LEED by niusheng11


									Heather Keil
Energy Law – Spring 2008
• LEED project certification - provides
  independent, third-party verification that a
  building project meets the highest green
  building and performance measures
• United States Green Building
  Council (USGBC) issued a set of
  guidelines in 2000
• LEED Professional Accreditation -
  building professionals with the knowledge
  and skills to successfully steward the
  LEED certification process
• Sustainable Building and
  Construction Initiative (SBCI) was
  launched by the United Nations
  Environment Program (UNEP) in
  February 2006
• In the United States alone, buildings account for:
   –   65% of electricity consumption
   –   36% of energy use
   –   39% of greenhouse gas emissions
   –   30% of raw materials use
   –   30% of waste output (136 million tons annually)
   –   12% of potable water consumption

• Buildings are one of the heaviest consumers of natural
• Factors that are expediting the growth of green building:
   – Unprecedented level of government initiatives
   – Heightened residential demand for green construction
   – Improvements in sustainable materials
Green Building by the Numbers
         • The value of green building construction is
           expected to exceed $12 billion in 2008 and
           is projected to increase to $60 billion by
         • The construction market accounts for
           14.2% of the $10 trillion U.S. GDP
         • The construction market involves a
           workforce of 120 million people
         • The three largest segments for
           nonresidential green building construction
           (office, education and health care) will
           account for more than 80% of total
           nonresidential green construction in 2008.
    Benefits of Green Building
• Environmental
  – Enhance and protect
    ecosystems and

  – Improve air and water

  – Reduce solid waste

  – Conserve natural
    Benefits of Green Building
• Economic benefits:
  – Reduce operating costs

  – Enhance asset value and

  – Improve employee
    productivity and

  – Optimize life-cycle
    economic performance
    Benefits of Green Building
• Health and community
  – Improve air, thermal, and
    acoustic environments
  – Enhance occupant comfort
    and health
  – Minimize strain on local
  – Contribute to overall
    quality of life
          What will green cost?
• The most common reason for not incorporating green
  elements into building designs is the increase in first cost
• Reasonable levels of sustainable design can be
  incorporated into most building types at little or no
  additional cost.
• Sustainable materials and systems are becoming more
  affordable, sustainable design elements are becoming
  widely accepted in the mainstream of project design, and
  building owners and tenants are beginning to demand
  and value those features.
• However, advanced or innovative sustainable features
  can add significantly to the cost of a project and must be
  valued independently to ensure that they are cost-
  and/or environmentally effective.
          What will green cost?
• The cost for incorporating sustainable design elements
  will depend greatly on a wide range of factors, including
  building type, project location, local climate, site
  conditions, and the familiarity of the project team with
  sustainable design.
   – In most cases, these factors have a relatively small
     but still noticeable impact on the overall cost of
   – Cumulatively, however, they can make quite a

• There can be no single answer to the question, but it is
  easier to answer the question “What will green cost me
  on my project?”
                     LEED for Homes
•   LEED for Homes Checklist
•   8 categories:
     – Innovation and Design
         Process (ID)
     – Location and Linkages (LL)
     – Sustainable Sites (SS)
     – Water Efficiency (WE)
     – Energy and Atmosphere (EA)
     – Materials and Resources (MR)
     – Indoor Environmental Air
         Quality (EQ)
     – Awareness and Education
•   Rating:
     – Certified: 45-59
     – Silver: 60-74
     – Gold: 75-89
     – Platinum: 90-136
•   Initiative for Affordable Housing
       LEED for New Construction
• LEED-NC Rating System is designed to guide and distinguish
  high-performance commercial and institutional projects
• Includes office buildings, high-rise residential buildings,
  government buildings, recreational facilities, manufacturing
  plants, and laboratories
• Rating:
   –   Certified: 26-32 points
   –   Silver: 33-38 points
   –   Gold: 39-51 points
   –   Platinum: 52-69 points

• LEED-New Construction (NC) buildings are delivering
  anticipated energy savings
• LEED energy use is 25-30% better than the national average
      LEED for Existing Buildings
• The LEED for Existing Buildings
  Rating System helps building
  owners and operators measure
  operations, improvements and
  maintenance on a consistent scale,
  with the goal of maximizing
  operational efficiency while
  minimizing environmental impacts

• Addresses whole-building cleaning and maintenance issues
  (including chemical use), recycling programs, exterior
  maintenance programs, and systems upgrades

• It can be applied both to existing buildings seeking LEED
  certification for the first time and to projects previously
  certified under LEED for New Construction or Core & Shell
   LEED for Commercial Interiors
• LEED for Commercial Interiors
  is the green benchmark for the
  tenant improvement market
  (office, retail, and institutional
• Tenants who lease their space
  or do not occupy the entire
  building can LEED certify their
  space as a green interior
• Benefits:
   – Healthy, productive places to work
   – Less costly to operate and maintain
   – Have a reduced environmental
             LEED for Core & Shell
                                       •   Complementary to the LEED for
                                           Commercial Interiors rating system

                                       •   Acknowledges the limitations of
                                           developers in a speculatively developed
                                           building and encourages the
                                           implementation of green design and
                                           construction practices in areas over which
                                           the developer has control

                                       •   Developers can often implement green
                                           strategies that indirectly benefit future
                                           tenants. Conversely, developers can
•Core and shell covers base building       inadvertently implement strategies
elements such as structure, envelope       that prohibit tenants from executing green
and the HVAC system                        fit-outs

•Core and shell covers base building   •   Works to set up a synergistic relationship,
elements such as structure, envelope       which allows future tenants to capitalize
and the HVAC system                        on green strategies implemented by the
                LEED for Schools
• Recognizes the unique nature
  of school spaces and children’s
  health issues

• Addresses issues such as
  classroom acoustics, master
  planning, mold prevention and
  environmental site assessment

• Green schools are productive
  learning environments with
  ample natural light, high-quality
  acoustics and air that is safe to

• Green schools nurture children
  while saving money
LEED for Retail
       • LEED for Retail is in Pilot

       • Recognizes the unique nature
         of the retail environment and
         addresses the different types
         of spaces that retailers need
         for their distinctive product

       • USGBC and over 80 Pilot
         project teams are
         collaborating to create two
         new rating systems:
          – LEED for Retail: New
          – LEED for Retail: Commercial
LEED for Healthcare
       • Developed to meet the unique needs of
         the health care market, including
         inpatient care facilities, licensed
         outpatient care facilities, and licensed
         long term care facilities

       • It may also be used for medical offices,
         assisted living facilities and medical
         education & research centers

       • Addresses issues such as increased
         sensitivity to chemicals and pollutants,
         traveling distances from parking
         facilities, and access to natural spaces

       • Represents a culmination of four years
         of close collaboration between the
         Green Guide for Healthcare (GGHC)
         and USGBC.
            LEED for Neighborhood
• The LEED for Neighborhood
  Development Rating System is
  currently in its pilot period

• It integrates the principles of smart
  growth, urbanism and green building
  into the first national system for
  neighborhood design

• Purposes:
    – Reduce urban sprawl
    – Encourage healthy living
    – Protect threatened species

• A collaboration among USGBC, the
  Congress for the New Urbanism and
  the Natural Resources Defense
   Federal/State Requirements
• The system is rapidly
  spreading – federal
  departments and agencies and
  state and local governments
  are adopting LEED as a
  guideline or are adopting other
  LEED incentives
• The federal government now
  requires that new official
  buildings above a certain size
  be LEED-certified
• Several cities have adopted
  similar measures
LEED – The System

       - LEED was a step in the
         right direction
         - Created a national
           standard, providing
           reliable information, a
           rigorous rating system,
           and a checklist for going

       - However, there are
         serious problems
           Problems with LEED
- LEED has become expensive, slow, confusing, and
  unwieldy, resulting in:
  - Mediocre green buildings where certification, not
    environmental responsibility is the primary goal

  - A few super high level eco-structures built by ultra motivated
    and wealthy owners – stand as a beacon of impossibility

  - Explosion of LEED certified architects and engineers
    chasing lots of money but designing few buildings

  - Discouraged group of professionals who want to build green
    but cant afford to certify their buildings
Problems with LEED
    • System is easy to manipulate

    • Focus on points, not environmental
       – points game
       – get the PR benefits of a green project
         without actually having the most
         environmentally friendly building
       - a $395 bike rack and a multimillion-dollar
         low-energy A.C. system both get one point

    • Basic certification is too low a hurdle to
      merit the green stamp of approval
       – developers can rack up the minimum
         number of needed points without going
         much beyond the requirements
          Problems with LEED
• System does not consider
  regional differences
   – Water conservation is more
     important in some areas

• Neglects the importance of a
  building’s life cycle

• Location is not emphasized

• No penalties for non-
  compliance after certification
                 Cost Problems
• Developers have to bring in many
  consultants and reviewers to approve
  each step

• Can significantly raise building costs

• The USGBC's fees for registration range
  from $750 to $3,750, and certification runs
  from $1,500 to $7,500, depending on the
  size of the building.

• The big costs come in the form of energy
  modeling, commissioning, and other
  requirements of certification; these can run
  into the tens of thousands of dollars,
  according to architects and developers
       Green building - Myths
• Many reports incorrectly state that green building
  and LEED certification in particular does not cost
  more than conventional building
• Green building costs more than conventional
  – LEED certification typically adds 1-5% to the budget
  – The myth that going green costs nothing is
    damaging to clients who discover the reality of the
  – The danger is that LEED certification could eat away
    funds that could otherwise be used to improve a
LEED – the future
      • The idea behind LEED is a
        worthy goal, there have just
        been problems in the
      • LEED does not guarantee
        energy efficiency

      • Some critics argue that the
        basic certification is too low a
        hurdle to merit the green
        stamp of approval –
        developers can rack up the
        minimum number of needed
        points without going much
        beyond the requirements
             Solutions to LEED
• Shift the focus from points to environmental
   – Make more critical credits mandatory (energy efficiency)

• If the cost of LEED continues to go up, then ppl will
  stop seeking LEED certification
   – Provide for additional cost cuts

• The USGBC is working to address member
  concerns and refine LEED while broadening it to
  cover more types of building projects

• LEED in an ongoing project, constantly being
  revised and approved upon
Thank you.

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