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    1. What is marketing?
    2. How are markets analysed?
    3. What product can I sell where
       at what price?
    4. Have my marketing measures
       been effective?
            Definition
MARKETING includes all the activities
needed to direct the flow of goods and
services from producers to consumers.

   at least two parties
   each has something to offer
   must be able to communicate
   must be able to deliver
   parties must be free to accept
    or reject offers
        Roles of marketing
main roles:
• advertising (advertising and promotion managers)
• selling (sales representatives/sales force)
                     but also:
                             • product development
                               (brand and product managers)
                             • packaging
                               (packaging designers)
                             • pricing
                               (pricing specialists)

                             • distribution
                               (sales personnel)
    Marketing Process
three elements:
       1. Market analysis
           (Who will buy?)

       2. Marketing-mix planning
         (What? Where? How much? How?)

       3. Marketing control
          (Have we been successful?)
        1. Market analysis (STP)

  a) Segmentation
niche                                     segment




                                           individuals


  b) Targeting:   Who are my customers?


  c) Positioning:   What is my main selling point?
2. Marketing mix planning (4 P)

= developing a tactics to achieve strategic aims

aim: to make customers from the target group buy


elements:
                 a) Product
                 b) Price
                 c) Place
                 d) Promotion
      3. Evaluation and control
    = looking back at the entire process to find out
   whether or not it was successful

Why control?
•  planning is no guarantee for profit
•  markets change constantly
•  strategies not always effective

                            Tools:
                                a)   Annual-plan control
                                b)   Profitability control
                                c)   Efficiency control
                                d)   Strategic control
Review
    1. Market analysis (STP)
          Segmentation
          Targeting
          Positioning

    2. Marketing-mix planning (4 P)
            Product
            Place
            Price
            Promotion

    3. Marketing control
            Annual-plan control
            Profitability control
            Efficiency control
            Strategic control
          a) Product

Product development

  traditional economies: same things
   produced and consumed
  nowadays:
        - products have a life cycle
        - product range is constantly expanded
        - find out what target market desires

                      Consequence is adjustment of:
                               - production
                               - research & development
                               - personnel administration
                               - finance
                               - public relations
Packaging



Branding

  •   create clear message
  •   create credibility
  •   involve emotionally
  •   motivate
  •   invite user loyalty


                             back
               b) Price
 Pricing strategies:
            1. Market determines
              the price

            2. Price as an expression
              of quality

3. Price as a method of
  gaining market share



                                        back
                c) Place       (distribution)
    Production site        Warehouse            Wholesaler




-   factory outlet
-   mail order house
-   internet
-   TV shopping
-   door-to-door selling

                             consumer            Retailer
                                                             back
      c) Promotion

Aims:
 communicate with customers
 influence customers


                   4 major tools:
                   1.   Sales force
                   2.   Advertising
                   3.   Sales promotion
                   4.   Public relations



                                           back
1. Sales force

Representatives who advertise for and sell products
             they personalize the promotion process


effective at selling complex goods
most expensive promotion




                                                       back
  2. Advertising
   Presents a reason to buy a product/service


Media:




                                                back
     3. Sales promotion
 is a short-term incentive
  (Anreiz) to buy a product/service



          Techniques:

               1 price reduction

               2. loyalty reward points
               3. two for one




 attracts brand switchers
                                          back
 4. Public relations

 Does not aim to increase sales directly but
 tries to boost the image of the company


Techniques:
 -   press conferences
 -   contests
 -   community events
 -   charitable events
 -   ecological projects
 -   foundations

                                               back
         a) Annual-plan control


Tools:
1. Sales analysis
   (Did we sell as much as we planned?)
2. Market-share analysis
   (Have we lost or gained market share?)
3. Marketing expense-to-sales analysis
   (Did the marketing efforts pay?)




                                            back
         b) Profitability control
    Do we have more earnings than expenditures?

Strategies:
• few expensive products and few customers



• many cheap products and many customers



     Aim:
     Which of my products is the most profitable?


                                                    back
         c) Efficiency control

Are my marketing methods profitable?




 Example: Avon Lady (sales representative)
      how many doors in what time?
      how many products sold?
                                             back
          d) Strategic control
        Is my marketing program effective
            over a long period of time?

  marketing philosophy

                     Positioning USA: “big and powerful”


   after few years: Is this positioning still OK?


 information policy
      - enough advertisement?
      - enough promotion?
                                                           back
          1. Sales analysis


Comparison         sales goals (100 units)
                   actual sales (20 units)
                  _____________
                   discrepancies???
                                         reasons

        better product of the competitors
        decline of the economic situation
        wrong calculation
                                                   back
 2. Market share analysis

analysis of the competition on the market

                 Rates of selling beauty cases




           17%
                              28%
                                                 Gucci

     13%                                         Joop
                                                 Dolce & Gabbana
                                                 Kuniberg


                    42%




                                                                   back
  3. Marketing expense-to-sales
             analysis

• How much did my marketing activities cost?
• What sales numbers have these activities
  generated?

Example:   expenses (costs):   € 200.000
           sales revenues:     € 200.001
                      => We have a problem!!!


                                                back

				
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