BMW Hydrogen Car A Dedication to Cleaner Mobility A Presentation for Transportation Systems Outline What is hydrogen technology? Where is this happening? Brief BMW History BMW and Hydrogen… – the good and the bad The Fuel (Hydrogen) BMW Testimony Competition: Other companies pursuing hydrogen option Timetable: when to look for this on the market BMW: Where is This Happening? The main headquarters for the research into this hydrogen option is being conducted at the BMW Headquarters in Munich, Germany. BMW Headquarters National Geographic Society (U.S.) National Geographic Maps. Atlas of the World, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, c 2005. Brief BMW History Since the 70's, BMW has been researching the future of mobility Their first hydrogen car was the BMW 750 hL hydrogen powered vehicle. Brief BMW History The BMW 750hL is a production ready car It was first demonstrated at the Expo 2000 Brief BMW History It represents three decades of research on hydrogen powered vehicles The 750hL is powered by sunlight and water BMW and Hydrogen The BMW solution is a Clean Energy system Hydrogen is produced using solar power The hydrogen is dispensed from automated filling stations Why Hydrogen Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe It can address both energy and clean air concerns at the same time http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH /science/03/16/hydrogen.cars/ Why Hydrogen Hydrogen is an element with huge energy potential The sun utilizes hydrogen in a process called fusion Hydrogen is responsible for the entire energy output from the sun BMW and Hydrogen The engine of the 750hL is a hybrid, 12-cylinder combustion engine It has two independent electronically controlled fuel induction systems The 750 hL can run on either gasoline or hydrogen With the hydrogen 12-cylinder, the BMW Group has demonstrated the practical performance of the bivalent combustion engine. The next generation will reach the performance levels of gasoline and diesel engines. The Good The hydrogen engine has excellent torque and acceleration Features a specially insulated 140-liter tank for the liquid hydrogen which provides a range of 400 kilometers The Bad Some of the drawbacks to hydrogen as a fuel are: – Infrastructure to deliver is expensive – Transition will take time – Initial costs will be high The Process Through a photovoltaic array, electricity is generated from sunlight The electricity is applied to water to separate hydrogen from oxygen The oxygen is released into the atmosphere while the hydrogen is burned in the car The byproduct of the combustion is water vapor How to Extract Hydrogen The top picture shows how a bond between water molecules are formed The bottom picture shows then length of the 0-H bond within a water molecule-the bond length corresponds to the energy required to break the bond The longer the bond, the easier it is to break The Hydrogen Cycle The sun shines and energy is released Photovoltaic arrays absorb the sunlight and convert it into electricity The liquid hydrogen powers the car and the byproduct, water vapor, is released back into the natural water cycle. The Hydrogen Cycle The hydrogen is then cooled and goes from the gas to the liquid phase Electricity is applied to water and through a chemical process separates the oxygen from the hydrogen Producing the Fuel Electricity generated from solar power is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen Oxygen is released into the atmosphere, while hydrogen is liquefied and stored at a very low temperature (-253 °C). Picture shows water with electricity being applied to separate hydrogen from oxygen www.eere.energy.gov/.../ technology_areas.html Burning the Fuel During combustion, the hydrogen combines with oxygen to power the vehicle: similarly to how gas powers an engine The only emissions of this system is water: not similar to gas combustion Storing the Fuel By cooling hydrogen to -253 C, it is shrunk to a thousandth of its original volume. 70 layers of aluminum and fiberglass sheets between the exterior and interior vehicle walls insure that the liquid hydrogen remains a liquid H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 H2 Room Temperature H2 -253 C Delivering the Fuel Working with Shell Oil Company, BMW has developed a technology for dispensing hydrogen from a filling station's pumps The world's first fully automatic hydrogen filling station was opened in May 1999 at the Munich Airport. Hydrogen Fuel Station, BMW hydrogen car - Munich Airport, Germany BMW Testimony BMW is the world leader in the development of hydrogen cars with internal combustion engines," said Tom Purves, chairman and CEO of BMW Group (U.S.). "We believe that in the output range above 140 horsepower, there is still no other clean, practical alternative to hydrogen. http://www.dancewithshadows.com/a uto/bmw-hydrogen.asp Competition DaimlerChrysler has announced that it will be ready to launch its first hydrogen-powered car by 2012. Ford's H2RV technology concept car could be built and sold today http://www.h2cars.biz/artman/publish/articl http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/03/ e_214.shtml 17/hydrogen_cars/ Timetable “Hydrogen was used to power a fleet of the previous generation 7 Series models in the late 1990s and BMW plans to launch its first commercially available hydrogen powered 7 Series models within the lifetime of the current BMW 7 Series.” http://www.carpages.co.uk/bmw/bmw-7-series-08-0505.asp?switched=on&echo=808422452 Resources Bodner, George., Rickard, Lyman., & Spencer, James. (2003). Chemistry: Structure and Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. http://www.bmwworld.com/hydrogen/ http://www.adventiscapital.com/ technologies.htm http://www.eere.energy.gov/.../ technology_areas.html http://www.dancewithshadows.com/auto/bmw-hydrogen.asp http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/03/17/hydrogen_cars/ http://www.carpages.co.uk/bmw/bmw-7-series-08-0505.asp?switched=on&echo=808422452 National Geographic Society (U.S.) National Geographic Maps. Atlas of the World, 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, c 2005.