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Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization

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Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization Powered By Docstoc
					   The Balanced Scorecard:
          Executing Strategy for
          Breakthrough Results


Based on Presentation by David P. Norton
                    President
     Balanced Scorecard Collaborative/Palladium
    Most organizations don’t know how to execute strategy.




                          “Less than 10% of
                         strategies effectively
                             formulated are
                         effectively executed.”

                                         – Fortune Magazine




2
Why do organizations fail to execute strategy?



                      #1. You can’t manage
                          something that you
                          can’t describe!




                     There is no generally
                     accepted way to describe
                     a business strategy
Why do organizations fail to execute strategy?



   #1. You Can’t Manage
                                        #2. They Don’t Manage
       Something That You
                                            Strategy
       Can’t Describe!


                                       • 95% of the typical work force
                                         doesn’t understand the strategy

   There is no generally               • 60% of organizations do not link
   accepted way to describe              strategies with budgets
   a business strategy
                                       • 70% do not link management
                                         incentives to strategy

                                       • 85% of executive teams spend
                                         less than one hour per month
                                         discussing strategy
Balanced Scorecard Hall of Fame for Executing Strategy
Achieving Breakthrough Results
How did they do it?


  #1. They translated their strategies to          #2. They put strategy at the center of
      operational terms                                their management process


STRATEGY

                                                                Management
                 Balanced
                 Scorecard                                      STRATEGY


               Strategy Maps                                      Process


                                                                  Motivate




                                            They created
                                            strategy-focused
                                            organizations
TOPIC #1: How To Describe Your Business Strategy


   Financial Strategy                       Business Strategy
Strategy is how an organization intends to create value for its
stakeholders.

                                 Private Sector Organizations

                                          The Strategy


                                        Financial Perspective

                                      "If we succeed, how will we
                                       look to our shareholders?”
          Introducing
         Strategy Maps                 Customer Perspective

                                      "To achieve our vision, how
                                          must we look to our
                                             customers?”
       A simple model of the
                                        Internal Perspective
       value creation process
                                     "To satisfy our customers, at
                                      which processes must we
                                                excel?”


                                         Learning & Growth
                                      "To achieve our vision, how
                                      must our organization learn
                                             and improve
Sample Strategy Map: Consumer Bank
                                                                         ―Our success comes from…
 Financial



                       F2 - Maximize              F3 - Grow non-                  F1 - Achieve sustainable double-                       F4 - Manage financial
                    traditional revenue             traditional                        digit net income growth                          resources for maximum
                          sources                revenue sources                                                                          risk-adjusted return



                                                                   …enduring value-added relationships…
 Customer




                      C1 - “Understand me and                    C2 - “Give me                        C3 - “Appreciate me, and
                                                                                                                                               C4 - “Be involved
                          give me the right                  convenient access to                      get things done easily,
                                                                                                                                              in my communities.”
                      information and advice.”                the right products.”                      quickly, and right.”


                                                      …which is all about great products and personal service…
                              Innovation                                 Customer Partnerships                              Operational Excellence

                         Communicate the full value                         Consistently deliver the full                        Provide premium service to
                              proposition                                       value proposition                                delight and retain valuable
 Internal Process




                                                                                                                                         customers
                                                                          Migrate customers to the right
                                                                                    channel
                           Broaden offering through                                                                           Maximize efficiency and quality
                       internal & external partnerships                                                                          of business processes
                                                                           Identify and recognize high-
                                                                              potential relationships


                       Develop attractive new products                     Segment markets and target                             Focus on the critical few
                                 & services                                       prospects                                              activities



                                                                   …delivered by a motivated & prepared work force.‖
 Learning and
   Growth




                              L1 - “We develop,               L2 - “I‟m developing                L3 - “We understand the                   L4 - “We have the
                            recognize, retain, and             the skills I need to               strategy and know what                information and tools we
                              hire great people.”                   succeed.”                          we need to do.”                     need to do our jobs.”
The Balanced Scorecard for Consumer Bank                                                                                                    Consumer
                                                                                                                                                Bank




                    Perspective                      Strategic Objectives                        Strategic Measures               Targets

                                            F1   Increase earnings per share             •   Net income (vs. plan)                  +$100M
                                            F2   Add and retain high value customers     •   Revenue mix (by target segment)     30%(A) 70%(B)
Financial Perspective                       F3   Increase revenue per customer           •   Revenue per customer                    $300
                                            F4   Reduce cost per customer                •   Cost per customer                        $75


                                                                                         •   Customer satisfaction (survey)          90%
                                            C1   Become a trusted financial advisor
Customer Perspective                                                                     •   Share of wallet                         50%
                                            C2   Provide superior service
                                                                                         •   Target customer retention               90%


                                            I1   Understand customer segments            •   Share of segment                        30%
                    Customer Management     I2   Shift to appropriate channel            •   Channel mix change                      40%
                                            I3   Cross-sell the product line             •   Cross-sell ratio                         2.5
Perspective
  Internal




                    Product Innovation      I4   Develop new products                    •   Revenue from new products (%)           50%

                                            I5   Minimize problems                       •   Service error rate                       0.%
                    Operations Management   I6   Provide rapid response                  •   Request fulfillment time               < 24hrs

                    Responsible Citizen     I7   Build diversity reflecting community    •   Diversity mix versus community           1.0


                    Human Capital           L1   Insure readiness of strategic jobs      •   Strategic job readiness                 100%
Learning & Growth
   Perspective




                    Information Capital     L2   Insure availability of strategic info   •   Information portfolio readiness         100%

                                                                                         •   Customer survey                         100%
                                            L3   Create a customer-focused culture
                                                                                         •   360° Survey (leadership model)           70%
                                            L4   Build cadre of leaders
                    Organization Capital                                                 •   Strategic awareness survey               90%
                                            L5   Align the organization
                                                                                         •   Personal goals aligned to BSC (%)       100%
                                            L6   Best practice sharing
                                                                                         •   KMS utilization/currency                100%
Strategy describes how an organization intends to create value for its
shareholders.
      Private Sector Organizations             Government & Non-Profit Organizations

             The Shareholder                              The Mission Stakeholder


             Financial Perspective
                                               Fiduciary Perspective              Customer Perspective
           "If we succeed, how will we
            look to our shareholders?”        "If we succeed, how will we       "To achieve our vision, how
                                                  look to our taxpayers             must we look to our
                                                      (or donors)?”                    customers?”
            Customer Perspective

           "To achieve our vision, how
               must we look to our                               Internal Perspective
                  customers?”
                                                           “To satisfy our customers, financial
                                                           donors and mission, what business
             Internal Perspective
                                                             processes must we excel at?”
          "To satisfy our customers, at
           which processes must we
                     excel?”
                                                                  Learning & Growth
              Learning & Growth
                                                         “To achieve our vision, how must our
           "To achieve our vision, how                   people learn, communicate, and work
           must our organization learn                                 together?”
                  and improve



           Strategy maps are simple models of the value creation process.
Architecture for an Association Strategy Map


                  Associations: Member-Based Organizations

                               The Mission Stakeholder



                    Fiduciary Perspective             Member Perspective

                                                      "To achieve our vision,
                   "If we succeed, how will we
                                                     how must we look to our
                        look to our donors?”
                                                           members?”



                                      Internal Perspective

                                “To satisfy our members, financial
                                donors and mission, what business
                                  processes must we excel at?”




                                       Learning & Growth

                              “To achieve our vision, how must our
                              people learn, communicate, and work
                                            together?”
ADA Strategy Map

 ADA’s Mission, Vision, Goal and Values



        Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all
        people affected by diabetes



        Vision: To make an every day difference in the lives of people affected
        by diabetes



        Goal: By 2007 we will continue to be the leading diabetes organization
        and will support our programs of research by increasing our income to
        $300MM while improving net margin



        Values: Integrity, Passion for making a difference, inclusion, leadership,
        ownership, trust
Strategy Map: American Diabetes Association

  Constituent                                    Information Seekers   Board of Directors                            Stakeholder
                             High Risk Individuals                                          Community Volunteer
                                                                                               Leadership
                People Affected by Diabetes
                                                                                                         High Impact Individuals
           Professional Section

      Corporate Community

  Donors




                The Strategy Map design begins with a clear definition of:

                                      • The Stakeholders (like “shareholders”)

                                      • The Constituents (like “customers”)
Strategy Map: American Diabetes Association

  Constituent                                     Information Seekers                     Board of Directors                            Stakeholder
                              High Risk Individuals                                                            Community Volunteer
                                                                                                                  Leadership
                People Affected by Diabetes                             Progress Toward
                                                                        Prevention/Cure                                     High Impact Individuals
           Professional Section

      Corporate Community

  Donors                                Improve
                                        Quality of
                                          Life

                 Improve
                 Quality of
                   Care




           • Analysis of constituent needs leads to clear, concise definitions
             of the constituent objectives that we will attempt to satisfy

                (like a “customer value proposition”)
Strategy Map: American Diabetes Association

  Constituent                                     Information Seekers                        Board of Directors                            Stakeholder
                              High Risk Individuals                                                               Community Volunteer
                                                                                                                     Leadership
                People Affected by Diabetes                             Progress Toward
                                                                        Prevention/Cure                                        High Impact Individuals
           Professional Section

      Corporate Community                                                 Financial
  Donors                                Improve                                                                    Increase
                                        Quality of                                                                Net Margin
                                          Life

                 Improve                                                                   Grow                                          Operate
                 Quality of                                                               Revenues                                      Efficiently
                   Care




           • The Financial strategy for an association plays a “support role”,
             unlike the private sector where it is the ultimate measure of
             effectiveness

           • Nonetheless, the financial strategy is structurally similar and no
             less intense
Strategy Map: American Diabetes Association

  Constituent                                      Information Seekers                         Board of Directors                            Stakeholder
                               High Risk Individuals                                                                Community Volunteer
                                                                                                                       Leadership
                 People Affected by Diabetes                             Progress Toward
                                                                         Prevention/Cure                                         High Impact Individuals
            Professional Section

      Corporate Community                                                  Financial
  Donors                                 Improve                                                                     Increase
                                         Quality of                                                                 Net Margin
                                           Life

                  Improve                                                                   Grow                                           Operate
                  Quality of                                                               Revenues                                       Efficiently
                    Care


 Work Process                  Constituent Relationship Management                                                    Standardized Execution
                                       Develop, Deliver &                                                                  Improve End
                                       Evaluate Products &                                                                   to End
           Influence                        Services                         Establish Donor                                Processes
             Policy                                                           Focused Fund
            Makers                                                               Raising                                                    Identify
                                      Understand & Prioritize                                                  Adopt ADA                    Resource
                                       Segments, Needs &                                                      Best Practices                 Gaps
                                            Strategies




                 • Identify the “critical few” internal processes that create the
                   desired impact on constituent and financial outcomes
Strategy Map: American Diabetes Association

   Constituent                                      Information Seekers                         Board of Directors                              Stakeholder
                                High Risk Individuals                                                                Community Volunteer
                                                                                                                        Leadership
                  People Affected by Diabetes                             Progress Toward
                                                                          Prevention/Cure                                           High Impact Individuals
             Professional Section

       Corporate Community                                                  Financial
   Donors                                 Improve                                                                     Increase
                                          Quality of                                                                 Net Margin
                                            Life

                   Improve                                                                    Grow                                            Operate
                   Quality of                                                                Revenues                                        Efficiently
                     Care


  Work Process                  Constituent Relationship Management                                                    Standardized Execution
                                        Develop, Deliver &                                                                   Improve End
                                        Evaluate Products &                                                                    to End
            Influence                        Services                         Establish Donor                                 Processes
              Policy                                                           Focused Fund
             Makers                                                               Raising                                                      Identify
                                       Understand & Prioritize                                                   Adopt ADA                     Resource
                                        Segments, Needs &                                                       Best Practices                  Gaps
                                             Strategies


 Enablers
                                    Train the                                 Integrate X-                             Align with
                                    Workforce                                 Functionally                             Priorities
      Identify & Recruit                                                                                                                     Achieve
                                                         Keep the                                   Integrate                               Appropriate
       Qualified Talent                                 Best People                                   Data                                 Fund Balance
Topic #2 – How did they create Strategy Focused Organizations


  #1. They translated their strategies to          #2. They put strategy at the center of
      operational terms                                their management process


STRATEGY

                                                                Management
                 Balanced
                 Scorecard                                      STRATEGY


               Strategy Maps                                      Process


                                                                  Motivate




                                            They created
                                            strategy-focused
                                            organizations
There is a consistent set of ―best practices‖ applied by successful
BSC users.
                                                                                              1. MOBILIZE CHANGE THROUGH
              2. TRANSLATE STRATEGY TO
                                                                                                  EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP
                  OPERATIONAL TERMS
                                                                                                              1.1 Top leadership committed
                2.1 Strategy map developed                                                              1.2 Case for change clearly articulated
                     2.2 Balanced Scorecard created                                               1.3 Leadership team engaged
                          2.3 Targets established                                            1.4 Vision and strategy clarified
                               2.4 Initiatives rationalized                             1.5 New way of managing understood
                                     2.5 Accountability assigned                  1.6 Program manager identified


                                                             STRATEGY-
                                                              FOCUSED
                                                            ORGANIZATION
                                                                                                  5. GOVERN TO MAKE STRATEGY A
                                                                                                       CONTINUAL PROCESS
                                                                   BEST
               3.1 Corporate role defined                                                     5.1 BSC reporting system established
            3.2 Corporate – SBUs aligned                         PRACTICES                        5.2 Strategy review meetings conducted
         3.3 SBU – Support units aligned                                                             5.3 Planning, budgeting, and strategy integrated
      3.4 SBU – External Partners aligned                                                               5.4 HR and IT planning linked to strategy
  3.5 Board of directors aligned                                                                            5.5 Process management linked to strategy
                                                                                                               5.6 Knowledge sharing linked to strategy
                                                    4. MOTIVATE TO MAKE                                             5.7 Strategy Management Office
                                                  STRATEGY EVERYONE’S JOB                                               established

                                                           4.1   Strategy awareness created
                                                           4.2   Personal goals aligned
                                                           4.3   Personal incentives aligned
                                                           4.4   Competency development aligned
1   Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization
    Mobilize Change through Executive Leadership


    Principle 1:                                                A successful Balanced
    Mobilize Change through                                     Scorecard program starts with a
    Executive Leadership                                        recognition that it is not a
                   Best Practices                               metrics project…
    1.1   Top leadership committed
    1.2   Case for change clearly articulated                   IT’S A CHANGE PROCESS
    1.3   Leadership team engaged
    1.4   Vision and strategy clarified
    1.5   New way of managing understood
    1.6   Program manager identified                                        CEO
                                                                     MKTG                 CFO

    The executive team is                                            Executive Team
    responsible for overseeing the               Formulate &           Held together by
                                                                                                        Oversee
                                                               OPS
                                                Communicate            a shared view of         SMO   Execution of
    formation and execution of                  The Strategy             the strategy                 The Strategy
    strategy.
                                                                R&D                        CIO

                                                                            HRO
2    Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization
     Translate the Strategy to Operational Terms



    Principle 2:                                       The Objective:
                                                       Link management process to strategy
    Translate the Strategy to
    Operational Terms
                                                       The Problem:
                Best Practices                         How do you describe a strategy?.

    2.1   Strategy map developed
    2.2   Balanced Scorecard created
    2.3   Targets established                              You can’t manage
    2.4   Initiatives rationalized                         something that you
    2.5   Accountability assigned                            can’t describe!
                 The Balanced Scorecard provides a framework to link long term strategic
                 objectives to short term targets, initiatives and accountability.


Longer Term (3-5 year) View                                                                                                                                   Shorter Term (Annual) View


Mission                                      Vision                                 Strategy and Map                       Objectives         Measures            Targets       Initiatives             Milestones               Accountable        Resource Alloc.

                                                                                                       Financial   •        Grow high-    •   % revenue       •   „04 xx%
                                                                                               F1
                                                                                                                                              from high-
 To provide top-notch healthcare to our




                                                                                                                            margin                            •   „05 xx%
                                              Be the community hospital of choice




                                                                                                                            service           margin
                                                                                     F2                                                       services        •   „06 xx%
                                                                                                       Customer




                                                                                                                   •       Provide        •   Customer                      •   Develop         •       Survey drafted           •    Mkg.           •   $ xxxx
                                                                                                                                              satisfaction    •   „04 xx%
                                                                                                                           personalized                                         organization-           by 6/04                       Team
                                                                                                                                                              •   „05 xx%
              community




                                                                                          C1                               care               survey rating                     wide survey
                                                                                                                                                              •   „06 xx%

                                                                                                                       •    Keep patients •   Service level                 •   Electronic      •       Complete by      •           Dept. Chairs    •   $ xxxx
                                                                                                       Internal




                                                                                     P1                                     informed          spot check      •   „04 xx%       notes project           2004
                                                                                               P2                                             rating          •   „05 xx%                       •       All patients
                                                                                                                                                              •   „06 xx%                               logged in
                                                                                                       Learning




                                                                                                                       •    Provide       •   % new           •   „04 xx%   •   Learning            •    Deadline            •       HR              •   $ xxxx
                                                                                                                            technology        technology      •   „05 xx%       assessment               met                         Committee
                                                                                                                            & resources       used by staff                     project
                                                                                          L4                                                                  •   „06 xx%




                                          Strategy                                                                                                                                                                                           Tactics

              ―Leadership‖                                                                                                                                                                                                           ―Management‖
3    Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization
     Align the Organization to the Strategy



    Principle 3:
    Align the Organization to the                                                    Shareholders
                                                                                        Board
    Strategy                                                                            CEO               BSC provides a
                                                       BSC provides a framework                           framework for aligning
                                                       for describing strategy and                        the governance
                                                                                      Corporate           process and promoting
                  Best Practices                       managing its execution
                                                       (“Strategy Focused                                 greater transparency
                                                       Organizations”)                  Group
    3.1   Corporate role defined
                                                                                       Division
    3.2   Corporate & SBUs aligned
    3.3   SBU & Support units aligned
    3.4   SBU & External partners aligned                           SBU        SBU       SBU        SBU   SBU


    3.5   Board of Directors aligned
                                                                                      Employees
4   Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization:
    Make Strategy Everyone’s Job




Principle 4:                                                                   CORP

Making Strategy Everyone’s                       Top-Down “Bridging
                                                                                SBU
                                                                                                    Bottom-Up Process
Job                                              Process” To Share                                  to Internalize &
                                                 the Strategy & Align                               Execute the
              Best Practices                     the Workforce                                      Strategy

4.1 Create strategic awareness
4.2 Align personal goals
4.3 Align personal incentives
                                                                   The Strategy Focused Workforce
4.4 Align competency development


                                                             HR processes are essential for moving
                                                             strategy from the top to the bottom
5     Principles of the Strategy-Focused Organization
      Govern to Make Strategy a Continual Process




Principle 5:
Govern to Make Strategy a Continual                                    Integrated
Process                                                                 Planning


                                                         Review &
                Best Practices                           Learning                   Organizational
                                                                                      Alignment
5.1    BSC reporting system established                                 Strategy
5.2    Strategy review meetings conducted                             Leadership    Human Capital
                                                                                      Alignment
5.3    Planning, budgeting and strategy integrated
                                                        Reporting &
5.4    HR and IT planning linked to strategy             Analysis

5.5    Process management linked to strategy
                                                                       Continuous
5.6    Knowledge sharing linked to strategy                           Improvement

5.7    Strategy Management Office established
Strategy Management—An Integrated Closed Loop Process


 STRATEGY
MANAGEMENT                       This Year                                                                 Next Year
 PROCESS
                Q1      Q2                            Q3                        Q4                    Q1                  Q2

  Enterprise         Strategy Update
                     • Clarify Vision                                                                              Strategy Update
   Strategy          • Update Strategy
   Planning
                           Strategy Map / Scorecard
                                Design & Update


Business Unit                               Organization Alignment
  Strategy                                  • Corporate role updated
                                            • Corporate-SBU aligned
  Planning                                  • SBU support unit aligned
                                            • Board of Directors aligned


                                                            Financial Resource Alignment
  Financial                                                 • Budgets
  Planning                                                  • Initiatives




                                                                           Human Resource Alignment
Human Capital                                                              • Personal goals
  Planning                                                                 • Incentives
                                                                           • Personal development

                                Strategy Communication

                                   Strategy Reviews
 Management
  Control &                      Initiative Management
  Learning
                                  Knowledge Sharing
There is a consistent set of ―best practices‖ applied by successful
BSC users.
                                                                                              1. MOBILIZE CHANGE THROUGH
              2. TRANSLATE STRATEGY TO
                                                                                                  EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP
                  OPERATIONAL TERMS
                                                                                                              1.1 Top leadership committed
                2.1 Strategy map developed                                                              1.2 Case for change clearly articulated
                     2.2 Balanced Scorecard created                                               1.3 Leadership team engaged
                          2.3 Targets established                                            1.4 Vision and strategy clarified
                               2.4 Initiatives rationalized                             1.5 New way of managing understood
                                     2.5 Accountability assigned                  1.6 Program manager identified


                                                             STRATEGY-
                                                              FOCUSED
                                                            ORGANIZATION
                                                                                                  5. GOVERN TO MAKE STRATEGY A
                                                                                                       CONTINUAL PROCESS
                                                                   BEST
               3.1 Corporate role defined                                                     5.1 BSC reporting system established
            3.2 Corporate – SBUs aligned                         PRACTICES                        5.2 Strategy review meetings conducted
         3.3 SBU – Support units aligned                                                             5.3 Planning, budgeting, and strategy integrated
      3.4 SBU – External Partners aligned                                                               5.4 HR and IT planning linked to strategy
  3.5 Board of directors aligned                                                                            5.5 Process management linked to strategy
                                                                                                               5.6 Knowledge sharing linked to strategy
                                                    4. MOTIVATE TO MAKE                                             5.7 Strategy Management Office
                                                  STRATEGY EVERYONE’S JOB                                               established

                                                           4.1   Strategy awareness created
                                                           4.2   Personal goals aligned
                                                           4.3   Personal incentives aligned
                                                           4.4   Competency development aligned
What is your organization’s strategic readiness?
                                                                SFO Strategic Readiness Assessment

               2. TRANSLATE STRATEGY                                                                          1. MOBILIZE CHANGE THROUGH
                  TO OPERATIONAL TERMS                                                                           EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP
                           2.1- Strategy Map Developed             2                                          1.1 – Top Leadership Committed        2

                                                                                                              1.2 – Case for Change Clear           3
                           2.2 – Balanced Scorecard Created        3
                                                                                                              1.3 – Leadership Team Engaged         3
                           2.3 – Targets Established               3
                                                                                                              1.4 – Vision & Strategy Clarified     2
                           2.4 – Initiatives Rationalized          2
                                                                                                              1.5 – New Way of Managing             2
                           2.5 – Accountability Assigned           2
                                                                                                              1.6 – Program Manager Identified      2


                                                                               2.4              2.3
                  3. ALIGN THE                                                                                            5. GOVERN TO MAKE
                     ORGANIZATION                                                    STRATEGY-
                                                                                      FOCUSED
                                                                                                                             STRATEGY A
                     TO THE STRATEGY                                                ORGANIZATION                             CONTINUAL PROCESS
                                                                        1.6                             2.0
                                                                                                                           5.1 – BSC Reporting System              2
                3.1 – Corporate Role Defined                2

                                                                                       2.5                                 5.2 – Strategic Review Meetings         2
                3.2 – Corporate-SBUs Aligned                2
                                                                                                                           5.3 – Budgets and Strategy Integrated 2
                3.3 – SBU-Support Units Aligned             2
                                                                                                                           5.4 – HR/IT Linked to Strategy          2
                3.4 – SBU-External Partner Aligned          1

                                                                       4. MOTIVATE TO MAKE                                 5.5 – Process Mgt. Linked to Strategy   2
                3.5 – Board of Directors Aligned            1
                                                                       STRATEGY EVERYONE’S                                 5.6 – Knowledge Sharing Linked          2
                                                                       JOB                                                 5.7 – Strategy Management Office        2
  Key: Level of Excellence
                                                                    4.1 – Strategic Awareness Created          2
  5 - We are “best practice’ at this
  4 – We are good at this                                           4.2 – Personal Goals Aligned               3
  3 – We are okay at this
  2 – We are not good at this                                       4.3 – Personal Incentives Aligned          2
  1 – We are awful at this
                                                                    4.4 – Competency Development Aligned       3
Just as with other management disciplines, you must build the
capability to execute strategy as a permanent, enduring competency
of your organization.

                                  “A New Way of Managing”

                                                 Enterprise



   Financial           Human Resource                               Marketing /            Technology   Strategic
  Management            Management                                Communications           Management   Planning



                                              Strategy
                                             Management




               Organizational   Organizational                Organizational   Organizational
                  Unit A           Unit B                        Unit C           Unit D

				
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