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text organization - DOC

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									Text Organization and Associated Signals
When reading non-fiction, look for these signal words to determine the text’s organization. Use an appropriate
graphic to help you understand the topic.

      Pattern               Description              Signal Words                Graphic Organizer
Description            The author describes     • for example
                       a topic by listing       • characteristics
                       characteristics,         • for instance
                       features, attributes,    • such as
                       and examples             • is like
                                                • including
                                                • to illustrate


Sequence               The author lists items   • first
                       or events in             • second
                                                                        1
                       numerical or             • third                 2
                       chronological            • later
                       sequence, either         • next
                                                                        3
                       explicit or implied      • before                4
                                                • then
                                                • finally               5
                                                • after                 6
                                                • when
                                                • later                 7
                                                • since
                                                • now
                                                • previously
                                                • actual use of dates


Comparison             Information is           • however
                       presented by             • nevertheless
                       detailing how two or     • on the other hand
                       more events,             • but
                       concepts, theories, or   • similarly
                       things are alike         • although
                       and/or different         • also
                                                • in contrast
                                                • different
                                                • alike
                                                • same as
                                                                                     a         b         c
                                                • either/or
                                                • in the same way
                                                • just like
                                                • just as
                                                • likewise
                                                • in comparison
                                                • where as
                                                • yet
Cause and     The author presents       • if/then
              ideas, events in time,    • reasons why
Effect        or facts as causes and    • as a result
              the resulting effect(s)   • therefore                    Effect
              or facts that happen      • because
              as a result of an         • consequently
              event.                    • since                        Effect
                                        • so that         Cause
                                        • for
                                        • hence
                                                                       Effect
                                        • due to
                                        • thus
                                        • this led to


Problem and   The author presents a     • problem is
              problem and one or        • dilemma is     Problem
Solution      more solutions to the     • if/then
              problem                   • because        Solutions
                                        • so that
                                        • question/
                                        answer           End Results

								
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