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					     Pesticide Labeling
       Applying Pesticides Correctly-EPA
    Core Manual-Unit 2 (Pesticide Labeling )




April 2004
                                               1
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• Is the main method of
  communication between a pesticide
  manufacturer and the pesticide user.




                                         2
     Pesticide Product Labeling
• The information attached to
  the pesticide container is the
  label.
• Labeling includes the label plus
  all other information you
  receive from the manufacturer
  about the product when you
  buy it.
                                     3
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• Labeling can come in the form of
  pamphlets or brochures. By law you
  must have all the pesticide labeling
  with you when you apply the
  pesticide. Not just the pesticide
  container.
                                         4
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• To the manufacturer it is the license
  to sell the product.




                                          5
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• To medical personnel it can be an
  important source of treatment
  information in the case of poisoning.




                                          6
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• To the applicator it is directions on
  how to use the product safely and
  properly.




                                          7
   Pesticide Product Labeling
• To the government it is a means for
  control. If a pesticide poses an
  unreasonable risk to people or the
  environment its uses can be restricted
  or cancelled. For example uses of
  DDT, chlordane, 2,4,5-T and others
  have been cancelled in the U.S.
                                       8
    EPA Approval of Pesticide
           Labeling

• The U.S. Environmental Protection
  Agency (EPA) must approve the
  manufacture's application for registration
  before the product can be used.


                                           9
 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
 and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
            7 U.S.C. s/s 136 et seq. (1972)

• Provides for federal control of pesticide
  distribution, sale, and use.

• EPA was given authority under FIFRA to
  study the consequences of pesticide usage and
  require users (farmers, utility companies, and
  others) to register when purchasing pesticides.
                                                    10
              FIFRA (con’t)
• Through later amendments to the law, users
  also must take exams for certification as
  applicators of pesticides.

• All pesticides used in the U.S. must be
  registered (licensed) by EPA.

• Registration assures that pesticides will be
  properly labeled and that if used in accordance
  with specifications, will not cause unreasonable
  harm to the environment.                       11
            FIFRA (con’t)
• For questions concerning pesticides you
  can call the Pesticide Team in EPA's
  regional 8 office in Denver, at:


• 1-800-227-8917

                                            12
       Types of Registration
• There are three major types of
  registration
   – Federal registration (Section 3)
   – special local needs registration (SLN or
     Section 24c)
   – emergency exemptions from
     registration (Section 18)              13
 Classification of Pesticide Uses
• Unclassified or General Use
 –for use by the general public.
   • Roundup, 2,4-D, malathion
• Restricted Use
 –must have a license to apply
   • Tordon 22k, Temik, zinc phosphide


                                         14
      Restricted Use Pesticide
• A pesticide or some of its uses are
  classified as restricted if it could cause
  harm to humans or to the environment
  unless it is applied by certified applicators
  who have the knowledge to use these
  pesticides safely and effectively.

                                              15
 Certified Pesticide Applicators
• Private applicators use or supervise the
  use of restricted use pesticides to produce
  an agricultural commodity on property
  owned or rented by themselves or their
  employer, or on the property of another
  person with whom they trade services.

                                            16
 Certified Pesticide Applicators
• Commercial applicators use or supervise
  the use of restricted use pesticides on any
  property or for any purpose other than
  that listed for private applicators.




                                                17
 Certified Pesticide Applicators
• In Wyoming, Commercial applicator also
  means a certified applicator who uses or
  supervises the use of any pesticide during
  any commercial application that is done
  by contract or hire.


                                           18
    Parts of Pesticide Labeling
• The information on pesticide labeling usually is
  grouped under headings to make it easier to
  find.
• Some information is required by law to appear
  on a certain part of the labeling or under
  certain headings.
• Other information may be placed wherever the
  manufacturer chooses.

                                                 19
            Brand Name

• Each manufacturer has a brand name for
  each of its products.

• You must beware of choosing a product
  by brand name alone.


                                          20
        Brand Name (cont.)
• Companies may use the same basic brand
  name with only minor variations to
  designate different products.




                                       21
22
23
24
25
         Brand Name (cont.)
• Different companies may sell the same product
  under different brand names

• Weedar 64 = 4 lbs 2,4-D amine/gal (Nufarm,
  Inc.)

• Weed Pro 4# Amine = 4 lbs 2,4-D amine/gal
  (Van Diest Supply Company)
                                               26
        Brand Name (cont.)
• Always read the ingredient statement to
  determine the active ingredients that a
  product contains.




                                            27
        Ingredient Statement
• A pesticide label must list what is in the
  product.

• It must tell what the active ingredients
  are and the amount of each ingredient as
  a percentage of the total.

                                               28
   Ingredient Statement (con't)
• It must also list the chemical name and/or
  the common name for each active
  ingredient.

• Inert ingredients need not be named but
  the label must show what percentage of
  the total contents they make up.
                                            29
    Ingredient Statement (con't)
• For example a label with the brand name
  Tordon 22K would read:Active Ingredient(s):

 Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), as the potassium
 salt.............................................……………….…………………...................24.4%
 Inert Ingredients........................................................…………………..........75.6%

 Total........................................................................…………………............100.0%
 Acid Equivalent:
 Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) - 21.1% - 2 lb/gal

 E.P.A. Registration No. 62719-6                                           E.P.A. Est. 464-MI-1

                                                                                                  30
Registration and Establishment Numbers
 • These numbers are needed in case of poisoning or
   misuse claims.

   Active Ingredient(s):
   Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), as the potassium
   salt........................……………......................………………......................24.4%
   Inert Ingredients............................................................……………….......75.6%

   Total………………....................................................................................100.0%
   Acid Equivalent:
   Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) - 21.1% - 2 lb/gal


   E.P.A. Registration No. 62719-6                                    E.P.A. Est. 464-MI-1
                                                                                                      31
       Registration Number
• The registration number indicates that
  the pesticide label has been approved by
  EPA.

• Most products contain two sets of
  numbers. The first set identifies the
  company. The second set identifies the
  product.                                   32
   Registration Number (con't)
• State or SLN registrations

  – SLN = Special Local Need

  – EPA SLN No. WY-840001

                                 33
      Establishment Number
• Identifies the facility where the
  product was made.




                                      34
        Name and Address of
          Manufacturer
• The law requires the maker or distributor
  of a product to put the name and address
  of the company on the label.

  – Monsanto Company
  – Agricultural Products
  – St. Louis, Missouri 63167 U.S.A.
                                          35
           Net Contents
• Tells you how much product is in the
  container.




                                         36
              Type of Pesticide
• This statement indicates what the product will
  control.

  – Tordon 22K
     • Susceptible broadleaf weeds and woody plants
  – Guthion 2S
     • Emulsifiable Insecticide
  – Benlate
     • Fungicide
                                                      37
        Type of Formulation
• Some pesticide labels will tell you what
  kind of formulation the product is.

  – WP = wettable powder
  – D = dust
  – EC = emulsifiable concentrate

                                             38
    Restricted-Use Designation
• The label will state "Restricted Use
  Pesticide" in a box at the top of the front
  panel.

 RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE
 May injure (Phytotoxic) Susceptible, Non-target Plants. For retail sale to
 and use only by Certified Applicators or persons under their direct
 supervision and only for those uses covered by the Certified Applicator's
 certification. Commercial certified applicators must also ensure that all
 persons involved in these activities are informed of the precautionary
 statements.
                                                                              39
          Front-Panel
    Precautionary Statements
         Signal Words and Symbols
• Three toxicity categories with associated signal
  words and symbols
  – 1. Highly toxic
     • Danger-Poison with skull and crossbones
  – 2. Moderately toxic
     • Warning
  – 3. Low or relatively nontoxic
     • Caution
                                                 40
          Front-Panel
    Precautionary Statements
       Signal Words and Symbols

• The signal word -- DANGER,
  WARNING, or CAUTION -- must
  appear on the front panel of the label.


                                        41
 Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
• Indicate how acutely toxic the
  product is to humans.

• It is immediately below the
  statement, "Keep out of reach of
  children," which also must appear
  on every label.                     42
 Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• Is not based on the active ingredients
  alone, but on the contents of the
  formulated product (includes active
  ingredients, carriers, solvents, or
  inert ingredients).

                                           43
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• Indicates the risk of acute effects
  from the four routes of exposure to a
  pesticide product (oral, dermal,
  inhalation, and eye) and is based on
  the one that is the greatest.

                                          44
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
• The signal word does not indicate the
  risk of delayed effects or allergic
  effects.

• Use the signal word to help you
  decide what precautionary measures
  are needed for protection.
                                       45
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• DANGER -- POISON
  –Highly toxic. Very likely to cause
   acute illness, cause severe eye or
   skin injury, or DEATH.


                                        46
47
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
• DANGER -- POISON
 – Only takes a taste to a teaspoon taken
   by mouth to cause your death.
 – LD50 = ~0 to 50 mg/kg (ppm)




                                            48
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
• What is LD50?
 – It is the lethal oral dose in mg of toxicant
   (pesticide) per kg of body weight (ppm)
   required to kill 50% of a test population of
   animals, usually rats or mice.
 – This information is then used to estimate the
   toxicity of the pesticide to humans.
                                              49
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
• What is LD50? (con’t)
  – The lower the LD50 the more toxic the
    pesticide.
  – Usually will not find on the pesticide
    labeling.
  – It may be used to compare the relative
    toxicity of different chemicals.
                                             50
 Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• Products that have the signal word
  DANGER due to skin and eye
  irritation potential will not carry the
  word POISON or the skull and
  crossbones symbol.

                                            51
52
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• WARNING -- Moderately likely to
  cause acute illness or skin or eye
  irritation from exposure.




                                       53
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• WARNING
 – Only takes a teaspoon to 2 tablespoons
   taken by mouth to cause your death.
 – LD50 = 50 to 500 mg/kg (ppm)



                                            54
55
 Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• Caution -- Slightly toxic or relatively
  nontoxic. Only has a slight potential
  to cause acute illness. Skin or eye
  irritation, if any, is likely to be slight.



                                                56
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)

• Caution
 – Takes 2 tablespoons (ounce) or more
   taken by mouth to cause your death.
 – LD50 = 500 to > 5000 mg/kg



                                         57
58
Signal Words and Symbols (con't)
           Review of toxicity categories
                      Toxicity         Lethal Oral
 Signal Word
                      Category            Dose
DANGER-POISON                               Taste to
                     l-Highly Toxic
(skull/crossbones)                         teaspoon

                     ll-Moderately     Teaspoon to 2
    WARNING
                         Toxic          tablespoons


                       lll-Slightly        Ounce or
    CAUTION
                           Toxic            greater


                                                       59
                 Pesticide Toxicity
• Toxicity
  – The measure of the ability of a pesticide to cause
    harmful effects

  – Depends on
     •   active ingredient
     •   carrier
     •   inert ingredient
     •   formulation

                                                         60
             Pesticide Toxicity
• Hazard = toxicity x exposure
  – The dose make the poison


• Exposure is the amount of pesticide you are
  exposed to through oral, dermal or inhalation
  contact

• Remember the lower the LD50 the more toxic
  the chemical
                                                  61
   Examples of Pesticide Toxicity
                             Acute oral LD50
Examples       Pesticide     mg/kg for rats
aspirin                           1750
antifreeze                        3500
table salt                        3300
malathion      insecticide      480-2800
Tordon         herbicide          8200
Roundup        herbicide          5400
Banvel         herbicide          1040
Temik 10G      insecticide         6.2
                                               62
What toxicity category does this pesticide fall under?
                                                     63
            Pesticide Exposure
• A person can be exposed to pesticides by:

  – Oral (drinking the pesticide)

  – Inhalation (breathing the pesticide spray or fumes)

  – Dermal (absorption through the skin)
     • most common route of exposure

                                                      64
     Dermal (skin) absorption rates
                            Scalp 3.7
 Ear canal 5.4
                             Forehead 4.2


Abdomen 2.1
                            Forearm 1.0

Groin area 11.6             Palm 1.3




                           Ball of foot 1.6
                                              65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
 Statement of Practical Treatment
            (first aid)
• Instructions on how to respond to
  exposure to that product.




                                      81
Symptoms of pesticide
poisoning

                        82
         Antidote Statement

• Atropine sulfate is highly effective as
  an antidote. See note to physician.




                                            83
          Note to Physician

• Contains important treatment
  information for medical personnel.




                                       84
Hazards to Humans and Domestic
            Animals
        Acute Effects Statements
• Indicate which route of entry needs to
  be protected and what specific
  actions need to be taken to avoid
  acute effects from exposure to
  pesticides.

                                       85
 Acute Effects Statements (con't)
• Example:
 – Fatal if swallowed. Causes
   cholinesterase inhibition. May be fatal
   or harmful by skin or eye contact or by
   breathing dust. Rapidly absorbed
   through skin or eyes. Do not get on skin
   or in eyes. Do not breathe dust. Keep
   away from domestic animals.            86
    Delayed Effects Statements

• Will tell you if the product has been
  shown to cause problems such as
  tumors or reproductive problems in
  lab animals.



                                          87
     Allergic Effects Statements

• Will tell you if the product can cause
  skin irritation, asthma or other
  allergic effects.




                                           88
 Personal Protective Equipment
           Statements
• Tell you the minimum protective equipment that you
  must wear.




                                                       89
        Pesticide Safety (con’t)
• I think I was exposed to a pesticide. What should I
  do?
• You should call the:
• Poison Center:
   – Emergency Phone: (800)    222-1222



                                                        90
     Environmental Hazards
• Will indicate precautions for
  protecting the environment.




                                  91
 Environmental Hazards (con't)
• This pesticide is extremely toxic to
  aquatic and estuarine invertebrates.

• BEE CAUTION: MAY KILL
  HONEYBEES IN SUBSTANTIAL
  NUMBERS.
                                         92
Environmental Hazards (con't)
• Do not contaminate water when
  cleaning equipment or applying the
  pesticide.




                                       93
 Physical or Chemical Hazards
• Tells you of any special fire,
  explosion, or chemical hazards the
  product may pose.




                                       94
 Physical or Chemical Hazards
             (con't)

• Flammable. Do not use, pour, spill, or
  store near heat or open flame. Do not
  cut or weld container.



                                       95
         Directions for Use
• Contains misuse statement:

  – It is a violation of Federal law to use
    this product in a manner inconsistent
    with its labeling.


                                              96
    Directions for Use (con't)
• Also contains sections on storage,
  disposal, entry and specific directions
  for using the product.




                                        97
     Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling
• It is illegal to use a pesticide in any
  way not permitted by the labeling.

• The use directions and instructions
  are not advice, they are
  requirements.
                                            98
    Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling
• Federal law does allow you to:

  – apply a pesticide at any dosage,
    concentration, or frequency less than
    that listed on the labeling,

                                            99
     Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling

• Federal law does allow you to:

  – apply a pesticide against any target pest
    not listed on the labeling if the
    application is to a plant, animal, or site
    that is listed,
                                            100
    Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling

• Federal law does allow you to:

  – use any appropriate equipment or
    method of application that is not
    prohibited by the labeling,

                                        101
     Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling

• Federal law does allow you to:

  – mix a pesticide or pesticides with a
    fertilizer if the mixture is not
    prohibited by the labeling,

                                           102
     Directions for Use (con't)
 Use Inconsistent with the labeling
• Federal law does allow you to:

  – mix two or more pesticides, if all of the
    dosages are at or below the
    recommended rate.

                                            103
    Directions for Use (con't)
           Entry statement

• Tells you how much time must pass
  before people can enter a treated area
  except under special circumstances.

• REI - restricted entry interval
                                      104
    Directions for Use (con't)
             Entry statement

• Example:




                                 105
    Directions for Use (con't)
                Posting

• If required by the label you must post
  the area that has been treated. This
  will let people know when they can
  safely reenter the area without safety
  clothing or equipment.

                                      106
    Directions for Use (con't)
         Preharvest Interval

• With some pesticides you must wait a
  certain amount of time after
  application before you harvest the
  crop for consumption. This will keep
  pesticide residues within legal
  tolerances in the harvested crop.
                                     107
    Directions for Use (con't)
         Preharvest Interval

• Example
 – For potatoes do not apply within 14
   days of harvest.




                                         108
    Directions for Use (con't)
        Storage and disposal

• All labeling contains instructions for
  storing the pesticide.

  – Keep out of reach of children and pets
  – Do not store in temperatures below 32 F
                                           109
        Directions for Use (con't)
             Storage and disposal
• labeling also contains instructions for disposal of
  the pesticide.
  – Pesticide Disposal: Wastes resulting from the use of this
    product may be disposed of on site or at an approved
    waste disposal facility.
  – Plastic Container Disposal: Do not reuse container.
    Triple rinse (or equivalent). Puncture and dispose of in a
    sanitary landfill, or by incineration, or, if allowed by
    burning. If burned stay out of smoke.
                                                         110
         Directions for Use (con't)
              Storage and Disposal
                      Pressure Rinse
• Convenient way to remove
  chemical from container
• Save money by using all the
  product
• Use with plastic or metal
  containers
• Destroys container so it can’t be
  used to hold other liquids
                                       111
     Directions for Use (con't)
        Other directions for use
• Use directions will tell you:

  – pests the product will control,

  – plant, animal, or site the product will protect,

  – in what form the product should be applied,
                                                       112
     Directions for Use (con't)
       Other directions for use
• Use directions will tell you:

  – the correct equipment to use,


  – how much pesticide to use,


  – mixing directions,
                                    113
      Directions for Use (con't)
        Other directions for use
• Use directions will tell you:

  – if the product can be mixed with other products,


  – if the product will cause unwanted injuries or
    stains,


  – where, when, and how often the product should be
    applied.                                       114
    Directions for Use (con't)
    Directions for use by reference
• Some directions for use may be
  contained in documents that are only
  referred to on the product labeling.




                                      115
     Directions for Use (con't)
     Directions for use by reference
• ground water protection

• endangered species protection

• worker protection

• pesticide transportation, storage, and disposal
                                                116
       Groundwater Protection
• ~ 90% of rural residents rely on groundwater
  for their drinking water
• Pesticides that have a potential to contaminate
  groundwater are:
  – highly soluble in water
  – have low adsorption to soil particles
  – are persistent in the environment
     • Example: Tordon, Banvel, Temik

                                                117
        Endangered Species Act
                     (1973)
• To comply with the Endangered Species Act,
  EPA must ensure that registered pesticides do
  not adversely affect threatened or endangered
  species or modify critical habitat when used as
  directed.
• For pesticides that may affect listed species,
  EPA consults with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife.

                                                118
                Endangered Species Act
• Wyoming’s list --12 species
   – Animals--11 species
       •   T -- Bear, grizzly (Ursus arctos) *
       •   E -- Crane, whooping (Grus americana) *
       •   E -- Dace, Kendall Warm Springs (Rhinichthys osculus thermalis) *
       •   T -- Eagle, bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) *
       •   E -- Falcon, American peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum)
       •   E -- Ferret, black-footed (Mustela nigripes) *
       •   T -- Mouse, Preble's meadow jumping (Zapus hudsonius preblei) *
       •   E -- Squawfish, Colorado (Ptychocheilus lucius) *
       •   E -- Sucker, razorback (Xyrauchen texanus) *
       •   E -- Toad, Wyoming (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri) *
       •   E -- Wolf, gray (Canis lupus) *
   – Plants--1 species
       • T -- Ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis)
   – T = threatened      E = endangered
                                                                               119
Grizzly bear




               120
Wolf




       Gray wolf

                   121
 Bald eagle




Bald eagle



              122
Peregrine falcon




                   123
Whooping crane

                 124
       Colorado Squawfish
Wolf




                            125
Wolf




       Sucker, razorback


                           126
Wolf




       127
Wolf




       Gray wolf

                   128
Ute ladies'-tresses
(Spiranthes diluvialis)




                          129
Black-tailed prairie dog   130
Black-footed ferret


                      131
Mountain plover




                  132
Burrowing owl




                133
Sage grouse, male




                    134
  Worker Protection Standard for
     Agricultural Pesticides
• The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is
  intended to reduce the risk of pesticide
  poisonings and injuries among agricultural
  workers who are exposed to pesticide residues,
  and to reduce the risk of pesticide poisonings
  and injuries among pesticide handlers who
  may face more hazardous levels of exposure.

                                               135
  Worker Protection Standard for
     Agricultural Pesticides
• EPA has issued regulations governing the
  protection of workers from agricultural
  pesticides. These regulations include workers
  performing
  – hand labor operations on farms, in forests,
    nurseries, and greenhouses, and employees who
    handle (mix, load, apply, ect.) pesticides in these
    locations.

                                                          136
    Worker Protection Standard for
       Agricultural Pesticides
•   The WPS does not cover pesticides applied:
     – on pastures, range land, or livestock;
     – on the harvested portions of plants or on harvested timber;
     – for control of vertebrate pests, such as rodents;
     – on plants grown in home gardens and home greenhouses;
     – on plants that are in golf courses (except those areas set aside for plant
       production) or right-of-way areas;
     – on public or private lawns (sod farms are covered by the WPS);
     – on plants intended only for decorative or ornamental use (trees and shrubs in
       lawns);
     – for mosquito abatement, or similar wide area public pest control programs;
     – for structural pest control, such as termite control; and
     – for research uses of unregistered pesticides.
                                                                                       137
   Worker Protection Standard for
      Agricultural Pesticides
• Read the label to see if you need to comply with worker
  protection standards




                                                            138
     Directions for Use (con't)
     Directions for use by reference
• You must:

  – determine whether you are affected,


  – locate the applicable directions for use,


  – determine how to comply with the instructions and
    requirements.
                                                   139
!!!READ
   THE
LABEL!!!
           140
          What is a MSDS
• Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
• A document that provides information about the
  hazards of a chemical or product.
• State and Federal law requires that all
  manufacturers and distributors of chemical
  products provide the end user with a manufacturer
  specific MSDS.

                                                 141
                 MSDS (con’t)
• Informs the user about the material’s:
  – physical properties and related health effects,
  – personnel protective equipment necessary to protect
    the user,
  – first aid treatment necessary in the event of an
    exposure,
  – how to respond to accidents,
  – and the planning that may be necessary in order to
    safely handle a spill.
                                                          142
    Where can you find MSDSs?
• Employers are required to keep one on file for
  each chemical they use.
• When a chemical is ordered, the manufacturer
  will provide an MSDS in the shipment.
• A good method of accessing MSDSs is through
  electronic databases.


                                                   143
  Please enter the name(s) associated with the product you are looking for below.

 tordon 22k

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Tips for searching
Please Note:
The ~ 250,000 MSDS files contained in this database are derived from :
      •the U.S. Government Department of Defense MSDS database.
      •a mirror of data from siri.uvm.edu.
      •MSDS sheets maintained by Cornell University Environmental Health and Safety and other Cornell
      departments.
This data is provided for Cornell University user convenience. Please direct questions or comments about
operation of the site to the Joe Lalley.

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                  University of Wyoming
       Pesticide Programs and Education Resources


           Web Page Address

• http://www.uwyo.edu/plants/wyopest/home.htm




                                                    149