Aircraft Turbo Jet Engine Technology - PDF

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					                 MILITARY
                 AIRCRAFT
                 ENGINES
PROPELLING YOU
THROUGH TIME
AND SPACE
Airbus A400M




2 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Snecma, world-class
manufacturer of aircraft
and rocket engines
Snecma is the aerospace propulsion specialist in the
international technology group SAFRAN. We design,
develop and produce commercial and military aircraft
engines, as well as propulsion systems for launchers
and satellites. Our products are exported worldwide.




             Military engines
             Powering 20 types of aircraft in 40 countries

              Snecma designs, develops, produces and supports engines for
military transport, training and combat aircraft. Our flagship products are
the M53-P2 powering the Mirage 2000, the M88-2 on the Rafale, and the
TP400-D6 turboprop for the new Airbus Military A400M military transport.




             Commercial engines
             The broadest thrust range on the market

             Working with General Electric of the United States, Snecma
designs, produces, markets and supports the CFM56, the world’s best selling
commercial aircraft engine, and has a stake in the large turbofans CF6-80,
GE90 and GP7200. We are also developing the SaM146 for regional jets, and
preparing a new engine concept for the high-end business aircraft market.




             Space engines
             The best balance of performance, reliability and cost
              Snecma makes propulsion systems for both launch vehicles
and satellites, including the Vulcain®2 and HM7B engines for Ariane 5.
Our PPS®1350 plasma thruster recently set the world endurance record
for electric propulsion.




                                                  SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 3
Carrier-borne Rafale fighter




4 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Strategy and markets



  Military aviation market
The military aviation market includes combat, training, tactical support and
transport aircraft. Snecma operates in three of these segments, primarily
addressing the governments who order the aircraft and the armed forces who
deploy them.


  Operating costs, a decisive advantage
Drawing on our technological expertise, we design products combining top
reliability and performance. The other major focus is reduced operating costs,
achieved by extending component life and streamlining maintenance opera-
tions. Through a sustained effort in research, technology and development,
we offer products that continue to drive down costs.




  Teaming up for the future
Because of the technological challenges, cost and long development cycles
characteristic of military engines, manufacturers are increasingly teaming up
to tackle these programs. Snecma is one of the pioneers in cross-border engine
programs. Today, we are part of Europrop International, a consortium in
charge of the development and production of the TP400-D6 turboprop,
powerplant of Europe’s new A400M airlifter being built by Airbus Military.




Snecma is a pioneer
 cross-border
in
engine programs.

                                               SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 5
   CFM56
Combat aircraft



The M88-2
was designed
for the Rafale
multirole
fighter, and
is especially
suited to
demanding low-
altitude penetration
and high-altitude
interception missions.




Reducedelectronic                      M88-2
                                       New generation
                                                                                      APPLICATIONS: Rafale air force and naval versions

                                                                                      THRUST:   50 to 75 kN
and infrared                           Its modular design makes maintenance a
                                                                                      FIRST ENGINE DELIVERY:   1996

signatures,                            snap: the engine comprises 21 modules,

low-emissions                          so that it can be serviced without complete
                                       removal for higher dispatch reliability.
combustor,                             The M88-2 is the first new-generation jet

single-crystal                         engine for 21st century combat and train-
                                       ing aircraft. It marks considerable techno-
high-pressure turbine                  logical progress, with a high thrust-to-
                                       weight ratio, plus a full authority digital
                                                                                      M88 ECO
blades, powder                         engine control (FADEC) for carefree han-       The M88 ECO is a technology demonstra-
                                       dling anywhere in its operating envelope.      tor now under test, designed to reduce the
metallurgy disks and                   It’s also the first engine of this type that
                                                                                      M88-2’s cost of ownership and increase its

ceramic matrix                         doesn’t need bench recalibration or
                                       ground test runs after servicing.
                                                                                      thrust to 9 tons (19,800 lb). These improve-
                                                                                      ments will ensure the Rafale fighter’s
refractory materials.                                                                 future competitiveness in terms of payload
                                                                                      capacity and in-flight performance.




6 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Single-spool turbofan, 3-stage low-pressure compressor,
5-stage high-pressure compressor, annular combustor,
cooled 2-stage turbine, annular afterburner.




                                                Mirage 2000, all versions
                                APPLICATIONS:
                                                                            M53-P2
                                THRUST:   64 to 95 kN                       Exceptional
                                FIRST ENGINE DELIVERY:   1984               handling
                                                                            The M53-P2 is a reliable, high-performance
                                                                            engine featuring carefree handling through-
                                                                            out an extensive flight envelope, from very
                                                                            low speeds to Mach 2.2.

                                                                            Nearly 650 M53 engines are now in service
                                                                            with eight air forces around the world.

                                                                            The M53 is proven in combat. Snecma is
                                                                            now offering a modernized control system
                                                                            for easier, more economical maintenance
                                                                            on the Mirage 2000, which will remain in
                                                                            operation for another 30 years.




                                                                                                                  More than
                                                                                                                 1 million
                                                                                                             hours in flight.



                                                                                        SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 7
Transport aircraft

                                                               Airbus A400M
TP400-D6                                        APPLICATION:

Tailored power                                  SERVICE ENTRY:   2009

for the A400M                                   POWER:    11,000 shp at sea-level

The TP400-D6 turboprop powers the four-         TYPE OF ENGINE:   triple-spool turboprop
engine A400M military transport being           PRESSURE RATIO:   25
built by Airbus Military S.L.
                                                WEIGHT, DRY:   approx. 1,860 kg
Snecma is co-developing this new engine         LENGTH:   3.5 meters
with fellow European manufacturers
Industria de Turbo Propulsores (ITP), MTU       PROPELLER:   Ratier-Figeac FH386
Aero Engines and Rolls-Royce, through
the Europrop International (EPI) consor-
tium. For Snecma, this project continues
our tradition of international collabora-
tion, starting with the Tyne(1) and Larzac(2)
military engines, and of course the best-
selling CFM56(3) commercial turbofan.

The TP400-D6, a triple-spool turboprop
developing some 11,000 shaft horse-
power, is purpose-designed for the
A400M. It is the most powerful turboprop
engine in the West, with an advanced
                                                                           The most
design and a number of proven technolo-                             powerful turboprop
gies developed by the four partners in EPI.                             engine in the West.
(1) Snecma, Rolls-Royce and MTU Aero Engines.
(2) Snecma and Turbomeca.
(3) Snecma and General Electric.




Snecma’s role
Snecma is in charge of the combustor and high-pressure
turbine, installation on the aircraft and qualification tests,
the control system and accessory gearbox (Hispano-Suiza,
a fellow SAFRAN Group company) and the lubrication system
(Techspace Aero, also a SAFRAN company).




8 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
           TP400-D6 on Snecma test rig
in Istres (France) on February 28, 2006
 Training aircraft engines

                                                “PROVEN
                                                OPERABILITY”




                                         APPLICATIONS:   Alpha Jet


                                         Larzac®
                                         Dependability
    More than                            in flight
3.2 million
hours in flight.                         The Larzac jet engine, powerplant of the
                                         Alpha Jet trainer, was one of the first air-
                                         craft engines built through an interna-
                                         tional partnership (France-Germany).
                                         Launched in 1969 (with the advanced
                                         04C20 version following in 1982), it is still
                                         perfectly suited to any new single or twin-
                                         engine trainer. The French air force plans
                                         to keep its Alpha Jets in service until 2015,
                                         and these Larzac-powered aircraft are
                                         deployed by 12 other countries.




 10 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
                                                                                Mature engines
Atar®
Seamless user
support
The Atar jet engine fam-
ily entered service more
than a half-century ago,
with the latest model
launched in 1973 for the Mirage
F1 and Mirage 50. Recognized for their
excellent performance, these aircraft will
remain in service until at least 2015.
Snecma has set up seamless technical and
logistic support for all users of this engine.

                                                                                                                       More than
                                                                                                                    6.4 million
                                                 APPLICATIONS: Mirage III, V,                                    hours in flight.
                                                 F1 and 50, Super Étendard




                                                                                     Tyne
                                                                                     Support
                                                                                     by the hour
                                                                                     The Tyne turboprop has been produced
                                                                                     since 1964 by an international consortium
                                                                                     including Snecma, to power military sur-
                                                                                     veillance and transport aircraft. As power-
                                                                                     plant of the Transall C-160 transport and
                                                                                     Breguet Atlantic maritime patrol aircraft,
                                                                                     the Tyne has largely proven its reliability
                                                                                     and efficiency. Since 1999, maintenance,
                                                                                     repair and overhaul (MRO) services for the
                                                                                     engine have been provided by Snecma in
                                                                                     partnership with fellow group company
                                                                                     Snecma Services, through a total support
                                                                                     package with a fixed cost per flight-hour.
            More than
                                                                                     The fleet has posted very satisfactory dis-
        6.7 million                                                                  patch reliability.
       hours in flight.
                                                                                     APPLICATIONS:Transall C-160,
                                                                                     Breguet Atlantic



                                                                                                SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 11
Forward-looking
research & technology

Scientific research
Technological development
Production engineering

Snecma invests heavily in research, technology,
development and engineering to maintain our market
leadership. We have launched a number of actions,
from targeted actions spurring internal synergies to
partnerships with research organizations, universities
and other companies in France, Europe and around
the world. The technologies developed through
these programs will offer the best tradeoff between
engine performance and cost.



R&T priorities
• Hot section: combustor and high-pressure turbine

• Control systems, especially electronic control units

• Compressor stability, and handling under extreme conditions

• Exhausts

• Afterburner

• Composite materials


Extending current programs
We are exploring a number of areas of research, but some of our current devel-
opments are already springboards for future technology leaps. For example,
some of the components being studied for the TP400-D6 could be used in
tomorrow’s manned and unmanned military aircraft, or even helicopters.




12 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
                        M53 engine




SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 13
Top priorities:
customers and the future


Customer service
The top priority at Snecma is to give our customers top-flight service. We listen
to our customers, make sure they are satisfied by combining local support with
global reach, and anticipate their requirements.


Training
Customers increasingly demand training. Snecma’s experts can be sent on-site
to teach operators the best way of using our hardware. In addition, we provide
a broad range of e-learning tutorials to give users the requisite background.


Technical assistance on site
Close customer support is essential. On request, Snecma sends technical assistance
teams to help operators. These teams, on short or long-term assignment, provide
assistance in maintenance, setting up workshops, qualification procedures, etc.


Maintenance or logistics
management
At Snecma, we can take charge of maintenance packages (procurement, man-
agement of parts and equipment availability), or of our customers’ logistics
needs, from forecasting requirements to delivery.


Hot line and warranties
Snecma has of course set up a hot line to quickly answer our customers’
questions and warranty inquiries.




14 SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES
                      Airbus A400M




SNECMA • MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES 15
Applications


M88-2
Rafale air force and naval version

M53-P2
Mirage 2000

TP400-D6
Airbus A400M

Larzac®
Alpha Jet




                                                                                         . Photos: Corbis/Skyscan/DR, Airbus Military, DR Snecma, Studio Pons/SAFRAN, Éric Drouin/Snecma – June 2006
Atar®
Mirage III, V, F1 and 50, Super Étendard

Tyne
Transall C-160, Breguet Atlantic




                                                                                         Design and production:
                                           10, allée du Brévent – CE1420 Courcouronnes
                                                     91019 Evry Cedex – France
                                                      Tel.: 33 (0) 1 69 87 09 00
                                                      Fax: 33 (0) 1 69 87 09 02
                                                         www.snecma.com

				
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