Introduction to International Relations by jonathanscott


									    Introduction to
International Relations
 Theories and Worldviews, Part
   Purpose: to survive
   Lose card = dead
   Can take someone’s card in a duel
   duel? Rock/paper/scissors
    • Rock>scissors
    • Scissors>paper
    • Paper>rock
   Must answer all challenges
   “…in the nature of man, we find
    three principal causes of quarrel.
    First, competition; secondly,
    diffidence (distrust and insecurity);
    thirdly, glory.”
    • Thomas Hobbes
I. Assumptions of the realist worldview

A. Human nature -- conflictual and self-centered.

 “For men in general...they are ungrateful, fickle,
  and deceitful, eager to avoid dangers, and avid
  for gain, and while you are useful to them they
  are all with you, offering you their blood, their
  property, and their sons so long as danger is
  remote, but when it approaches they turn on
-Niccolo Machiavelli
B. There are NO moral absolutes.

“The standard of justice depends on
  the equality of power to compel...the
  strong do what they have the power
  to do and the weak accept what they
  have to accept.”
II. Characteristics of the Realist Worldview
A. State
B. State characteristics: unitary, rational,
   and functionally equivalent – key variable
   of concern is relative power.
C. The international system:
  • anarchic
  • self-help
D. Goal of states: further “national
E. How so? Military capabilities
F. zero-sum
   relative power concerns
  Security dilemma
III. Policy Recommendations
A.  Furthering the “national interest”
    should have top priority. Other
    interests should be dealt with
-if they directly pertain to military
    might or strategic interests or
-as time and energy permits.
   “(T)he keystone of our national security is
    still military strength -- strength that is
    clearly recognized by Americans, by our
    Allies, and by any potential adversary.”
    -Jimmy Carter
   “We need not deceive ourselves that we
    can afford today the luxury of altruism
    and world benefaction -- unreal objectives
    such as human rights, the raising of living
    standards, and democratization.”
    -George Kennan
   “Power matters, both for the exercise
    of power by the United States and
    the ability of others to exercise it.”
   “There is nothing wrong with doing
    something that benefits all humanity,
    but that is…a second-order effect.”
   Condoleezza Rice
B. When dealing with equal states
  (those which you cannot dominate),
- form or encourage balance of power
  (direct or “offshore”)
C. If you’re the weaker state dealing
 with the stronger, you can:
  • defer to the stronger states
  • seek a balance by aligning with another
    strong state, or
  • (if possible) avoid aligning with either
D. View of smaller states?
 If you are a major power dealing
 with a smaller state:
  • If the smaller state is “important,”
    ensure the compliance of the smaller
  • If not, help only if time and resources
D. Use of IO’s?
Use alliances, treaties, international
 organizations, trading arrangements,
 and international law freely -- so
 long as they further YOUR interests.
           “Realist” articles
1. Explain the following quote:
“Empathy, an underrated quality in foreign
  affairs, often yields realism's sharpest
2. What was wrong with policies of “dual
  containment” and “regional
3. Why did the realists feel that the war in
  Iraq was “unnecessary?” How should it
  have been handled?
4. What do you think a realist would advise
  with regard to Iran?
Power Capabilities (1990)
             Country “Power”
             Iraq    131

             Turkey    126

             Pakistan 110

             Afghan    12

             S Arab.   101
Power Capabilities (2001)
             Country       Power
             Iraq          50
             Turkey        110
             Pakistan      108
             Afghanistan   10
             Saudi         78
             Jordan        11
             Syria         33
             UAE           16

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