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					East African smallholders’
 access to organic export
         markets.

                 Victoria Burke,

Export Promotion for Organic Products from
          Africa - EPOPA, Uganda



        EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
          Export Promotion of
           Organic Products
              from Africa
        “Development through Trade”



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           EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
         A Programme Funded by Sida
         Implemented by                         Country Managers
          Agro Eco and                                  Alastair Taylor, Uganda
          Grolink                                       Marg Leijdens, Tanzania
         Programme                                     Carianne de Boer,
          Directors                                      Zambia
           Bo van Elzakker                      Consultants: Hilde
           Gunnar Rundgren                       DeBule, Victoria Burke,
         Programme co-                           Florence Nagawa
          ordinator                              Junior Consultants
           Deepa van
            Staalduinen

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                EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                 EPOPA Objectives
          To initiate and facilitate export of organic
          products from Africa in order to increase
          income for farmers

         While exposing the country to sustainable
          agricultural practices

         Project organisation is with exporter – it
          is a private sector programme
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                 EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                           EPOPA MODEL


         The programme works with over 15 export
          companies, and through them, with over 40,000
          farmers, fisherfolk and gatherers, enabling them to
          enter into certified organic/sustainable production
          export.

         support is through a complete supply chain, from
          organic production techniques to consumer
          retailing.

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                  EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                    EPOPA support
              EPOPA support to projects covers:
           Organic Agriculture
            Agricultural Technical Assistance and extension, on-farm research, farmer motivation, farmer
            organization for the market, training in organic production and farmer group formation,

           Organic Link Activities
            Preparation for certification for organic,( fair trade, Eurep GAP, Utz Kapeh), Internal Control
            System development and maintenance and local inspection/certification capacity building

           Market Research
            Product specification/development, introduction of HACCP system, Feasibility & cost price
            calculations, identification of export markets, sourcing for importers, market exposure, trading
            partnership development supply chain management, trade show exhibitions, local market
            development and identification of crop & trade finance partners

           Business Support
            Concept formulation, Project identification, formulation and implementation, (financial)
            management and evaluation, sector studies, baseline & impact surveys, training manuals,
            handouts, brochures, websites, conferences, seminars, and workshops

           Cross cutting issues:
            Integrating the farming-trading system with crosscutting issues such as HIV/Aids, gender, food
            security and nutrition.


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                               EXPORT PROMOTION        OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
        EPOPA Linking private sector to
               small holders..
         EPOPA works through an exporter
          who engage a field staff that trains and
           supervises smallholder farmers.
          Field staff are trained,
          Active organic management is introduced,
          An Internal Control System is set up,
          Certification support is provided to the exporter,
          The exporter assisted in finding the market.



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                EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
        So…. How is it meant to work?
        support through the exporter, in turn leads to
        Organic export premium:
           Premium price for farmers
           Higher margin exporter
              Costs of field organisation
              Higher cost of separate handling
              Costs of certification
           Additional benefits from organic agricultural
            practices that include:
              Increased yields, safer and nutritious foods
              Reduced risk of crop failure through diversification
              Low input costs with the use of local knowledge.

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                  EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
        Smallholder access to organic export
        markets:

        Case study:
        Esco Project in Bundibugyo,
         Area between mountains
          and a national park
         Altitudes from 5000meter to
          600m in the rift valley.
         Unique climate, hot and
          humid; rainfall 8 months of
          the year; conducive to cocoa
          and vanilla production
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                  EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
         Smallholder access to export markets …..

           In 2003, 1600 contracted small
            holders.
           Farmers had on average 700
            Cocoa trees and 200 vines of
            Vanilla
           Introduction of organic
            practices
           ICS development and
            implementation
           Certification support

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                    EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
         Measurable Impact
                            Baseline survey conducted in
                              2003 followed by an impact
                              study in 2005
                            Parameters:
                             Household
                             Income
                             Food production
                             Cococa and Vanilla production
                             Land holding
                             Erosion control
                             Use of botanical …..
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         EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                Smallholder
         Household – baseline survey 2003

           The typical Farmer                      Male aged between 30 to 50 years
           The Farmer has                          2 to 3 wives
           Children                                4 to 8
           Landholding                             2 to 3 acres
           Cocoa trees                             700
           Vanilla vines                           200
           Other main food crops
                                                   Cassava, rice, beans
                                                   Almost all land is cultivated
                                                   Farmer has no cattle
           Farmer lives in mud and wattle,
           with grass and iron roofs


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                         EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                               Impact
         Impact survey 2005
            Farmers’ dependant on only farming for their source of income
             increased from 41% in 2003 to 69% in 2005.
            Increase in sales and income

               Crop        Number of       Volume of          Premium per       Average
                           Farmers         Crop               Kg (US$)          Extra income
                           selling crops   purchased                            per farmer
                           as organic      from farmers                         (US$)
                                           (Kgs)
               2003
               Vanilla    185              6590              22                 783
               Cocoa      708             84781              1.01               120
               2005
               Vanilla    440             18711              2.94               125
               Cocoa       673            159367             1.17               227
               % Change
               Vanilla    138%            183%              87% (-ve)           84% (-ve)
               Cocoa      5% (-ve)        88%               15%                 89%
                   Information from buying and growers records


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                            EXPORT PROMOTION       OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                             Impact..
         Cocoa Husbandry
          In 2003, a farmer had on average 725 cocoa trees
           producing on average 1 ton of dry cocoa beans.
          The number of trees per farmer had increased
           797 by 2005.
          Management of cocoa has also improved with
           85% of the farmers reporting pruning of their
           cocoa trees, compared to 74% in 2003
          Fermentation has also improved with 55% of he
           farmers fermenting for 7 days in 2005 as
           compared to the 38% in 2003

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                  EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                              Impact..
         Vanilla Husbandry
          Vanilla planting has also increased with the
           average farmer starting with about 225 vines in
           2003, and indicating an increase of about 100
           vines by 32% of the farmers, and increase by 200
           vines by 26% of the farmers in 2005.
          More than 80% of all farmers were looping and
           mulching in 2005, from an average of 75% in
           2003.




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                   EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                                     Impact
                     Annual crop production

                     140

                     120

                     100
         Frequency




                     80                                                                                                  2003
                     60                                                                                                  2005

                     40

                     20

                      0
                                            G Nuts




                                                                                     Rice



                                                                                            Soya
                                                                            Other
                                    Beans




                                                                 Cassava
                            Maize




                                                     Yams




                                                                                                              Potatoes
                                                                                                    Moringa


                                                                                                               Sweet
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                           EXPORT PROMOTION                 OF   ORG       ANIC     PRODUCTS       FROM       AFRICA
                              Impact
         Changes in food production


                No Annual           One               Two               Three
                crops               annual            annual            annual
                                    crop              crops             crops
         2003   18%                 15%               32%               28%

         2005   7%                  30%               28%               7%




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                EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                            Impact…
         Project benefits
          More farmers felt that they benefited from
           the project increased from 51% in 2003 to
           72% in 2005.
          Cocoa still regarded as being the best
           source of income as considered by 92%
           and 8% as being Vanilla with no significant
           difference from the baseline survey.
          However only 40% of farmers are
           delivering to the exporter
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                 EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                            Impact…
         Project benefits
          An improvement in housing with the
           number of grass roofs declined from 40%
           in 2003 to 24% in 2005
         Land Holding
          The average land holding increased from
           4.59 acres in 2003 to 6.39 acres in 2005.
          Most farmers; 61%, had no fallow land, an
           increase to 64% in 2003.

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                 EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                Impact
         Labour
          The majority of the farmers (86%) did not hire
           labour, and those who did most labour is for land
           preparation and weeding
         Erosion control
          Only 6% of the farmers practiced some erosion
           control in 2003. This has improved to 14% of the
           farmers practicing erosion control;
          however the majority (64%) needs erosion control
         Use of botanical pesticides:
          Only 6% of the farmers use natural botanicals,
           although those who did, use several combinations

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                   EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                    Impact
         Plans for the future
          Changes in %
            Action                     2003              2005
            Building new houses        40                45
            Education                  22                28
            Buy land                   10                12
            Buy a bicycle              3                 2
            New source of income       12                7
            Improve existing home      4                 1
            Other                      9                 5


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                    EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                                          Summary
         Action                Year                       Year                    Food Access Impact
                               2003                       2005
         No of Farmer          1500                       1791
         Income
         cocoa                $120                        $227                            +
         Vanilla              $783*                       $125                            -*
         Production
         Cocoa trees           700                         800                             +
         Vanilla vines         200                         240                             +
         Farming               41%                         69%                             +
         Land holding         4.59acres                   6.69acres                        +
         No Fallow land        61%                         64%                            -/+
         Food prod                                                                         +
         Cassava               50%                         84%                             +

         Rice                  7.7%                        32%                            +
         Soy beans             9%                          30%                            +
         Annual crops
         One crop              16%                         30%                            +
         Two crops             34%                         28%                            -
         Three crops           29%                         8%                             -
         Agr practices
         Mulching              72%                         85%                            +
         Erosion               6%                          14%                            +
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                          EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                       Success!
Successes
 Working with 15 companies
  and through them over 40,000
  small holders
 Witnessing increasing level of
  organic exports
 Working with the National
  Organic Agricultural Movement
 Working with institutions in
  sector development
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            EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                   Its not all plain sailing
         Challenges
          Organic premium at farm gate not always as high as desired
          Difficulty in penetrating some markets with organic products
          Until recently… a vacuum of government policy to support
            organic opportunities in Uganda
         With the case study:
          Erosion control
          Soil fertillity
          Food crop production
          Encourage more farmers to deliver to exporter
          Motivation of farmers to improve their living standards


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                      EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                      Way Foward!
          National development: NOGAMU
          Training – Sector development, Middle
           management, others
          Organic Trade Promotion
          Certification Development: UgoCert, TanCert,
           KOAN
          Development Relevance – Gender, environment,
           HIV/AIDS and Corruption



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               EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
               Spot the difference!?




         Who can access the
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          export market?
                 EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA
                  Thank you
          Victoria Burke – Advisor
                Uganda Office
         victoriaburke@agroeco.ug
               Tel 041 268461
              www.epopa.info
                 Head Office
              www.agroeco.nl
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          EXPORT PROMOTION   OF   ORG   ANIC   PRODUCTS   FROM   AFRICA