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Ada Chapter 1_ Introduction - Background


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                                                                   Chapter 1:
1.1 About the Plan
       This document is the Multi-Hazard
       Mitigation Plan for the City of Ada
       and the Ada Public Schools. It is a
       strategic planning guide developed in
       fulfillment of the Pre-Disaster
       Mitigation Grant Program
       requirements of the Federal
       Emergency Management Agency
       (FEMA), according to the Stafford
       Disaster Relief and Emergency
                                                                  Ada City Hall
       AAAssistance Act. This act provides
       Federal Assistance to state and local governments to        Included in this Chapter:
       alleviate suffering and damage from disasters. It
                                                                   1.1 About the Plan
       broadens existing relief programs to encourage disaster        1.1.1 Purpose
       preparedness plans and programs, coordination and              1.1.2 Scope
       responsiveness, insurance coverage, and hazard                 1.1.3 Authority
       mitigation measures.                                           1.1.4 Funding
                                                                      1.1.5 Goals
       This plan is developed in accordance with guidance             1.1.6 Definition of Terms
       from, and fulfills requirements for, the Hazard                1.1.7 Points of Contact
       Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) and the Pre-                1.2 Community Description
                                                                      1.2.1 Geography
       Disaster Mitigation Grant Program (PDM) and
                                                                      1.2.2 Climate
       addresses 15 natural and man-made hazards.                     1.2.3 History
                                                                      1.2.4 Demographics
                                                                      1.2.5 Lifelines
                                                                      1.2.6 Economy
1.1.1 Purpose                                                         1.2.7 Development
                                                                      1.2.8 Critical Facilities
       The purpose of this plan is to:
          Provide a description of the planning area (Chapter 1) and assess the ongoing
           mitigation activities in the City of Ada and the Ada City Schools (Chapter 2).
          Describe the planning process used to develop the mitigation plan (Chapter 3).
          Identify and assess the hazards that pose a threat to citizens, businesses and property
           (Chapter 4).
          Evaluate mitigation measures that should be undertaken to protect citizens, businesses
           and property (Chapter 5).

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          Identify and recommend an Action Plan for implementation of mitigation projects
           (Chapter 6).
          Develop a strategy for the adoption, maintenance, upkeep, and revision of the City of
           Ada and Ada City Schools Multi-Jurisdictional Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
           (Chapter 7).

       In December 2005, the Multihazard Mitigation Council of the National Institute of
       Building Sciences completed a study to assess future savings from mitigation activities.
       Their findings reflected the fact that mitigation activities in general produced over $4 in
       savings for every $1 invested in mitigation actions, with the greatest savings in the areas
       of flood-related events (5:1) and wind-related events (3.9:1). In addition, the report
       “Mitigation is most effective when carried out on a comprehensive, community-wide, and
       long-term basis. Single …activities can help, but carrying out a slate of coordinated
       mitigation activities over time is the best way to ensure that communities will be
       physically, socially, and economically resilient to future hazard impacts.”
       The objective of this plan is to provide guidance for community mitigation activities for
       the next five years. It will ensure that Ada and other partners implement hazard
       mitigation activities that are most effective and appropriate for the natural and man-made
       hazards that threaten the community.

1.1.2 Scope
       The scope of the City of Ada and Ada City Schools Multi-Jurisdictional Multi-Hazard
       Mitigation Plan is citywide. It addresses all natural and man-made hazards deemed a
       threat to the citizens of Ada. Both short-term and long-term hazard mitigation
       opportunities are addressed, beyond existing federal, state, and local funding programs.

1.1.3 Authority
       Section 322 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Assistance and Emergency Relief Act, 42
       USC 5165, enacted under Section 104 the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, P.L. 106-390,
       provides new and revitalized approaches to mitigation planning. A major requirement of
       the law is the development of a local hazard mitigation plan. Section 322, in concert with
       other sections of the Act, provides a significant opportunity to reduce the Nation’s
       disaster losses through mitigation planning.

1.1.4 Funding
       Funding for the City of Ada and Ada City Schools Multi-Jurisdictional Multi-Hazard
       Mitigation Plan was provided by a 75%, $30,000, Pre-Disaster Mitigation grant from the
       Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Oklahoma Department of
       Emergency Management (OEM) with a 25%, $10,000, local share.

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                                 City of Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan Funding


                                                                          Federal Share
                                                                          Local Share


                                               Total Funding: $40,000

1.1.5 Goals
       The Ada Technical Advisory Committee and the Ada Citizens’ Advisory Committee
       developed the goals for the City of Ada and Ada City Schools Multi-Jurisdictional Multi-
       Hazard Mitigation Plan, with input from interested citizens. The local goals were
       developed taking into account the hazard mitigation strategies and goals of the federal
       and state governments.
   National Mitigation Strategy and Goal
      FEMA has developed ten fundamental principles for the nation’s mitigation strategy:
           1. Risk reduction measures ensure long-term economic success for the community
               as a whole rather than short-term benefit for special interests.
           2. Risk reduction measures for one natural hazard must be compatible with risk
               reduction measures for other natural hazards.
           3. Risk reduction measures must be evaluated to achieve the best mix for a given
           4. Risk reduction measures for natural hazards must be compatible with risk
               reduction measures for technological hazards and vice versa.
           5. All mitigation is local.
           6. Emphasizing proactive mitigation before emergency response can reduce disaster
               costs and the impacts of natural hazards. Both pre-disaster (preventive) and post-
               disaster (corrective) mitigation is needed.
           7. Hazard identification and risk assessment are the cornerstones of mitigation.
           8. Building new federal-state-local partnerships and public-private partnerships is
               the most effective means of implementing measures to reduce the impacts of
               natural hazards.
           9. Those who knowingly choose to assume greater risk must accept responsibility
               for that choice.
           10. Risk reduction measures for natural hazards must be compatible with the
               protection of natural and cultural resources.
       FEMA’s goal is to:

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           1. Substantially increase public awareness of natural hazard risk so that the public
              demands safer communities in which to live and work.
           2. Significantly reduce the risk of loss of life, injuries, economic costs, and
              destruction of natural and cultural resources that result from natural hazards.

   State of Oklahoma Mitigation Strategy and Goals
       The State of Oklahoma has developed an Enhanced Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan to
       guide all levels of government, business, and the public in reducing or eliminating the
       effects of natural disasters. The goals and objectives are:
           1. To protect life.
           2. Protect property.
           3. Protect the environment.
           4. Increase preparedness for disasters.
       The key measures to implement these goals include:
              Enhance communication between state and federal agencies and local
              governments to facilitate post-disaster recovery, and both pre- and post-disaster
              Coordinate Federal, State, Local, and private resources to enhance the
              preparedness and mitigation process.
              Ensure consistency between Federal and State regulations.
              Provide protection from hazards for critical facilities.
              Support legislation that protects hazardous areas from being developed.
   Ada’s Goals
      To improve the safety and well-being of the citizens residing and working in the City of
      Ada; and to reduce the potential of deaths, injuries, property damage, environmental and
      other losses from natural and man-made hazards in a manner that creates a disaster-
      resistant community, enhances economic development opportunities, and advances
      community goals and quality of life, resulting in more livable, viable, and sustainable
   Ada City Schools’ Goals
      The primary goal of Ada Public Schools is to collaborate with the City of Ada and
      Pontotoc County in identifying potential natural hazards and developing mitigation action
      plans that will prevent or soften the impact of the identified hazards on school sites that
      comprise the Ada Public School District.
       Particularly, Ada Public Schools would like to develop safe rooms/buildings to protect
       school communities from weather related hazards. These safe structures during non-
       emergency times could be used to enhance instruction, and provide much needed space
       for fine arts programs, student activities, spectator events, and community meetings.
       Goals for mitigation of each of the hazards are presented in Chapter 5.

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1.1.6 Definition of Terms
       Hazard Mitigation is defined as: Sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate long-term
       risk to human life and property from natural and technological hazards and their effects.
       Note that this emphasis on ―long-term‖ risk distinguishes mitigation from actions geared
       primarily to emergency preparedness and short-term recovery.
       A glossary of additional terms commonly used in hazard mitigation is included in
       Appendix A.

1.1.7 Point of Contact
       The primary point(s) of contact for information regarding this plan is:
       Primary Contact:                              Secondary Contact:
       Gene Linton                                   Bennie Cope
       Ada Emergency Manager                         911 City/County Communications Mgr,
       231 S. Townsend St.                           231 S. Townsend St.
       Ada OK 74820                                  Ada OK 74820
       Phone: (580) 436-8055                         Phone: (580) 436-8016
       Fax: (580) 436-8056                           Fax: (580) 421-7806
       E-mail: Gene.Linton@adaok.com                 E-mail: Bennie.Cope@adaok.com
       Ada Public Schools Contact:
       Patrick Harrison
       Superintendent, Ada Public Schools
       18147 CR 1547
       Ada OK 74820
       Phone: (580) 310-7200
       Fax: (580) 310-7206
       E-mail: harrisonp@adapss.com

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1.2 Community Description
       The City of Ada and Ada
       Public Schools are faced with
       a variety of hazards, both
       natural and man-made. In
       recent history hailstorms,
       wildfires, ice storms, and
       tornadoes have made the
       national headlines but, in fact,
       any part of the city can also
       be impacted by high winds,
       drought, fire, hazardous
       materials events, and other
       threats. In some cases, such
       as flooding the areas most at
       risk have been mapped and
       delineated. A map of the City
       limits and fenceline is
       presented as Figure 1-1 and a                            City of Ada
       base map of the City of Ada
       with its major features and
       highways is shown in Figure 1–2.

1.2.1 Geography
       Latitude:  34.76 N            FIPS Code: 40-123-200
       Longitude: 96.67 W
       The City of Ada is located in Pontotoc County in the south-central part of Oklahoma,
       approximately 77 miles southeast of Oklahoma City, and about 120 miles south of Tulsa.
       Total land area within Ada’s city limits is 18.22 mi2.
       Ada is within the Northern Cross Timbers region of Oklahoma. The region is naturally
       covered by a mosaic of oak savanna, scrubby oak forest, eastern redcedar and tall grass
       prairie. The oak forests are native on course-textured soils derived from sandstone. The
       tall grass prairie naturally occurs on finer-textured soils derived from limestone or shale.
       Livestock farming is the main land use (48%), followed by cropland (39%) and woodland
       (10%). Soils are highly erodible when disturbed. Pontotoc County has three major stream
       systems and an underground spring. Important to the city is the Arbuckle-Simpson
       Aquifer, which lies beneath Pontotoc and Johnston Counties. The Arbuckle-Simpson
       Group is a limestone, dolomite and sandstone formation whose thicknesses vary between
       5,000 to 9,000 feet. Well depths are between 100 and 2,500 feet, with yields between 100
       and 500 gpm. Large oilfields were developed in the early 20th century and brine, drilling
       mud and petroleum waste products have increased salinity in many streams. Streams are
       typically shallow. Elevations in the Ada area range from about 1,050 feet to 1,290 feet. A
       map of land cover within the City of Ada is shown in Figure 1-3.

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       Figure 1–1:    City of Ada City Limits and Fenceline

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       Figure 1–2:    City of Ada Base Map

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       Figure 1–3:    Ada Land Cover Map

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       Ada has 11 creeks within its city limits and fenceline. These streams are part of three
       major drainage basins that flow away from the city to the north, south and east: the
       Canadian Sandy Creek, Clear Boggy Creek and Muddy Boggy Creek. These streams are
       described below.
           Canadian Sandy Creek flows north along the east boundary of Ada into the
           Canadian River. Ada is currently studying the feasibility of building Scissortail Dam
           on the Canadian Sandy, about 1 mile west of the city. Flowing into the Canadian
           Sandy from Ada are Little Sandy Creek and the west-flowing Tributaries 1, 2 and 3.
           Clear Boggy Creek. All of the streams on the south side of Ada flow into Clear
           Boggy Creek, which drains an area of 10 square miles. The creek flows southeast
           into the Muddy Boggy, near Jasper, and eventually into the Red River. Tributaries of
           Clear Boggy Creek are Lake Creek, Clear Creek, and Tributaries 1 and 2.
           Muddy Boggy Creek flows east from the eastern fenceline of Ada and then south
           into the Red River near Hugo.

1.2.2 Climate
       The City of Ada lies in the humid subtropical climate zone of the southeastern United
       States. This climate zone is noted for hot summers, mild winters, and the lack of a
       distinct dry season. Ada also experiences the effects of continentality, which is
       characterized by a wide annual temperature range and rapid temperature changes. Winter
       temperatures occasionally fall below zero due to strong cold fronts, but these temperature
       extremes only last a short time. Temperatures of 100°F or higher are often experienced
       from July to early September. January’s average temperature is 39° F and July’s average
       is 82° F.
       Precipitation in the Ada area is generally evenly distributed throughout the year. Average
       rainfall is 41 inches per year and average snowfall is 5 inches per year. Most of this
       precipitation comes in the form of convective thunderstorms that produce heavy amounts
       of rain in short durations. Heavy winds, flash floods, and hail are all associated with these
       seasonal storms.
       April, May, and June account for 55% of all severe weather during a typical year, with
       77% of the severe weather occurring between the months of March and July. June is the
       most active month of the year for hail, wind, floods, and tornadoes.
       Prevailing surface winds for the area are southerly during most of the year.

1.2.3 History
       Ada is located in the historical boundaries of the Chickasaw Nation. Major settlements
       during Indian Territory days were at Tishomingo, Atoka and Wewoka. The area around
       Ada was generally unsettled prairie and woodland when surveyed in the early 1870s. Ada
       is not shown on an 1884 map of Indian Territory, but has appeared by 1895. In 1900
       there were 150,000 whites living within the Nation and only 6,000 Chickasaws. The
       Nation was formally dissolved by treaty in 1906 and not reconstituted until 1963. Ada is
       today the seat of the Chickasaw Nation tribal government.

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       White settlement in the area began with Jeff Reed, a native Texan, who settled near what
       was to become Ada in April 1889 and opened a general store. A post office was
       established in 1891, and named after Reed’s eldest daughter, Ada.
       Ada was initially an gricultural community. A primary early crop was cotton, but soil
       depletion eventually forced a shift to other crops and to ranching.
       By 1903 Ada had several general stores, a blacksmith and cotton gin, a drug store and
       opera house.
       For over 50 years, Ada was served by three
       railways. The St. Louis and San Francisco
       Railroad (Frisco) built through to Ada in 1900.
       This line, which extended from Vinita to Tulsa,
       Okmulgee, Holdenville and Madill, is now part
       of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF)
       system and the only railroad still serving Ada.
       The Oklahoma City Ada and Atoka Railroad
       was built into Ada in 1903. This line, which
       linked Oklahoma City to the Missouri Kansas
       and Texas Railroad at Atoka, later became part
       of the Muskogee Lines, which operated the               City of Ada’s Main Street -- 1940
       track until 1964. The Atchison Topeka and
       Santa Fe Railroad operated a branch line from Purcell to Ada and Tupelo.
       Ada’s water source at Byrd’s Mill Spring, which flows from the eastern portion of the
       Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, was developed in the early 1900s.
       East Central Normal School was founded in 1909, to provide preparatory education,
       including two years of college leading to teacher certification. In 1919, East Central
       became a teacher's college and began conferring bachelor degrees. In 1939 it became a
       state college, and in 1954 graduate courses were added to the curriculum. In 1974 the
       school was renamed East Central Oklahoma State University, and in 1985 simply East
       Central University, or ECU. Current enrollment is about 4,600 students.
       Oil was discovered near Ada in 1921, turning the city from an agricultural and railroad
       entrepot into a bustling boom town. Robert S. Kerr, son of prominent Ada citizen
       William Samuel Kerr, founded Anderson-Kerr Drilling Co. in 1929, which became Kerr-
       McGee in 1946. Robert S. Kerr went on to become a highly successful governor of
       Oklahoma and an influential U.S. senator.
       The cement industry, which has several limestone mines in Ada and the surrounding area,
       began in the early 1900s and continues to be a significant contributor to the local

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       Ada has seven structures on the National Register of Historic Places:
          Ada Public Library, 400 S. Rennie
          Bebee Field Round House
          East Central State Normal School, East
           Central University Campus
          Mijo Camp Industrial District, North
           side of Pontotoc County
          Pontotoc County Courthouse, 12th &
          Sugg Clinic, 100 E. 13th St.
          Wintersmith Park Historic District,            Sugg Clinic, an excellent example of Art
           E18th & Scenic Dr.                                        Deco architecture

1.2.4 Demographics
       Demographics is the use of population characteristics (age and income distribution and
       trends, mobility, educational attainment, home ownership and employment status, for
       instance) for purposes of social studies.
       As was clearly demonstrated in Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the vulnerability of a segment
       of the community to disasters will often vary according to demographic factors such as
       income level, age, race, language, education, disability and home ownership. For
       example, individuals and families in low income areas often have less extensive safety
       nets (transportation, savings, credit, food supplies, extended family networks) than those
       in high income districts. Similarly, aging populations are more vulnerable to extreme heat
       and cold and often have fewer financial resources for purchasing supplies. Knowing the
       size and geographical location of potential at risk populations (such as small children, the
       elderly and the impoverished) are important to assessing the community’s vulnerability.
       The City of Ada had a reported 2000 population of 15,691, comprising 44.6% of the
       population of Pontotoc County. This includes 6,697 households with an average
       household size of 2.20 persons.
       Ada’s population figures defy precise definition, due to the fluctuating student population
       of East Central State University and the methods of the Census counts. As a rule, ECU
       students are not counted in the Ada Census. Inevitably, some of ECU’s 4,600 students
       (i.e., those living and working off campus at the time of the Census) might well have
       been counted as Ada residents. For the purposes of this report, however, it is assumed
       that the 2000 Census did not include ECU students. Consequently, Ada’s actual daytime
       population during most of 2000 was probably around 20,000.

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       A map depicting the percentage of the population aged 65 and above by Census block is
       shown in Figure 1-4. In addition, percentage of the population living in poverty by
       Census block group is shown in Figure 1-5. Ada’s demographic data is detailed in Table
                             Table 1–1:          City of Ada Population Data
                                              Source: 2000 Census
                                    Subject                     Number          %        State %
                  Total Population                             15,691         100       100
                  Under 5 years old                            1,019          6.5       6.8
                  Between 5-19 years old                       3,202          20.4      22.2
                  65 years and older                           2,666          17.0      16.2
                  ECU Students                                 4,600          29.3
                  White                                        12,356         78.7      76.2
                  African-American                             765            4.9       7.6
                  Native American                              3,162          20.2      7.9
                  Hispanic                                     453            2.9       5.2
                  Poverty Status in 1999 * (Families)          569            14.8      11.2
                  Poverty Status in 1999 * (Individuals)       3,137          21.4      14.7
                  * The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family
                  size and composition to determine who is in poverty. For more information on the
                  thresholds and what qualifies as eligible vs. non-eligible income, go to

       Since the 1940 Census, the population of Ada has experienced periods of growth and
       decline, but has remained relatively steady, as detailed in Table 1-2, below. It was
       estimated that the City’s population had risen to 15,840 by 2004, reversing the slight
       downward trend experienced between 1980 and 2000.

                           Table 1–2:         Population Change, 1940-2000
            Subject           1940        1950         1960         1970        1980        1990       2000
        Population           15,143      15,995       14,347       14,859      15,902      15,820     15,691
        Change from
                                -          852        -1,648        512        1,043           -82     -129
        Previous Census
        % Change                -        5.63%       -10.30%       3.57%       7.02%       -0.52%     -0.82%

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       Figure 1–4:    City of Ada Population Aged 65 and Above

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       Figure 1–5:    City of Ada Low Income Areas

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   Ada Public Schools Demographics
       The Ada Public Schools District is comprised
       of seven schools with 2,582 students.
       According to the 2000 US Census, there
       were 3,345 inhabitants in the district under
       the age of 18, of which 61% were white,
       3.5% were black, 5% were Hispanic, and
       over 22% were American Indian.
       Currently, Ada City Schools employs some
       320 staff members. According to the
       National Center for Education Statistics, in
       the 2003-2004 school year the schools had
                                                                   Ada Junior High School
       177 full-time classroom teachers, including
       69 elementary teachers and 72 secondary
       teachers. The Ada School District had 142 full-time workers classified as ―other staff,‖
       which included instructional aides, librarians, administrators, and support services

1.2.5 Lifelines
       Lifelines are defined as systems that are necessary for human life and urban function,
       especially during emergencies. Transportation and utility systems, as well as emergency
       service facilities are considered the lifelines of a community. Transportation systems
       include interstate, US, and state highways, roadways, railways, waterways, ports, harbors,
       and airports. Utility systems consist of electric power, gas and liquid fuels,
       telecommunications, water, and wastewater. Emergency service facilities include
       Emergency Alert System (EAS) communication facilities, hospitals, and the police and
       fire departments. Emergency service facilities are dealt with in detail in Section 2.6.
   Utility Systems
       Electrical Service
       Ada’s electrical service is provided by Oklahoma Gas & Electric (OG&E) and by
       People’s Electric Cooperative (PEC). PEC is a rural electric distribution cooperative
       providing electric service to approximately 13,000 members in 11 south central
       Oklahoma counties. It has been in existence since 1938 and is headquartered in Ada.
       Ada’s interconnection and service is reliable enough that it has not been subject to
       voltage sags, rolling blackouts or brownouts.
       Water Service
       The City of Ada’s water is supplied by the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer and Byrd’s Mill
       Spring, and is supplemented with local well water. Byrd’s Mill Spring, located about 12
       miles south of Ada has recorded flows in excess of 20 million gallons per day (MGD).
       Normal flows, however, are more in the range of 9-11 MGD. Of this amount, a
       minimum of 3 MGD is left in the Byrd’s Mill Creek for environmental purposes. Ada’s
       three wells into the aquifer produce an additional 9 MGD.

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       Ada has a water processing plant with a capacity of 11 MGD. The plant is in fair to good
       condition, and is currently in the process of being upgraded. Water use averages about
       5.5 MGD, which includes city consumption and distribution to seven Pontotoc rural
       water districts. Peak usage is about 9.3 MGD.
       Water from Byrd’s Mill Spring flows to the Ada storage reservoirs via gravity. From
       there, it is chlorinated and pumped to the water towers using five electric pumps. A
       back-up generator at the water plant assures continued availability of water in the event
       of a power failure. Pressure from the pumps and gravity flow from the water towers
       distributes the water through the City's distribution system.
                                                                Ada has 7 million gallons of in-
                                                                ground storage at the municipal
                                                                water plant. There are 2 million
                                                                gallons of overhead storage in
                                                                three water towers, the newest of
                                                                which was completed in 2001
                                                                using funds provided through an
                                                                infrastructure sales tax approved
                     Ada’s Water Supply System                  in 1998.
                               Table 1–3:        Ada Water System
                                        Subject            Figure

                               Normal Usage                5.5 MGD
                               Peak Usage                  9.3 MGD
                               Elevated Storage Capacity    1 MG
                               Ground Storage Capacity      7 MG
                               System Capacity             11 MGD

       In many respects, Ada is in an enviable position for a major city in terms of its water.
       Located on the northern edge of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, it has long enjoyed an
       abundant source of high-quality water from the aquifer and Byrd’s Mill Spring.
       However, during prolonged drought and extreme summer temperatures, as during 2005
       and 2006, Ada’s water use spikes to over 9 MGD, stressing the City’s supply and
       distribution systems.
       The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer is the primary water source for Ada, Sulphur,
       Tishomingo and Durant. Municipal water use accounted for over 60% of the aquifer’s
       1.6 billion gallons of production in 2000, with irrigation accounting for 25%.
       Due to the abundance and high quality of the aquifer, water merchants and other
       Oklahoma cities have been working to gain access to the resource, in alliance with some
       local landowners. One such initiative is seeking authority to pump 80,000 acre-feet a
       year (about 71 MGD) from the aquifer for transport to cities in central Oklahoma.

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       As its sole-source water supply, Ada is naturally concerned that the resource not be
       overused. Local residents, citizens’ groups and
       the National Park Service fear that large-scale
       withdrawals from the aquifer will result in
       diminished stream flows and groundwater. The
       State of Oklahoma is currently studying the
       aquifer’s recharge rate to determine how much
       water can be taken from the aquifer without
       endangering municipal water supplies and flows
       in the area’s rivers, streams and springs.
       In the last ten years, Ada has twice had to                     Byrd’s Mill Spring
       institute emergency water rationing due to
       drought and high temperatures—in 1999 and 2006. In July 2006, Ada restricted lawn
       watering and car washing, and issued fines to offenders. Ada’s water woes were made
       worse by the failure of one of the City’s three water wells, cutting raw water supplies by
       about 3 million GPD.
       Ada’s water problems are complicated by its aging infrastructure. As much as 3 MGD is
       lost to an average of two raw water-main breaks and 10 feeder line breaks per day, and to
       unmonitored (but authorized) use by local residents who have been granted water
       privileges by the City in exchange for utility easements.
       Ada is currently studying the feasibility of creating a lake by damming the Canadian
       Sandy and Spring Brook Creeks just below their junction, about three miles west of the
       city. The resulting Scissortail Lake, which would cost an estimated $150 million, would
       provide Ada with a visible water supply and increased recreation-related tax revenue. The
       lake would store 88,200 acre-feet of water and supply Ada with 32,000 additional acre-
       feet of drinking water per year, or 28.5 MGD.
       Wastewater Treatment
       The wastewater treatment plant has a 3.2 MGPD capacity with dry weather flow running
       between 1.75-2.25 MGPD. The city has approximately 100 miles each of water and
       sanitary sewer main lines and 13 lift stations. The discharge point for the wastewater
       plant is into an unnamed tributary of the Little Sandy Creek.
       Natural Gas Service
       Natural gas service in Ada is provided by CenterPoint Energy (CNP), a Houston-based
       holding company formed in 2002 from Reliant Energy Arkla. CNP operates 8,200 miles
       of gas pipelines that serve as a hub for customers in Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas,
       Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas.
       Telephone, Internet, and Cable Service
       Ada’s telephone service is provided by Southwestern Bell (SBC), which also provides
       high-speed Internet to the community. CableONE, 1610 Arlington, is the provider for
       cable television services. Cell phone service is available from Cingular, Sprint, U.S.
       Cellular and T-Mobile. Verizon has sharing arrangements with Sprint.

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   Transportation Systems
       Highways and Major Roads
       Ada has good accessibility to state and national highway systems, as shown in Figure 1-1.
       US Hwy 377 (duplexed with OK Hwy 99) runs from Del Rio, TX, through Willis, OK,
       Madill, Tishomingo, Ada, Seminole and Prague, before ending in Stroud at Interstate 44.
       OK Hwy 1 runs through southeastern Oklahoma from just north of Madill through Ada,
       McAlester, Talihina and into Arkansas along the Rich Mountain ridge south of Heavener.
       OK Hwy 1 also links Ada to Interstate 35 west of Sulphur. Interstate 35 is the main north-
       south artery through Oklahoma, linking the Dallas-Ft. Worth area to Oklahoma City and
       Wichita, KS.
       At over 600 miles in length, OK Hwy 3 is the longest state highway in Oklahoma.
       Beginning at the Colorado state line north of Boise City, the highway passes through
       Boise City, Guymon, Hardesty, Watonga, Kingfisher, Oklahoma City, Shawnee, Ada,
       Antlers, Broken Bow and Idabel before entering Arkansas in the southeast corner of
       McCurtain County.
       OK Hwy 99 (duplexed with US Hwy 377) is the longest north-south state highway in
       Oklahoma. Along with US Hwy 377, it runs from Willis, OK, through Tishomingo and
       Ada to Stroud, then branches off of US 377 to Drumright, Cleveland, Hominy and
       Pawhuska, before entering Kansas just west of Hulah Lake.
       OK Hwy 19 runs from Blair, 10 miles north of Altus, to Ada, a distance of 170 miles.
       From west to east, the highway passes through Boone, Apache, Cyril, Chickasha,
       Lindsay and Pauls Valley before reaching Ada., where it terminates.
       Daily traffic counts on Ada’s major highways and roads are summarized in Table 1-4
                             Table 1–4:   Highway Traffic Counts
                              Highway                 Daily Traffic Counts
                    US Hwy 377 in north Ada                 12,000
                    US Hwy 377 in south Ada                  2,300
                    OK Hwy 1 southwest Ada                   6,400
                    OK Hwy 1 east Ada                       10,400
                    OK Hwy 3W NW of Ada                     16,900
                    OK Hwy 3 SE of Ada                       4,600
                    OK Hwy 3 in S Ada                        5,099
                    OK Hwy 19 W of Ada                       6,900

       Railroad Burlington Northern Santa Fe
       Ada is served by the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and is a BNSF main line
       national switching yard. Ada is one of 245 stations serviced by BNSF in Oklahoma,
       which also include Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Muskogee, Henryetta and Okmulgee, as well
       as nearby towns of Holdenville and Madill. The BNSF operates on tracks originally built
       by the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad (Frisco). The trackage was absorbed into the
       BNSF’s Texas Division when the Frisco was dissolved in 1981. The BNSF is one of the

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       two largest railroads in the US, and is particularly strong in the Midwest and West. The
       railroad operates at least three local trains a day.
       Primary cargoes shipped through Ada are agricultural and mining products. Among the
       agricultural products are soybean meal, corn and corn syrup, nut and vegetable oil,
       cottonseed meal and oil, wheat and wheat bran, and malt. Mining products include coal,
       oil, propane, asphalt, gypsum, and limestone.
       Ada Municipal Airport
       The City of Ada is served by Ada Municipal Airport.
       The airport code is ADH and is owned and operated by
       the City of Ada. The airport is an uncontrolled field
       with four runways and is open to the public. The
       ground elevation of the runways is 1,016 ft. The
       asphalt for the major runway has a weight bearing
       capacity of 50,000 lbs for single wheel, 140,000 lbs for
       double wheel, and 224,000 lbs for dual double wheel
       aircraft. Jetfuel is available, as are hangers and                  Ada Municipal Airport
       tiedowns, and major aircraft ground support. Aircraft located at the field are 40 general
       aviation singles, five general aviation multi, and three jet aircraft. The traffic includes 2%
       military aircraft. Aircraft operations average 34 planes per day, 33% of which is local
       general aviation, 65% transient general aviation, and 2% military. Instrument approach
       (with GPS, VOR, and Localizer) is available for all runways. The airport has an
       automatic weather observation system. A new approach lighting system was added to the
       main runway in 2004, along with a visual guidance lighting system.
       The nearest commercial airport is Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma City (67
       miles), which is served by multiple national and international carriers, both passenger and
       Bus Lines and Taxi Service
       Public transit is provided by Call-a-Ride, which is jointly sponsored by the City of Ada,
       Pontotoc County, East Central University and United Way. Call-a-Ride primarily serves
       residents of Ada (including ECU), Byng, Latta, Pickett, and Stonewall within Pontotoc
       County. Demand-response routes to Seminole and Pauls Valley are available. Hours of
       operation are weekdays 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Discount fares for riders who are disabled or
       elderly. Call-a-Ride has 21 vehicles with a capacity of 258 passengers. Ada does not have
       a municipal bus service. Taxi service is available from Ada Cab.
       There are a number of organizations that have transportation services that may be of use
       in the event of a disaster. East Central State University has bus service available for
       disabled or handicapped students. New Horizons Unlimited is a sheltered workshop for
       mentally handicapped and disabled adults. They have 8 vehicles with a 100-passenger
       capacity. McCalls Chapel School Group Home has 6 vehicles with 100-passenger
       capacity. Mental Health of Southeastern Oklahoma has 5 vehicles with 100-passenger

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1.2.6 Economy
       Originally a railroad town and agricultural community, and then an oil boom town, Ada’s
       economic base today is primarily concentrated in services, retail trade and government.
       Pontotoc County’s economic base is a blend of government, services, agriculture and
       industry. The surrounding area is known, too, for its cattle ranches and horse farms. The
       region’s abundant limestone, shale, silica, sand and clay has attracted manufacturers of
       glass, cement and brick.
       According to the 2002 Census of Agriculture, Pontotoc County had 1,368 farms,
       averaging 269 acres. Average gate receipts were $19,014, with 15 farms having gate
       receipts above $250,000. Agricultural production was divided between livestock
       ($23,903,000, or 92% of total receipts) and crops ($2,108,000, or 8%). In comparison
       with the 1997 Census of Agriculture, average gate receipts had increased by 5% and
       average farm size by 2%.
       Of Ada’s population over the age of 16 years, 60.4% are in the labor force and only 6.8%
       are unemployed. Of those employed, 72.7% are private wage and salary workers, 18.8%
       government workers, and 7.8%
       self-employed in unincorporated
       businesses. Ada’s per capita
       income in 2000 was $14,666,
       with the median income for
       male, full-time, year-round
       workers being $25,223. The
       median household income in
       2000 was $22,977 (compared
       with $33,400 for Oklahoma and
       $41,994 for the USA), and the
       median family income at
                                                          Holcim Inc. cement plant
       Ada’s largest employers are the
       Chickasaw Nation with 1700 employees, Valley View Regional Hospital with 744
       employees and Pre-Paid Legal Services with 625 employees. Other large employers are
       listed in Table 1-5 below.
       The city’s major employers are:
       Chickasaw Nation Enterprises provides a wide range of government, health and social
       services to approximately 190,000 members of the Chickasaw Tribe in south central
       Oklahoma, funded by grants and business enterprises, the most lucrative of which are its
       gambling casinos.
       Valley View Regional Hospital is a community-owned, not-for-profit acute care general
       hospital with over 700 employees and 40 physicians.
       Prepaid Legal Services, Inc., provides legal services to over 1.5 million families in the
       U.S. and Canada by means of ―legal insurance policies.‖

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                                  Table 1–5:    Major Employers
              Source: Oklahoma Department of Commerce and Ada Chamber of Commerce
                     Company                             Product/Services                 Employed
    Chickasaw Nation & Chickasaw Enterprises     Varied Services                             1,700
    Valley View Regional Hospital                Health Care / Social Assistance              744
    Prepaid Legal Services, Inc                  Finance & Insurance                          625
    Solo Cup                                     Manufacturing                                500
    East Central University                      Education                                    456
    IRT                                          Service industry                             450
    Wal-Mart Supercenter                         Retail                                       450
    Carl Albert Indian Hospital                  Health Care / Social Assistance              375
    Flex-N-Gate Technologies                     Manufacturing                                300
    City of Ada                                  City Administration                          210
    Robert Kerr Environmental Research Center    Scientific, & Technical Services             165
    Holcim Inc.                                  Cement Manufacturing                         120
    McCall’s Communities                         Health Care / Social Assistance              120

       Solo Cup manufactures plastic cups and containers at its 267,000 sq. ft. plant in north
       East Central University, is a four-year state university with an enrollment of around
       IRT (Interactive Response Technologies) is a call center for clients in the financial
       services industry, telecommunications, healthcare, insurance and education, such as T-
       Mobile, LensCrafters, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, and Mutual of Omaha.
       Wal-Mart SuperCenter. Wal-Mart is the nation’s largest retailer.
       Carl Albert Indian Care Facility, is a 53 bed acute-care hospital (and part of the Public
       Health Service) administered by the Chickasaw Nation.
       Flex-N-Gate Technologies produces body moldings, bumpers, grilles, hinges, latches
       and other external automobile parts at its 352,000 square foot facility.
       EPA Robert Kerr Environmental Research Center conducts research and technical
       assistance to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems.
       Holcim Inc. (formerly Holnam, Inc.) produces cement from its plant and quarry in
       southeast Ada. The Holcim head office is in Switzerland.
       McCall’s Communities is a residential care facility and school for mentally handicapped

1.2.7 Development
       According to the Pontotoc County Assessor’s Office, there are a total of ____ improved
       properties within the urban areas of the City of Ada. Improvements range from houses
       and office buildings to garages and swimming pools. The total improvement value of
       these properties, adjusted for fair market value, is $______. Numbers of properties with
       improvements, by type, and improvement values are shown in Table 1-6.

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          Table 1–6:      City of Ada Properties and Values by Improvement Type
                              Source: Pontotoc County Assessor’s Office

                                                Number of     Improvement
                         Improvement Type
                                                Properties       Value
                         Urban Agriculture
                         Urban Commercial
                         Urban Residential

       The numbers of housing units, according to the 2000 Census, are listed by type in Table
       1-7. There are no mobile home parks within the City of Ada.

                       Table 1–7:      City of Ada Housing Units, by Type
                                       Source: 2000 U.S. Census

                                    Housing Unit Type     Number
                                  Single-family               5,553
                                  Multi-family                1,822
                                  Mobile homes                   80
                                  Boat, RV, van, etc.            11
                                  Total housing units         7,466

       The city’s multi-family housing consists of market-rate and subsidized units. There are
       ten market-rate complexes and four subsidized housing complexes.
       Ada issued 74 single-family building permits between 1997 and 2000. While the median
       home value Ada in 2001 was $58,612, the average cost of a new home between 1997 and
       2000 was $104,109. Including lot price, the average cost of a new home in Ada in 2000
       was $97,000. Almost all new home construction in Ada has been custom houses for
       specific buyers, most of them in the northeast quadrant of the city. The average resale
       price of a home in Ada in 2001 was $69,582, with an average list term of three months.
       Newly platted subdivisions are ―Rose Creek,‖ a 24-acre development in south Ada on
       Kerr Lab Rd., which will have 74 single-family homes; ―The Heritage,‖ a 17.5 acre
       middle-income single-family development on N. Monte Vista; ―Vinehaven‖ on Kerr Lab
       Rd.; 20 residential lots at ―Kingsridge III‖ on Kerr Lab Rd.; the ―Legacy Hills‖ addition
       in southeast Ada; and ―Whispering Cedars,‖ a 12.5-acre, 20-home addition at Egypt and
       Rosedale Rd.
       Most commercial construction in Ada is taking place along Lonnie Abbott Boulevard on
       the north side of the city.

   Past Development Patterns
      Initially an gricultural community, Ada’s development has been anchored by its railroads,
      East Central University (ECU), its state and US highways, the oil industry, and by being
      the Pontotoc County seat. Over the years, railroad traffic has declined, Interstate
      superhighways have siphoned away much of the regional automobile traffic, and the oil
      industry has gradually declined through several slumps and rebounds.
   Development Plans

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       Ada is nevertheless far from moribund. It has an excellent local government, an
       aggressive City Council and mayor, a close working relationship between the community
       and its media, and an active Main Street program. Ranching in Pontotoc County brought
       in $24 million in 2002. Ada still has a major railroad, the BNSF, and now a four-lane
       highway from I-35 near Sulphur north to the Pontotoc County line. Eventually this
       highway will be four-lane to I-40 near Seminole, which should increase both passenger
       and truck traffic through the community. East Central University remains an economic
       anchor. The cement industry is still active, with Holnam Cement having been recently
       purchased by Holcim Ltd., of Switzerland. Ada has worked hard to attract new industry,
       but has also fostered and supported the growth of local enterprises, such as Pre-Paid
       Legal Services and Edge Tech Corp. Perhaps one of Ada’s biggest economic boosts has
       come from its selection as the capital of the reconstituted Chickasaw Nation. Casinos and
       other tribal enterprises and charities have brought new revenue streams into the
       community. The Chickasaw Nation is now Ada’s largest employer.
       Another factor shaping Ada’s future development is the Council on Law Enforcement
       Education and Training, or CLEET. Established in 1963, CLEET has built a new
       headquarters and training facility in northwest Ada. Classes are scheduled to begin in the
       autumn of 2006.
       Ada, along with many Oklahoma cities, experienced water shortages in 2000, 2002 and
       2006. Its source of water, the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, is also used by the cities of
       Durant, Tishomingo and Sulphur, and by private landowners. In order to continue
       growing and compete for businesses, Ada is considering the development of a lake west
       of the city as a secondary water supply. The proposed Scissortail Lake would dam the
       Canadian Sandy and Brook Creeks, about three miles west of Ada. Besides serving as a
       backup water supply, the proposed lake would boost land values in the western part of the
       city, and stimulate tourism and lake-related living and recreational activities.
   Future Development
      Development Goals. Ada’s development plan is to continue to grow by making the city a
      forward-looking business, cultural and tourist center, and a place where companies want
      to locate and people want to work and live. Towards this end, the City plans to:
              Encourage economic diversification and growth;
              Strive for quality in city design and planning, government, jobs, infrastructure,
               environment, and amenities;
              Improve and integrate local and regional transportation networks;
              Use provision of infrastructure as means of directing and controlling growth;
              Encourage rural residential development in areas beyond the reach of City

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       Ada is growing in the northwest, north, south and east. The CLEET facility in the
       northwest, along OK Hwy 3E and 99 should stimulate development in that sector of the
       city. Commercial is developing along Lonnie Abbott Blvd. in the north, and south along
       OK Hwy 3E. The Chickasaw Nation is developing land on Lonnie Abbott, at Mississippi
       Ave., where the City has recently annexed 47 acres. Office commercial and campus
       industrial development is taking place in the south along Kerr Lab Rd., Kerr Lab Blvd.,
       and Stonecipher Blvd., where Pre-Paid Legal is located. The Chickasaw Nation is
       building a new medical facility in this area, on the south side of Stonecipher Blvd.

1.2.8 Critical Facilities
       Critical facilities are defined differently by different organizations and agencies, but are
       usually classified as those facilities that, if put out of operation by any cause, would have
       a broadly adverse impact on the community as a whole.
       FEMA includes the following:
          Structures or facilities that produce, use or store highly volatile, flammable,
            explosive, toxic and/or water-reactive materials;
          Hospitals, nursing homes, and housing likely to contain occupants who may not
            be sufficiently mobile to avoid death or injury during a disaster;
          Police stations, fire stations, vehicle and equipment storage facilities, and
            emergency operations centers that are needed for disaster response activities
            before, during, and after an event; and
          Public and private utility facilities that are vital to maintaining or restoring normal
            services to affected areas before, during and after an event.
       This may also include buildings designated as emergency shelters, schools, childcare
       centers, senior citizen centers, major medical facilities, disability centers, and City Hall.
       Since 9/11, FEMA has also added banks and other financial institutions to their critical
       facilities list. The City of Ada’s critical facilities are listed in Table 1-8 and are shown in
       Figures 1–6.

R.D. Flanagan & Associates                       25                   Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
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                                 Table 1–8:         Ada Critical Facilities
         ID                            Name                                     Address            Phone
                                                  City Facilities
         35   Ada City Hall                                            231 S. Townsend             436-6300
         32   Ada City Hall West Annex                                 210 W. 13th                 436-8140
         34   Ada Police Department                                    231 S. Townsend             332-4466
         38   Ada Central Fire Department                              201 S. Broadway             436-8076
         22   Ada Fire Station #2                                      942 E. 6 St.                436-8076
         21   Ada Public Works                                         220 West 7th St.            436-8100
              Ada Recycling Center
          3   Ada Wastewater Treatment Plant                           North end of Mississippi    436-8140
         54   Ada Water Treatment Plant                                                            436-8140
          1   Ada Municipal Airport                                    2800 Airport Rd.            436-8190
         20   Ada Purchasing Department                                512 N. Stockton             436-8041
         61   Irving Community Center                                  204 N. Oak                  436-0383
                                                 County Facilities
         37   Pontotoc County Courthouse                               120 W. 13 St.               332-8977
         17   Pontotoc County Health Department                        1630 Beverly                332-2011
                                                 Federal Facilities
         40   US Post Office                                           131 E 12 St                 332-6118
          5   Bureau of Indian Affairs                                 1500 N. Country Club Rd. 436-0784
         55   NRCS Offices                                             1328 Cradduck Rd.           332 3070
                                               Tribal Government
         13   Chickasaw Nation Headquarters                             520 E. Arlington           436-2603
         14   Chickasaw Nation Treasury Building                        520 E. Arlington
         27   Chickasaw Nation Enterprises                              2020 Arlington             421-9500
                                              Financial Institutions
         19   Arvest Bank                                              930 N Country Club Rd       332-6190
         36   Citizens Bank of Ada                                     123 W. 12th                 332-6100
         24   Citizens Bank of Ada                                     1717 Arlington              332-6100
          4   Citizens Bank in Wal-Mart Supercenter                    1601 Lonnie Abbot Blvd.     332-6100
         43   Bank of the West                                         606 E Main St               332-2910
         39   Vision Bank                                              101 E Main St               332-5132
         26   Vision Bank                                              1800 Arlington St           332-5132
         41   Vision Motor Bank                                        1200 E 12 St                332-5132
         33   First United Bank: Ada                                   221 W 12th St               332-4020
         30   Stillwater National Bank                                 524 W Main St               421-9505
         23   Landmark Bank NA                                         1616 E Arlington St         436-1766
                                                 Medical Facilities
          9   Rolling Hills Hospital                                   1000 Rolling Hills Ln       436-2138
         16   Carl Albert Indian Health Center                         1001 Country Club Rd.       436-3980
              Chickasaw Nation Health Care (under construction)
         51   Valley View Regional Hospital                            430 N Monte Vista           332-2323

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         ID                             Name                                    Address             Phone
                                               Educational Facilities
         52   Pontotoc Technology Center                                601 W 33rd St              310-2200
          8   Victory Life Fellowship (K-4)                             1001 Tipton Terrace        436-2279
         45   East Central University                                   1100 E 14th St             332-8000
                                              Social Service Facilities
         18   Ada Retirement Center                                     931 N Country Club Rd      332-3631
         11   Ballard Nursing Center                                    201 W 5th St               436-1414
         25   Jan Frances Care Center                                   815 N Country Club Rd      332-5328
         53   Pontotoc County Adult Day Care                            301 E Kings Rd             332-2855
         56   Baptist Village                                           3501 Oakridge Dr           332-6004
         49   Sterling House                                            801 Stadium Dr.            421-9800
         62   McCall’s Chapel School and Group Home                     Route 7, Box 232           436-0373
         63   Woodland Hills Nursing Home                               200 N Easton               857-2472
         64   Stonegate Nursing Home                                    130 E 6th                  265-4247
              Ada Senior Site                                           1005 Chamber Loop          436-1007
                                               Child Care Facilities
              Stepping Stones of Ada                                    915 S Hickory St           332-7727
         59   Ada Headstart 1 & 2                                       1721 Cradduck Rd           332-7223
         29   Becky's Family Childcare Cen                              609 W Main                 332-4646
         44   Care-A-Lot Preschool                                      723 E 10th St              436-3125
          2   Chickasaw Nation Child Development Center                 226 Rosedale Rd            310-9490
         46   ECU Child Development                                     1000 Block E 10th St       310-5629
         48   Good Shepherd Preschool                                   129 W 14th St              436-5225
         58   Hacienda Academy                                          16245 CR 1565              332-7799
         10   Latta Kids Zone Daycare                                   13924 CR 1560              332-3035
         31   Little Sprouts Daycare                                    510 W 12th St              332-8331
         28   Little Sprouts, Too!!                                     1000 W 12th St             332-3100
         42   Luanne's Early Learning Daycare Center                    521 E 12th St              332-3247
              Meme's Playhouse                                          108 S Monte Vista          310-0717
          6   Monte Vista Academy                                       1425 N Monte Vista         436-9034
              Stepping Stones of Ada                                    3600 E Arlington Ave       235-0069
         57   Central Bible Academy                                     824 Stadium                332-3261
         15   Total Learning Center                                     1628 Beverly #108          436-1447

R.D. Flanagan & Associates                              27                          Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
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       Figure 1–6:    City of Ada Critical Facilities

R.D. Flanagan & Associates                    28        Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
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      Ada Public Schools Critical Facilities
         Ada Public Schools has seven facilities located throughout the city. These facilities are
         listed in Table 1-9 below and their location shown in Figure 1-7.

                            Table 1–9:       Ada Public Schools Facilities
 ID                  Name                           Address            Teaching Staff   Students    Phone
 65    Glenwood Kindergarten                 825 W 10th                     19.9          367      310-7283
 66    Washington Elementary                 600 W 17th                     23.5          332      310-7303
 68    Ada Junior High                       223 W 18th                     25.6          620      310-7260
  7    Homer Elementary                      1400 N. Monte Vista             38           640      332-4303
       Francis Elementary School             18461 Cr. 1480                  23           200      332-4114
 72    Byng Elementary School                500 S. New Bethel Blvd.        16.6          231      310-6723
 67    Willard Grade Center                  817 E 9th                      26.0          364      310-7250
 69    Hayes Grade Center                    500 S Mississippi              24.6          375      310-7294
 72    Byng Junior High School               500 S. New Bethel Blvd.         20           336      310-6744
 71    Ada High School                       1400 Stadium Dr.               32.7          524      310-7220
 72    Byng High School                      500 S. New Bethel Blvd.        23.1          315      310-6733
 70    STEPS Alternative Education Academy   1400 Pine St.                   3             25      310-7280

R.D. Flanagan & Associates                           29                    Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
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       Figure 1–7:    Ada City Schools Locations

R.D. Flanagan & Associates                  30     Ada Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan

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