Agents of Change Management - PowerPoint
Agents of Change Management document sample
Shared by: iyf22917
Change Management Chapter 8 Controlling approaches to change Change Management Approach • Focuses on strategic, intentional and usually large-scale change • Entails following a variety of steps; the exact steps vary depending upon the model used • Belief that achieving organizational change is possible through a coordinated and planned approach Some Systems • Pendlebury’s • Nadler’s 12 Action Steps Ten Steps Get support of key power groups Define the vision Get leaders t model change behavior Mobilize Use symbols and language Catalyze Define areas of stability Steer Surface dissatisfaction Deliver Promote participation Obtain participation Reward behavior that supports change Handle emotions Disengage from the old Handle power Communicate image of future Train and coach Use multiple leverage points Actively Develop transition mgt arrangements communicate Create feedback Some Systems • Kanter’s 10 Commandments • Kotter’s eight-step model Analyze the need for change Establish the need for Create a shared vision urgency Separate from the past Ensure there is a power Create a sense of urgency change group to guide the change Support a strong leader role Develop a vision Line up political sponsorship Communicate the vision Craft an implementation plan Empower staff Develop enabling structures Ensure there are short term Communicate and involve wins people Consolidate gains Reinforce and institutionalize change Embed the change in the culture Exercise • Compare and contrast the various steps in these models. What is left out of different models? • Create your own composite model. Is there a preferred sequence of steps? Why? • Identify the key management skills associated with each step Which ones are you strongest on? Weakest on? • In your experience: Which steps have been best handled? Worst handled? Why? Change Management vs. OD • Critics of change management depict it as being “faddish” and the product of management consultancy firms • There is a debate between proponents of OD and proponents of change management: OD is criticized for being less relevant to modern organizations which require strategic, often large scale change rather than slower, incremental change often associated with a traditional OD Change management is criticized for lacking a humanistic set of values and for having a focus on the concerns of management rather than on those of the organization as a whole Contingency Approach • Contingency approaches challenge the view that there is “one best way” The style of change will vary, depending upon the scale of the change and the receptivity of organizational members for engaging in the change. • In the Dunphy-Stace model the style of change varies from collaborative to coercive What are the implications of this? Why are almost all large scale changes seen as coercive (by top management and employees) How does this knowledge change your step-model? Processual Approach • Draws on a navigator approach and views change as a continuous process which unfolds differently depending upon the time and the context It sees the outcome of change as occurring through a complex interplay of different interest groups, goals, and politics. Only some outcomes will be able to be achieved given the “messiness” of change • This approach does not provide a list of “what to do” steps as in the change management approaches. Rather it alerts the change manager to the range of influences which they will confront and the way in which these will lead to only certain change outcomes being achieved Rules of thumb for change agents Shepard (1975) • Stay alive Learn to greet absurdity with laughter Use your skills, emotions, labels, and positions don’t be used by them Don’t get trapped in other people’s games • Start where the system is Understand how others see themselves (empathy) • Never work uphill Work in the most promising arenas Don’t build hills as you go Build resources Don’t over organize Don’t argue if you can’t win Don’t drift – remain focused on your purpose More rules of thumb • Light many fires Load experiments for success • Innovation requires a good idea, initiative, and a few friends Find the people who are ready and able to work, introduce them to one another, and work with them Those who need to rebel or submit are not reliable partners • Keep an optimistic bias • Capture the moment timing is everything Quinn’s logical incrementalism • Key propositions Proceed experimentally and flexibly Conceal true goals and intentions Build awareness and credibility to legitimize new viewpoints Tactical shifts, partial solutions • Use serendipity to promote supporters, replace opponents, fund pet projects Broaden political support and overcome opposition Encourage others to trial new ideas and create pockets of commitment (but don’t be associated with failure). • Why is this a navigator/processual view of change? Questions • Do you work with a one size fits all approach to managing change? To what extent do you match your change approach to the scale timing and readiness of your staff to the change? • Is their a dominant change mode in your organization? How appropriate is it? Does it need to change? • How do you deal with multiple changes that are simultaneously present but at different stages and phases? BA Swipe Card Case • What did management do wrong? How would you advise BA to avoid such a situation in the future? Is there one change perspective, or a combination of change perspectives, that provides the best way of understanding the swipe card issue? Why? • What broad conclusions emerge from this analysis?