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Mosquito Surveillance

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					    Mosquito Biology
& Management Around the
        Home


     Todd Murray, IPM Program


                                1
                The Basics…

• Diptera: Flies
   – Culicidae: Mosquitoes
      • 3,000 species + worldwide
      • 50 species in the PNW
      • 9 species vectors of WNV in WA
• Aquatic insects
   – Two Groups
      • Floodwater
      • Permanent water
• Important pests of humans
                                         2
Life Cycle




             3
Habitats




           4
Habitats




           5
Habitats




           6
  Mosquito Genre in Washington

  • Aedes               • Culex
     A. vexans*            C. pipiens*
     A. cinereus*          C. tarsalis*


                        • Ochlerotatus
  • Anopheles              O. japonicus*
     A. punctipennis*
                           O. canadensis*


  • Culiseta            • Coquillettidia
     C. inornata*          C. perturbans*
                                            7
*Known WNV Vectors
                        Eggs
• Laid singly
  – On water
     • Anopheles
     • Coquillrttidia
  – On land
     • Aedes & Ochlerotatus
• Egg rafts
  – Culex spp.




                               8
         Larvae (Wigglers)

• Hatch to larvae
  in 48 hrs
• 4 instars
• Breath oxygen
• Filter feeders
• 7-14 days

                             9
        Pupae (Tumblers)

• Non-feeding stage
• 1-4 days




                           10
Emergers




           11
Adults




         12
                     Adults

• 1-2 months
• Females feed on
  blood
• Mating usually
  occurs at
  breeding site.
• Nectar feeders
• ½ - 2 mile range

                              13
WNV in Washington




   Don’t Panic
   Don’t Ignore


                    14
       WNV Response Plan

• Coordinated plan with county offices:
  – Questions on Human Health:
     • Local County Health Department
  – Questions about specific water bodies:
     • County/City Public Works
  – Questions about mosquito management:
     • County Cooperative Extension


                                             15
Mosquito Control




                   16
     Mosquito Management

• Best achieved as an area
  wide/regional effort.
  – Mosquito abatement & vector control
    districts:
    • Citizen/ taxpayer
    • Political process
    • Single mission


                                          17
    Message to Homeowners

• Report mosquito problems to your local
  government




                                           18
    Message to Homeowners

• Insecticides are generally ineffective for
  mosquito management around the
  home
  – Adulticides
  – Larvicides




                                           19
       Cultural Management
• Bite Prevention   • Source Reduction




                                         20
              Bite Prevention

• Barriers
   – Limit outdoor activities
   – Keep windows and doorways
     tightly sealed
   – Wear protective clothing
   – Mosquito netting can also be
     used to protect one’s face and
     neck or used on infant
     carriages, strollers and
     playpens
                                      21
                 Bite Prevention

• Repellents: The same respect and caution should
  be used when using repellents as with other
  insecticides.
   –   Choose a repellent that best fits your outdoor activity.
   –   Apply repellents to areas that are exposed.
   –   Do not apply repellents to open wounds, eyes or mouth.
   –   People with sensitive skin should avoid using repellents
   –   Test a small area of skin
   –   Wash off repellents after going indoors



                                                                  22
                            DEET

• 10-40% DEET are sufficient for
  repelling mosquitoes on adults
• Products containing 23% DEET
  offer over five hours of protection
• Increased concentrations over
  50% do not offer significantly
  longer protection
• 10% or less of DEET are suitable
  for use on children
• Repellents should not be used on
  infants

                                        23
       Citronella Repellents

• Citronella
  – Topically or volatilized in candles
  – Topically applied citronella is short lasting
  – Candles can offer some reduction of
    mosquito bites




                                                    24
                     Repellents

• Permethrin (both insecticide and repellent)
   – Used on clothing and other fabrics
   – Should not be applied directly to skin
   – Read the label and follow directions
• Bath oils, such as Avon Skin-So-Soft:
   – EPA registered
   – Works for less than 30 minutes




                                                25
    Mosquito Repelling Plants

• Mosquito-repelling plants, such as the citrosa plants,
  do not significantly reduce mosquito numbers or
  mosquito bites
• Plant-derived repellents, such as soybean oil
   – Not long lasting as products containing DEET
   – 2% soybean oil last for over one hour, on average




                                                         26
        Electronic Repellents

• High frequency sounds do not repel mosquitoes, or
  other pests
• Electronic bug zappers do not control mosquitoes or
  other flying pests




                                                        27
            Mosquito Traps

• Newly developed carbon dioxide
  baited traps do attract and trap
  many adult mosquitoes
  – Expensive
  – Practical benefits unknown




                                     28
         Habitat Reduction

• Eliminate water-trapping containers




                                        29
Regularly drain water-trapping
         containers:

           • Change birdbath water
             every week (more frequently
             during summer)
           • Drill drainage holes in
             planters, boxes and tires left
             or used outdoors



                                       30
     Regularly drain water-trapping
              containers:

• Regularly drain pet
  dishes and plant pot
  saucers
• Empty uncovered rain
  barrels every week
  (more frequently during
  summer)


                                      31
     Regularly drain water-trapping
              containers:

• Regularly clean and repair gutters to
  prevent them from retaining water.




                                          32
      Regularly drain water-trapping
               containers:

• Regularly check and drain plastic covers and tarps
• Store water-trapping containers upside down or
  inside shelters.




                                                       33
  Fill in or landscape water-trapping
           areas of your yard:


• Fill in tree holes
• Check and repair leaky
  irrigation systems, pipes
  and faucets
• Do not over-water your
  lawn and garden


                                        34
   Fill in or landscape water-trapping
            areas of your yard:


• Fill or drain
  seepage
  ponds and
  puddles
• Grade or fill
  low areas


                                         35
Manage habitats in and around water
             bodies:

             • Such as: ornamental and
               retention ponds, ditches and
               catch basins
             • Manage weeds
             • Remove unnecessary floating
               structures or debris
             • Keep drains, ditches and culverts
               clean to allow proper drainage
             • Shape pond edges to a shelf or
               steep slope. Mosquitoes prefer
               shallow pond edges
                                            36
         Biological Control

• Predators of adult
  mosquitoes




                              37
Biological Control




                     38
         Biological Control

• Conserve beneficial organisms in
  permanent water bodies
  – Reduce habitat disturbance
• Stock predatory fish in closed, managed
  water bodies such as ornamental ponds
  – Contact WS Fish & Wildlife for permits and
    recommendations

                                             39
    Homeowner Larvicides

• Rarely
  recommended for
  home use
• For use only in
  contained water
  bodies


                           40
Mosquito Management Fact
         Sheets




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