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					CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                               Dr. R. Siddique

INDIA –

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY - CEMENT BASED
MATERIALS AND CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE (CBM - CI)
Dr. Rafat Siddique
Professor of Civil Engineering
Thapar University
Patiala, 147 004 (Punjab)
INDIA


ABSTRACT: This paper presents a summary of the Indian cement industry, utilization of
fly ash, and construction waste into construction related activities. Developments in materials
affect the design and construction of facilities. These facilities are important for the
substantial growth of any nation. The issues facing the technology of concrete materials,
production, quality assurance practices, design, construction, and the maintenance of
constructed facilities are also included here.

The paper summarizes potential advances in the use of materials (HVFA, RMC, and SCC)
in construction related activities that may occur in the next decade (2008-2018) in India
and their effect on the concrete construction industry.

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Demographics

India is the Seventh largest country in the world, with a total land area of 3,287,590km²
(1,269,219square miles). India measures 3,214km (1,997miles) from north to south and
2,933km (1,822miles) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200km (9,445 miles)
and a coastline of 7,516.5km (4,670.5miles). The Andamon and Nicobar Islands in the Bay
of Bengal and Lakshiadeep in the Arabian Sea are parts of India. India is bounded on the
southwest by the Arabian Sea and on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal. On the north,
northeast, and northwest are the Himalayas. Kanyakumari constitutes the southern tip of
the Indian Peninsula, which narrows before ending in the India is divided into 28 states
(which are further subdivided into ), six union territories and the National Capital Territory
of Delhi. States have their own elected government, while Union Territories are governed
by an administrator appointed by the union government.

India has a population of approximately 1.1 billion people (2006). Although India occupies
only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports more than 16% of the world's population.

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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                               Dr. R. Siddique

This population is remarkably diverse; it has more than two thousand ethnic, and every
major. Religion is represented. Almost 40% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age.
More than 70% of the people live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more
than 200 towns and cities. The population density is 324 persons per square km.
Total population                                   1,095,351,995 (July 2006 est.)
Rural population                                   742,617,747 (72.2%)
Age of the                0–14 years               30.8%
inhabitants               15–64 years              64.3%
                          65 years and over        4.9%
                                                   26 years
Average age of Indians                             1.38% (2006 est.)
Population growth rate                             22.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Birth rate                                         8.18 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate                                         64.5% (2001 est.)
Literacy rate

The literacy rate in modern India is about 65% of the adult population. More than three
fourths of the country’s male population and above half of the female population is literate.
The system is divided into preprimary, primary, middle, secondary (or High School ), and
higher levels. Higher Education in India provides an opportunity to specialize in a field and
includes , and technical schools, colleges and universities.

2.     OVERVIEW OF THE LAST DECADE (1997-2007)

2.1    Fly Ash Utilization Trends

Utilization of fly ash ranged between 3-5% in the late 1980s and early 1990s. There was
no large-scale concerted effort for promoting fly ash utilization. Technologies and research
were generally isolated with little emphasis on commercialization. Although attempts were
made to use of fly ash in manufacturing bricks, cellular concrete, prefab items, and cement
as well as for reclamation of low lying areas and construction of roads, the desired impact
could not be achieved.

Fly Ash Mission (FAM) was created to help with ‘confidence building’ in fly ash based
technologies. Fifty-five technology demonstration projects have been completed, as a result
of which fly ash utilization has increased to 13% of the total generation. Broad estimates
of ash production and utilization in different parts of India (Utility Thermal Power Stations)
are given in Table 1.

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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                               Dr. R. Siddique

Table 1        Fly ash production and utilization

S. No.        Zone name             FA generation        Utilization         Utilization (%)
                                    (million tones)    (million tones)

  1            Southern                  13.5                 0.8                     6.0
  2            Western                   16.5                 0.8                     5.0
  3             Central                  18.0                2.84                    15.8
  4             Eastern                 10.21                2.94                    28.8
  5            Northern                  15.5                 2.3                    14.8

           Total (All India)            73.71                9.96                    13.1

The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), the premier road and highway agency
in the country, is utilizing fly ash on a massive scale. Sixty lac cubic meters (cu.m) of fly
ash is being used in its in Delhi, UP and West Bengal, and it's the would use more than
67 lac cubic meters (cu.m) of fly ash. Tables 2 and 3 give the details of the existing and
new projects. Figure 2.1 shows the use of fly ash in road embankments.

Table 2        Existing contracts

  S. No.    Name of the Project                       Total quantity of Fly Ash proposed
                                                              to be used (cu.m)

      1     Km 8.200 to km 29.30 of NH-1 in the                     1,00,000 cu.m
            State Delhi
      2     Haldia Port Connectivity Project 4-                     11,80,000 cu.m
            laning of NH-41 from km 0 to km 52.7
      3     km 470 to km 483.33 & km 0 to km                        3,35,000 cu.m
            38 of NH-2 in the state of UP
      4     4/6-laning of NH-6 in the state of WB                   32,34,623 cu.m
            from km 17.60 to km 72.00
      5     4/6-laning of NH-6 in the state of WB                   3,21,300 cu.m
            from km 72 to km 132.45
      6     Durgapur Expressway                                      9,00,000 cu.m
            Total                                                   60,70,923 cu.m



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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                              Dr. R. Siddique

Table 3         New project

  S. No.     Name of the Project                       Total quantity of Fly Ash
                                                       proposed to be used

  1          Allahabad Bypass on NH – 2                67,32,000 cu.m




Figure 2.1      Use of fly ash on road embankments.


For the first time in India, Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. has constructed a High Volume
Fly Ash (HVFA) concrete road at their cement plant in Ropar, Punjab. The road has been
constructed with 50% fly ash (Figure 2.2).




Figure 2.2      HVFA concrete road at Ropar, Punjab.

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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                             Dr. R. Siddique

The BIS standards related to fly ash and its utilization is being revised through drafting a
second second revision of IS: 3812, i.e., Specification for fly ash for use as pozzolan and
admixture. The minimum and maximum percentages of fly ash in PPC, specified by IS -
456, have risen from 10% to 15% and from 25% to 35% respectively. The government of
India has issued a notification that makes it mandatory to use at least 25% ash in the
manufacture of clay bricks, blocks, or tiles within a radius of 50 km from coal or lignite
based thermal power plants. There are some fiscal incentives to encourage the production
and use of fly ash based products, the government of India has withdrawn the 8% excise
duty previously imposed on such products. Now, no excise duty shall be levied on the
manufacture of a good in which a minimum of 25% fly ash is used.

The construction of the first dam in India using Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) technology
with high doses of fly ash has started near Nasik, India. Approximately 60-70% cement
is being replaced by fly ash.

2.2      Status of Indian Cement Industry

The cement industry in India has come a long way since 1914, when the first cement plant
was commissioned with a production level of 1000 tons/annum. The Indian cement industry
is now the second largest cement producer in the world, with an installed capacity of 144
million tonnes. The industry growth rate is 10%. The industry is highly energy intensive,
and the energy bill in some of the plants is as high as 60% of the cement manufacturing
cost. However, cement consumption per capita in India, at about 99 kg/capita, is one of
the lowest. The world average is about 267 kg/capita, while that of China is 450 kg/capita.
Similarly, in Japan it is 631 kg/capita while in France it is 447 kg/capita [1-4].

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) enjoys the major share (56%) of the total cement production
in India followed by Portland Pozzolan Cement (PPC) and Portland Slag Cement (PSC).
A positive trend towards the increased use of blended cement can be seen, as the market
share of blended cement has increased to 43%.

2.3      Ready Mix Concrete Industry

•     RMC is ready to use concrete, a blend of cement, sand, aggregate and water.
•     Launched first in Mumbai a few years ago, RMC is gaining ground in other metropolitan
      areas in India.
•     It typically costs Rs. 7-8 crs (US $ 1.6 to 1.8 mn) to set up a 100 cubic meter (cu m)
      plant with 4-5 transit mixers. The gestation period is around 3-4 months.
•     Currently RMC is at a very nascent stage and accounts for 0.5% of the demand.
•     Transportation costs are high; freight accounts for 17% of the production cost


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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                                 Dr. R. Siddique

•     Roads are the preferred mode of transportation for distances less than 250km. However,
      the industry is heavily dependent on roads as the railway infrastructure is not adequate;
      there is a shortage of wagons.

2.3.1    Industry Inputs

•     Highly capital intensive industry
•     Coal availability and quality affects production and power shortages.
•     Mini plants earn less revenue than large plants, making survival difficult

2.3.2    Future

•     The infrastructure and construction sectors are the major demand drivers. Some demand
      determinants are (i) economic growth; (ii) industrial activity; (iii) real estate business;
      (iv) construction activity; and (v) investments in the core sector.

2.4      Utilization of Waste from the Construction Industry

The Indian construction industry is highly employment intensive and accounts for
approximately 50% of the capital outlay in successive 5-Year Plans of our country.
Construction activity leads to the generation of solid wastes, including sand, gravel, concrete,
stone, bricks, wood, metal, glass, plastic, paper, etc.

In view of the significant role of recycled construction material and technology in the
development of urban infrastructure, the Technology, Information, Forecasting and Assessment
Council (TIFAC) has commissioned a techno-market survey on ‘Utilization of waste from
Construction Industry.’ Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 to 60 Kg/m2.
Similarly, waste generation during renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 Kg/m2.
The highest contributor to waste generation is the demolition of buildings. Demolition of
Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings on average generates 500 kg/m2 and 300 kg/m2 of waste,
respectively. The total quantity of waste from the construction industry is estimated to be
12 to 14.7 million tons per annum. Quantities of different constituents of waste that arise
from the construction industry in India are estimated and given in Table 4.

Feasibility analysis [5, 6] was carried out for a 25,000 tons/annum recycling plant to produce
recycled aggregate from waste concrete, masonry and bricks. The location of the recycling
plant should be so chosen that there is (a) available of feedstock, (b) a market for the recycled
product, and (c) disposal of the waste by other means is difficult. Equipment like crushers,
conveyors, screens, etc. can be sourced from Indian manufacturers that supply similar
machines to natural aggregate producers. Indian manufacturers produce crushers, which

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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                           Dr. R. Siddique

can be used with suitable modification in a recycling unit to break concrete, bricks and
masonry. A comparative study shows that a jaw crusher or impact crusher may be used.

Table 4        Quantity of materials generated from construction wastes

 Constituents                 Quantity generated (million tons/year)

 Soil, sand, and gravel                      4.20 to 5.14
 Bricks and masonry                          3.60 to 4.40
 Concrete                                    2.40 to 3.67
 Metals                                      0.60 to 0.73
 Bitumen                                     0.25 to 0.30
 Wood                                        0.25 to 0.30
 Others                                      0.10 to 0.15

3.     ISSUES - CONCRETE INDUSTRY

3.1    Materials

Raw materials for concrete are plentiful in India. Approximately 144 million tonnes of
cement are produced annually. There is plenty of sand and gravel available. Approximately
90 million tonnes of fly ash are generated each year [3].

3.2    Production

The mechanization of the concrete production plants is important, and most of the big and
even small construction companies are going for batching plants-systems.

3.3    Quality Assurance Practices

Training programs for technicians and field supervisors are gaining significant importance
with the arrival of multinational companies in India and the construction of some large
projects.

3.4    Design Practices

Structural designs are being completed by professional engineers at various consulting
organizations, as well as engineering and technical institutions.



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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                               Dr. R. Siddique

3.5    Construction Practices

In the construction industry, combinations of local and international contracting companies
compete for jobs in the public sector as well as private sector. They follow codes of practices
from India, Europe, or the U.S. depending upon the type of construction and requirements.

3.6    Maintenance of Existing Facilities

There is no established code for the maintenance of existing facilities.

4.     THE NEXT DECADE (2008-2018) – Potential advances

4.1    Potential Advances – Materials

Potential advances that are expected in the materials area are likely to be in the use of (i)
HVFA concrete [7-10]; (ii) supplementary cementing materials like GGBS, metakaolin,
silica fume, and rice husk ash; and (iii) fibers for making high strength high performance
concrete. Self-compacting concrete [11-14] is expected have an important role in future
construction in India.

4.2    Potential Advances - Production

The construction of cement production plants and concrete production facilities is on the
rise. The production of cement is expected to have a growth rate of 10% in the coming
years. There is also likely to be more utilization of fly ash, GGBS and other supplementary
materials in making quality concrete.

4.3    Potential Advances - Quality Assurance Practices

The quality of construction is likely to be enhanced significantly by the use of sophisticated
construction machinery, batching plants, and RMC, self-compacting and high performance
concrete.

4.4    Potential Advances - Design Practices

It is expected that designers will follow the current and future codes of practices based on
the actual conditions prevailing at a particular site.




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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                                       Dr. R. Siddique

4.5     Potential Advances - Construction Practices

The construction industry is likely to benefit in several ways by the advantages RMC offers,
such as a supply of quality concrete, speed in construction, reduction of pollution and
congestion at construction sites, durable construction, and overall economy. Besides cement
companies, even private entrepreneurs are entering in a big way into RMC business.

4.6     Potential Advances - Maintenance of Existing Facilities

With so many large-scale projects coming up, it is imperative to create guidelines for the
maintenance of existing structures.

5.      SUMMARY

This paper presented the developments that have taken place in India related to the utilization
of fly ash, cement production and construction wastes as well as potential advances anticipated
in the next 10 years for the concrete construction industry through substantial use of
supplementary cementing materials, RMC, and self-compacting concrete.

REFERENCES

[1]   Raina, S., Potential of emerging building materials and technologies for construction industry.
      New Building Materials ad Construction World, July 2005, pp. 72-83.
[2]   Energy Management Policy – Guidelines for Energy Intensive, Industry in India, Chapter 4,
      Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India, pp 36-65
[3]   Technology Forecasting for Indian Cement Industry,
      http://www.fifac.org.in/offer/tlbo/rep/stI74.htm
[4]   http:/indiamarkets.com
[5]   Kumar, V., Zacharia, K.A., and Sharma, P., Fly ash utilization: Indian scenario & case studies.
      Proceedings of the Indo European workshop on Handling & Utilisation of coal combustion
      By-products from Indian Power Stations, NTPC, Punjab, April 1999.
[6]   Kumar, V., Mathur, M., Sharma, P., Fly ash management: vision for the new millennium.
      Proceedings of 2nd International conference on fly ash disposal & utilization vol.1, FAM &
      CBIP, New Delhi, 2-4 February 2000. pp. 1-9.
[7]   Siddique, R., Prince, W., and Kamali, S., influence of utilization of class f fly ash on the
      abrasion resistance of concrete, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies,
      Vol. 10, Jan-June 2007, pp. 13-28.
[8]   Siddique, R., Performance characteristics of concrete containing high-volumes of class F fly
      ash. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, No.3, March 2004, pp. 487-493.
[9]   Siddique, R., Effect of fine aggregate replacement with class f fly ash on the abrasion resistance
      of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 11, November 2003, pp. 1877-1881.

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CBM-CI International Workshop, Karachi, Pakistan                                  Dr. R. Siddique

[10] Siddique, R., Effect of fine aggregate replacement with class f fly ash on the mechanical
     properties of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 4, April 2003, pp. 539-
     547.
[11] Vachhani s., R., Chaudary, R., and Jha, S. M., innovative use of self-compacting concrete in
     metro construction. ICI Journal, October-Dec 2004, pp. 27-31.
[12] Khatib, J., and Siddique, R., Self-Compacting Cement-Fly Ash Concrete. 5th International
     RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, University of Ghent, Belgium, September
     3-5, 2007 (Accepted).
[13] Siddique, R., Aggarwal, P., Aggarwal, Y., and Gupta, S. M., Development, Investigation and
     Applications of Self-Compacting Concrete- A Review. 5th International RILEM Symposium
     on Self-Compacting Concrete, University of Ghent, Belgium, September 3-5, 2007 (Accepted).
[14] Aggarwal, P., Siddique, R., Aggarwal, Y., and Gupta, S. M., Modelling the Properties of Self-
     Compacting Concrete: An M-5 Model Tree Based Approach. 5th International RILEM
     Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, University of Ghent, Belgium, September 3-5,
     2007.




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