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lecture03.ppt - PowerPoint Presentation


All Optical Switching Fabrics

                                                            Tripole Antennae

                                Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization
                                MICHAEL R. ANDREWS, PARTHA P. MITRA, ROBERT DECARVALHO
                                Nature 409, 316-318 (18 January 2001)
I] Photonic Communications
-All Optical Switching Fabrics
-Hybrid Devices
-MEMS Devices
-Quantum Communications

Question: In the last 5 years there has been ~$40B expended
on photonics. How do we profit from that?

II] Wireless
-Increasing Bandwidth of Networks
-Self Assembly Networks (Hyphos)
-Personal Area Networks / Wearables
-Rural Communications (Indore)
-Submarine Communications
-Satellite Communications

How do we deploy cheaply?
Aug. 2000
2.8 M subscribers
TAT-14                                          Under Construction: RFS October 2000
Segments K3, K2, K1N, L & G                     Manasquan, NJ USA -- Tuckerton, NJ USA --Bude, UK – Total TAT-14 length 15,428 km at 16 x 10 Gb/s SDH.
(Updated 31 August 2000, Sprint)                Maintenance Authorities: Concert & Sprint

TyCom                              Planned RFS: July 2001
Translantic                        Ring system with a maximum capacity of 2.56 Tb/s. Segment 1 Avon, New Jersey USA - Brean, UK (6450km) Segment 2 Manasquan,
(Entered 10 April 2001,            New Jersey, USA - Saunton Sands, UK (6485km)
                                   Maintenance Authority: TyCom
Bell Photophone

                       All Optical Switching

MAC (media access control)
Sonet/SDH crossconnects
m - Photonics

Bragg's Law
nl = 2d sinq (1)

Figure 1: Process flow for the fabrication of a single two-material layer. The process
includes (a) a patterned electrodeposition of a first material using an Instant Mask™,
(b) a blanket electrodeposition of a second material, and (c) a planarization step

                                                 Founders                                Adam Cohen, Veteran of 3D Printing
                                                                                         Inductsry, F Cube, 3D Systems
                                                 Funding                                 Dynafund, DFJ

                                                 What’s Interesting                      New Manufacturing Technology

     Founders                          Stephen Chou, Princeton
     Funding                           Bessemer, Morganthaler $16 M
     What’s Interesting                NanoImprint Lithography – 10 nm
                                       structures applied to passive optical

                      Founders             Mark Miles
                                           $13 M
                      What’s Interesting

   Founders               David Bloom, Stanford
                          Purchased by Cypress $200M
   What’s Interesting
                          ns Switching speeds
SEED - Self Electrooptic Effect Devices
 David Miller, Bell Labs, Lucent

                              John Scott Russell and the solitary wave 1834

Over one hundred and fifty years ago, while conducting experiments to determine the most efficient
design for canal boats, a young Scottish engineer named John Scott Russell (1808-1882) made a
remarkable scientific discovery. As he described it in his "Report on Waves": (Report of the fourteenth
meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, York, September 1844 (London
1845), pp 311-390, Plates XLVII-LVII).
``I was observing the motion of a boat which was rapidly drawn along a narrow channel by a pair of
horses, when the boat suddenly stopped - not so the mass of water in the channel which it had put in
motion; it accumulated round the prow of the vessel in a state of violent agitation, then suddenly
leaving it behind, rolled forward with great velocity, assuming the form of a large solitary elevation, a
rounded, smooth and well-defined heap of water, which continued its course along the channel
apparently without change of form or diminution of speed. I followed it on horseback, and overtook it
still rolling on at a rate of some eight or nine miles an hour, preserving its original figure some thirty
feet long and a foot to a foot and a half in height. Its height gradually diminished, and after a chase of
one or two miles I lost it in the windings of the channel. Such, in the month of August 1834, was my
first chance interview with that singular and beautiful phenomenon which I have called the Wave of
Bell Labs researchers set new soliton
transmission record
SAN JOSE, Calif. – AT&T Bell Laboratories scientists have demonstrated error-free
transmission of solitons (light pulses that maintain their shape over long distances) at 5
gigabits (billion bits) per second over 15,000 kilometers and at 10 gigabits over 11,000
kilometers. (See note below for information about Bell Labs.)
A research team led by physicist Linn Mollenauer, of the Bell Labs Photonic Circuits Research department, used time-
division multiplexing (interleaving bits of information from one stream of data into the spaces of another) to upgrade a 2.5-gigabit signal to 5 gigabits and then used
wavelength-division multiplexing (transmitting data on two wavelengths, or colors, of light) to reach 10 gigabits.
They used a recirculating loop of fiber to transmit the signals.
"A number of technical issues need to be resolved before we'll know when this technology might be deployed," said Peter Runge, head of Undersea Lightwave System
Implementation department, "but it's exciting. The research team working on this project has made an enormous contribution to furthering lightwave communication
Mollenauer and colleagues E. Lichtman and Michael Neubelt, with George Harvey of the Test and Diagnostics department and Bruce Nyman of the Undersea Lightwave
System Implementation department, announced their results today in a post-deadline paper presented here at the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication.
The week-long conference, attended by some 5,000 scientists from around the world, is sponsored by the Optical Society of America and the Lasers and Electro-optics Society
and Communications Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

All Optical Switching Fabrics

   Algety, Solistis and PhotonEx
                Quantum Communications


Dense Coding


                          Bennet Phys. Rev. Lett. (1992) 69 2881).


           Tripling the capacity of wireless
           communications using electromagnetic
           Nature 409, 316-318 (18 January 2001)
      Self Organizing Wireless Networks
Imagine the internet for
small things...

                               Imagine a vineyard where every vine reports sunlight, temperature,
                               and moisture every hour of the day. Or a city in which each street
                               lamp monitors the passage of each bus, shuttling the information
                               ahead to waiting passengers.
                               Ember Corporation, a startup out of the MIT Media Lab, is making the
                               "internet for small things", creating extremely low-cost, wireless
                               "thing to thing" networks for the countless embedded processors,
                               sensors and controls that populate our planet.
Submarine Communications
                    The ELF system, which became operational in 1989, uses two transmitting antennas, one in
                    Wisconsin and one in Michigan. The two sites must operate simultaneously to meet worldwide
                    coverage requirements. Each antenna looks like a power line, mounted on wooden poles. The
                    Wisconsin antenna consists of two lines, each about 14 miles long. The Michigan antenna uses three
                    lines, two about 14 miles long and one about 28 miles long. Each site has a transmitter building near
                    the antenna. The transmitter facility in Michigan uses about six acres of land and the one in Wisconsin
                    about two acres. The operating frequency is 76 Hz.
                   3.6 MW
           Personal Area Network

          2400-baud modem
Ghandoot Project
 Indore, India

                   Photo: J. Jacobson
Photo: J. Jacobson
Photo: J. Jacobson
Photo: J. Jacobson
What Its All About . . .

                           Photo: J. Jacobson

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