Asbestos in Japan

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					Asbestos in Japan

In 2002 a total ban on asbestos was announced in                         materials can now be replaced by suitable substitutes,
Japan, following many years of sporadic and variably                     the government has no reason to exempt any asbestos-
effective measures intended to control its use in that                   containing construction material from the ban.
country. A major factor in instigating the ban was                          An immediate total ban on asbestos must be the first
public awareness raised by the publicizing of the expe-                  step. We are calling for all relevant ministries to coop-
rience of asbestos-exposed workers in the U.S. naval                     eratively tackle the asbestos issue by breaking down the
base and shipyards at Yokosuka, an inordinate number
                                                                         barriers separating ministries. Under the powerful
of whom died of asbestos-related disease. Statistics of
asbestos-related disease mortality in Japan are pre-                     leadership of the government, Japan should take fol-
sented. Groups prominent in the effort to establish the                  lowing measures.
ban and make it effective include the Japan Occupa-
tional Safety and Health Resource Center (JOSHRC)                           1. Establish and strengthen proper and comprehen-
and the Ban Asbestos Network Japan (BANJAN). Activ-                      sive measures for monitoring the actual situation of
ities of these groups are described. Key words: asbestos;                health effects caused by asbestos, and for providing
Japan: mesothelioma; legislation.                                        more precise prediction, diagnosis, medical treatment,
                                                                         physical/mental care, compensation, and so on for
I N T J O C C U P E N V I R O N H E A LT H 2 0 0 3 ; 9 : 2 6 0 – 2 6 5   asbestos victims and their families.
                                                                            2. Establish and strengthen proper and comprehen-
                                                                         sive measures for identification and monitoring of

          n June 28, 2002, Dr. Sakaguchi Chikara,                        buildings and other materials in which asbestos has
          Japan’s Minister of Health, Labor and Wel-                     already been installed, and for control, maintenance,
          fare, announced that his government would                      repair, removal, demolition, disposal, and the like of
introduce a total ban on chrysotile asbestos. As of the                  those buildings/materials, in the light of protecting
end of August 2002, when and how the ban would be                        workers’ and public health and the environment,
implemented was yet to be determined, but we believe
it will become clear in the near future. This is a signifi-              ASBESTOS USE AND REGULATIONS
cant change of the stance by the Japanese authorities,                   IN JAPAN
who have long advocated the “controlled use” policy.
   We welcome this announcement as a landmark deci-                      Japan started importing asbestos in the 1880s. During
sion that turns our long years’ demand into reality.                     World War II, asbestos could not be imported, and the
More than anything else, a real ban must be put into                     government promoted developing asbestos mines in
force as soon as possible. The government should not                     Japan, Korea, and China. But almost all mines in Japan
leave loopholes in the regulation or allow a grade                       were soon closed because of the poor quality and quan-
period when it implements the ban, and should not                        tity of asbestos found. At present, only one mill is recov-
waste time by pointlessly considering those matters. In                  ering short chrysotile fibers from the slagheap.
particular, with regard to construction materials, for                       Asbestos imports restarted in 1949, with permission
which more than 90% of asbestos is used, since all                       of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
                                                                         (SCAP), led by General Douglas MacArthur, and free
                                                                         trade of asbestos began in 1963. Asbestos importation
    Mr. Furuya is Secretary General of Japan Occupational Safety         increased in the 1960s and 1970s, the period of Japan’s
and Health Resource Center (JOSHRC) and Secretary General                industrial growth. In 1974, annual imports reached a
of Ban Asbestos Network Japan (BANJAN). Mr. Natori is on the             peak at 352,110 tons. Imports have been decreasing
faculty of the Hirano–Kameido–Himawari Clinic, Internal Medi-
cine, and member of the Association of Institutions for Commu-
                                                                         since 1989. The Japan Asbestos Association (JAA) says
nity and Occupational Health Care (AICOHC). Ms. Ikeda is                 that JAA’s member companies stopped importing cro-
Information Officer of Kanagawa Occupational Safety and                  cidolite (blue) asbestos in 1987 and amosite (brown)
Health Center (KOSHC) and Assistant Secretary General of                 asbestos in 1992.
Pneumoconiosis and Asbestos Victims’ Relief Fund.                            In 2001, Japan imported 79,463 tons of chrysotile
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Sugio
Furuya, Japan Occupational Safety and Health Resource Center
                                                                         (white) asbestos from Canada (44,203 tons, 55.6%),
(JOSHRC), Z Bldg. 5F, 7-10-1 Kameido, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 136-               Zimbabwe (14,684 tons, 18.5%), South Africa (6,960
0071, Japan; fax: +81-3-3636-3881; e-mail: <>.         tons, 8.8%), the United States (5,127 tons, 6.5%),

Brazil (5,080 tons, 6.4%), Russia (2,883 tons, 3.6%)           exception of three applications) in Japan by amend-
and Swaziland (526 tons, 0.7%).1                               ments of relevant regulations of Ship Safety Law. This
    It is said that there were more than 3,000 applica-        measure complied with the amendment of of Safety of
tions for asbestos in Japan at the peak period. Japan          Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention of International Mar-
imported 191 thousand tons of asbestos in 1995, of             itime Organization (IMO). The amendment had in
which 42.1% was used for flat slate boards, 20.6% for          fact no impact, since asbestos-containing materials have
wavy slates, 18.4% for extrusion cement boards, 5.2%           not been newly installed in ships for more than ten
for pulp cement boards and slag plaster boards, 4.3%           years in Japan.
for asbestos cement siding boards, 2.4% for other con-
struction materials, 2.9% for friction materials for vehi-     ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES
cles, and 1.4% for joint sheets.2
    Staple regulations in relation to asbestos control in      In Japan, the first asbestosis case (asbestos factory
Japan are under the Industrial Safety and Health Law,          worker) was reported in 1927, the first asbestos-related
Pneumoconiosis Law, Air Pollution Control Law, and             lung cancer case (asbestos textile worker with asbesto-
Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law.3 Fundamen-             sis) in 1960, the first peritoneal mesothelioma case
tally, these are based on the “controlled use” policy.         (asbestos processing worker) in 1973, and the first
    The Labour Standards Law (1947), Pneumoconiosis            pleural mesothelioma case (asbestos products manu-
Law (1960), and Industrial Safety and Health Law               facturing worker) in 1974.4 Since then, asbestos-related
(1972) had dealt with asbestos regulations at the work-        diseases have been reported not only in asbestos prod-
place to prevent asbestosis (as a part of pneumoconio-         ucts manufacturing plants but also in shipyards, har-
sis). In 1975, with amendments of Ordinance on Pre-            bors, automobile manufacturing plants, construction
vention of Hazards due to Specified Chemical                   worksites, and other sites.
Substances (1971), asbestos was legally acknowledged              If a victim suffers asbestos-related disease due to
to be a carcinogen (classified as a “specified group-2         occupational asbestos exposure, he or she (or sur-
substance”), and employers were put under some obli-           vivors) can receive benefits from the Worker’s Accident
gations intended to prevent cancer. In 1988, “Control          Compensation Insurance Scheme. In Japan the
Concentration Levels” were set up as 0.2 f/cm3 for cro-        national list of occupational diseases is set up as an
cidolite and 2 f/cm3 for other asbestos (Now the Min-          annex to the Labour Standards Law, which was enacted
istry of Health, Labour and Welfare is revising this).         in 1947. Pneumoconiosis was included in the list from
The Enforcement Ordinance of Industrial Safety and             the beginning, but asbestos-related cancer was not. In
Health Law and Ordinance on Industrial Safety and              1960, the Pneumoconiosis Law was enacted. It enu-
Health also have regulated asbestos-related work.              merates the types of “dust work” recognized as making
    In 1989, the Air Pollution Control Law was revised to      workers engaged in the work threatened with pneumo-
classify asbestos as a “specified dust” and to set up 10 f/L   coniosis. The last (24th) item of this list is assigned to
as the Concentration Standard at the Boundary of the           “asbestos exposed works” and prescribes “work at a site
Asbestos Dusts Generation Facilities (i.e., asbestos prod-     of operations involving unraveling, compounding,
ucts manufacturing facilities). Under amendments of            spinning, weaving, spraying, loading or unloading of
the same law in 1996 (in the wake of the Hanshin–Awaji         asbestos, or placing one asbestos product upon another
great earthquake), demolition of and repair work on            or stitching up, cutting, grinding, finishing or packing
buildings that include the removal of sprayed asbestos         of asbestos products.” In 1978, asbestos-related lung
were designated “specified dust generation works” to           cancer and mesothelioma were included in the
regulate those works in view of preventing problems            national list of occupational diseases, and Recognition
with pubic health and the environment. In 1992, the            Standards for workers’ compensation of asbestos-
Waste Disposal and Public Cleanup Law was revised to           related diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothe-
classify “flyable” asbestos wastes as a “specified control     lioma) were set up by Ministry of Labour (Table. 1).
industrial waste” and to set up standards for its disposal.    Basically, these standards cover all types of “asbestos
    Spraying asbestos has been prohibited in principle         exposed work,” which includes work that was not cov-
since 1975 by an amendment of Ordinance on Preven-             ered by Pneumoconiosis Law. With these standards, it
tion of Hazards due to Specified Chemical Substances.          may be an advantage in Japan that a lung cancer case
In 1995, manufacture, import, supply, and use of croci-        without asbestosis also may be compensated.
dolite and amosite and products containing these types            Compensated cases of asbestos-related lung cancer
of asbestos were prohibited by an amendment of                 and mesothelioma numbered fewer than 10 before 1984,
Enforcement Ordinance of Industrial Safety and                 10–19 in 1985–1991, 20–29 in 1992–1997, 42 in 1998 and
Health Law. A prospective total ban is expected to be          1999, and 52 in 2000. The rapid increase has occurred in
introduced by using this ordinance.                            recent years. Figures for asbestosis are not available, and
    On July 1, 2002, new installation of asbestos contain-     the data for pneumoconiosis include asbestosis. Every
ing-materials was prohibited on all ships (with an             year more than 1,000 pneumoconiosis victims newly

VOL 9/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2003                                                                       Asbestos in Japan   •   261
TABLE 1. Recognition Standards for Asbestos-related Diseases under the Workers’ Accident Compensation
Insurance Scheme in Japan
A: Asbestosis
Applies to those who satisfy conditions 1 and 2a or 1 and 2b
1. exposed to asbestos in his/her work at present or in the past
2a. have pneumoconiosis (asbestosis) classified as Grade 4 (most severe pneumoconiosis, and the patient needs to
    be under treatment)
2b. have pneumoconiosis (asbestosis) classified as Grade 2 or 3 (patient has clinical findings of pneumoconiosis),
    with a complication (pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy, secondary bronchitis, secondary bronchiec-
    tasis, or secondary pneumothorax)

B:    Lung cancer
Applies to those who have lung cancer with condition 1, 2, 3, or 4
1.    asbestosis (on chest X-ray film)
2.    non-asbestosis (on chest X-ray film), with more than ten years of occupational asbestos exposure history, and
      with clinical findings such as continuous inspiratory fine crackles at lung bottom when he/she breathes in, pleu-
      ral plaque or pleural calcification on chest X-ray film, or asbestos bodies in sputum
3.    non-asbestosis (on chest X-ray film), with more than ten years of occupational asbestos exposure history, and
      with pathologic findings obtained from TBLB (transbronchial lung biopsy), open lung biopsy, autopsy, etcl., such
      as diffuse fibrous proliferation, pleural plaque, pleural calcification, asbestos fibers, or asbestos bodies in lung
4.    none of the above, but the patient has a history of relatively short, or intermittent temporary, high-concentra-
      tion exposure to asbestos; the Ministry of Labor examines each case to determine whether the disease is occu-
      pational in origin

C: Mesothelioma
Applies to those who satisfy condition 1, 2, or 3
1.    have pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma with more than five years of occupational asbestos exposure history,
      with asbestosis (on chest X-ray film)
2.    have pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma with more than five years of occupational asbestos exposure history,
      with pathologic findings obtained from autopsy, etc., such as diffuse fibrous proliferation, pleural plaque, pleu-
      ral calcification, or asbestos fibers or asbestos bodies in lung tissue
3.    none of the above, but the patient has pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, or other mesothelioma, or diagnosis is
      difficult; the Ministry of Labor examines each case to determine whether the disease is occupational in origin

receive compensation. Currently, about 18,000 pneumo-           cohort analysis were released.8-10 The major newspapers
coniosis victims are receiving compensation.                    gave this prediction extensive coverage, saying that the
    The health effects of asbestos are not clear in Japan       number of male deaths due to malignant pleural
through official statistics. But mesothelioma could be          mesothelioma in Japan could reach 58,800 during the
an indicator. Japan’s mesothelioma mortality became             next 30 years, and 103,000 during the next 40 years.
available in the official Vital Statistics compiled by Min-     The study supports our argument that asbestos victims
istry of Health, Labour and Welfare since 1995, when            will increase dramatically in the coming years. The
ICD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases       media attention presumably prompted the government
and Related Health Problems)-10 with a specific code of         to make the final move towards a total ban. This pre-
C45 for mesothelioma was adopted (Table 2). Accord-             diction reflects past asbestos use in Japan, so tackling
ing to the Vital Statistics, mortality increased from 500       the legacy of asbestos will be an inevitable reality for us
in 1995 to 772 in 2001.5 The latter figure translates to        even if a total ban on asbestos is introduced today. We
approximately 6.1 per million population and is still           are afraid that this scenario could become worse.
much lower than figures for other Western countries.6
But considering the 30–50-year latency period of                ACTIVITIES OF WORKERS AND CITIZENS
mesothelioma, it is reasonable to attribute the recent
rapid increase in mesothelioma mortality to the                 The health effects of asbestos exposure have become
extreme rise of asbestos use since around the 1960s.7           increasingly obvious. But, as of now, there is no
    In April 2002, Japan’s first scientific reports to pre-     national-level organization in Japan composed of
dict future mesothelioma mortality based on birth-              asbestos victims/survivors only. Of about 5,000 mem-

262    •   Furuya et al.                                                                      INT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH
TABLE 2. Numbers of Deaths Due to Mesothelioma in Japan, 1995–2001*
                                   C45:             C45.0:          C45.1:          C45.2:         C45.7:        C45.9:
                                   Total            Pleura        Peritoneum     Pericardium     Other Sites   Unspecified
  Males                             356              201               35             3               7                110
  Females                           144               74               16             3               4                 47
  Total                             500              275               51             6              11                157
  Males                             420              283               23             5              12                 97
  Females                           156               75               22             3               1                 55
  Total                             576              358               45             8              13                152
  Males                             451              281               31             3               9                127
  Females                           146               74               17             2               3                 50
  Total                             597              355               48             5              12                177
  Males                             429              283               39             2               7                 98
  Females                           141               78               23             1               4                 35
  Total                             570              361               62             3              11                133
  Males                             489              319               27             4              20                119
  Females                           158               85               21             1               5                 46
  Total                             647              404               48             5              25                165
  Males                             537              367               30             3              11                126
  Females                           173               89               24             1               4                 55
  Total                             710              456               54             4              15                181
  Males                             574              414               35             5              10                110
  Females                           198              116               26             1               6                 49
  Total                             772              530               61             6              16                159
   *Source: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), Vital Statistics.

bers of the National Association of Pneumoconiosis                   gawa 21%, Hyogo 17%, Osaka 11%, and Tokyo 10%—
Victims, those with histories of asbestos exposure have              the most industrialized prefectures). We think these
been increasing gradually.                                           figures show that only victims/survivors who work in
    The Japan Occupational Safety and Health Resource                circumstances where assistance is available apply for
Center (JOSHRC) and Ban Asbestos Network Japan                       the compensation.
(BANJAN) conducted the “Asbestos–Occupational                           Many victims are unorganized workers who are not
Cancer Hotline,” a one-day telephone consultation                    informed about the compensation scheme and its
service, in 1991 and 1992. We received 325 calls in the              application procedures. Many victims become sick
first year and 193 in the second year. Local occupa-                 many years after they leave asbestos-exposed jobs, so
tional safety and health (OSH) centers have continued                they often don’t remember when, or even whether,
consultation services for asbestos victims/survivors in              they were exposed to asbestos. As for lung cancer, doc-
daily bases. The Yokosuka-based Pneumoconiosis and                   tors always ask “do you smoke?,” but rarely ask “have
Asbestos Victims’ Relief Fund has offered three days of              you been exposed to asbestos?” As for mesothelioma,
telephone consultation service every year since its                  when doctors can diagnose it correctly, they consider
establishment in 1997. We have helped several hun-                   it was caused by asbestos exposure, but they don’t
dred victims/survivors to collect compensation.                      inform the victims about the possibility of compensa-
    As mentioned above, although the number of com-                  tion. Generally, doctors and other medical staffs are
pensated cases of asbestos related disease is extremely              not trained well about compensation procedures and
small, through our efforts, it has been increasing slowly.           intend to avoid “troublesome” jobs. Under the Work-
According to the Vital Statistics, deaths from mesothe-              ers’ Accident Compensation Insurance Law (enacted
lioma are reported from all over the country. But 18                 in 1947), employers have an obligation to assist work-
prefectures (about 39% of all prefectures) have                      ers in initiating procedures for the compensation. But
reported no compensated case of asbestos-related                     employers are not obliged to help retired workers and/
cancer. In analyzing all compensated cases, the top four             or their families. The government hasn’t improved
prefectures account for about 60% of all cases (Kana-                these situations.

VOL 9/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2003                                                                           Asbestos in Japan    •    263
    JOSHRC, a nonprofit organization, <http://www.            the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, many>, was established in          asbestos victims and survivors joined BANJAN for the
1990. It deals with OSH issues in Japan, and with a net-      first time, speaking out directly about their sufferings
work of about 20 local OSH centers as well. Kanagawa          and their rage. The meeting also provided an opportu-
Occupational Safety and Health Center, <http://www.           nity for victims/survivors from different prefectures to> [in Japanese], is one of the pillar       meet each other and exchange experiences. We are now
affiliates of JOSHRC. JOSHRC, as well as each local           considering setting up a national network especially for
OSH center, is a coalition of OSH activists, trade union-     mesothelioma victims and their families. The announce-
ists, victims/workers, and specialists/academics. The         ment of the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare of a
main aim of JOSHRC is an empowerment of victims/              total ban came about a month after this meeting.
workers and advocacy for better/comprehensive OSH.
    BANJAN, <               CASE STUDY—YOKOSUKA:
html/issues.htm>, was established in 1987. This organ-        A CITY OF NAVY AND SHIPYARDS
ization is composed of trade unions, citizens’ groups,
OSH groups, and individuals interested in the issue.          Many asbestos victims have been identified in Yokosuka
The ILO Convention No.162 concerning safety in the            (in Kanagawa prefecture), which is the site of a U.S.
use of asbestos at the workplace, which was adopted in        naval base and shipyards. Relief activities for asbestos
1986, led these organizations to unite. Member unions         victims in Yokosuka were triggered by a story that
include the All Japan Prefectural and Municipal Work-         appeared on the front page of a local newspaper on
ers’ Union, the National Federation of Construction           May 8, 1982. A survey conducted by doctors in the
Workers’ Unions, the All Japan Shipbuilding and Engi-         Yokosuka Kyosai Hospital revealed that one third of 39
neering Workers’ Union, and the All Japan Dock Work-          deaths from lung cancer in the preceding five years had
ers’ Union. Member citizens’ groups include the Con-          resulted from asbestos exposures and had been mainly
sumers Union of Japan and Japan Citizen’s Network for         naval and shipyard workers. Having been shocked by
Wiping Out Asbestos. And OSH groups include                   this news, the Kanagawa Occupational Safety and
JOSHRC, its affiliated local OSH centers, and the Asso-       Health Center (KOSHC), All Japan Shipbuilding and
ciation of Institutions for Community and Occupa-             Engineering Workers’ Union (SEU) Oppama/Uraga
tional Health Care. All of authors of this article are        Branch, began offering “voluntary collective medical
members of the steering committee of BANJAN.                  examinations” for former naval and shipyard workers
    Unfortunately, not only government officials but          in 1984. This has given KOSHC a chance to identify
also politicians, journalists, trade unions, and citizens     asbestos victims and support their applications for com-
have paid little attention to the asbestos issue. One offi-   pensation. In 1989, the Kanagawa Worker’s Medical
cial of the Ministry of Construction said that they had       Cooperative opened the Yokosuka Chuou Clinic and
put the fate of asbestos into the market’s hands to see       offered medical examinations as well as treatment for
which construction material—the cheaper one or the            the victims. One of authors of this article (Y.N.) is the
safer one—consumers would choose. Another official            former director of this clinic.
of the Ministry of Health and Welfare asked us: “Does             In 1986, when a major repair job on the aircraft car-
‘the tile named chrysotile’ contain asbestos?” The            rier Midway was carried out at the U.S. Navy’s Yokosuka
“School Panic” during 1987–88 helped people to rec-           Base, a large amount of asbestos wastes was produced
ognize asbestos as a carcinogen. But many people still        and illegally disposed of. This scandal was disclosed by
think that asbestos is a problem of the past. On the          KOSHC. The incident elicited social concern and
other hand, the position on asbestos of RENGO-JTUC            sparked mass removal of sprayed asbestos in school
(Japan Trade Union Confederation), Japan’s largest            buildings, known as the “school panic,” during 1987
national center of trade unions, in the last decade or        and 1988. The series of incidents helped increase
more had been that crocidolite and amosite had to be          awareness of the asbestos issue among Japanese people.
banned and chrysotile had to be regulated more                    In 1988, eight former shipyard workers with asbesto-
strictly. Recently RENGO updated its requests for the         sis filed a lawsuit against their ex-employer, the Sumit-
government, in which RENGO called for introducing a           omo Heavy Industries Ltd. In 1995, a bereaved family
total ban on asbestos and promoting substitutes.              of a former shipyard worker who had died of asbestos-
    Since its establishment, BANJAN has promoted              related lung cancer also brought an action in the court.
awareness of the hazards of asbestos and its health           Both cases were settled in 1997, with the company
effects. In addition to sponsoring campaigns urging           admitting its responsibility. At the same time, SEU
stricter regulations and the use of safer substitutes,        Oppama/Uraga Branch reached an agreement with
BANJAN has promoted and supported victims’ and citi-          the company for pneumoconiosis and cancer second-
zens’ actions. The group also holds meetings with offi-       ary/extra compensation for all retired workers. In the
cials of relevant ministries to call for a total ban and      same year, all groups and teams that had been support-
make other requests. On May 20, 2002, in a meeting with       ing the cases decided to continue their activities, and

264   •   Furuya et al.                                                                    INT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH
established the Pneumoconiosis and Asbestos Victims’         JOSHRC is one of its members. Other leading mem-
Relief Fund. This organization makes available the           bers include the Association for the Rights of Industrial
“Pneumoconiosis and Asbestos Hazards Hotline” every          Accident Victims (ARIAV, Hong Kong), the Council of
July as one of its activities, in an attempt to find pneu-   Work and Environment Related Patient’s Network of
moconiosis and asbestos victims who have not yet been        Thailand (WEPT, Thailand), the Taiwan Association
discovered and helped. Through the consultation serv-        for Victims of Occupational Injuries (TAVOI, Taiwan),
ice, they work on compensation claims for the retired        Workers’ Health Solidarity (Korea), and Participatory
U.S. Naval Base workers. In 1998, 12 former U.S. Naval       Research in Asia (PRIA, India). PRIA is now actively
Shipyard Repairing Facility’s workers and four               involved in a ban-asbestos campaign in India. But for
bereaved families in Yokosuka sued the central govern-       the other members of ANROAV asbestos has not nec-
ment on the basis of a law concerning the U.S.–Japan         essarily become a priority issue yet. One of authors of
Security Treaty. This case is now under litigation.          this article (S.F.) gave a special presentation on
   An exhibition of photographs, “Asbestos Hazards in        asbestos issues in Asia at the annual meeting of
Yokosuka: We Live, We are Angry, We Support Each             ANROAV in May 2002, in Bangkok, Thailand. We think
Other,” in March 2001 featured the lives of asbestos-        it is critical for the ban-asbestos campaign to be
related disease patients who had worked at the U.S.          expanded across Asia in order to achieve a worldwide
Naval Base or Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. Pneu-           ban on asbestos. We will continue our efforts to achieve
moconiosis and asbestos hazards are dark shadows in          this end.
the development of Yokosuka. The victims have lived
quietly so as to refrain from coughing in public.                                        References
   A joint exhibition on international asbestos hazards       1. Japan Customs, Ministry of Finance Japan. Trade Statistics.
held at the venue of the Eighth European Work Haz-               2002. <>.
ards Conference in Vienna, Austria, in September              2. Japan Asbestos Association (JAA). Situation of Asbestos Use in
                                                                 Japan, 1997.
2001, included photographs from the United King-              3. JAA. Laws and Regulations for Asbestos, 2000.
dom, South Africa, and Japan. All attendees expressed         4. Morinaga K, Yokoyama K. History of asbestos health effects. In:
great interest in this exhibition and a number inquired          Morinaga K (ed). Occupational asbestos exposure and asbestos
                                                                 related diseases. Tokyo, Japan: Sanshin Tosyo, 2002: 73-98. [In
about the possibility of showing it in Europe. Arrange-          Japanese]
ments are being made to have the Japanese photo-              5. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Vital Statistics.
graphs exhibited in the United States.                           <>.
                                                                 [In Japanese]
   Many people in Yokosuka have participated in the           6. Takahashi K, Huuskonen MS, Tossavainen A, Higashi T, Okubo
preparation of this exhibition. And we must not forget           T, Rantanen J. Ecological relationship between mesothelioma
those workers who died from asbestos exposures with-             incidence/mortality and asbestos consumption in ten western
                                                                 countries and Japan. J Occup Health. 1999;41: 8-11.
out being compensated for their suffering. We are             7. Torinaga K, et al. Asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothe-
grateful to fellow members, supporters, and medical              lioma in Japan. Ind Health. 2001;39:65-74
staffs who have made strenuous efforts to help asbestos       8. Kurumatani N, Natori Y, Takahashi K, Murayama T. Future
                                                                 trends in mortality of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan.
victims receive compensation. It would be gratifying if          1—Changes in classification of malignant mesothelioma from
this photo exhibition from Yokosuka, <http://www.jca.            ICD 7 through ICD 10. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002;44: 328.>,                  [Oral presentation G103, in Japanese]
                                                              9. Murayama T, Takahashi K, Natori Y, Kurumatani N. Future
helped to spread the message about the need to elim-             trends in mortality of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan.
inatethe asbestos hazard in the 21st century.                    2—estimation of the number of deaths from malignant pleural
                                                                 mesothelioma based on the age-cohort model. Sangyo
                                                                 Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002;44: 328. [Oral presentation G104, in
                       ADDENDUM                                  Japanese]
                                                             10. Takahashi K. Future trends in mortality of malignant pleural
The Asian Network for the Rights of Occupational                 mesothelioma in Japan—Estimation and predictability of the
                                                                 number of deaths based on actual birth year cohort method.
Accident Victims (ANROAV), <http://www.angkor.                   Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2002;44: 756. [Poster presentation
com/2bangkok/anroav/>, was established in 1997.                  P396, in Japanese]

VOL 9/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2003                                                                          Asbestos in Japan      •   265

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