on energized equipment involves either direct contact,
or contact by means of tools or materials, must be trained on how to work safely on
energized circuits. These individuals must be familiar with proper precautionary work
practices, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials and the
use of insulated tools.
The training for qualified and unqualified individuals will involve both classroom and
on-the-job training. This training will be coordinated with the departmental supervisor
and customized to reflect the scope of work performed within that department. The
supervisor will review, or coordinate the review, of the work performed by each
individual to assure that they demonstrate the skills and techniques needed to perform
their work safely.

Training must be performed before the individual is assigned duties involving work
around or on electrical systems. Retraining will be performed whenever inspections
indicate that an individual does not have the necessary knowledge or skills to safely
work on or around electrical systems. Retraining will also be performed when policies
or procedures change and/or new equipment or systems are introduced into the work
area.

Installation Requirements

Free from Recognized Hazards
Electrical equipment must be free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause
death or serious physical harm. Equipment must be suitable for the installation and
use and must be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions, the National Electrical Code (NEC) and OSHA. "Suitable" means that
the equipment is listed or labled for the intended use by a nationally recognized
testing laboratory such as Factory Mutual (FM) or Underwriters Laboratory (UL).


Labeling of Disconnects
Each disconnecting means — the switch or device used to disconnect the circuit from
the power source — must be clearly labeled to indicate the circuit's function unless it
is located and arranged so the purpose is evident. Identification should be specific
rather than general; a branch circuit serving receptacles in a main office should be
labeled as such, not simply labeled "receptacles". All labels and marking must be
durable enough to withstand the environment to which they may be exposed.




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    Guarding of Live Parts
    Live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more must be guarded against
    accidental contact. Proper guarding can be achieved by either (1) use of an approved
    cabinet or other approved enclosure, (2) by location in a room or vault that is
    accessible to qualified persons only, or (3) by elevating the equipment 8 feet above
    the floor level or controlling the arrangement of the space to prevent contact by
    unqualified persons.

    General Wiring Design and Protection
    New electrical wiring and the modification, extension or replacement of existing
    wiring must conform to the requirements of the NEC, the applicable Building Code,
    OSHA and the following:
               No grounded conductor may be attached to any terminal or lead so as to
                reverse designated polarity.
               The grounding terminal or grounding-type device on receptacles, cord
                connector, or attachment plug may not be used for any purpose other than
                grounding.
               Conductors and equipment must be protected from overcurrent above their
                safe current carrying capacity.
               All AC systems of 50 to 1,000 volts must normally be grounded as required by
                the NEC and OSHA. The path to ground from circuits, equipment and
                enclosures must be permanent and continuous. Existing ungrounded premises
                wiring often do not meet the OSHA requirements and must be replaced or
                modified as needed to meet this requirement.
               Conductors entering boxes, cabinets or fittings must be protected from
                abrasion and openings through which conductors enter must be effectively
                closed. Unused openings in cabinets, boxes and fixtures must also be
                effectively closed.
               All pull boxes, junction boxes and fittings must be provided with covers
                approved for the purpose. If metal covers are used they must be grounded. In
                completed installations, each outlet box must have a cover, faceplate or fixture
                canopy. Pull boxes and junction boxes for systems over 600 volts, nominal,
                must provide complete enclosure, the boxes must be closed by suitable covers
                securely fastened in place and the cover must be permanently marked "High
                Voltage".
               Switchboards and panelboards that have exposed live parts must be located in
                permanently dry locations and accessible to qualified persons only.
                Panelboards must be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes or other approved
                enclosure and must be dead front unless accessible to qualified persons only.



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       Exposed blades of knife switches must be dead when open. Receptacles
       installed in damp or wet locations must be suitable for the location.
      Cabinets, cutout boxes, fittings, boxes and panelboard enclosures in damp or
       wet locations must be installed so as to prevent moisture or water from
       entering and accumulating within the enclosure. In wet locations the
       enclosures must be weatherproof.
      Fixtures, lamp holders, lamps, rosettes and receptacles may have no live parts
       normally exposed to employee contact.
      Screw-base light socket adapters do not maintain ground continuity and may
       not be used.
      Multiplug receptacle adapters may not maintain ground continuity or may
       overload circuits and must not be used. If additional receptacles are needed in
       a work location, additional circuits and/or receptacles must be installed. Multi-
       plug power strips with overcurrent protection are acceptable for use with
       electronic equipment if they are used to reduce line noise or to provide surge
       or overcurrent protection.
      Electrical equipment, wiring methods and installations of equipment in
       hazardous classified locations must be intrinsically safe, approved for the
       location, or safe for the location. Hazardous classified locations are areas
       where flammable liquids, gases, vapors, or combustible dusts or fibers exist or
       could exist in sufficient quantities to produce an explosion or fire.


Requirements for Temporary Wiring
Temporary electrical power and lighting installations 600 volts or less, including
flexible cords, cables and extension cords, may only be used during and for
renovation, maintenance, repair or experimental work. Temporary wiring may also be
used for decorative lighting for special events and similar purposes for a period not to
exceed 90 days, with approval from the Physical Plant Department. The following
additional requirements apply:
      Ground-fault protection (e.g., ground-fault circuit interrupters, or GFCI) must
       be provided on all temporary-wiring circuits, including extension cords, used
       on construction sites.
      In general, all equipment and tools connected by cord and plug must be
       grounded. Listed or labeled double insulated tools and appliances need not be
       grounded.
      Feeders must originate in an approved distribution center, such as a
       panelboard, that is rated for the voltages and currents the system is expected to
       carry.
      Branch circuits must originate in an approved power outlet or panelboard.


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               Neither bare conductors nor earth returns may be used for the wiring of any
                temporary circuit.
               Receptacles must be of the grounding type. Unless installed in a complete
                metallic raceway, each branch circuit must contain a separate equipment-
                grounding conductor and all receptacles must be electrically connected to the
                grounding conductor.
               Flexible cords and cables must be of an approved type and suitable for the
                location and intended use. They may only be used for pendants, wiring of
                fixtures, connection of portable lamps or appliances, elevators, hoists,
                connection of stationary equipment where frequently interchanged, prevention
                of transmission of noise or vibration, data processing cables, or where needed
                to permit maintenance or repair. They may not be used as a substitute for the
                fixed wiring, where run through holes in walls, ceilings or floors, where run
                through doorways, windows or similar openings, where attached to building
                surfaces, or where concealed behind building walls, ceilings or floors.
               Suitable disconnecting switches or plug connects must be installed to permit
                the disconnection of all ungrounded conductors of each temporary circuit.
               Lamps for general illumination must be protected from accidental contact or
                damage, either by elevating the fixture or by providing a suitable guard.
                Handlamps supplied by flexible cord must be equipped with a handle of
                molded composition or other approved material and must be equipped with a
                substantial bulb guard.
               Flexible cords and cables must be protected from accidental damage. Sharp
                corners and projections are to be avoided. Flexible cords and cables must be
                protected from damage when they pass through doorways or other pinch
                points.


    Open Conductors, Clearance from Ground
    Open conductors must be located at least 10 feet above any finished grade, sidewalk
    or projection, 12 feet above areas subject to non-truck traffic, 15 feet above areas
    subject to truck traffic and 18 feet above public streets, roads or driveways.

    Entrances and Access to Workspace
    In any workspace where there is electric equipment operating at over 600 volts, there
    must be at least one entrance at least 24 inches wide and 6 feet, 6 inches high to
    permit escape in the event of an emergency. Any exposed energized conductors
    operating at any voltage and located near the entrance must be guarded to prevent
    accidental contact. Any insulated energized conductors operating at over 600 volts
    and located next to the entrance must also be guarded.




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Working Space Around Electric Equipment
Sufficient access and working space must be provided and maintained around all
electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of the
equipment. Working clearances may not be less than 30 inches in front of electric
equipment. Except as permitted by OSHA or the NEC, the working space in front of
live parts operating at 600 volts or less that require servicing, inspection or
maintenance while energized may not be less than indicated in Table 19A-1. This
working space may not be used for storage.

                                             Table 19A-1
                                                                                       (3)
                                            Minimum Clear Distance for Condition
      Nominal Voltage to
      Ground                                    A                     B                      C

                 0-150                        3´ (1)                3´ (1)                   3´
               151-600                        3´ (1)                3-½´                     4´
              601-2,500                        3´                    4´                      5´
             2,501-9,000                       4´                    5´                      6´
            9,000-25,000                       5´                    6´                      9´
           25,001-75 kV (2)                    6´                    8´                  10´
           Above 75 kV (2)                     8´                    10´                 12´
(1) Minimum clear distance may be 2-½' for installations built prior to April 16, 1981.
(2) Minimum clear distance in front of electrical equipment with nominal voltage to ground above 25
kV may be the same as for 25 kV under conditions A, B and C for installations built prior to April 16,
1981.
(3) Conditions A, B and C are as follows: (A) Exposed live parts on one side and no live or grounded
parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides are effectively guarded
by an insulating material. Insulated wire or insulated busbars operating at not over 300 volts are not
considered live parts. Concrete, brick or tile walls are considered to be grounded. (B) Exposed live
parts on one side and grounded parts on the other. (C) Exposed live parts on both sides of the
workspace not guarded as per condition (A), with the operator between.


Selection and Use of Work Practices
The work practices used by individuals must be sufficient to prevent electric shock or
other injuries that could result from either direct or indirect electrical contact. These
work practices must be used when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits
that are or may be energized. The work practices used must be consistent with the
nature and extent of the electrical hazard.




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    Working on Electrical Systems

    Energized Parts
    Only qualified individuals are allowed to work on electric parts or equipment that
    have not been de-energized using approved lockout/tagout procedures. Live parts to
    which an individual may be exposed will be de-energized before an individual works
    on or near them, unless:
               De-energizing introduces additional or increased hazards. Examples of
                "additional or increased" hazards include interruption of life support
                equipment, deactivation of emergency alarm systems, shutdown of fume hood
                ventilation systems, or removal of illumination for an area.
               De-energizing is not possible due to equipment design or operational
                limitations. Examples include testing that can only be performed with the
                electrical circuit energized and work on circuits that form an integral part of a
                continuous process that would need to be completely shut down in order to
                permit work on one circuit or piece of equipment.
               Live parts operate at less than 50 volts to ground and there is no increased
                exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due to electric arcs.
    If de-energizing exposed live parts could add to or increase the hazard or is not
    possible, then other approved work practices must be used to protect employees who
    may be exposed to the electrical hazards. The work practices used must protect
    employees from contact with energized circuit parts directly with any part of their
    body or indirectly through some other conductive object. The work practices used
    must be suitable for the conditions under which the work is performed and for the
    voltages of exposed electric conductors or circuit parts.


    Working On Or Near Exposed De-energized Parts
    When staff, faculty or students work on exposed de-energized parts or near enough to
    them to expose themselves to an electrical hazard, then the following safety-related
    work practices will be followed.
               Any conductors or parts of electric equipment that have not been properly
                locked and/or tagged out must be treated as energized even if these systems
                have been de-energized.
               If the potential exists for an individual to contact parts of fixed electric
                equipment or circuits that have been de-energized, the circuits energizing the
                parts must be locked and/or tagged out. Locking and tagging procedures must
                comply with Lockout/Tagout Program (see Appendix 18-A).




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De-energizing Equipment
Safe procedures for de-energizing circuits and equipment will be determined by a
qualified person before the circuit or equipment is de-energized.
      Circuits and equipment to be worked on will be disconnected by the person
       from all electric energy sources. Control circuit devices, such as push buttons,
       selector switches and interlocks will not be used as the sole means for de-
       energizing circuits or equipment. Interlocks for electric equipment may not be
       used as a substitute for lockout and tagging procedures.
      Stored electrical energy that might endanger personnel must be released prior
       to the work. This might include, for example, discharging capacitors and
       short-circuiting and grounding high capacitance elements. If the capacitors or
       associated equipment are handled during this work, they must be treated as
       energized.
      Stored non-electrical energy (for example, hydraulic or pneumatic) in devices
       that could reenergize electric circuit parts must be blocked or relieved so that
       circuit parts cannot be accidentally re-energized by the device.
      A lock and tag must be placed on each disconnecting means used to de-
       energize circuits and equipment on which work is to be done. The lock must
       be attached so as to prevent persons from re-energizing the circuit unless they
       resort to undue force or the use of tools.
      Verification of De-energized Condition: The following requirements must be
       met before any circuit or equipment is considered de-energized or may be
       worked on as de-energized.
           1. A qualified person must activate the equipment operating controls or
              use other methods to verify that the equipment cannot be restarted.
           2. A qualified person must use test equipment to ensure that electrical
              parts and circuit elements are de-energized. The test must confirm
              there is no energized condition from induced voltage or voltage
              backfeed.
           3. Test equipment and instruments must be visually inspected for external
              defects or damage before being used to verify that the equipment or
              circuit is de-energized.
           4. When voltage over 600 volts nominal are tested, the test equipment
              must be checked for proper operation immediately before and after the
              test.




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    Re-energizing Equipment
    In addition to the requirements of the Lockout/Tagout Program, the following
    requirements must be met, in the order given, before circuits or equipment are re-
    energized, even temporarily:
               A qualified person must conduct tests and visual inspections as necessary to
                verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds and other such devices
                have been removed so that circuits and equipment can be safely energized;
               Employees potentially exposed to the hazards of re-energizing the circuit must
                be warned to stay clear; and,
               Each employee removes his or her lock(s) and tag(s).

    Overhead Power Lines
    When work is to be performed near overhead lines, the lines must be de-energized
    and grounded. Arrangements must be made with the organization (electric utility or
    co-op) that operates or controls the electric circuits when lines are to be de-energized
    and grounded.
               If this is not possible to de-energize and ground overhead lines, then other
                protective measures, such as guarding, isolating or insulating, must be taken
                before the work is started. These protective measures must prevent direct
                contact by the qualified person or indirect contact through conductive
                materials, tools, or equipment. Only qualified persons from the power
                distribution company are allowed to install insulating devices on overhead
                power transmission and distribution lines. All other persons and any
                conductive object used by these individuals, may not approach closer than the
                minimum distance specified in Table 19A-1 when working in an elevated
                location near unguarded, energized overhead lines. Unqualified persons
                working on the ground are not allowed to bring any conductive object or any
                insulated object that does not have the proper insulating rating closer to
                unguarded, energized overhead lines than the distance allowed in Table 19A-
                2.

                                                    Table 19A-2
                          Voltage to Ground                Minimum Approach Distance


                             50 kV or less                            10 feet
                              Over 50 kV                10 feet + 4 inches for every 10 kV
                                                                    over 50 kV
    Qualified persons working in the vicinity of overhead lines, whether in an elevated
    position or on the ground, are not allowed to approach or take any conductive object
    without an approved insulating handle closer to exposed energized parts than allowed
    in Table 19A-3 unless:


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   The person is insulated from the energized part by using gloves, with sleeves if
    necessary, rated for the voltage involved;
   The energized part is insulated from all other conductive objects at a different
    potential and from the person;
   The person is insulated from all conductive objects at a potential different from
    the energized part.

                                     Table 19A-3
    Approach Distances for Qualified Persons Exposed to Alternating Current

    Voltage Range (phase-to-phase)             Minimum Approach Distance


               300 V and less                            Avoid contact
        Over 300 V, not over 750 V                       1 foot 0 inches
        Over 750 V, not over 2 kV                        1 foot 6 inches
        Over 2 kV, not over 15 kV                        2 feet 0 inches
        Over 15 kV, not over 37 kV                       3 feet 0 inches
     Over 37 kV, not over 87.5 kV                        3 feet 6 inches
     Over 87.5 kV, not over 121 kV                       4 feet 0 inches
     Over 121 kV, not over 140 kV                        4 feet 6 inches

Vehicles and Mechanical Equipment
A minimum clearance of 10 feet must be maintained between energized overhead
lines and all vehicles or mechanical equipment capable of having parts or its structure
elevated (e.g., cranes, mobile scaffolds, elevating platforms, dump trucks, lift trucks
and flatbed trailer cranes). If the voltage of the overhead line is greater than 50 kV,
the clearance must be increased by 4 inches for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
The clearance requirement may be reduced if:
        The vehicle is in transit with its structure lowered. The clearance may be
         reduced to 4 feet when near energized lines operating at less than 50 kV, or 4
         feet plus 4 inches for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
        Insulating barriers are installed to prevent contact with the lines and the
         barriers are rated for the voltage of the line being guarded. The barrier may not
         be part of an attachment to the vehicle or its raised structure. The clearance
         may be reduced to the distance allowed by the design of the insulating barrier.
        The equipment is an aerial lift insulated for the voltage involved and the work
         is performed by a qualified person. The clearance between the uninsulated



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                portion of the lift and the power line may be reduced to the distance given in
                Table 19A-3.
    Persons working on the ground are not allowed to contact the vehicle or mechanical
    equipment or any of its attachments, unless:
               The person uses protective equipment rated for the voltage; or
               The equipment is located so that no uninsulated part of its structure can
                provide a conductive path to persons on the ground. Equipment shall not
                approach closer to the line than 10 feet for voltages less than 50 kV, or 10 feet
                plus 4 inches for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
    When any vehicle or mechanical equipment is intentionally grounded, persons may
    not stand near the point of grounding when there is any possibility of contact with
    overhead energized lines. Additional precautions (e.g., such as the use of barricades or
    insulation) must be taken as necessary to protect persons from hazardous ground
    potentials that can develop within a few feet or more outward from the grounding
    point.


    Illumination
    Individuals may not enter spaces containing exposed energized parts unless there is
    sufficient illumination for them to perform the work safely.
    Staff, faculty or students may not perform tasks near exposed energized parts where
    there is lack of illumination or an obstruction that blocks his or her view of the work
    to be performed. Do not reach blindly into areas that may contain energized parts.


    Confined or Enclosed Work Spaces
    Staff, faculty or students working in manholes, vaults or similar confined or enclosed
    spaces that contain exposed energized parts must be provided with and must use,
    protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials as needed to prevent
    inadvertent contact with these energized parts.
    Doors and hinged panels that could swing into an individual and cause him or her to
    contact exposed energized parts must be secured before work begins.
    Work performed within confined or enclosed spaces must comply with institution‘s
    Confined Space Entry Program (see Section 20).


    Conductive Materials and Equipment
    Conductive materials and equipment that are in contact with any part of an
    individual‘s body must be handled in a manner that will prevent them from contacting
    exposed energized conductors or circuit parts.



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If an individual must handle long conductive objects, such as metal ducts, pipes, or
rods, in areas with exposed live parts, then insulation, guarding and/or approved
materials handling techniques must be used which will minimize the hazard.
Portable Ladders. A portable ladder used where there is potential for contact with
exposed energized parts must have nonconductive side rails.
Conductive Apparel. Individuals may not wear conductive articles of jewelry and
clothing, such as watchbands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized
aprons, cloth with conductive thread, or metal headgear, if they might contact exposed
energized parts.

Housekeeping
Housekeeping duties may not be performed close to live parts unless adequate
safeguards, such as insulating equipment or barriers, are provided.
Electrically conductive cleaning materials, including steel wool, metalized cloth and
silicon carbide, as well as conductive liquid solutions, may not be used near energized
parts unless procedures are followed which prevent electrical contact.


Interlocks
Only qualified persons are allowed to bypass electrical safety interlocks and then only
temporarily while he or she is working on the equipment. This work must comply
with the specified procedures for working on or near exposed energized parts. The
interlock system must be returned to its operable condition when the work is
completed.

Portable Electrical Equipment and Extension Cords
The following requirements apply to the use of cord-and-plug-connected equipment
and flexible cord sets (extension cords):
      Extension cords may only be used to provide temporary power.
      Portable cord and plug connected equipment and extension cords must be
       visually inspected before use on any shift for external defects such as loose
       parts, deformed and missing pins, or damage to outer jacket or insulation and
       for possible internal damage such as pinched or crushed outer jacket. Any
       defective cord or cord-and-plug-connected equipment must be removed from
       service and no person may use it until it is repaired and tested to ensure it is
       safe for use.
      Extension cords must be of the three-wire type. Extension cords and flexible
       cords must be designed for hard or extra hard usage (for example, types S, ST
       and SO). The rating or approval must be visible.



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               Job-made extension cords may only be built by qualified persons and must be
                tested and certified prior to use. Job-made extension cords may only be
                constructed using parts approved for this use. Metal electrical boxes with
                knockouts, for example, may not be used for job-made extension cords unless
                approved for that purpose.
               Personnel performing work on renovation or construction sites using extension
                cords or where work is performed in damp or wet locations must be provided
                and must use, a ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI).
               Portable equipment must be handled in a manner that will not cause damage.
                Flexible electric cords connected to equipment may not be used for raising or
                lowering the equipment.
               Extension cords must be protected from damage. Sharp corners and projects
                must be avoided. Flexible cords may not be run through windows or doors
                unless protected from damage and then only on a temporary basis. Flexible
                cords may not be run above ceilings or inside or through walls, ceilings or
                floors and may not to be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such a
                fashion as to damage the outer jacket or insulation.
               Cords must be covered by a cord protector or tape when they extend into a
                walkway or other path of travel to avoid creating a trip hazard.
               Extension cords used with grounding-type equipment must contain an
                equipment-grounding conductor (i.e., the cord must accept a three-prong, or
                grounded, plug).
               Attachment plugs and receptacles may not be connected or altered in any way
                that would interrupt the continuity of the equipment grounding conductor.
                Additionally, these devices may not be altered to allow the grounding pole to
                be inserted into current connector slots. Clipping the grounding prong from an
                electrical plug is prohibited.
               Flexible cords may only be plugged into grounded receptacles. The continuity
                of the ground in a two-prong outlet must be verified before use with a flexible
                cord and it is recommended that the receptacle be replaced with a three-prong
                outlet. Adapters that interrupt the continuity of the equipment grounding
                connection may not be used.
               All portable electric equipment and flexible cords used in highly conductive
                work locations, such as those with water or other conductive liquids, or in
                places where employees are likely to contact water or conductive liquids, must
                be approved for those locations.
               An individual's hands must not be wet when plugging and unplugging flexible
                cords and cord and plug connected equipment if energized equipment is
                involved.



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      If the connection could provide a conducting path to individual‘s hands (for
       example, if a cord connector is wet from being immersed in water), the
       energized plug and receptacle connections must be handled only with
       insulating protective equipment.
      Locking-type connectors must be properly locked into the connector.
      Lamps for general illumination must be protected from breakage and metal
       shell sockets must be grounded.
      Temporary lights must not be suspended by their cords unless they have been
       designed for this purpose.
      Portable lighting used in wet or conductive locations, such as tanks or boilers,
       must be operated at no more than 12 volts or must be protected by GFCI's.
Extension cords are considered to be temporary wiring and must also comply with the
section on "Requirements for Temporary Wiring" in this program.

Electric Power and Lighting Circuits
Routine Opening and Closing of Circuits - Load rated switches, circuit breakers, or
other devices specifically designed as disconnecting means must be used for the
opening, reversing, or closing of circuits under load conditions. Cable connectors not
of the load-break type, fuses, terminal lugs and cable splice connections may not be
used for opening, reversing, or closing circuits under load conditions except in an
emergency.
Re-closing Circuits After a Protective Device Operates - After a circuit is de-
energized by a circuit protective device (e.g., circuit breaker or similar), the circuit
may not be manually re-energized until it has been determined that the equipment and
circuit can be safely energized. The repetitive manual re-closing of circuit breakers or
re-energizing circuits by replacing fuses without verifying that the circuit can be
safely energized is prohibited.
When it can be determined that the overcurrent device operated because of an
overload rather than a fault condition, no examination of the circuit or connected
equipment is needed before the circuit is re-energized. Overcurrent protection of
circuits and conductors may not be modified even on a temporary basis.

Test Equipment and Instruments
Only qualified persons may perform testing work on electric circuits or equipment.
Test instruments and equipment (including all associated test leads, cables, power
cords, probes and connectors) must be visually inspected for external defects and
damage before the equipment is used. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that
might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item must be tagged



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    out of service. The device may not be returned to service until it has been repaired and
    tested safe for use.
    Test instruments, equipment and their accessories must be rated for the circuits and
    equipment to which they will be connected and designed for the environment in
    which they will be used.


    Flammable or Ignitable Materials
    Where flammable or ignitable materials are present, do not use electric equipment
    capable of igniting them unless measures are taken to prevent hazardous conditions
    from developing. Flammable and ignitable materials include, but are not limited to,
    flammable gases, vapors, or liquids, combustible dust and ignitable fibers or filings.
    Equipment that is intrinsically safe for the hazardous condition may be used.

    Safeguards for Personnel Protection

    Protective Equipment
    Staff, faculty or students working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards
    must be provided with and must use, electrical protective equipment that is
    appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be
    performed. The department must provide electrical safety-related personal protective
    equipment required by this program at no cost to the employee. The requirements for
    general purpose gloves, respirators, hearing protection, fall protection and electrical
    protective headwear and footwear may be found in Personal Protective Equipment
    Program. (See Section 17).
    Workmanship and finish: Rubber insulating equipment must meet the American
    Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards D120-87, D178-93, D1048-93,
    D1049-93, D1050-90 or D1051-87 as applicable. Manufactured equipment which
    does not indicate compliance with these ASTM standards must be tested using the a-c
    and d-c proof tests and related procedures as described in these ASTM standards.
    Blankets, gloves and sleeves must be produced by seamless process. Insulating
    blankets, matting, covers, lines, hose, gloves and sleeves made of rubber must be
    marked to indicate the class of equipment (e.g., Class 0 equipment must be marked
    Class 0, Class 1 marked Class 1 and so forth). Non-ozone-resistant equipment other
    than matting must be marked Type I. Ozone-resistant equipment other than matting
    shall be marked Type II. Markings must be nonconductive and must be applied in a
    way that will not damage the insulating qualities. Markings on gloves must be
    confined to the cuff portion of the glove. Equipment must be free of harmful physical
    irregularities. Surface irregularities (e.g., indentions, protuberances, or imbedded
    foreign materials) may be present on rubber goods because of imperfections on forms
    or molds or because of manufacturing difficulties. These surface irregularities are
    acceptable under the following conditions:



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       The indention or part that sticks out blends into a smooth slope when the
        material is stretched, or
       The foreign material remains in place when the insulating material is folded
        and stretches with the insulating material surrounding it.
In-service care and use: The department must make certain that electrical protective
equipment is maintained in a safe, reliable condition and that the following
requirements are met:
       Maximum use voltages for rubber protective equipment must conform to those
        listed in Table 19A-4.

                                                Table 19A-4
                   Rubber Insulating Equipment, Maximum Use Voltage

    Class of                            Maximum use voltage (a-c –rms)            (1)

   Equipment

            0                                                1,000
            1                                                7,500
            2                                                17,000
            3                                                26,500
            4                                                36,000
(1) The maximum use voltage is the ac voltage (rms) classification of the protective equipment that
designates the maximum nominal voltage of the energized system that may be safety worked. The
nominal design voltage is equal to the phase-to-phase voltage on multiphase circuits. However, the
phase-to-ground potential is considered to be the nominal design voltage:
               If there is no multiphase exposure in a system area and if the voltage is limited to the
                phase-to-ground potential, or
               If the electrical equipment and devices are insulated or isolated or both so that the
                multiphase exposure on a grounded wye circuit is removed.
       Insulating equipment must be inspected for damage before each day's use and
        immediately following any incident that could have caused damage.
       An air test must be performed on rubber insulating gloves before use.
       Insulating equipment with a hole, tear, puncture or cut, ozone cutting or
        checking, an embedded foreign object, any change in texture including
        swelling, softening, hardening, or becoming sticky or inelastic, or any other
        defect that could damage the insulating property must not be used.
       All protective equipment must be used and maintained in accordance with the
        manufacturers‘ instructions.




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               Insulating equipment found to have defects that might effect its insulating
                properties must be removed from service until electrical tests have been
                performed that indicate it is acceptable for continued use.
               Where the insulating capability of protective equipment is subject to damage
                during use, the insulating material shall be protected by an outer covering of
                leather or other appropriate material.
               Rubber insulating equipment must be tested on a schedule as shown in Table
                19A-5.

                                                    Table 19A-5
                                Rubber Insulating Equipment Test Intervals

             Type of Equipment                                   When to Test


     Rubber insulating line hose          Upon indication that the insulating value is suspect
     Rubber insulating covers             Upon indication that insulating value is suspect
     Rubber insulating blankets           Before first issue and every 12 months thereafter 1
     Rubber insulating gloves             Before first issue and every 6 months thereafter 1
     Rubber insulating sleeves            Before first issue and every 12 months thereafter 1


    Individuals must be instructed to clean insulating equipment as needed to remove
    foreign substances and to store insulating equipment where it is protected from light,
    temperature extremes, excessive humidity, ozone and other substances and conditions
    that may cause damage. Individuals must be instructed to visually examine their
    gloves prior to each use and to avoid handling sharp objects.
    Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves except as follows:
               Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use
                conditions, where small equipment and parts manipulation require unusually
                high finger dexterity.
               Any other class of glove may be used for similar work without protector
                gloves if it is demonstrated that the possibility of physical damage to the
                gloves is small and if the class of glove is one class higher than that required
                for the voltage involved. Insulating gloves that have been used without
                protector gloves may not be used at a higher voltage until they have been
                electrically tested.
    The department must ensure that employees do not use insulating equipment that fails
    to pass visual inspections or electrical tests except as follows:




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      Rubber insulating line hose may be used in shorter lengths if the defective
       portion is cut off.
      Rubber insulating blankets may be repaired with a compatible patch as long as
       the physical and electrical properties equal or exceed those of the blanket.
      Rubber insulated blankets may be salvaged by cutting and removing the
       defective area from the undamaged portion of the blanket if the undamaged
       area remaining is greater than 22 inches by 22 inches for Class 1, 2, 3 and 4
       blankets.
      Rubber insulating gloves and sleeves with minor physical defects, such as
       small cuts, tears or punctures may be repaired by application of a patch with
       the same electrical and physical properties as the surrounding material.
      Rubber insulating gloves and sleeves with minor surface blemishes may be
       repaired with a compatible liquid compound.
      Repairs to gloves are permitted only in the area between the wrist and
       reinforced edge of the opening.
Repaired insulating equipment must be retested before it may be returned to service.
These tests must be documented in writing and indicate the type(s) of test(s)
performed, equipment tested (specifically by referencing an applied marking, serial
number or similar), date, name of tester and the results of the tests. These test results
must be maintained in a permanent log.

General Protective Equipment and Tools
Nonconductive head protection must be worn whenever there is danger of head injury
from electric shock or burn due to contact with exposed energized parts.
Protective equipment for the eyes and/or face must be worn whenever there is danger
of injury to the eyes or face from electric arcs, flashes or flying objects resulting from
electrical explosion.
Insulated tools or handling equipment must be used by individuals working near
exposed energized conductors or circuit parts if the tools or handling equipment might
make contact with such conductors or parts.
If the insulating capability of insulated tools or handling equipment is subject to
damage, the insulating material must be protected.
Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials must be used to protect
each individual from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while
individuals are working near exposed energized parts which might be accidentally
contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur.
When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, they are to
be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the live parts.

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    Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, must be used to remove or
    install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized.
    Ropes and hand lines used near exposed energized parts must be nonconductive.

    Alerting Techniques
    The following alerting techniques must be used to warn and protect individuals from
    electrical shock hazards, burns, or failure of electric equipment parts.
               Safety Signs and Tags - Safety signs, safety symbols, or accident prevention
                tags are to be used where necessary to warn staff, faculty and students about
                electrical hazards that may endanger them.
               Barricades - Barricades are used in conjunction with safety signs where
                necessary to prevent or limit access to work areas exposing individuals to
                uninsulated energized conductors or circuit parts. Conductive barricades may
                not be used where they might cause an electrical contact hazard.
               Attendants - If signs and barricades do not provide sufficient warning from
                electrical hazards, an attendant is to be stationed to warn and protect
                individuals.

    First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Requirements
    Staff, faculty or students performing work on, or associated with, exposed lines or
    equipment energized at 50 volts or more must be trained in first aid and CPR.


    Other Safety Hazards
    Staff, faculty or students performing work in and around campus buildings may be
    exposed to other hazards not covered by this program. These include, but are not
    limited to:
               Fall Hazards. Individuals that work in elevated locations where there is
                exposure to an unguarded fall hazard of 4 feet or greater must be provided and
                use fall protective equipment and must be trained to use this equipment
                properly. (See Section 7)
               Confined or Enclosed Spaces. A confined or enclosed space is a space that is
                large enough for an individual to enter and perform work, that has limited or
                restricted means for entry or exit and that is not intended for continuous
                individual occupancy. Examples include, but are not limited to, sewers, silos,
                tanks, boilers, tunnels, vaults and manholes. Employees that perform work in
                confined or enclosed spaces must be trained to perform this work safely and
                must comply with the requirements of Confined Space Entry Program. (See
                Section 20)



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   Hazardous Materials. If you use or work around chemicals or other
    hazardous materials, you must be trained on how to read and interpret the
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the material. You must also be
    informed on how to gain access to MSDSs, how to safely handle and store
    these materials and you must comply with any additional institution
    requirements. (See Section 13)
   Hot Work Operations. Abrasive grinding, welding, cutting and brazing,
    torch cutting and similar hot work operations are required to be permitted if
    performed outside of an approved hot work area. Permits and additional
    information may be obtained from the safety department. (See Section 6 of the
    EIIA Property Conservation Manual)
   Lockout/Tagout. Work conducted around other types of energized systems
    (for example, pneumatic, pressurized, spring-actuated and similar) must be
    addressed using approved lockout/tagout procedures and must comply with
    the institution‘s Lockout/Tagout Safety Program. (See Section 18)
   Asbestos Materials. Asbestos is commonly found in mechanical rooms and
    spaces and may be present in pipe insulation, ceiling tile, plasters, flooring and
    electric wire insulation. It is a requirement, therefore, that all maintenance and
    renovation work that impacts building components, systems or equipment
    must be reviewed before the work is performed to determine if asbestos is
    present. (See Appendix 22-D)
   Work associated with electric power generation, transmission and distribution
    systems.




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 Section 20




Confined Space Entry

  Introduction
  OSHA‘s Confined Space Entry Standard (29 CFR 1910.146) is intended to protect
  workers who must enter confined spaces from toxic, explosive, or asphyxiating
  atmospheres and from possible engulfment or injury.
  Confined spaces include, but are not limited to storage tanks, pits, storm drains, boilers,
  ventilation and exhaust ducts, sewers, tunnels, underground utility vaults and pipelines.
  Many such spaces are commonly found on college and university campuses.
  The information contained within this section can be utilized to establish campus
  requirements for the institution’s staff, faculty or students and contractors who
  may be required to enter confined spaces as defined by OSHA. The written program
  provided allows for the confined space identification, program/procedures/practices
  and training that the Standard requires.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall administration of
  the campus Confined Space Entry Program. The individual should be given the
  authority to organize an Advisory Committee to oversee the Program for both
  institutional staff and contractors working on campus.
  Note: It is highly recommended that all work in identified confined spaces be
  contracted out to contractors who have demonstrated and have on file a
  documented Confined Space Entry Program.

  Program
  Sample ―Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program‖ and ―Confined Space Air
  Monitoring Program‖ are provided for your review and use. These sample programs
  should be modified to meet the specific needs of your institution.


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 Appendix 20-A




Sample Permit Required Confined Space Entry Program
Note: It is highly recommended that all work in identified confined spaces be contracted
out to contractors who have demonstrated and have on file a documented Confined Space
Entry Program.

   Introduction
   Conditions that are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) are of utmost
   concern to (institution name). Confined space entry is one such operation that, if not
   approached in a safe manner, poses a serious threat to the health and well-being of our
   employees and may even cause death. The definition of confined space is:
   A. A space which is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter it
      and perform assigned work,
   B. Has limited or restricted means for entry and exit, or
   C. Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
   Confined spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, pits, storm drains,
   boilers, ventilation and exhaust ducts, sewers, tunnels, underground utility vaults,
   fountain utility spaces and pipelines. Many such spaces are commonly found on
   campuses.
   The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establishes minimum
   requirements for employers whose employees will be entering confined spaces and
   performing work. Managers/supervisors of employees who will be entering confined
   spaces shall familiarize themselves with the Permit-Required Confined Space
   Standard 29 CFR 1910.146.

   Identification of Confined Spaces
   An evaluation of the workplace was conducted by (insert name and position) on
   (insert date) to identify all permitted and non-permitted confined spaces. All
   permitted confined spaces, both on campus and off-site properties have been

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    identified and assigned a control number in the Confined Space Database established
    through the completion of The Confined Space Characterization Form (see Appendix
    20-E).
    Non-permitted confined spaces are confined spaces that do not contain or, with
    respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of
    causing death or serious physical harm. All non-permitted confined spaces, both on
    campus and off campus have been identified and assigned a control number in the
    Confined Space Database.

         General Safety Guidelines
         1. All confined spaces requiring a permit for entry are identified by a sign that
            reads:
                ―DANGER— PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE, DO NOT
                ENTER‖
         It is the policy of (institution name) that all permitted and non-permitted
         confined spaces be atmospherically evaluated prior to entry and, periodically
         during entry, according to an established frequency, which is dependent on the
         space and the initial evaluation. Prior to entry, test the atmosphere first for
         oxygen, second for combustible gases and vapors and, finally, for toxic gases or
         vapors. If the oxygen content is at or below 20.9 percent, oxygen is being
         displaced and the space may require ventilation.
         Note: Any oxygen reading below 20.9 percent could indicate the displacement of
         O2 by some other agent and should be questioned.
         If ventilation does not provide for an increase in oxygen, employees are required
         to wear supplied air respirators while in the area. If toxic levels of chemicals are
         present, appropriate ventilation or respiratory protection will be necessary.
         Note: If respirators are worn by campus employees, a Respiratory Protection
         Program will need to be implemented. Further, if respirators are worn for a
         period of 30 days or more, a Medical Evaluation Program will need to be
         implemented.
         If combustible gas levels are above 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL),
         entry will be delayed until the level falls below 10 percent.
         Note: Any reading of the combustible gas indicator below 10 percent of the LEL
         may indicate a toxic atmosphere and should be evaluated accordingly. Below a 10
         percent LEL, OSHA permits entry only from a flammability nature and does not
         imply the space is not toxic.
         Forced ventilation can be used to lower the concentration of toxic or combustible
         gases and raise the oxygen level. However, identifying the chemicals to be
         removed from the space and determining how they will be disposed of must be
         accomplished prior to starting ventilation. The following direct-reading




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   instruments are made available for use prior to entry into an atmosphere that may
   contain inadequate oxygen:
   (Insert list of instruments)
   The following personnel have been trained and are qualified to perform
   atmospheric testing using the above-identified instrumentation:
   (Insert name and positions)
   A system to mark a confined space unsafe, should tests indicate it is unsafe to
   enter, has been established. These markings will remain in place until tests
   indicate entry is safe. Signs, marker tape, flags and/or barricades will be used for
   identifying these areas.
   Lockout, block or otherwise disconnect all mechanical, electrical, liquid and gas
   systems relating to the confined space that may create a hazard during entry if
   they are put in motion or otherwise activated. Lockout/Tagout procedures shall be
   performed in accordance with the (institution’s) written Lockout/Tagout
   Program.
   Emergency procedures for rescue inside confined spaces have been coordinated
   with our local Fire Department. At all times there will be an attendant on standby
   outside the confined space to observe the worker and provide help in an
   emergency. At no time is an attendant to enter a confined space for the
   purpose of rescue.
   In the event emergency procedures have not been coordinated with the local Fire
   Department, a rescue procedure will be established. Rescue personnel will be
   trained and outfitted with the same protective clothing and equipment as the
   confined entry personnel.
   Additional training will be provided to rescue personnel as described under the
   training section of this Program.
B. Prior to entering a confined space, the department manager/supervisor is required
   to review the following safety forms, which are completed and endorsed by the
   entry supervisor. All safety forms are to be kept in the job file for which they are
   filled out and retained a minimum of one year to facilitate review of the Confined
   Space Entry Program. It is the responsibility of the entry supervisor to see that all
   forms are filled out and filed accordingly. In addition, a copy of the confined
   space entry permit and, if necessary, the associated Safety Briefing Report, must
   be posted at the confined space entry point for review by all entrants, attendants
   and rescue personnel.
   The Confined Space Entry Permit (see Appendix 20-D) provides the following
   information:
   1. Permit number
   2. Permit date
   3. Authorized duration of the entry permit



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         4. Job location
         5. Purpose of entry
         6. Name of authorized person entering the confined space, attendant and
            documentation of training
         7. Instruments used
         8. Documentation of the evaluation of the atmosphere for oxygen content,
            combustible gases and toxic levels of gases and vapors. Atmospheric testing
            shall be performed before and after forced air ventilation is introduced.
         9. Ventilation modification
         10. Minimum Requirements Checklist completed
         11. Documentation that all electrical and mechanical equipment leading to the
             confined space area has been locked out or rendered inoperable
         12. Documentation on the levels of protective clothing and equipment needed
         13. Description of rescue procedures
         14. Name of person preparing permit
         15. Name and signature of entry supervisor
         16. Permit cancellation time and reason for terminating permit
         17. Signature of entry supervisor canceling permit
         The Confined Space Characterization Form (see Appendix 20-E)—Used to
         standardize the information necessary to adequately assess the hazards associated
         with particular confined spaces within the organization. This form shall be
         completed and the information entered into a database. This information would
         not circumvent the need to physically evaluate each confined space before entry,
         but is intended to act as a means to verify similar conditions or hazards that may
         exist.
    C. All contractors/subcontractors must adhere to the Permit-Required Confined
       Space Entry Program requirements established under OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146.

    Training Requirements
    Prior to beginning confined space entry procedures, the following training will be
    provided and documented for all affected employees.
    Authorized Entrants Shall:
    –    Become knowledgeable of the hazards that may be present during entry, including
         information on the mode, signs or symptoms and consequences of the exposure.
    –    Become knowledgeable in the proper selection and use of personal protective
         equipment required for entry.
    –    Learn to communicate with the attendant whenever:


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       The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a
        dangerous situation.
       The entrant detects a prohibited condition.
       There is a need to monitor the entrant‘s status.
–   Become knowledgeable in procedures for exiting a confined space including:
       Understanding an order to evacuate when given by the attendant or the entry
        supervisor.
       Understanding when an evacuation alarm is sounded.
       Recognizing any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous
        situation.
       Detecting a prohibited condition.
Attendants Shall:
–   Become knowledgeable of the hazards that may be present during entry, including
    information on the mode, signs or symptoms and the consequences of the
    exposure.
–   Become aware of the possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure that an
    authorized entrant may exhibit.
–   Learn to maintain a continual accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit
    space and be able to accurately identify who is in the permit space at all times.
–   Understand the importance of maintaining a constant vigil outside the permit
    space during entry operations, until relieved by another attendant.
–   Learn techniques for communicating with entrants, as necessary, to monitor
    entrant status and to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space.
–   Learn to monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is safe
    for entrants to remain in the space.
–   Learn under what circumstances the entrants are to be ordered to evacuate the
    space. Such circumstances may include:
       The attendant detects a prohibited condition.
       The attendant detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in the
        authorized entrants.
       The attendant detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the
        authorized entrants.
       The attendant cannot effectively and safely perform his duties.
–   Learn when to summon rescue and other emergency services.
–   Learn what actions to take in the event unauthorized persons approach or enter the
    permit space while entry is underway. These actions may include the following:
       Warn unauthorized persons to stay away from the permit space.


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               Advise unauthorized persons that they must immediately exit the permit space
                if they have gained entry into the space.
               Inform authorized entrants and the entry supervisor of any unauthorized
                entrants.
    –    Learn to perform non-entry rescue procedures.
    –    Understand that the primary duty is to monitor and protect the authorized entrants
         and, as such, never to perform duties that will interfere with this objective.
    Entry Supervisors Shall:
    –    Become knowledgeable in the proper selection and use of personal protective
         equipment and rescue equipment required for making rescues from permit spaces
         and shall be required to perform practice rescue drills a minimum of annually.
    –    Become knowledgeable of the hazards that may be present during entry, including
         information on the mode, signs or symptoms and consequences of the exposure.
    –    Gain thorough knowledge of the information required on the entry permit and
         understand his/her role in verifying that tests, if applicable, have been conducted
         and that equipment is in place prior to endorsing the permit and allowing entry to
         begin.
    –    Understand procedures for terminating entry and canceling the permit.
    –    Understand procedures for verifying rescue services are available and means for
         summoning them are operable.
    –    Understand procedures for removing unauthorized individuals from the area.
    –    Become knowledgeable and take responsibility for determining that entry
         operations remain, at all times, consistent with the terms of the entry permit and
         that acceptable entry conditions are maintained.
    Rescue and Emergency Services Personnel Shall:
    –    Become knowledgeable in the proper selection and use of personal protective
         equipment and rescue equipment required for making rescues from permit spaces.
    –    Become knowledgeable under the requirements outlined for authorized entrants
         above.
    –    Become knowledgeable in performing confined space rescue procedures.
    –    Perform confined space rescue drills a minimum of once every 12 months. Drills
         will include simulated rescue operations using dummies, manikins, or actual
         persons from actual permit spaces or from representative permit spaces.
    –    Become trained in Basic First Aid and CPR and have a minimum of one member
         of the rescue service available that holds a current certification in First Aid and
         CPR.
    –    If outside services are called in, the employer will arrange to inform rescue service
         personnel of the hazards they may confront in performing rescue operations.


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   –   Have access to all permit spaces from which rescue may be necessary for
       developing rescue plans and performing drills.
   –   Become knowledgeable in retrieval systems or methods that may be employed for
       non-entry rescue and understand when using such equipment may increase overall
       risk and hinder rescue operations.

   Annual Review
   An annual review of the permit required confined space program shall be conducted
   by (Insert name and position). Canceled permits kept on file shall be utilized to
   assess the effectiveness of the Program. Upon completion of the annual review, the
   institution‘s Permit-Required Confined Space Program shall be updated as necessary.


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 Appendix 20-B




Sample Confined Space Air Monitoring Program

  Introduction
  The purpose of this Air-Monitoring Program is to establish standard operating
  procedures that are implemented for the safety and health of employees involved in
  confined space entry operations. The proper selection of engineering controls, work
  practices and personal protective equipment is contingent upon obtaining accurate
  information concerning exposure to concentrations of hazardous substances in excess
  of permissible or published exposure limits. It is the responsibility of department
  managers/supervisors to ensure that appropriate hazard information is obtained prior
  to confined space entry in areas under their authority.

  Requirements
  A. Prior to entry, representative air monitoring will be conducted to identify IDLH
     conditions, exposure over permissible exposure limits or published exposure
     limits or other dangerous conditions such as the presence of flammable
     atmospheres or oxygen-deficient environments.
  B. Periodic monitoring will be conducted whenever there is the possibility of an
     IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere developing or when there is an
     indication that permissible or published exposure limits may be approached. This
     will include whenever:
        Work begins in a new location within a confined space.
        Contaminants not previously identified are detected.
        New operations are initiated.
        Employees are handling leaking containers or piping systems or are working
         in areas of obvious liquid contamination.




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    C. Monitoring will be performed by:
                                 -house Personnel
         The following in-house personnel are qualified to conduct air monitoring:
         (Insert name and positions)
         The following subcontractors may be contracted to conduct air monitoring:
         (Insert subcontractors’ names)
    D. Direct-reading monitoring instruments will be used and include combustible gas
       indicators, oxygen meters, calorimetric indicator tubes and organic vapor
       monitors. Results of air monitoring shall be documented and made available to all
       entrants. Monitoring shall be conducted in the following order:
         1. Oxygen
         2. Combustible Gases
         3. Toxic Vapors or Gases
    E. Both acceptable and unacceptable entry and working conditions shall be
       determined based on air monitoring results and recorded on the Entry Permit.
       Limits established and required by OSHA, or if more restrictive by the
       institution‘s policy, may not be exceeded. OSHA requirements are as follows:

               Oxygen—19.5 percent and 23.5 percent
               Combustible Gas—10 percent LEL
               Toxic—PELs (29 CFR 1910.1000, Z-1 Tables, Z-2 Tables, Z-3 Tables)
         Unacceptable entry and working conditions are in most cases contaminant and
         confined space specific. Generally, any concentrations that vary from normal
         concentrations should be unacceptable until verification or investigation can
         conclusively determine safe conditions.


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 Appendix 20-C




Acknowledgment of Receipt of Training for Confined
Space Air-Monitoring Program
I acknowledge receipt of training in (Institution’s name)‘s Confined Space Air-
Monitoring Program. Specifically, I have been trained in the following:
   F. I know who at (Institution’s name) is qualified to perform air monitoring.
   G. I know under what general circumstances air monitoring is required.
   H. I know who at (Institution’s name) is qualified to make a determination
      regarding implementation of an Air-Monitoring Program.
   I. I know which subcontractors are deemed qualified to conduct air monitoring.
   J. I know the method to use to determine a safe working atmosphere.


Training was received on this             day of                         , year

________________________________________________                            __________
Employee‘s Signature                                                              Date

________________________________________________                            __________
Trainer‘s Signature                                                               Date


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  Appendix 20-D




Sample Confined Space Entry Permit
Permit #:                                            Permit Date:
Job Location:
Time of Entry:                                       Duration of Permit:
Purpose of Entry:
Communication Procedures:
Hazards Identified:
Name of Person(s) Entering Confined Space:
Name of Attendant:
Atmospheric Testing
        Time 1:             Time 2:          Time 3:                Time 4:          Time 5:
        O2:                 O2               O2                     O2               O2
        percent             percent          percent                percent          percent
        LEL:                LEL:             LEL:                   LEL:             LEL:
        percent             percent          percent                percent          percent
        Toxic               Toxic            Toxic                  Toxic            Toxic
        ppm                 ppm              ppm                    ppm              ppm
        CO:                 CO:              CO:                    CO:              CO:
        percent             percent          percent                percent          percent

Specify instrument(s) used, name of person who provided testing and calibration procedures
implemented:


Have all lockout/tagout procedures been followed to ensure that all electrical and
mechanical equipment leading to the confined space areas have been rendered            Yes  No
inoperable?
Was ventilation modified?                                                              Yes  No
If yes, note the times when atmosphere was re-tested:
List all personal protective equipment issued for the purpose of confined space entry.



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     Personal Protective Clothing/Equipment:              Issued to:
a.
b.
c.
Denote these minimum requirements have been completed:
Requirements                                          Date                             Time
Lockout/De-energize/Tagout
Line(s) broken, capped, blanked
Purge-Flush-Vent
Ventilation
Secure Area
Breathing Apparatus
Standby Safety Personnel
Full Body Harness w/”D” ring
Emergency Escape Retrieval
Equipment
Lifelines
Fire Extinguishers
Lighting
Protective Clothing
Respirators (APR)
Resuscitator/Inhalator
Describe Rescue Procedures:


All measures as required under 29 CFR 1910.146(d) have been met and Permit #_______ is hereby
granted. This permit is to be made available to all authorized entrants. The duration of this permit is not
to exceed the time required to perform the job or eight hours, whichever is less. The entry supervisor
may cancel this permit whenever entry operations have been completed; or when a condition arises that
is not allowed under this entry permit. Upon cancellation, it will be kept on file for one year.
 Permit granted on this                    day of                                      , year

                                 Signature of Entry Supervisor Granting Permit
 Permit Canceled on this                            day of                             , year
 Time of Cancellation:

                                Signature of Entry Supervisor Canceling Permit
 Reason for Canceling Permit:



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 Appendix 20-E




Confined Space Characterization Form
                                        Confined Space #:
A. Site Description:
     Date:               Location:
B.   General Entry Objectives:



     Confined Space Description:




     Hazard Evaluation Description:
C. Confined Space Type (Classification)
                                                        -Permit Required
D. Authorized Entry:
              Personnel Authorized
E.   Hazard Evaluation
     The following substance(s) are known or suspected to be present. The primary
     hazard(s) of each are identified:
     Substances Involved         Concentrations (if known)          Primary Hazards




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F.   Personal Protective Equipment
     Based on the evaluation of potential hazards, the following personal protective
     equipment has been assigned for the applicable work area(s) and tasks:
     Work Area                     Job Function                     PPE Assigned




G. Emergency Medical Care
   Names of qualified personnel:


     The medical facility closest to our institution‘s operations is as follows:
     Medical Facility Name:
     Address:
     Telephone:
     Ambulance Telephone:
     Ambulance Response Time:
     First aid equipment is available on site at the following locations:
     First Aid Kit:
     Emergency Eye Wash Station:
     Emergency Shower:
     Other:
     Other emergency telephone numbers are as follows:
     Police:
     Fire:
     Hospital:
     Public Health Advisor:
     Poison Control Center:




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H. Environmental Monitoring
   The following environmental monitoring instruments shall be used on site (cross out if
   not applicable) at the specified intervals:
   Combustible Gas Indicator
   O2 Monitor
   Calorimetric Tubes
   Photoionizing Detector
I. Emergency Procedures
   On-site personnel will use the following standard emergency procedures. The Site
   Safety Officer shall be notified of any on site emergencies and be responsible for
   ensuring that the appropriate procedures are followed. The Site Safety Officer for the
   above-described operations is:
   (Insert name of Site Safety Officer)
    Personnel Injury Procedures (describe):



    Fire/Explosion Emergency Procedures:




    Personal Protective Equipment Failure Emergency Procedures:




    Other Equipment Failure Emergency Procedures:




    Emergency Escape Routes and Re-assembly Routes are as follows:




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J.   Lockout/Tagout procedures for de-energizing was completed as described:




K. Ventilation is provided using the following means:




L.   Area has been secured using the following means:




M. The following emergency equipment is available on site (check all that apply):




                -sparking Tools




     Signature of Person Certifying Information in this Characterization        Date

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 Section 21




Automatic Emergency Defibrillator Guidelines

  Introduction
  The use of automatic emergency defibrillators (AEDs) has been very helpful in saving
  the lives of many people who have suffered sudden cardiac arrest. In the hands of
  trained users, AEDs have provided the analysis and emergency corrective measures
  that have re-started or normalized the cardiac rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The
  purpose of this Manual section is to describe the conditions under which an AED
  should be used and how to use one.
  EIIA suggests that AEDs, if provided, be located in the campus security office and in
  buildings that may contain significant assemblies of individuals, such as gymnasiums,
  theaters and chapels.

  Locations
  On the [Name of institution] campus, AEDs are situated at the following locations
  (refer to campus map at the end of this section):
  A.                                D.                                    G.
  B.                                E.                                    H.
  C.                                F.                                    I.
  The AED stations are designated by the following signs: [Indicate sign markings or
  place photo of AED station here.]

  Who Can Use an AED?
  An AED can be used by any person who is trained to provide cardiopulmonary
  resuscitation (CPR). They are designed to be used by non-medical people, such as
  police, firefighters, security guards and even lay-people. While it is important to be
  trained in CPR, if you are the only rescuer around and do not have CPR training, you
  should still use the equipment to try to save the victim‘s life.

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    On our campus, the following departments have staff trained in the use of AEDs:
    A.
    B.
    C. (etc.)
    The list of trained users is maintained by [Enter name of department].

    Under What Conditions May an AED be Used?
    If someone is exhibiting the following signs, the potential rescuer will consider using
    an AED after notifying campus Security or 9-1-1:
    A. Unconscious patient who is not breathing
    B. No detection of a pulse
    C. Patient must be over 8 years old—most AEDs are not approved for children under
       that age, since their energy settings cannot be set low enough for infants
    D. The victim is not moving or being moved (movement distracts the analysis)
    E. A trained medical provider has confirmed full cardiac arrest

    What if the Patient Does Not Regain Consciousness?
    The AED is only designed to stop fibrillation. If there are other cardiac conditions
    present, the AED may not be effective. Similarly, the cardiac event may have been so
    massive that CPR will also be ineffective. The victim may die, in spite of our best
    efforts. Rescuers are not always successful in their rescue efforts and some people
    may feel some very profound emotions, especially a few days after the event. To help
    rescuers cope with these feelings, the institution will provide access to a contact (a
    grief counselor, campus chaplain or other clergy person, or a psychiatrist), depending
    on the wishes of the rescuer involved.

    Legal Aspects of Using an AED
    As non-medical persons, our staff members and students are under no legal obligation
    to use an AED to try to save a person‘s life. It takes a special person to attempt to save
    a life and some may have strong reasons to decline. If they do attempt to save a
    person‘s life using an AED and are unsuccessful, they may have protection from
    survivor lawsuits through the ―Good Samaritan‖ sections of many state laws.
    Basically, these laws shield non-professional rescuers from prosecution for trying to
    help an injured victim, even if their attempts were not successful.
    As volunteers providing first aid, our staff members and students are also insured
    through the institution‘s medical malpractice liability insurance policy.




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Maintenance of AEDs
The AEDs at the institution must be maintained in accordance with the regulations of
your state and the manufacturer‘s instructions. Failure to do so may result in the AED
not working when needed.

Summary
Used in conjunction with CPR, automatic emergency defibrillators can be useful tools
for saving the victims of sudden cardiac arrest, but only if they are used properly. The
time to learn when and how to use an AED is now, not when the victim is lying
unconscious on the ground. We will provide CPR/AED training in conjunction with
[List name of cooperating agency here. It may be the American Red Cross, the
Physical Education Department, County Health Department or other agency].




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 Section 22




Service and Construction Contractor Safety

  Introduction
  Every higher educational institution will eventually have need of a contractor‘s
  services to help build new facilities or maintain existing ones. The work that
  contractors perform can relieve the Physical Plant staff from many specialized tasks
  that they may not be qualified to perform. However, contractors are not as familiar
  with an institution‘s facilities as the staff and so there is a possibility of errors that
  could cause great disruptions to the institution. For this reason, it is essential for the
  institution to closely monitor and control the work of contractors. The control starts
  before the contractor is selected and continues through the life of the project.
  There are several tools that the institution can use to control and monitor the work that
  a service and construction contractor performs while on campus. The first is a
  Contractor Safety Program (See Appendix 22-A). The second is a guide to selecting
  contractors. This may be found in Appendix 22-B. The third tool is a list of guidelines
  on working with contractors, including insurance requirements. A guide to assist in
  this process is in Appendix 22-C.
  Another important consideration when contractors are performing construction and
  maintenance activities on campus, is the potential presence of asbestos containing
  materials in the work area. Appendix 22-D provides information on asbestos
  awareness.

  Policy
  An individual should be assigned the responsibility for the overall control and
  monitoring of contractor activities on campus.




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  Appendix 22-A




Sample Contractor Safety Program
Contracted services at a higher educational institution may range from fire extinguisher
inspection, to cleaning of the hood and duct systems in the kitchens, to installing a new
roof, to construction of an entire new building. The work that the contractors do can
affect the safety of students, faculty and visitors alike. [Name of institution] has in place
a Contractor Safety Program, to ensure that the contractors and subcontractors work
safely while on our premises.
We have two aspects to our Contractor Safety Program. The first concerns service
contractors, those firms that regularly come on campus to provide a service, such as
elevator inspections or fire extinguisher maintenance. The second aspect covers general
contractors and their subcontractors, who may be on-site for several months constructing
or renovating a campus building.

   Service Contractors

       Selecting a Contractor
       Selecting the correct service contractor is important, because the firm selected will
       be working with us in a long-term relationship. Our selection process is based on
       the following factors:
       1. Qualifications: The service firm should have at least five years of experience
          servicing the types of equipment that we use. The firm should be licensed as
          required by the state or city.
       2. History of working safely. We use the Workers Compensation Experience
          Modification Rating (EMR) factor as a prime determinant of safe work
          history. See Appendix 22-B for details. Whenever possible, we will only use
          contractors whose EMR factor is 1.2 or less. We will also review the claims
          history for General Liability and Auto Liability coverage, to identify how the
          contractor‘s on-site activities have affected their customers. (Information on
          EMRs is provided in Appendix 22-B)

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         3. As a condition of the contract, the contractor will supply certificates of
            insurance at the institution‘s specified limits for Workers Compensation,
            General Liability (including Products Liability and Completed Operations)
            and Auto Liability to the Business Office (ATTN:_____________). At least
            once per year, the contractor will update those certificates, to document that
            they remain in force. The institution is to be listed as an additional insured on
            these policies.
         4. As a condition of the contract, when requested by the institution, the
            contractor will supply background checks of their employees and inform the
            institution of any individuals with a felony conviction or any record of sexual
            offenses. The institution reserves the right to prohibit access to campus to any
            contractor employees determined to be a risk to the institution or its students,
            faculty or staff.
         5. As an institution receiving public funds, there are other factors the institution
            will use as mandated by Federal, state and local laws and regulations,
            including licensing requirements, when going through the selection process.

         First Contact
         The institution‘s representative(s) responsible for the equipment being serviced
         will make contact with any new service contractor at or before the time of the
         contractor‘s first visit to campus. The manager will discuss and document the
         following items:
         1. Scope of the work to be performed.
         2. Safety rules that the contractor‘s personnel will be required to follow and
            penalties for failure to comply. The contractor will be required to confirm
            compliance with those rules (see Appendix 22-B).
         3. Access to facilities and equipment and any restrictions on access (Example:
            must be accompanied by institution‘s staff during access to residence halls or
            locker room areas; access only during certain hours, etc.).
         4. Vehicle access and parking restrictions.
         5. Persons to contact in the event of problems.

         Future Contacts
         The institution‘s representative(s) responsible for the equipment being serviced
         either will make the arrangements for future service or will be kept informed of
         when the contractor will be making his/her next service visit. This will help to
         ensure that the contractor will be on-site only when approved by the institution‘s
         representative(s).




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Construction Contractors

  Selecting a Contractor
  Selecting the correct contractor is important to ensure that high-quality work is
  accomplished safely. This is especially critical when considering the magnitude of
  the project and the potential for serious injuries and property damage. There are
  several factors that the institution will use to evaluate potential contractors:
  1. Experience doing the kind of work that needs to be done. The institution will
     choose contractors who have at least five years of increasingly more complex
     work in their particular field. The institution will ask for and check references
     provided by potential contractors.
  2. If unsure about any aspect of the contractor‘s operations, questions will be
     asked. The few minutes taken up front to find out how well a contractor
     manages the safety of his people and equipment may pay off later in reduced
     accidents and high quality work from the contractor selected.
  3. Evaluate past experience with a contractor. If there has been a long history of
     high-quality work with a contractor, the institution is more likely to use that
     firm again.
  4. History of working safely. Use the Workers Compensation Experience
     Modification Rating (EMR) factor as a prime determinant of safe work
     history. Also review the claims history for General Liability and Auto
     Liability coverage, to identify how the contractor‘s on-site activities have
     affected their customers (Information on EMRs is provided in Appendix 22-
     B.).
  5. OSHA Citations/Penalties: A history of serious OSHA citations indicates that
     the contractor is not complying with all applicable OSHA standards. If there
     are major citations, the contractor could be shut down, which might leave the
     institution without a contractor to complete the work. If there have been
     serious injuries or fatalities, the institution could also be subject to third party
     claims from the injured person. The institution‘s Safety Manager
     (_________________) will review the contractor‘s OSHA 200 and 300 Logs
     for the past three years, to see what types of claims they have had. He/she will
     advise as to the desirability of using that contractor.
  6. As a condition of the contract, when requested by the institution, the
     contractor will supply background checks of their employees and inform the
     institution of any individuals with a felony conviction or any record of sexual
     offenses. The institution reserves the right to prohibit access to campus to any
     contractor employees determined to be a risk to the institution or its students,
     faculty or staff.
  7. Written safety policies and procedures: The institution will review the
     contractor‘s written procedures, to determine whether:
     a. They are specific for the institution‘s site,


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                b. They address the exposures that the institution‘s insurance policies cover,
                c. They are OSHA compliant,
                d. The policies and procedures address the hazards which may be unique to
                   that contractor, such as electrical safety, working at heights or the use of
                   hazardous chemicals and
                e. The procedures include a disciplinary policy for failure to follow safety
                   rules.
         8. Bonds: The institution will review the contractor‘s bonding history, to
            determine whether the contractor has had any difficulty in the past obtaining
            performance bonds. This may be a symptom of deeper problems—safety as
            well as financial. Through the institution‘s insurance agent/broker, they will
            obtain written proof that the contractor is adequately bonded.
         9. Safety Management: The institution will determine whether the contractor has
            a full-time or job-site specific Safety Manager, how often he/she would be on
            the institution‘s site and what responsibilities this person has.
         10. The institution‘s Safety Manager will examine the contractor‘s equipment to
             see how well it is maintained. Poorly maintained equipment tends to reflect a
             reduced emphasis on safety.
         11. As an institution receiving public funds, there are other factors used as are
             mandated by Federal, state and local laws and regulations, including licensing
             requirements.

         Making First Contact
         Before any work begins, the institution‘s representative(s) in charge of the project
         will meet with the contractor‘s representative to establish the safety guidelines for
         the project. These will include the following items:
         1. Provide and explain job safety requirements. The contractor‘s representative
            will sign an acknowledgement that they have received the rules and will
            comply with them.
         2. Explain personal protective equipment requirements.
         3. Obtain hot work permits, if necessary.
         4. Set up fire watches, to last at least 30 minutes after the last hot work of the day
            is completed.
         5. Establish access procedures for contractor‘s vehicles and personnel.
         6. Provide instructions on parking and on-premises vehicle operation regulations,
            plus approved parking/storage areas for contractor‘s equipment.
         7. The use of equipment. The institution will not allow the contractor to use any
            of the institution‘s equipment, such as ladders, forklift trucks, or man-lifters.



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   The contractor will use his own or rental equipment and will be required to
   maintain it in a safe condition.
8. On a regular basis, the contractor‘s Site Foreman and/or Safety Manager will
   meet with the institution‘s Campus Safety Manager to review the safety of the
   operations thus far in the project. As appropriate, they will review the injuries
   that have occurred since the last meeting and will make an inspection tour to
   identify uncontrolled hazards.

During the Project
1. As appropriate, joint institution-contractor safety meetings or training will be
   held to ensure that the contractor‘s and subcontractors‘ employees understand
   the importance of safe work on our campus.
2. The Campus Safety Manager will make periodic safety inspections of the
   contractor‘s and subcontractor‘s operations. Any violations of the agreed-upon
   safety guidelines will be documented and discussed with the contractor‘s site
   Superintendent and/or Safety Manager. Repeated violations will subject the
   contractor to dismissal from the site, per the contract provisions.
3. At the conclusion of the project, the contractor and the Campus Safety
   Manager will review the safety aspects of the project to determine jointly
   where improvements could be made in future projects.




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 Appendix 22-B




Contractor Selection Guidelines

  Introduction
  Selecting a contractor can often spell the difference between a successful project and
  a nightmare. Experienced and skilled contractors are in great demand, because they
  have the good sense to run a project according to strict rules, including safety rules.
  Choosing which contractor will build the new science center or service all the
  elevators on campus may be a difficult decision. The following guidelines will help
  make that decision easier.

  Evaluating a Contractor
  In conducting an evaluation of a contractor or subcontractor, consider the following:

     Experience Modification Rating (EMR)
     Experience Modification Rating (EMR), also sometimes called Workers‘
     Compensation Modification: This is one means by which a contractor‘s safety
     performance can be evaluated. Briefly, the EMR reflects a company‘s Workers‘
     Compensation experience and is the ratio of actual losses to expected losses over a
     three-year period.
                   Actual Losses *
      EMR 
                 Expected Losses * *
     * Actual Losses: The dollars spent on Workers’ Compensation claims
     ** Expected Losses: The dollars which a similar company would be expected to spend on Workers’ Compensation claims


     An EMR illustrates a company‘s average loss experience for the previous three
     years and is a good indicator of a contractor‘s past safety experience, especially
     when compared to other contractors in your state who perform similar work.




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         EMRs for contractors range generally from about 0.3 to 2.0. An EMR above 1.0
         means that the actual losses exceed the industry average for your state. An EMR
         of 1.0 is average, while a rate of less than 1.0 means that losses are less than
         expected for the industry. The contractor should know what his/her EMR is and
         should know why it is above or below 1.0. A rate above 1.0 could be the result of
         a single accident.
         A new company will start with an EMR of 1.0 until they have three years of
         experience on which to calculate a rate based on their actual losses.

         OSHA Citations/Penalties
         A history of serious OSHA citations indicates that the contractor is not complying
         with all applicable OSHA standards. If there are major citations, the contractor
         could be shut down, which might leave the institution without a contractor to
         perform the work. If there have been serious injuries or fatalities, the institution
         could also be subject to third party claims from the injured person. The
         institution‘s safety manager should review the contractor‘s OSHA 200 and 300
         Logs for the past three years to see what types of claims they have had.

         Written Safety Policies and Procedures
         Review the contractor‘s written procedures. Are they specific to the institution‘s
         location? Do they address potential exposures that are related to the institution‘s
         environment? Can the contractor even locate a copy? Do the policies and
         procedures address the hazards that may be unique to that contractor, such as
         electrical safety, working at heights or the use of hazardous chemicals? Do the
         procedures include a disciplinary policy for failure to follow safety rules and
         OSHA regulations?

         Bonds
         Has the contractor had any difficulty in the past obtaining performance bonds?
         This may be a symptom of deeper problems—safety as well as financial. The
         institution should obtain written proof that the contractor is adequately bonded.

         Safety Management
         Does the contractor have a full-time Safety Manager? How often would he/she be
         on site? What responsibilities does this person have?

         Certificates of Insurance
         The institution has a right to ask the contractor for certificates of insurance, which
         are proof that the contractor has adequate insurance in force to protect both him
         and the institution against claims. In addition to Workers‘ Compensation
         coverage, the contractor should also furnish proof of coverage for General
         Liability (including Completed Operations), Auto Liability (if contractor‘s


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vehicles are driven onto the institution‘s premises) and Property Damage (for
contractors‘ tools and equipment). Verify the institution is an additional insured
on the contractor‘s insurance policy.
Experience indicates that a contractor who ―has its act together‖ with regard to
safety will also demonstrate superior production and high quality performance.
Contractors with poor Workers‘ Compensation records pay for their bad
experience in higher premiums. These costs are factored into their bid
calculations. A low bid from a contractor with significant Workers‘ Compensation
costs is an indication that they are willing to cut corners (lack of safety effort?) to
make a profit, often at your expense.

Contractor’s Equipment
Look at the contractor‘s equipment to see how well it is maintained. Poorly
maintained equipment tends to reflect a reduced emphasis on safety. Ask for
references of past work. A contractor with good results will not be afraid to give
plenty of names to check. Finally, don‘t be afraid to ask questions. The few
minutes taken now to find out how well a contractor manages the safety of his
people and equipment may pay off later in reduced accidents and high quality
work from the contractor selected.




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 Appendix 22-C




Working with Contractors

  Introduction
  Contractors work for a variety of different operations. Working on an educational
  campus may be a new experience for many of them and so they need to follow the
  institution‘s established rules. Similarly, the institution may not be used to having
  construction workers in classrooms or residence buildings. The following guidelines
  have been established to help the institution maintain control of the contractors while
  they are working on campus. In general, contractors‘ employees should be required to
  follow the same rules that the institution‘s employees do.

  Contractor Guidelines
  A. The institution should review the contractor‘s safety rules that will be in use on
     site.
  B. As an alternative, provide each contractor‘s employee with the list of campus
     safety rules. Before beginning work at your premises, each contractor‘s employee
     should sign a notice, indicating that:
     1. He/she has received a copy of the institution‘s safety rules, and
     2. He/she agrees to comply with those rules, as a condition of employment at the
        institution.
  C. Each contractor should use his/her own equipment and not borrow any of the
     institution‘s. As a condition of employment, the contractor should maintain his
     equipment in good condition.
  D. Each contractor should provide specified personal protective equipment (safety
     glasses, hearing protection, etc.) to his employees and should ensure that they use
     it as appropriate.




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    E. The institution should request that the contractor supply background checks of
       their employees and inform the institution of any individuals with a felony
       conviction or any record of sexual offenses.
    F. The institution‘s Safety Manager or Facilities Director should monitor the work
       that the contractor‘s employees are doing. This should be at the beginning of the
       job, to ensure that they are getting set up properly. The Safety Manager or
       Facilities Director should also spot-check the contractor‘s work actions and
       conditions periodically throughout the life of the project.
    G. The institution should establish and clearly communicate a policy for handling
       infractions of the rules by contractors‘ employees. A ―Three strikes and you‘re
       out‖ policy is often used.
    H. Contractors who are new to the institution should meet with the Safety Manager
       or Facilities Director before beginning work, to:
         1. Explain job safety requirements
         2. Explain personal protective equipment requirements
         3. Explain campus lockout/tagout policy and procedures.
         4. Obtain hot work permits, if necessary
         5. Set up fire watches, to last at least 30 minutes after the last hot work of the day
            is completed.
    I. Contractors should also be given instruction on parking and regulations for on-
       premises vehicle operations.
    J. If the general contractor uses any subcontractors, he/she is responsible for their
       safety. He should provide the same level of protection for them as he would
       provide to his own employees.
    K. If the contractor has more than six employees working at the institution‘s site, he
       should provide a foreman or supervisor, who would be responsible for
       productivity, work quality and safety of the workers. This person should then be
       the main point of contact between the institution‘s operations and the contractor‘s
       work. Any safety questions would then go between the institution and this
       foreman.
    L. It would also be a good idea for the contractor‘s safety person to visit the
       institution occasionally to review the safety of the contractor‘s employees.

    Working with Contractors—Insurance Guidelines
    A. The contractor should provide Certificates of Insurance for WC, GL (including
       Completed Operations) and Auto Liability, if its vehicles will be driven on
       campus or any other areas controlled by the institution.
    B. The institution should not sign a ―Waiver of Subrogation.‖ Contact EIIA for
       details and additional information on this subject.



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C. The Risk Management or Facilities Department should obtain the insurance
   certificates as part of the contract bidding process. Certificates should certainly be
   in-hand before any contractor‘s employees come on site. The institution should be
   an additional insured on the certificates.
D. Limits of Insurance should be acceptable to the Risk Management Department
   and should depend on the scope of the work.
E. The contractor should be responsible for keeping the certificates up-to-date.
F. The institution may wish to develop a spreadsheet or other document, listing all
   contractors and subcontractors, their insurance carriers, policy numbers, dates of
   coverage and other pertinent information for WC, GL and AL. Provide the
   receptionist or gate guard with a summary of this information, specifically
   whether the policies are up to date. When the contractor comes on site, the gate
   guard can check the list to see whether the contractor should be allowed on site. If
   the policies are not up-to-date, the guard can refer the contractor‘s employees to
   their main office.
G. If the contractor uses any subcontractors, their insurance information should be
   included under the general contractor‘s policies.
H. The EIIA Builder‘s Risk Property Insurance Policy does not insure contractors‘
   equipment. If the institution is relying on this policy to provide property insurance
   for a project, the contract should require that contractor to purchase insurance for
   the contractors‘ tools and equipment.




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    Appendix 22-D




Asbestos Awareness
Asbestos is a generic term for a group of naturally occurring silicate minerals that are
mined primarily in South Africa, Canada and the former Soviet Union. Asbestos can
appear in fibrous crystal form and when crushed, separates into flexible fibers.
Asbestos minerals have the following characteristics in common:
    Separate into smaller and smaller fiber bundles when disturbed or handled
    Resistant to heat, bacteria and chemicals
    Great tensile strength and stiffness
    Excellent electrical and thermal insulation
    Very good noise insulator
    Resistant to the effects of friction and wear
An important term used in describing the condition of asbestos is the word "friable." A
material is considered friable if it can be reduced to powder by hand pressure when dry.
This will become clearer when we review the health effects and routes of entry.

Potential Health Effects Related to Asbestos
While asbestos fibers may gain entry into the body through inhalation and ingestion, by
far the major route is inhalation. Asbestos fibers have no odor and those that you may
inhale are invisible to the naked eye.
Your respiratory system includes the mouth, nose, wind pipe (trachea), bronchi and lungs.
The lungs are located within the pleural cavity. Lying within the cavity and covering the
lungs is a lining called the pleural mesothelium.
The lungs contain air sacks called alveoli. The alveoli are the sites where oxygen is
absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood.
Your body's respiratory system has defense mechanisms that work to keep foreign
particles from causing damage. Amazingly, estimates indicate that these mechanisms are


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95 to 98 percent effective. Examples of some defense mechanisms and their functions
are:
    –   The mouth and nose filter out very large particles.
    –   Coated bronchi filter out smaller particles.
    –   Cilia, which are hairlike protrusions on cells lining the airways (bronchial tree),
        move particles up to the back of the mouth where they are swallowed or expelled.
    –   The smallest particles that are not previously trapped may travel to the alveoli in
        the lower respiratory system. Here they may be attacked by large cells, known as
        macrophages, which try to digest them. Because asbestos is a mineral fiber, the
        macrophages are often not successful.
Most of the information about asbestos diseases comes from studying workers in the
various asbestos industries. The bulk of the data comes from World War II shipbuilding
activities and the asbestos industries in the United States and England. Exposure to very
high levels of airborne asbestos typical of the asbestos workplace prior to 1972 has been
linked with the following diseases:
Asbestosis is a chronic disease in which lungs become scarred (fibrosis) as a result of a
biological reaction to the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Scarring causes thickening of the
walls of the lungs and a reduction in the capacity for transfer of oxygen to the
bloodstream. Victims usually die from heart failure, as the heart overworks in an attempt
to deliver the required oxygen to the body. Asbestosis usually results after exposure to
high concentrations of fibers over a long period of time. Symptoms usually occur 15 to
35 years after the first exposure.
Mesothelioma is a cancer of the covering of the lung or lining of the chest or abdominal
cavities. It is the rarest form of the asbestos-related diseases. This disease is always
rapidly fatal, usually within a year after diagnosis. There is a direct relationship between
smoking and the risk of developing Mesothelioma. The latency period is usually 25 to 30
years for Mesothelioma.
Lung Cancer is now responsible for roughly one-half of the deaths that occur from past
asbestos exposures. Lung cancer usually begins as a tumor in the lower lobes of the
lungs. Generally, the earliest symptom is the development of a persistent cough or change
in chronic cough. Later symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, pain and general
weakness.
Other cancers have been noted in a very small number of individuals who are
occupationally exposed to asbestos. These tumors are usually cancers of the
gastrointestinal tract.
Smoking and Lung Cancer
The combination of asbestos exposure and smoking greatly increases the risk of
developing lung cancer. Smoking in combination with asbestos exposure does not just
double the risk, but multiplies it many times. Asbestos workers are approximately five
times more likely to develop lung cancer than the general population. Smokers are ten
times more likely to develop lung cancer than the general population. A person who


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works with asbestos and also smokes is likely to have a 90 times greater risk of
contracting lung cancer.

Areas Where Asbestos May be Present
Although the use of asbestos in thermal, surfacing and fire proofing materials was banned
in 1973, buildings constructed as late as 1976 have been found to contain asbestos
building materials. Materials commonly found to contain asbestos at institutions include:
   –   Floor tiles (9" x 9" and 12" x 12")
   –   Ceiling tiles
   –   Thermal pipe insulation (water, steam and chilled water lines)
   –   Fireproofing
   –   Transite panels (siding and partitions)
   –   Tank insulation
   –   Acoustical ceiling spray
   –   Roofing felts and shingles
   –   High temperature gaskets and valve packings
   –   Textiles (auditorium curtains, laboratory aprons and gloves)
It is recommended that each institution conduct a building survey to determine the
locations where asbestos-containing materials may be present.

Activities Involving Potential Exposure
OSHA regulations are geared to be effective when an employee is "occupationally
exposed." Occupationally exposed is defined as an exposure at or above 0.1 fibers per
cubic centimeter for 30 or more days a year.
As was stated earlier, asbestos-containing materials that can be reduced to powder by
hand pressure are considered to be friable. Some non-friable materials may become
friable if they are cut, drilled or damaged by water. Friable materials are more likely to
release fibers into the air where they can be a source of exposure to you.
The presence of asbestos alone in a building does not mean that the building occupants
are necessarily endangered. As long as asbestos-containing materials remain in good
condition, exposure is unlikely.
When damage, building maintenance, repair, renovation or other activities disturb
asbestos-containing materials, asbestos fibers can be released creating a potential hazard
to building occupants. Some asbestos fibers can take up to 80 hours to settle. An airborne
asbestos fiber can move laterally with air current and contaminate spaces distant from the
point of release. Fiber release may occur in several ways:
Fallout. Old and/or deteriorated asbestos fibers may become airborne due to damage or
destruction of the bonding agents used to hold the asbestos product together. Fallout may
result in fibers being deposited on horizontal surfaces over time due to humidity,

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vibration or aging.
Contact. Striking, cutting, drilling, etc. may release fibers into the environment. Air
erosion is also a form of contact and may release fibers to the environment from damaged
or exposed material.
Reentrainment. Sweeping, dusting or unfiltered vacuuming of settled dust may result in
asbestos fibers being re-suspended into the atmosphere.

Minimizing Potential Exposure

Damage and Deterioration
When an asbestos-containing material degrades or is damaged, it may release asbestos
into the air. Therefore, you should:
    –   Avoid touching or disturbing asbestos-containing materials on ceilings, pipes or
        boilers.
    –   Do not drill, sand or scrape items that have asbestos-containing materials.
    –   Do not attempt to clean any material that appears to contain asbestos.
    –   Contact your supervisor immediately to arrange proper cleaning of any material
        that you suspect may contain asbestos.
    –   Clean-up of asbestos-containing materials should only be done using a High
        Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) vacuum and/or wet methods by properly
        trained personnel.

Floor Care
In order to minimize the potential for exposure to asbestos during floor care, the
following practices are recommended:
    –   Never sand or scrape asphalt or vinyl flooring that contains asbestos.
    –   Always strip floor finishes using wet methods and the lowest abrasion pads
        possible (Never use coarse black pads on asbestos flooring). Always use speeds
        less than 300 revolutions per minute (rpm).
    –   Burnish or dry-buff asbestos containing flooring only if it has enough finish so
        that the pad cannot contact the asbestos-containing material.
    –   Do not dust, dry sweep or vacuum dirt or debris in an area that contains damaged
        thermal asbestos insulation, surfacing or deteriorated asbestos-containing material.
        Use only wet methods or HEPA filtered vacuums.




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Marsh USA Inc.
500 West Monroe
Chicago, IL 60661
312 627 6000

				
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