Indonesian language dialect by wandii

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									Indonesian language
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                                               Indonesian
                                            Bahasa Indonesia

Spoken in Indonesia, East Timor
 Region Southeast Asia
  Total
              about 200 million (only 17 million native speakers)
speakers
Ranking 52 (by native speakers)
        Austronesian

                        Malayo-Polynesian
         o                      Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian
Language                               Sunda-Sulawesi
                                              Malayic
 family
                                                      Malayan
                                                             Malay
                                                                     Indonesian


 Writing
              Latin alphabet
 system
                                              Official status
 Official
language Indonesia
     in
Regulated
              Pusat Bahasa
    by
                                             Language codes
ISO 639-1 id
ISO 639-2 ind
ISO 639-3 ind
 Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a
standardized dialect of Malay that was officially defined with the declaration of
Indonesia's independence in 1945 although in the 1928 Indonesian Youth Pledge have
declared it as the official language.

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population the
number of people who fluently speak Indonesian is fast approaching 100%, thus making
Indonesian one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.[1] Most Indonesians,
aside from speaking the national language, are often fluent in another regional language
(examples include Minangkabau, Sundanese and Javanese) which are commonly used at
home and within the local community. Most formal education, as well as nearly all
national media and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. In East
Timor, which was an Indonesian province from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian is recognised
by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other is English, alongside
the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese).

The Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally "the language of
Indonesia"). This term can sometimes still be found in written or spoken English. In
addition, the language is sometimes referred to as "Bahasa" by English-speakers, though
this simply means "language" and thus is also not an official term for Indonesian.


Contents
[hide]

        1 Linguistics
        2 History
        3 Classification
             o 3.1 Geographic distribution
             o 3.2 Official status
        4 Sounds
             o 4.1 Phonology
             o 4.2 Learning pronunciation
        5 Grammar
             o 5.1 Word order
             o 5.2 Word Formation
             o 5.3 Adjectives
             o 5.4 Affixation
                      5.4.1 Compound words
             o 5.5 Initial Consonant Morphing
             o 5.6 Grammatical gender
             o 5.7 Measure words
             o 5.8 Negation
             o 5.9 Pluralisation
             o 5.10 Pronouns
                      5.10.1 Possessive pronouns
                   5.10.2 Demonstrative pronouns
           o  5.11 Verbs
                   5.11.1 Emphasis
      6 Vocabulary
      7 Spoken & informal Indonesian
      8 Writing system
      9 Idioms and Proverbs
      10 References
      11 See also
      12 External links



[edit] Linguistics
To a certain degree, Indonesian can be regarded as an open language. Over the years,
foreign languages such as Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese, Dutch and English have
influenced and expanded the Indonesian language, mostly through trade contacts and
international media.

Because of its semi-open status, there are those[2] who regard Indonesian (as well as other
forms of Malay) as lacking sufficient vocabularly and specialist terminologies. Yet some
linguists consider this view to be a misconception,[3] as a vast majority of foreign adopted
words do have native equivalents. For example, the word asimilasi (from the Dutch word
assimilatie) can also be expressed in Indonesian as penggabungan. Many words
describing more modern inventions, objects or ideas are often Indonesianised adoptions
of foreign words (e.g. computer becomes komputer), although many of these words also
have Indonesian equivalents. For example, a "cell/mobile phone" can be referred to in
Indonesian as either pon-sel/ telepon seluler (lit. cellular-telephone), HP (pronounced
hah-péh - the acronymic form of hand phone) or telepon genggam (lit. "hold-in-the-hand
telephone"). Other words such as "rice cooker" may be referred to simply as "rice cooker"
or, again, in a more native Indonesian/ Malay form, i.e. penanak nasi (a word formed
from the verb menanak, meaning 'to cook rice by boiling' + nasi, meaning 'cooked rice').
Overall, the use of native and non-native words in Indonesian is equally common and
reflects the country's efforts towards modernization and globalization.

Many aspects of Indonesian grammar are relatively simple in the initial stages of study,
making it one of the easiest languages to learn for adults[4]. Indonesian does not require
conjugation of verb tenses or participles, plural forms, articles and gender distinction for
the third person pronouns. It is important to note that neither do many other languages
traditionally regarded as 'complex', including Chinese (see Chinese grammar) and Thai
for example. In spite of this, Indonesian and Malay are generally regarded as easy
languages to learn, mostly because they are not tonal languages and they no longer use
complex characters within their writing system, but rather utilize the Latin alphabet.
Similar cases can also be seen in other Southeast Asian languages such as Vietnamese
and Tagalog.
However, Indonesian does possess a complex system of affixations. The absence of
tenses in the language is substituted through the use of aspect particles and (as with any
language) Indonesian grammar often presents an array of exceptions. Also, the simplicity
of Indonesian grammar at a beginners or basic level has the disadvantage of misleading
many learners of the language into thinking that more advanced Indonesian grammar is
just as simple.[5]

[edit] History
Indonesian is a normative form of the Malay language, an Austronesian (or Malayo-
Polynesian) language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian
archipelago for centuries. It was elevated to the status of official language with the
Indonesian declaration of independence in 1945, drawing inspiration from the Sumpah
Pemuda (Youth's Oath) event in 1928.[6]

Because of its origins, Indonesian (in its most standard form) is mutually intelligible with
the official Malaysian form of Malay. However, it does differ from Malaysian in some
aspects, with differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. These differences are mainly
due to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian.

Whilst Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue (first language) by only a small
proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who reside within the
vicinity of Jakarta), over 200 million people regularly make use of the national language -
some with varying degrees of proficiency. In a nation which boasts more than 300 native
languages and a vast array of ethnic groups, the use of proper or 'good and correct'
Indonesian (as opposed to Indonesian slang or regional dialects) is an essential means of
communication across the archipelago. Use of the national language is abundant in the
media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, amongst members of the
Indonesian upper-class or nobility and also in many other formal situations.

Most native speakers of Indonesian would agree that the standard, correct version of the
Indonesian language is rarely used in daily communication. One can find standard and
correct Indonesian in books and newspapers, or listen to it when watching the news or
television/radio broadcasts, but few native Indonesian speakers use formally correct
language in their daily conversations. While this is a phenomenon common to most
languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to
written standards), the degree of "correctness" of spoken Indonesian (in terms of
grammar and vocabulary) by comparison to its written form is noticeably low. This is
mostly due to the fact that most Indonesians tend to combine certain aspects of their own
local languages (eg. Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, and even Chinese dialects,
particularly Hokkien) with Indonesian. The result is the creation of various types of
'regional' Indonesian, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving
in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is exacerbated by the use of Indonesian
slang, particularly in the cities. A classic example of a speaker of accented Indonesian is
former president Soeharto, whose Javanese accent came through whenever he delivered a
speech.
The Dutch colonisation left an imprint on the Indonesian language that can be seen in
words such as polisi (police), kualitas/kwaliteit (quality), wortel (carrot), kamar (room,
chamber), rokok (cigarette), korupsi (corruption), persneling (gear), kantor (office), and
resleting (zipper). Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade
throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth
century. Indonesian words derived from Portuguese include sabun (soap), meja (table),
boneka (doll), jendela (window), gereja (church), bola (ball), dua (two, feminine
portuguese), bendera (flag), roda (wheel), sepatu (from sapato = shoes), kereta (from
caretão = wagon), bangku (from banco = chair), keju (from queijo = cheese), garpu (from
garfo = fork), trigu (from trigo = flour), mentega (from manteiga = butter), Sabtu (from
Sabado = Saturday) and Minggu (from domingo = Sunday).[7] Some of the many words of
Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation
derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu -
knife), loteng, (楼/层 = lóu/céng - [upper] floor/ level), mie (麵 > 面 mi'àn - noodles),
lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) - springroll), cawan, (茶碗 cháwǎn - teacup), teko
(茶壺 > 茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot) and even the widely used
slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 - meaning 'I/ me' and
'you'). From Sanskrit came words such as kaca (glass, mirror), raja (king), manusia
(mankind) b(h)umi/ dunia (earth/ world) and agama (religion). Words of Arabic origin
include k(h)abar (news), selamat/ salam (a greeting), senin (Monday), selasa (Tuesday),
jumaat (Friday), ijazah (diploma), hadiah (gift/present), mungkin (from mumkin =
perhaps), maklum (understood), kitab (book), tertib (orderly) and kamus (dictionary).
There are also words derived from Javanese, e.g. aku (meaning I/ me (informal) and its
derivative form, mengaku (to admit or confess).

[edit] Classification
The Indonesian language is part of the Western Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the
Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages. According to the Ethnologue,
Indonesian is modelled after Riau Malay, a form of Old Malay originally spoken in
Northeast Sumatra.[8]

[edit] Geographic distribution
This is a Map of where Indonesian is predominantly spoken. Dark green represents where
Indonesian is spoken as a major language. Light green represents where it is a minority
language.

The language is spoken throughout Indonesia (and East Timor), although it is used most
extensively as a first language in urban areas and usually as a second or third language in
more rural parts of Indonesia. It is also spoken by an additional 1.5+ million people
worldwide, particularly in the Netherlands, the Philippines and Malaysia. Also spoken as
daily language in some parts of Australia ( mostly in Christmas Island and Cocos
(Keeling) Islands ), Brunei, Singapore, some parts of Thailand ( Southern Thailand ),
East Timor, Saudi Arabia, Suriname, New Caledonia, and the United States.[9]

[edit] Official status

Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia.

[edit] Sounds
[edit] Phonology

The following are phonemes of modern Indonesian.

           Vowels
          Front Central Back
  Close iː              uː
Close-mid e     ə       o
Open-mid (ɛ)            (ɔ)
  Open a

Indonesian also has the diphthongs /ai/, /au/, and /oi/. In closed syllables, such as air
(water), however, the two vowels are not pronounced as a diphthong.

                         Consonants
               Labial Apical Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
    Nasal      m      n                   ɲ       ŋ
   Plosive     pb      td                              kg    ʔ
  Affricate                    ʧʤ
 Fricative (f)         s (z)   (ʃ)                     (x)   h
  Liquid               lr
Approximant w                                 j
Note: The vowels between parentheses are allophones while the consonants in
parentheses are loan phonemes and as such only occur in loanwords.

[edit] Learning pronunciation

Here are a few useful tips for the English speaking learner:

      /k/, /p/, and /t/ are unaspirated, i.e. they are not followed by a noticeable puff of
       air as they often are in English words.
      /t/ and /d/ are dental, rather than alveolar as in English.
      When /k/ is at the end of a syllable it becomes a glottal stop, which sounds like it
       is cut off sharply e.g. baik, bapak. This is similar to a number of English dialects
       where final /t/ is glottalized ("got", "what"). Only a few Indonesian words have
       this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs), and it may be represented by an
       apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
      The letter 'c' in a word is never pronounced as a 'k' or 's' e.g. kucing (meaning cat)
       is pronounced kuching.
      Stress is placed on the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable of each base word.
       But if this syllable contains a schwa then the accent moves to the last syllable.

For more, and to listen to examples, see SEASite Guide to Pronunciation of Indonesian

[edit] Grammar
[edit] Word order

Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they
modify.

The basic word order of Indonesian is Subject Verb Object (SVO). However many
Indonesians will speak in a passive/objective voice, making use of the Object Verb
Subject word order. This OVS word order in Indonesian will often permit the omission of
the subject and/or object (i.e. ellipses of noun/pronoun) and can benefit the speaker/writer
in two ways:

1) Adding a sense of politeness and respect to a statement or question

For example, a polite shop assistant in a store may avoid the use of pronouns altogether
and ask:

Ellipses of pronoun (Subject & Object) Literal English Idiomatic English
Bisa dibantu?                         Can + to be helped? Can (I) help (you)?

2) Convenience when the subject is unknown, not important or implied by context
For example, a friend may enquire as to when you bought your property, to which you
may respond:

   Ellipses of pronoun
                                     Literal English               Idiomatic English
    (Implied Subject)
Rumah ini dibeli lima        House this + to be purchased     The house was purchased
tahun yang lalu              five year(s) ago                 five years ago

Ultimately, the choice between active and passive voice (and therefore word order) is a
choice between actor and patient and depends quite heavily on the language style and
context.

[edit] Word Formation

Indonesian is an agglutinative language and new words are generally formed via three
methods. New words can be created through affixation (the attaching of affixes onto root
words), formation of a compound word (a composition of two or more separate words),
or reduplication (repetition of words or portions of words).

[edit] Adjectives

Unlike in English, adjectives in the Indonesian language follow nouns:

       Indonesian         Literal English word order      Normal English translation
Mobil merah               Car red                       Red car
Dia orang yang terkenal   He/she person which well-     He/she is a very famous/well-
sekali                    known very                    known person
(Sebuah) cerita panjang   (A) story long                A long story

[edit] Affixation

The Indonesian language utilises a complex system of affixes (i.e. prefix, infix, suffix and
confix (circumfix)). Affixes are applied with certain rules which depend on the initial
letter of a base word (BW = base word, eg. a habitual verb, adjective, etc in its simplest
form), and/or the sound combination of the second syllable. For example:

       The affix Ber + ajar (teach) = BeLajar (Note the deletion of 'R' and the addition
        of 'L')

= to study

       The affixes Me + ajar + -kan = meNGajarkan (Note the addition of 'NG')

= to teach (transitive)
By comparison

      The affix Ber + judi (gamble) = Berjudi (Note that Ber- remains unchanged)

= to gamble

      The affixes Me + judi + -kan = meNjudikan (Note the addition of 'N')

= to gamble away (money, one's life, etc)


Also, depending on the affix used, a word can have different grammatical meanings (e.g.
me + makan (memakan) means to eat something (in the sense of digesting it), while di +
makan (dimakan) means to be eaten (passive voice), ter + makan (termakan) means to be
accidentally eaten. Often two different affixes are used to change the meaning of a word.
For example, duduk means to sit down, whereas men + duduk + kan (mendudukkan)
means to sit someone/ something down. Men + duduk + i (menduduki) means to sit on
something, di + duduk + kan (didudukkan) means to be sat down, diduduki (diduduki)
means to be sat on, etc).

As with any language, Indonesian grammar can often present an array of inconsistencies
and exceptions. Some base words when combined with two affixes (eg. me + BW + kan)
can produce an adjective rather than a verb, or even both. For example, bosan when
combined with the affixes me- and -kan produces the word membosankan, meaning
boring (adjective) or to bore (someone) (active verb). However, not all base words can be
combined with affixes, nor are they always consistent in their subsequent usage and
meaning. A prime example is the word tinggal which, when combined with affixes, can
change quite dramatically in both meaning and grammatical use:

      Tinggal (base word (BW) form) = to reside, live (in a place)
      Meninggal (MeN+BW) = to die, pass away (short form of 'Meningal dunia'
       below)
      Meninggal dunia (MeN+BW + world) = to pass away, to die (lit. pass on from the
       world)
      Meninggalkan (MeN+BW+kan) = to leave (a place); to leave behind/abandon
       (someone/ something)
      Ketinggalan (Ke+BW+an) = to miss (a bus, train, etc); to be left behind
      Tertinggal (Ter+BW) = to be (accidentally) left behind
      Ditinggalkan (Di+BW+kan) = to be left behind; to be abandoned
      Selamat tinggal (word + BW) = goodbye (said to the person staying)

Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to base words. The following are
examples of noun affixes:

Type of noun affixes Affix Example of root word    Example of derived word
Prefix              pe(N)- duduk (sit)          penduduk (resident)
                        ke-       hendak (want)           kehendak (desire)
                        juru-     acara (event)           juru-acara (event host)
Infix                   -el-      tunjuk (point)          telunjuk (index finger, command)
                        -em-      kelut (dishevelled)     kemelut (chaos, crisis)
                        -er-      gigi (teeth)            gerigi (toothed blade, serration)
Suffix                  -an       bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)
Confix                  ke-...-an raja (king)             kerajaan (kingdom)
                        pe-...-an kerja (work)            pekerjaan (occupation)

(N) and (R) indicate that if a word begins with certain letters (most often vowels or
consonants k, p, s, t), the letter will either be omitted or other letters will replace it, most
commonly with the letters in the bracket or m, ng, ny and l.

Similarly, verb affixes are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:

 Type of verb                      Example of root
                   Affix                                  Example of derived word
     affixes                             word
Prefix        be(L)-             ajar (teach)        belajar (to study) - Intransitive
                                                     menolong (to help) - Active
                  me(N)-         tolong (help)
                                                     transitive
                                                     menggambar (to draw) - Active
                  me(NG)-        gambar (picture)
                                                     transitive
                                                     diambil (is being taken) - Passive
                  di-            ambil (take)
                                                     transitive
                  memper-        dalam (depth)       memperdalam (to deepen)
                                                     diperdalam (is being further
                  dipe(R)-       dalam (deep)
                                                     deepen)
                                                     termakan (to have accidentally
                  te(R)-         makan (eat)
                                                     eaten)
                                                     letakkan (keep) - Imperative
Suffix            -kan           letak (place, keep)
                                                     transitive
                                                     jauhi (avoid) - Imperative
                  -i             jauh (far)
                                                     transitive
Confix            be(R)-...-an   pasang (pair)       berpasangan (to be paired)
                  be(R)-...-kan dasar (base)         berdasarkan (based upon)
                  me(M)-...-kan pasti (certain)      memastikan (to ensure)
                  me(N)-...-i    teman (companion) menemani (to accompany)
                  mempe(R)-...-                      mempergunakan (to misuse, to
                                 guna (use)
                  kan                                utilise)
                  mempe(L)-...-i ajar (teach)        mempelajari (to study)
                  ke-...-an      hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)
                 di-...-i        sakit (pain)          disakiti (is being hurt)
                 di-...-kan      benar (right)         dibenarkan (is allowed to)
                                 kenal (know,          diperkenalkan (is being
                 dipe(R)-...-kan
                                 recognise)            introduced)

Adjective affixes are attached to base words to form adjectives:

Type of adjective affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix                   te(R)- kenal (know)                terkenal (famous)
                         se-       rupa (appearance)        serupa (similar (to))
Infix                    -em-      cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)
                         -er-      sabut (husk)             serabut (dishevelled)
Confix                   ke-...-an barat (west)             kebaratan (westernized)

In addition to these affixes, Indonesia language also has a lot of borrowed affixes from
other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example maha-, pasca-, eka-,
bi-, anti-, pro-, pra-, etc.

[edit] Compound words

In Indonesian, new words can be formed by conjoining two or more base words.
Compound words, when they exist freely in a sentence, are often written separately.
Compound words are only attached to each other when they are bound by a confix or
when they are already considered as stable words.

For example, the word rumah which means house and makan which means eat, are
compounded to form a new word rumah makan (restaurant). Similarly, ambil alih (take
over) is formed using the root words ambil (take) and alih (shift), but will link together
when a circumfix is attached to it, i.e. pengambilalihan (takeover). Certain stable words,
such as kakitangan (personnel), and kerjasama (co-oporation; corporation), are spelled as
one word even though the words they consist of can also exist freely in sentences.

[edit] Initial Consonant Morphing

Indonesian makes use of initial consonant morphing when using the prefixes me- and pe-.
This means that according to the initial sound of the base word, the sounds used in the
prefix will differ; this is based on the place of articulation.

The sound following the me- or pe- suffix is usually a nasal(m, n, ny, ng) or liquid(l, r)
sound. Which sound is used depends on the point of articulation. E.g. the initial sound of
beli, /b/, is a bi-labial sound (pronounced using both the lips), so the nasal bi-labial
sound, /m/ is placed before the base word, creating membeli.
The initial consonant is dropped if it is unvoiced(/p/, /t/, /s/, /k/), e.g. menulis/tulis,
memilih/pilih.

[edit] Grammatical gender

Generally Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only select
words that use natural gender. For instance, the same word is used for he and she (dia/ia)
or for his and her (dia/ia/-nya). No real distinction is made between "girlfriend" and
"boyfriend" (except in the more colloquial terms cewek (girl, girlfriend) and cowok (guy,
boyfriend). A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form
that does not distinguish between the sexes. However, unlike English, distinction is made
between older or younger (a characteristic quite common to many Asian languages). For
example, adik refers to a younger sibling of either gender and kakak refers to an older
sibling, again, either male or female. In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an
adjective must be added. Thus, adik laki-laki corresponds to "younger brother" but really
means "younger male sibling".

There are some words that are gendered, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra
means "son" and also pramugara means "air steward" (male flight attendant) and
pramugari meaning "air stewardess" (female flight attendant). Another example would
be olahragawan, which equates to "sportsman", and olahragawati, meaning
sportswoman. Often, words like these (or certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan"
and "wati") are absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit through the
Old Javanese language). In some regions of Indonesia such as Sumatera and Jakarta,
abang (a gender-specific term meaning "older brother") is commonly used as a form of
address for older siblings/ males, whilst kakak (a non-gender specific term (meaning
"older sibling") is often used to mean "older sister". Similarly, more direct influences
from dialects such as Javanese and Chinese languages have also seen further use of other
gendered words in Indonesian. For example: Mas (Jav. = older brother), M'bak (Jav. =
older sister), Koko (Hokkien = older brother) and Cici (Hokkien = older sister).

[edit] Measure words

Another distinguishing feature of Indonesian language is its use of measure words. In this
way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Vietnamese,
Burmese, and Bengali.

Examples of these measure words are: ekor (used for animals), buah (generally used for
non-living things), orang (used for people), lembar (used for paper), helai (used for long,
thin and generally flat things), biji (used for tiny, round things), batang (used for long,
stick-like objects), etc. However, these measure words may not always be used in
informal conversation.

                                        Literal English                 Normal English
          Indonesian
                                           translation                     translation
Tiga ekor sapi                     Three tails (of) cow            Three cows
Sepuluh orang tentera           Ten people soldiers          Ten soldiers
Lima lembar/ helai/ carik
                                Five sheets/pieces of paper Five sheets/pieces of paper
kertas
Sebelas buah apel               Eleven fruits (of) apple     Eleven apples

      Importantly, when a measure word is being used in conjunction with only one
       object, the numeral prefix se- is used in front of the measure word, not satu.
       Therefore a banana would be translated as (se + MW + object) = sebuah pisang.

[edit] Negation

There are three major forms of negation used in the Indonesian language, namely tidak,
bukan and belum.

      Tidak (sometimes shortened to tak) is used for the negation of a verb and
       adjective.

For example: "saya tidak tahu" = I do not know OR "Ibu saya tidak senang" = My mother
is not happy

      Bukan is used in the negation of a noun.

For example: "Itu bukan anjing saya" = That is not my dog

      Belum is primarily used to negate a sentence or phrase with the sense that
       something has not yet been accomplished or experienced. In this sense, belum can
       also be used as a negative response to a question.

For example: "Anda sudah pernah ke Indonesia (belum)? "Belum, saya masih belum
pernah pergi ke Indonesia" = Have you ever been to Indonesia before, (or not)? No, I
have not yet been to Indonesia OR "Orang itu belum terbiasa tinggal di Indonesia" = That
person is not (yet) used to living in Indonesia.

NB: Another kind of negation involves the word jangan, which equates to the English
equivalent of "don't" or "do not". Jangan is used for negating imperatives or advising
against certain actions. For example, "Jangan tinggalkan saya di sini!" = 'Don't leave me
here!'

[edit] Pluralisation

Plurals are expressed by means of reduplication, but only when the plural is not implied
in the context. Thus "person" is orang, and "people" is orang-orang, but "a thousand
people" is seribu orang, as the use of a numeral (i.e. seribu) renders it unnecessary to
mark the plural form.
For foreigners learning Indonesian, the concept of grammatical reduplication is not as
easy to grasp as it may seem. Besides expressing plurals, reduplication can also be used
to create new words that differ in meaning. For instance, hati means "heart" or "liver"
(depending on context) whereas hati-hati means "to be careful" and is often used as a
verb. As stated above, orang means "person" while orang-orang means "people", but
orang-orangan means "scarecrow". Also, not all reduplicated words indicate plural forms
of a word with many words naturally expressed in reduplicated form. Examples of these
include, biri-biri (sheep), kupu-kupu (butterfly) which can imply both a singular or plural
meaning, depending on the context or numeral used.

By contrast, there are also some types of plural words that are expressed by reduplication
of a similar sounding (but essentially different) word. In these cases the general sound of
a word/phrase is repeated, but the initial letter of the repeated word is changed. A
common example of this is sayur-mayur (not sayur-sayur) meaning "vegetables" (plural).
Another type of reduplication can be formed through the use of certain affixes (e.g. pe- +
-an). For instance, pepohonan ([various kinds of] trees, from the word pohon [tree]),
perumahan (houses/ housing, from the word rumah [house]) or pegunungan (mountains,
mountain range, from the word gunung [mountain]), and so on.

Another useful word to remember when pluralizing in Indonesian is beberapa, which
means "some." For example one may use beberapa pegunungan to describe a series of
mountain ranges, and beberapa kupu-kupu to describe (plural) butterflies.

[edit] Pronouns

There are two forms of "we", kami or kita, depending on whether the speaker includes the
person being talked to. Kami (exclusive) is used when the person or people being spoken
to are not included, while kita (inclusive) includes the opposite party. Their usage is
increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian. There are two major forms of "I", which
are saya and aku. Despite having the same meaning, saya is definitely the more formal
form, whereas Aku is used often used with family, friends and between lovers. There are
three common forms of "you", which are kamu, Anda and kalian. Anda is the more polite
form of "you" and is used in conversations with someone you barely know, advertising,
business situations or with someone whom you wish to respect. Kalian is the common
plural form of "you" and is often said to be slightly informal.

NB: Because of the overall structure of Indonesian society and influences from regional
dialects, many more different pronouns exist in Indonesian. Some of these 'additional
pronouns' may show utmost politeness and respect (eg. saudara/saudari = you
(male/female) or Anda sekalian = you (polite, plural form)), may be used only in the most
informal of situations (eg. gua/ lu = me/ you - see Indonesian slang), or may even possess
somewhat romantic or poetic nuances(eg. daku/dikau = me/you).

Common Indonesian Pronouns

   Type                                  Indonesian                               English
               Saya (standard, polite), Aku (informal, familiar), Gua (informal,
First Person                                                                        I, me
               slang)
               Kami (excl.), Kita (incl.)                                           We, us
Second
               Anda (polite, formal), Saudara/Saudari (polite, formal)              You
Person
               Kamu (familiar, informal), (Eng)kau (familiar, informal), Lu
                                                                                    You
               (informal, slang)
               Kalian (plural, informal), Anda sekalian (plural, formal),
                                                                                    You
               Saudara(i)-saudara(i) (polite)
Third                                                                               He, she,
               Ia, Dia
Person                                                                              it
               Beliau (high respect)                                                He, She
               Mereka                                                               They

[edit] Possessive pronouns

  Type of                                                     Example
                                             Possessive                   Example of
 possessive                                                    of root
                                             pronouns                   derived word(s)
 pronouns                                                       word
                                                            meja
First person    Saya, Aku (I)              -ku                         mejaku (my table)
                                                            (table)
                Kami (we, referring to
                                                                         kursi (milik) kami,
                1st and 3rd person), kita ... (milik)       kursi
                                                                         kursi (milik) kita
                (we, referring to 1st and kami/kita         (chair)
                                                                         (our chair)
                2nd person)
Second                                                      meja         mejamu (your
                Kamu (you)                 -mu
person                                                      (table)      table)
                                                                         kursi (milik)
                Anda, Saudara              ... (milik)  kursi
                                                                         Anda/Saudara
                (you(polite))              Anda/Saudara (chair)
                                                                         (your chair)
                                           ... (milik)      kursi        kursi (milik) kalian
                Kalian (you(plural))
                                           kalian           (chair)      (your chair)
                                                            meja         mejanya (his, her,
Third person Dia, Ia (he, she, it)         -nya
                                                            (table)      its table)
                Beliau (he, she, it        ... (milik)      meja         meja (milik) Beliau
                (polite))                  Beliau           (table)      (his, her, its table)
                                           ... (milik)      kursi        kursi (milik)
                Mereka (they)
                                           mereka           (chair)      mereka (their chair)

[edit] Demonstrative pronouns

There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns in the Indonesian language. Ini (this,
these) is used for a noun which is generally near to the speaker. Itu (that, those) is used
for a noun which is generally far from the speaker. There is no difference between
singular form and the plural form. However, plural can be indicated through duplication
of a noun followed by a demonstrative pronoun. Also, the word yang is often placed
before demonstrative pronouns to give emphasis and a sense of certainty, particularly
when making references or enquiries about something/ someone.

Various Uses

Demonst. Pronoun Simple Use English Meaning
Ini              Buku ini This book
Itu              Kucing itu That cat
Demonst. Pronoun Plural Form (via Noun duplication) English Meaning
Ini              Buku-buku ini                      These books
Itu              Kucing-kucing itu                  Those cats
Demonst. Pronoun +
                              Example Sentence                   English Meaning
      yang
                                                         Q: Which book do you wish to
                        Q: Anda mau membeli buku
                                                         purchase?
                        yang mana?
Yang ini
                                                         A: I would like this one (this
                        A: Saya mau beli yang ini
                                                         book)
                        Q: Kucing mana yang makan
                                                         Q: Which cat ate your mouse?
                        tikusmu?
Yang itu
                                                         A: That one (that cat)!
                        A: Yang itu!

[edit] Verbs

Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is
instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators
(sometimes referred to as aspect particles), such as belum (not yet) or sudah (already). On
the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning
and denote active-passive voices. Such affixes include prefixes, infixes, suffixes, and
their combinations; all of which are often ignored in informal conversations.

[edit] Emphasis

Although the basic word order of Indonesian is Subject Verb Object (SVO), as mentioned
above, it is possible to make frequent use of passive voice or to scramble word order, thus
adding emphasis on a certain sentence particle. The particle being emphasised is usually
placed at the beginning of the sentence. In spoken Indonesian, the aspect of the sentence
being emphasised is usually followed by a short pause before continuing on with the
remainder of the sentence.
Some examples include:

      Saya pergi ke pasar kemarin "I went to the market yesterday" — neutral, or with
       emphasis on the subject.
      Kemarin saya pergi ke pasar "Yesterday I went to the market" — emphasis on
       yesterday.
      Ke pasar saya pergi, kemarin "To the market I went yesterday" — emphasis on
       where I went yesterday.
      Pergi ke pasar, saya, kemarin "To the market went I yesterday" — emphasis on
       the process of going to the market.

NB: Some of the above examples (namely the latter two) are more likely to be
encountered in spoken Indonesian rather than written forms of the language.

[edit] Vocabulary
Indonesian as a modern dialect of Malay has borrowed heavily from many languages,
including: Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese and many other
languages, including other Austronesian languages. It is estimated that there are some
750 Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indonesian, 1,000 Arabic loans, some of Persian and
Hebrew origin, some 125 words of Portuguese (also Spanish and Italian) origin and a
staggering number of some 10,000 loanwords from Dutch.[10] The latter also comprises
many words from other European languages, which came via Dutch, the so-called
"International Vocabulary". The vast majority of Indonesian words, however, come from
the root lexical stock of its Austronesian (incl. Old Malay) heritage.

Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia,
Sanskrit which was the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem
and is comparable with the status of Latin in English and other Western European
languages. Residents of Bali and Java tend to be particularly proud of the Hindu-Buddhist
heritage. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms. These are usually formed from
Sanskrit roots. The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and
everyday life. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India long ago before the
time of Christ. The words are either directly borrowed from India or with the
intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old
Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English
dictionary by prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries.
Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other
languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for
many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign.

The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam,
as can be expected. Allah is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many
early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper
names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations this practice is discontinued.
They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word. For example, the name
Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa, but is now spelt as Yesus. Psalms used to be
translated as Zabur, the Arabic name, but now it is called Mazmur which corresponds
more with Hebrew.

Loanwords from Portuguese are common words, which were mainly connected with
articles the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. The
Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail east to the "Spice Islands".

The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just exclusively
things Chinese. There is a considerable Chinese presence in the whole of Southeast Asia.
According to the 2000 census, the relative number of people of Chinese descent in
Indonesia is almost 1%, although this may likely be an underestimate.

The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left an impressive vocabulary. These Dutch
loanwords, and also from other non Italo-Iberian, European languages loanwords which
came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of
several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually
solved by insertion of the schwa. For example Dutch schroef ['sxruf] → sekrup [sə'krup].

As modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there are many
synonyms. For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i.e. pustaka (from
Sanskrit), kitab (from Arabic) and buku (from Dutch). These words have, unsurprisingly,
slightly different meanings. A pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or
sometimes with esoteric knowledge. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A
kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral guidances. The
Indonesian words for the Bible are Alkitab and Injil, both directly derived from Arabic.
The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab. Buku is the most common
word for books.

In addition to those above (and the borrowed words listed under the sub-heading History
towards the top of this article), there are also direct borrowings from various other
languages of the world, such as "karaoke" from Japanese, and "modem" from English.

See also: List of borrowed words in Indonesian

[edit] Spoken & informal Indonesian
Further information: Indonesian slang language

In very informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less
formal nature (e.g. tidak (no) is often replaced with the Javanese nggak whilst seperti
(like, similar to) is often replaced with kayak (pronounced kai-yah)). As for
pronunciation, the diphthongs ai and au on the end of base words are typically
pronounced as /e/ and /o/. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect
the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. E.g.: capai
becomes cape or capek, pakai become pake, kalau becomes kalo.
In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal consonant is usually
retained. E.g.: mengangkat becomes ngangkat (the basic word is angkat). The suffixes -
kan and -i are often replaced by -in. E.g.: mencarikan becomes nyariin, menuruti
becomes nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to Indonesian
found in Jakarta and surrounding areas.

[edit] Writing system
Indonesian is written using the Latin alphabet. It is more phonetically consistent than
many languages—the correspondence between sounds and their written forms is
generally regular.

Consonants are represented in a way similar to Italian, although ‹c› is always /tʃ/ (like
English ‹tch›), ‹g› is always /ɡ/ ("hard") and ‹j› represents /dʒ/ as it does in English. In
addition, ‹ny› represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/, ‹ng› is used for the velar nasal /ŋ/ (which
can occur word-initially), ‹sy› for /ʃ/ (English ‹sh›) and ‹kh› for the voiceless velar
fricative /x/. Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with an ‹e›.

One common source of confusion for foreign readers, particularly when reading place
names, is the spelling changes in the language that have occurred since Indonesian
independence. Commonly-used changes include:

  Old      New
spelling spelling
   oe        u
   tj        c
   dj        j
    j        y
   nj       ny
   sj       sy
   ch       kh

The first of these changes (‹oe› to ‹u›) occurred around the time of independence in 1947;
all of the others were a part of an officially-mandated spelling reform in 1972. Some of
the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography) do survive in proper
names; for example, the name of a former president of the Indonesia is still sometimes
written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written
Jogjakarta.

[edit] Idioms and Proverbs
       Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Indonesian proverbs

       Ada gula, Ada semut.

Lit. "Where there's sugar, there are ants". Equivalent to the modern English idiom
"Where there's a will there's a relative". Where there is a good thing (sugar) there will be
people taking advantage of it (ants). Indonesian idioms can be quite cynical.

[edit] References
   1. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in
       Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 14."
   2. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in
       Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 16."
   3. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in
       Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 14."
   4. ^ Barry Farber. How to Learn Any Language. New York: Citadel Press, 1991.
       Page 167-168, in "Farber's Language Reviews."
   5. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in
       Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 16."
   6. ^ "Bahasa Indonesia: The Indonesian Language," George Quinn, Australian
       National University
   7. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd
       Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. p.26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
   8. ^ "Ethologue report for language code:ind".
       http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ind. Retrieved 2007-04-
       17.
   9. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ind
   10. ^ This is a research led by Prof. Dr. J.W. de Vries of the University of Leiden in
       the Netherlands

[edit] See also

								
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