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					       Uganda
The country, the History and
          Culture
Outline of presentation
     Geographical location
     Country facts
     People, language and culture
     History
     Agricultural sector
     Health sector
Location
   Relatively small landlocked country

   Located in the heart of the great African high
    plateau

   Lies a stride equator 4o 12’N and 10 29’S

   Longitude 29 35E and 35 0E
Location
         Equator

Border countries:
North:     Sudan 435 km,
East:      Kenya 933 km,
South:     Rwanda 169 km,
South:     Tanzania 396 km
West:      DRC 765 km
Country facts



     Area:
         Total: 236,040 sq km (91,135 sq miles)
         Land: 199,710 sq km
         Water: 36,330 sq km
     Slightly smaller than Oregon (97,073sq miles)
     Bigger than ND (70,702 sq miles)
   Population 30 millions
   Population growth rate
       3.37% (2006 est.)
   Birth rate
       47.35 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
   Death rate
       12.24 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
   Immigration rate
       -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Uganda – Quick facts
    Former British Protectorate
    Churchill called it the ‘Pearl of Africa’
    Got independence - 9th October 1962
    Republic of Uganda
    Capital city: Kampala
    International airport: Entebbe
    Unitary system of Government with an Elected
     President and Parliament
    Universal adult suffrage
    Population about 30 Million
    Currency –The shilling (1 US $ =1,700 Ug.Sh.)
The National symbols: Flag
The National symbols: The Coat of
Arms




Courtesy of Vector-Images.com
   The National bird
       Crested Crane
                         President
The President (left):Constitutionally
                          His Excellency
                          Museveni
   Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kagutaelected every 5 years-
 With Dr. Condoleezza (No terms)
                         Rice (Right)
        US Secretary of State
    Ethnic groups (17 major and 15
                    subgroups)
   Baganda 17%,           Lugbara 4%,
   Ankole 8%,             Batoro 3%,
   Basoga 8%,             Bunyoro 3%,
   Iteso 8%,              Alur 2%,
   Bakiga 7%,             Bagwere 2%,
   Langi 6%,              Bakonjo 2%,
   Rwanda 6%,             Jopodhola 2%,
   Bagisu 5%,             Karamojong 2%,
   Acholi 4%,             Rundi 2%,
                           non-African (European,
                            Asian, Arab) 1%, other
                            8%
Education system

    Nursery (Kindergarten) 2-3 years
    Primary 7 years
    Secondary ‘O’ level 4 years
    High School ‘A’ Level: 2 years
    University 3 years minimum
    Language of instruction:
        Indigenous in lower primary + intro English
        English upper primary
Literacy rate

     Definition: age 15 and over can read and
      write
         Male: 79.5%
         Female: 60.4% (2003 est.)
         Total population: 69.9%
     Labour Force
         agriculture: 82%
         Industry: 5%
         services: 13% (1999 est.)
Land Use:



        Arable land: 21.57%
        Permanent crops: 8.92%
        other: 69.51% (2005)
Physical and Biological Environment
   Uganda has diversity of physical and relief features,
    vegetation and animal life

   18% is open fresh water

   4% swamps ands rivers

   Remaining percentage forms the land area
    (Plateau).

   Said to be basin shaped with volcanic and block
    mountains forming a rim around central plateau with
    elevation of 900m-1500. asl.
             Pre-colonial setup
   Was a British creation
   With over thirty ethnic groups
   Broadly speaking there are four groups
    namely
       The bantu,
       Hamites
       Nilotics,
       Nilo-hamites and
       The sudanic tribes
Social-economic organization
   All societies had similar socio-economic institutions

   Worshipped ancestors and cults

   Extended family was a social unit

   Economic activities were mainly pastoralism and
    agriculture supplemented by hunting, fishing, iron-
    smelting and handicraft
Political organization

   Monarchies such as Buganda, Bunyoro,
    Nkore, and Toro

   Inter-ethnic relationship mainly through trade

   Peoples languages and culture
       Diverse cultures and languages
People, languages and cultures

   Uganda boasts of a population that is rich in
    its diverse cultures and languages

   Estimated population 30 millions classified
    into 2 major groups

   Bantu speakers (south and west of river Nile)
    and non Bantu (North and East)
Bantu Speaking areas
    Languages
    Devided into 4 groups
    Bantu: luganda, lusoga, Runyoro, Runyankore,
     Rutooro,Rukiga, Rwamba, Runyarwanda,
     Lumasaba, Lunyole, Lugwere etc
    Sudanic: Lugbara, Madi, Lendu
    Nilotic group: Acholi, Langi, alur,
     Dhopaluo,Labwor, Nyakwai, Kumam,
    Nilo-hamitic group: Ateso, Karimojong, Mening,
     Kakwa, suk, ik
Some aspects of Uganda Culture
Despite colonial influence Uganda has
   preserved lots of its culture.
  Social traditions
  Crafts
  Music
  Dances
  Folklore
  Food
  Dressing
Food
   Some food stuffs are common in most parts of
    Uganda
   Millet
   Sorghum
   Beans
   Pulses
   Groundnuts
   Potatoes
   Yams
   Cassava
   Maize(corn)
   Bananas- most eaten in the south
Religion

   Roman Catholic 33%,
   Protestant 33%,
   Muslim 16%,
   Indigenous beliefs 18%
       Traditional African religions
       Anchestral worship
Music and dances
   Reflect to some extent the geographic and
    economic environment of the people Eg.
       pastoral people emphasis themes of their cattle in
        their music and sometimes imitate movement of
        cattle in their dances.

       Agricultural people tend to reflect different
        farming activities and their social interactions.

       Traditional hunters and people living in forested
        areas reflect sounds of birds and different animals
        in their music.
History
History
   Cushitic speakers settled in the area around 1000 BC.

   In the first millennium AD, Bantu-speaking peoples
    moved into the highland areas of East Africa, cultivated
    the banana as a food crop.

   After AD 1000, two other migrations -Nilotic-speaking
    Sudanic people and Luo speakers.

   In the region south and west of the Nile, political
    organization were mostly centralized.

   North and east of the Nile, these tended to be
    decentralized
History
   In the south, the kingdom of Bunyoro was the most
    powerful and extensive, but in the 18th century the
    neighboring kingdom of Buganda began to challenge its
    supremacy.

   The two states engaged in a critical power struggle when
    the British explorers John Hanning Speke and J. A.
    Grant reached Buganda in 1862.

   They had been preceded some years earlier by Arab
    ivory and slave traders.

   Other foreigners soon followed. Sir Samuel Baker
    entered Uganda from the north shortly after Speke's
    departure.
History
   Baker returned to Uganda in 1872–73 as a representative
    of the Egyptian government to pursue a policy of
    expansion up the Nile.

   The first Christian missionaries, members of the CMS of
    Great Britain, came to Buganda in 1877.

   They were followed in 1879 by the Roman Catholic White
    Fathers.

   The missionaries were welcomed by the kabaka (ruler) of
    Buganda, Mutesa I, to counter against the Egyptian threat
    from the north.
History
   Mwanga succeeded Mutesa in 1884.

   Religious persecution of adherents of Christianity and Islam.

   Both sets of converts joined forces to drive the kabaka from his
    country in 1888.

   A few weeks later, the Christians were expelled by the Muslims.
    Mwanga then appealed to the Christians for help, and they finally
    succeeded in restoring him to power early in 1890.

   In 1888, the Imperial British East African Co. was granted a
    charter and authorized to administer the British sphere of East
    Africa.
History
   The Anglo-German agreement of 1890 officially outlined
    imperial spheres of influence in East Africa. Uganda and
    Kenya were considered British spheres and Tanganyika
    a German sphere.

   In 1890, Capt. F. D. Lugard was sent to Buganda to
    establish the company's influence there.

   Lugard obtained Mwanga's agreement to a treaty that
    placed Buganda under the company's protection.

   In 1894, the kingdom of Buganda became a British
    protectorate, which was extended in 1896 to cover
    Bunyoro and most of what is now Uganda.
History
   In 1897, Mwanga led a revolt against British
    encroachments; he was quickly defeated and deposed.

   His infant son, Daudi Chwa, succeeded him, and a
    regency was established to govern Buganda under
    British supervision.

   Under the Uganda Agreement of 1900, Buganda was
    ruled indirectly by the British, who in turn used the
    Baganda leadership as agents to extend British control
    indirectly throughout Uganda.

   Subsequent treaties for indirect rule were concluded with
    the remaining kingdoms over a period of years.
    History
   Kabaka Mutesa II was deposed in 1953 when he refused to force
    his chiefs to cooperate with the British

   He was restored to power in 1955 under a compromise
    agreement.

   Uganda should obtain independence on 9 October 1962.

   On 9 October 1963, Sir Edward Mutesa (Kabaka Mutesa II of
    Buganda) became Uganda's first president.

   In February 1966, the 1962 constitution was suspended and the
    Prime Minister, Milton Obote, assumed all powers of government
History
   On 25 January 1971, while Obote was out of the country, Maj Gen
    Idi Amin led a successful military coup and Uganda was proclaimed
    the second republic on 17 March 1971.
   (Field Marshal Al Haji Idi Amin Dada VC, DSO,CBE).

   The expulsion of Asian noncitizens from Uganda in August 1972

   An Israeli commando raid on Entebbe Airport on 3–4 July 1976,
    which freed 91 Israeli passengers and 12 crew members held
    captive by pro-Palestinian radicals in a hijacked aircraft.
History
   Under Amin, Uganda suffered a reign of terror that had claimed
    50,000 to 300,000 lives by 1977 (AI).

   The expulsion of the Asians took a heavy toll on trade and the
    economy.

   Agricultural and industrial production also fell, and educational and
    health facilities suffered from the loss of skilled personnel.

   The collapse in 1977, essentially because of political differences, of
    the 10-year-old East African Community (members—Kenya,
    Tanzania, and Uganda) also dealt a blow to Uganda's economy.

   In late October 1978, Ugandan forces invaded Tanzanian territory

   In reponse Tanzanian forces, supported by anti-Amin rebels, struck
    back and took over Kampala on 11 April 1979
History
   Yusuf K. Lule, an educator, formed a provisional government but
    was ousted on 20 June 1979 in favor of Godfrey Binaisa.

   On 13 May 1980, a military takeover ousted Binaisa and installed
    Paulo Muwanga.

   Parliamentary elections were held on 10 December 1980.

    Obote's Uganda People's Congress (UPC) won a clear majority
    (contested), and he was sworn in as president on 15 December
    1980.

   Obote's second term in office was marked by continued fighting
    between the army and guerrilla factions. As many as 100,000
    people may have died as a result of massacres, starvation,
    hindrance of relief operations.
   International groups denounced the regime for human rights abuses.
History
   On 27 July 1985, Obote was overthrown in a military
    coup and Lt. Gen. Tito Okello, commander of the
    armed forces, was installed as president.

   Lt Gen Tito Okello was overthrown by NRA led by
    Yoweri Museveni on 26 January 1986.

   Most notably the Holy Spirit rebels of Alice Lakwena
    in 1987.

   Lords Resistance rebels -1987- todate
Agriculture
   Predominantly agricultural nation 55%GDP and 80%
    of the population involved.

   Largely peasant subsistence type (65% less than 1
    Ha, 23% 1-2 ha).

   Plantation farming of less significance
   Major exports: Tea, coffee,tobacco.

   Non traditional crops exports increasing

   Very little food in imported.
Land Use:



        Arable land: 21.57%
        Permanent crops: 8.92%
        other: 69.51% (2005)
Animal husbandry
   Cattle 4.3 m
   Sheep 0.83
   Goats 2.04
   Swine 0.62
Transitions in the Uganda farming systems

Pastoral/Transhumance                     Subsistence agriculture




                    Agropastoral farming systems




   Modern livestock farms             Modern crop farms/Estates
  Agro
Ecological
Zone and
 Farming
  system
             Annual cropping and cattle- Northern System
             Annual Cropping and Cattle -Teso System
             Pastoral and some annual crop -Karamoja and Mbarara system
             Annual Cropping and cattle-West Nile System
             Banana-coffee system (mixed with cattle in west)
             Montane System
             Banana Millet Cotton System
  The
 Cattle
corridor
Traditional Livestock Production System:
Challenges
    Animal diseases e.g. rinderpest, foot and
     mouth disease, tick borne diseases (eg.
     East Coast Fever)
    Nomadism and animal disease
    Overgrazing and poor methods of land
     use
    Water scarcity; drought, cattle rustling
     and tribal wars
Environmental issues:

    Draining of wetlands for agricultural use
    Deforestation
    Overgrazing;
    Soil erosion;
    Water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria
    Poaching
Health sector
   Only 49% of households in Uganda have access to
    health care facilities in Uganda.
   Access to health care facilities limited by poor
    infrastructure, especially in the rural areas where the
    majority of the population live.
   Inadequate human resource base
   Poverty-population living below the poverty line
    84.9% i.e less than 1 USD a day.
   Poor sanitation
   Conducive environment for vectors and reservoir
    hosts

				
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